Science.gov

Sample records for air taxi service

  1. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  2. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  3. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  4. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  5. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  6. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  7. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  8. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  9. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  10. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  11. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  12. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  13. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operators. 298.21 Section 298.21 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a) Every air taxi operator who plans to commence operations under this part shall register with...

  14. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  15. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  16. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Pt. 330, App. C Appendix C...

  17. 77 FR 12103 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations AGENCY... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13, this notice announces the intention of the... the following collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations, responsibility for which has...

  18. The Effects of Very Light Jet Air Taxi Operations on Commercial Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of Very Light Jet (VLJ) air taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The affordable cost relative to existing business jets and ability to use many of the existing small, minimally equipped, but conveniently located airports is projected to stimulate a large demand for the aircraft. The resulting increase in air traffic operations will mainly be at smaller airports, but this study indicates that VLJs have the potential to increase further the pressure of demand at some medium and large airports, some of which are already operating at or near capacity at peak times. The additional delays to commercial passenger air transportation due to VLJ air taxi operations are obtained from simulation results using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) simulator. The direct increase in operating cost due to additional delays is estimated. VLJs will also cause an increase in traffic density, and this study shows increased potential for conflicts due to VLJ operations.

  19. Acceptability testing of radioluminescent lights for VFR-night air taxi operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tritium-powered radioluminescent (RL) lights have been under development for remote, austere, and tactical airfield lighting applications. The State of Alaska has requested FAA approval for use of the technology as a safe alternative lighting system to meet the airfield lighting needs of air taxi operations and general aviation in the state. The tests described in this report were performed by PNL for the DOE Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. These tests are a step toward gaining the required approvals.

  20. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  1. Exposure of Paris taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants within their vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Zagury, E.; Le Moullec, Y.; Momas, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the exposure of Parisian taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants during their professional activity.
METHODS—A cross sectional study was carried out from 27 January to 27 March 1997, with measurements performed in the vehicles of 29 randomly selected drivers. Carbon monoxide (CO) content was measured over an 8 hour period by a CO portable monitor. The fine suspended particles were measured according to the black smoke index (BS), with a flow controlled portable pump provided with a cellulose filter. The nitrogen oxides, NO and NO2 were measured with a passive sampler.
RESULTS—These drivers are exposed during their professional activity to relatively high concentrations of pollutants (mean, median (SD) 3.8, 2 (1.7) ppm for CO, 168, 164 (53) µg/m3 for BS, 625, 598 (224) µg/m3 for NO, and 139, 131 (43) µg/m3 for NO2.) For CO the concentrations were clearly lower than the threshold values recommended by the World Health Organisation. The situation is less satisfactory for the other pollutants, especially for the BS index. All concentrations of pollutants recorded were noticeably higher than concentrations in air recorded by the ambient Parisian air monitoring network and were close to, or slightly exceeded, the concentrations measured at the fixed stations close to automobile traffic. Pollutant concentrations were also influenced greatly by weather conditions.
CONCLUSION—This first French study conducted in taxi drivers shows that they are highly exposed to automobile pollutants. The results would justify a medical follow up of this occupational group.


Keywords: taxi drivers; exposure assessment PMID:10810130

  2. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter... to show cause why it should revoke the Commuter Air Carrier Authorization issued to...

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  4. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver,...

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your...

  8. On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

    2011-11-15

    Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions.

  9. Perseus Taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle is seen here as it taxis on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The

  10. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  11. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  12. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal....

  14. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal....

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal....

  16. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  17. Pleiotropic aspartate taxis and serine taxis mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reader, R W; Tso, W W; Springer, M S; Goy, M F; Adler, J

    1979-04-01

    Mutants that at one time were thought to be specifically defective in taxis toward aspartate and related amino acids (tar mutants) or specifically defective in taxis toward serine and related amino acids (tar mutants) are now shown to be pleiotropic in their defects. The tar mutants also lack taxis toward maltose and away from Co2+ and Ni2+. The tsr mutants are altered in their response to a variety of repellents. Double mutants (tar tsr) fail in nearly all chemotactic responses. The tar and tsr mutants provide evidence for two complementary, converging pathways of information flow: certain chemoreceptors feed information into the tar pathway and others into the tsr pathway. The tar and tsr products have been shown to be two different sets of methylated proteins.

  18. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: male taxi driver attitudes regarding transactional relationships in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Cheryl; Strebel, Anna; Shefer, Tamara; Wagner, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both the men and the young women, often referred to as taxi queens, remains an important question in the light of the current challenges of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little research has been undertaken on this issue, especially regarding the perceptions and experiences of taxi drivers. Thus this paper aims to provide some preliminary findings on taxi drivers' attitudes and beliefs about taxi queens and their relationships with taxi drivers. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 223 male taxi drivers in two regions in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Taxi drivers in this study largely saw the relationship between taxi drivers and the young girls who ride with them as providing status for both the girls and drivers, and there seemed to be recognition of the transactional nature of the relationship between taxi drivers and taxi queens. The stigmatisation of young girls who ride with taxi drivers was evident. Drivers had knowledge and awareness of the risks of unsafe sex and supported condom use, although there appeared to be some uncertainty and confusion about the likelihood of HIV infection between drivers and girls. While taxi drivers recognised the role of alcohol in relationships with young girls, they seemed to deny that the abuse of drugs was common. The study highlights a number of key areas that need to be explored with men in the taxi industry, in order to address risk behaviours for both taxi drivers and the girls who ride with them.

  19. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-21

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis-especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting-other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars.

  20. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  1. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  2. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  3. Pattern formation in prey-taxis systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hillen, T; Lewis, M A

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial predator-prey models with diffusion and prey-taxis. We investigate necessary conditions for pattern formation using a variety of non-linear functional responses, linear and non-linear predator death terms, linear and non-linear prey-taxis sensitivities, and logistic growth or growth with an Allee effect for the prey. We identify combinations of the above non-linearities that lead to spatial pattern formation and we give numerical examples. It turns out that prey-taxis stabilizes the system and for large prey-taxis sensitivity we do not observe pattern formation. We also study and find necessary conditions for global stability for a type I functional response, logistic growth for the prey, non-linear predator death terms, and non-linear prey-taxis sensitivity.

  4. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  5. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  6. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  7. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  8. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  9. 77 FR 55893 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Exemptions for Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi... classification of air carriers known as air taxi operators and their filings of a one-page form that enables them... determine whether an air taxi operator meets DOT's criteria for an economic authorization in accordance...

  10. Bacterial energy taxis: a global strategy?

    PubMed

    Schweinitzer, Tobias; Josenhans, Christine

    2010-07-01

    A functional energy metabolism is one of the most important requirements for survival of all kinds of organisms including bacteria. Therefore, many bacteria actively seek conditions of optimal metabolic activity, a behaviour which can be termed "energy taxis". Motility, combined with the sensory perception of the internal energetic conditions, is prerequisite for tactic responses to different energy levels and metabolic yields. Diverse mechanisms of energy sensing and tactic response have evolved among various bacteria. Many of the known energy taxis sensors group among the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-like sensors. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of energy taxis and explores the current concept that energy taxis is an important part of the bacterial behavioural repertoire in order to navigate towards more favourable metabolic niches and to survive in a specific habitat.

  11. Ecological role of energy taxis in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Gladys; Greer-Phillips, Suzanne; Zhulin, Igor B

    2004-02-01

    Motile microorganisms rapidly respond to changes in various physico-chemical gradients by directing their motility to more favorable surroundings. Energy generation is one of the most important parameters for the survival of microorganisms in their environment. Therefore it is not surprising that microorganisms are able to monitor changes in the cellular energy generating processes. The signal for this behavioral response, which is called energy taxis, originates within the electron transport system. By coupling energy metabolism and behavior, energy taxis is fine-tuned to the environment a cell finds itself in and allows efficient adaptation to changing conditions that affect cellular energy levels. Thus, energy taxis provides cells with a versatile sensory system that enables them to navigate to niches where energy generation is optimized. This behavior is likely to govern vertical species stratification and the active migration of motile cells in response to shifting gradients of electron donors and/or acceptors which are observed within microbial mats, sediments and soil pores. Energy taxis has been characterized in several species and might be widespread in the microbial world. Genome sequencing revealed that many microorganisms from aquatic and soil environments possess large numbers of chemoreceptors and are likely to be capable of energy taxis. In contrast, species that have a fewer number of chemoreceptors are often found in specific, confined environments, where relatively constant environmental conditions are expected. Future studies focusing on characterizing behavioral responses in species that are adapted to diverse environmental conditions should unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying sensory behavior in general and energy taxis in particular. Such knowledge is critical to a better understanding of the ecological role of energy taxis.

  12. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sihai; Wang, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers’ destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big data analysis in

  13. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  18. Global stability of prey-taxis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hai-Yang; Wang, Zhi-An

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we prove the global boundedness and stability of the predator-prey system with prey-taxis in a two-dimensional bounded domain with Neumann boundary conditions. By deriving an entropy-like equality and a boundedness criterion, we show that the intrinsic interaction between predators and preys is sufficient to prevent the population overcrowding even the prey-taxis is included and strong. Furthermore, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals, we show that prey-only steady state is globally asymptotically stable if the predation is weak, and the co-existence steady state is globally asymptotically stable under some conditions (like the prey-taxis is weak or the prey diffuses fast) if the predation is strong. The convergence rates of solutions to the steady states are derived in the paper.

  19. Continuous traveling waves for prey-taxis.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hillen, T; Lewis, M A

    2008-04-01

    Spatially moving predators are often considered for biological control of invasive species. The question arises as to whether introduced predators are able to stop an advancing pest or foreign population. In recent studies of reaction-diffusion models, it has been shown that the prey invasion can only be stopped if the prey dynamics observes an Allee effect. In this paper, we include prey-taxis into the model. Prey-taxis describe the active movement of predators to regions of high prey density. This effect leads to the observation that predators are drawn away from the leading edge of a prey invasion where its density is low. This leads to counterintuitive result that prey-taxis can actually reduce the likelihood of effective biocontrol.

  20. Assessment of the market for compressed air services

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive and balanced view of the market for engineering and consulting services to improve the energy efficiency of plant compressed air systems. The report is intended for use by Compressed Air Challenge and other industrial energy efficiency program operators in developing strategies to encourage the growth of the compressed air system efficiency and enhance the quality of the services it offers.

  1. Air service to small communities, directions for the future. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The seminar on the problems of providing air service to low and medium density points is reported. National transport policies and programs are discussed along with the technology aspects. Recommendations for ATC, CAB, and FAA are included.

  2. 106. Air defense command "master plan", base map," RCA Service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Air defense command "master plan", base map," RCA Service Company tab no. F-1, sheet 1 of 2, dated 22 October, 1965. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. 47 CFR 22.881 - Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air... exclusive initial applications for general aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses and mutually exclusive initial applications for commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses are subject...

  4. 47 CFR 22.881 - Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air... exclusive initial applications for general aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses and mutually exclusive initial applications for commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses are subject...

  5. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  6. Simultaneous service approach for reducing air passenger queue time

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.A.; Sodeinde, T.

    2000-02-01

    Simultaneous service offers service-oriented organizations, such as the air passenger transportation industry, the opportunity to differentiate themselves by providing superior customer service. The concept of simultaneous service is analogous to the concept of simultaneous engineering. However, while simultaneous engineering strives to minimize product development time, simultaneous service strives to minimize customer processing time. Overall customer processing time is reduced by the identification and simultaneous alignment of previously sequentially executed customer service activities. A simultaneous service approach was applied to the international ticketing counter at a major international airport. This involved developing both equipment and operational policy alternatives to the normal sequencing of the ticketing and baggage check-in process. A total of five alternative simultaneous service approaches were investigated. Simulation analysis of these alternatives indicates that a 36% improvement in customer queue and servicing time was possible with this approach.

  7. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  8. Post-Service Utilization of Air Force-Gained Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Anthony J.; Thompson, Paul D.

    More complete information is needed to determine the extent of utilization in the civilian economy of skills developed during military service. Post-service occupation data have been obtained through a questionnaire mailed ten months after separation to each first-term Air Force enlisted man separated between 1 July 1968 and 31 March 1970. As of…

  9. Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert A.; Hirata, Glenn T.

    The document presents the final report of the Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project, an effort to assess the impact and effectiveness of special education related services in Hawaii. Each of the four project objectives focused on accomplishment of one of the evaluation types specified in the Context-Input-Process-Product…

  10. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  11. Death by a Thousand Cuts: Micro-Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    exotic approaches as air suction/injection along the wing surface (which might require micro -valves and micro - pumps ), wall heat transfer, or...AU/AWC/___/2001-4 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DEATH BY A THOUSAND CUTS: MICRO -AIR VEHICLES (MAV) IN THE SERVICE OF AIR FORCE MISSIONS by...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Death by a thousand Cuts: Micro -Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions Contract

  12. Taxis response of various denitrifying bacteria to nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P

    2002-05-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds.

  13. Taxis Response of Various Denitrifying Bacteria to Nitrate and Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P.

    2002-01-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds. PMID:11976082

  14. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  15. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  16. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  17. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  18. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  19. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): AIRS_AQS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Air Quality System (AQS). The AQS contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, State, Local, and Tribal air pollution control agencies from thousands of monitoring stations. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to monitoring stations once the AQS data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  20. Artificial neural network model for identifying taxi gross emitter from remote sensing data of vehicle emission.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Guo, Hua-fang; Hu, Yue-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle emission has been the major source of air pollution in urban areas in the past two decades. This article proposes an artificial neural network model for identifying the taxi gross emitters based on the remote sensing data. After carrying out the field test in Guangzhou and analyzing various factors from the emission data, the artificial neural network modeling was proved to be an advisable method of identifying the gross emitters. On the basis of the principal component analysis and the selection of algorithm and architecture, the Back-Propagation neural network model with 8-17-1 architecture was established as the optimal approach for this purpose. It gave a percentage of hits of 93%. Our previous research result and the result from aggression analysis were compared, and they provided respectively the percentage of hits of 81.63% and 75%. This comparison demonstrates the potentiality and validity of the proposed method in the identification of taxi gross emitters.

  1. Stochastic models for cell motion and taxis.

    PubMed

    Ionides, Edward L; Fang, Kathy S; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Oster, George F

    2004-01-01

    Certain biological experiments investigating cell motion result in time lapse video microscopy data which may be modeled using stochastic differential equations. These models suggest statistics for quantifying experimental results and testing relevant hypotheses, and carry implications for the qualitative behavior of cells and for underlying biophysical mechanisms. Directional cell motion in response to a stimulus, termed taxis, has previously been modeled at a phenomenological level using the Keller-Segel diffusion equation. The Keller-Segel model cannot distinguish certain modes of taxis, and this motivates the introduction of a richer class of models which is nevertheless still amenable to statistical analysis. A state space model formulation is used to link models proposed for cell velocity to observed data. Sequential Monte Carlo methods enable parameter estimation via maximum likelihood for a range of applicable models. One particular experimental situation, involving the effect of an electric field on cell behavior, is considered in detail. In this case, an Ornstein- Uhlenbeck model for cell velocity is found to compare favorably with a nonlinear diffusion model.

  2. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    50 Effects of Converting Inpatient Facilities to Stand -Alone Clinics...for Air Force Medical Service Stand -Alone Clinics in CONUS...Force bases were closed after the end of the Cold War) and to the conversion of many hospitals into stand -alone clinics or ASCs. The reasons for

  3. Learning at Air Navigation Services after Initial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teperi, Anna-Maria; Leppanen, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training period. The study also aims to find out what practices need to be improved to enhance learning at work. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected…

  4. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  5. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  6. Perception and reality of particulate matter exposure in New York City taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Prasad, Lakshmi; Leng, Jennifer; Lee, Trevor; Thurston, George D; Gordon, Terry; Acharya, Sudha; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) have been linked to negative health risks, but exposure among professional taxi drivers is understudied. This pilot study measured drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about air pollution compared with direct measures of exposures. Roadside and in-vehicle levels of PM2.5 and BC were continuously measured over a single shift on each subject, and exposures compared with central site monitoring. One hundred drivers completed an air pollution KAB questionnaire, and seven taxicabs participated in preliminary in-cab air sampling. Taxicab PM2.5 and BC concentrations were elevated compared with nearby central monitoring. Average PM2.5 concentrations per 15-min interval were 4-49 μg/m(3). BC levels were also elevated; reaching>10 μg/m(3). Fifty-six of the 100 drivers surveyed believed they were more exposed than non-drivers; 81 believed air pollution causes health problems. Air pollution exposures recorded suggest that driver exposures would likely exceed EPA recommendations if experienced for 24 h. Surveys indicated that driver awareness of this was limited. Future studies should focus on reducing exposures and increasing awareness among taxi drivers.

  7. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  8. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  9. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  10. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  11. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  12. TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahlport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). (The name TAXI as used here is derived from the acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.) The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility. The control, data-recording, and data-postprocessing equipment of the facility are located in a control room at a safe distance from the test stand. Heretofore, the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment has entailed post-test downloading via software, requiring many hours to days of post-test reduction before the data could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test. The instrumentation is connected to the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the data signals to an identical fiber-optic transceiver in the control room. On the way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface that is the focus of this article, the data signals are processed through a companion special purpose circuit denoted by the similar name parallel TAXI interface.

  13. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  14. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery. PMID:26073316

  15. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  16. Drosophila photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gepner, Ruben; Bernat, Natalie; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    In natural environments, the Drosophila larva makes navigational decisions based on variable and conflicting sensory inputs. How larvae respond to multi-modal stimuli and how their neural circuits integrate and prioritize multi-sensory information remains unknown. To identify larval navigational computations we developed a high-throughput reverse-correlation assay. We provided larvae with visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli and measured the correlation between the presented stimulus and evoked turn decisions. We used this technique to fit parameters of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson model describing computations underlying turn decisions. For uni-modal inputs, the parameterized model allowed us to predict the behavior of populations of larvae responding to novel stimulus presentations. For multi-modal inputs, our assay showed that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction using controlled combinations of stimuli. We studied other navigational decisions that determine the size and directions of turns and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway.

  17. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air... Department is publishing the following notice on the enforcement of its rules relating to disclosure of code... Transportation, Office of the Secretary, Washington, DC Guidance on Disclosure of Code-Share Service Under...

  18. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  19. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting

    2016-06-01

    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  20. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  1. Analyses on influencing factors of airborne VOCS pollution in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2014-11-01

    Due to the long time in vehicular cabins, people have high exposure to the airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCS), which will lead to negative effects on human health. In order to analyze the influencing factors of in-car VOCS pollution concentrations, 38 taxis were investigated on the static and closed conditions. The interior air of taxis was collected through activated Tenax adsorption tubes, and the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The average concentrations of in-car benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, butyl acetate, undecane, and total VOCS (TVOC) were 82.7, 212.3, 74.7, 182.3, 24.7, 33.5, 61.3, and 1,441.7 μg/m(3), respectively. Furthermore, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations increase with the rise of in-car temperature and relative humidity, and decrease with the increase of car age and total mileage. In addition, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations are higher in vehicles with small cabins than in ones with big cabins, and change with different sampling sites and various vehicular grades. Finally, according to the multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, car age is the most important factor influencing airborne VOCS and TVOC pollution concentrations in vehicular cabins, followed by interior temperature and total mileage.

  2. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness.

    PubMed

    Graser, John C; Blum, Daniel; Brancato, Kevin; Burks, James J; Chan, Edward W; Nicosia, Nancy; Neumann, Michael J; Ritschard, Hans V; Mundell, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    The prime mission of the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS), like those of the medical departments of its sister services, is to provide medical care during wartime. AFMS currently runs three successful in-theater hospitals that treat severely injured or wounded U.S. personnel from all four services. But this wartime mission depends on capabilities built at home, as critical-care specialists maintain their technical proficiency, as much as peacetime opportunities allow, by meeting health-care needs of Department of Defense beneficiaries at home. These patients have ranged from young, healthy active-duty personnel to aging retirees, historically presenting a broad range of injuries and illnesses for treatment. However, between the demands of deployments creating gaps in staff at home and changes in care plans, some beneficiaries now seek care in the civilian sector. In addition, several AFMS hospitals stateside have been closed, converted to clinics, or combined with those of other services for various reasons. All is problematic for two reasons: First, inpatient workloads in particular represent the best opportunities for critical care providers to prepare for their wartime missions. AFMS will need to increase these opportunities, perhaps working with other services, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or civilian hospitals. Second, AFMS's funding depends, in part, on the workload performed, but current measurement methods do not necessarily do a good job of accounting for the work AFMS practitioners accomplish outside their home stations. Some imminent changes may help resolve this situation, but AFMS should pursue opportunities to create additional workload for its medical personnel and to increase its budgets.

  3. Resources and Fact Sheets on Servicing Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Summary Page)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides links to resources that can assist motor vehicle air-conditioning system technicians in understanding system servicing requirements and best practices, and learn about alternative refrigerants.

  4. 77 FR 20789 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis AGENCY: National... Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to develop proposals to revise the...

  5. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  6. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  7. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane... aircraft is operating over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation....

  8. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  9. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., takeoff and landing roll. Within the range of appropriate ground speeds and approved weights, the airplane structure and landing gear are assumed to be subjected to loads not less than those obtained when the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll....

  10. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  11. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  12. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  13. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  14. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  15. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  16. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  17. 76 FR 72836 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Register on September 19, 2011, that amends and establishes nine Air Traffic Service Routes (ATS) in...

  18. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Xudong; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke

    2012-03-01

    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  19. Electron acceptor taxis and blue light effect on bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B L; Miller, J B; Warrick, H M; Koshland, D E

    1979-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli from anaerobic cultures displayed tactic responses to gradients of nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen when the appropriate electron transport pathway was present. Such responses were named "electron acceptor taxis" because they are elicited by terminal electron acceptors. Mutant strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli were used to establish that functioning electron transport pathways to nitrate and fumarate are required for taxis to these compounds. Aerotaxis in S. typhimurium was blocked by 1.0 mM KCN, which inhibited oxygen uptake. Similarly, a functioning electron transport pathway was shown to be essential for the tumbling response of S. typhimurium and E. coli to intense light (290 to 530 nm). Some inhibitors and uncouplers of respiration were repellents of S. typhimurium. We propose that behavioral responses to light or electron acceptors involve electron transport-mediated perturbations of the proton motive force.

  20. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2009-05-27

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25,000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature.

  1. Glossary of AWS Acrinabs. Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Commonly Used in Air Weather Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    National Environmental Data Referral Service NASNET. ... National Airspace System Network NEDS ......... Navy Environmenta! Display Station NASP...Electrical Manufacturers Association NASS ......... National Agricultural Statistics Service NEMS ........ Nimbus-E Microwave Spectrometer NATO...North Atlantic Treaty Organization NEO ........... noncombatant emergency operations NATS ......... Naval Air Transport Service NEPA --------- National

  2. Salmonella uses energy taxis to benefit from intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Winter, Sebastian E; Lopez, Christopher A; Xavier, Mariana N; Winter, Maria G; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Russell, Joseph M; Laughlin, Richard C; Lawhon, Sara D; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Bevins, Charles L; Tsolis, Renée M; Harshey, Rasika; Adams, L Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis enhances the fitness of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) during colitis. However, the chemotaxis receptors conferring this fitness advantage and their cognate signals generated during inflammation remain unknown. Here we identify respiratory electron acceptors that are generated in the intestinal lumen as by-products of the host inflammatory response as in vivo signals for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Three MCPs, including Trg, Tsr and Aer, enhanced the fitness of S. Typhimurium in a mouse colitis model. Aer mediated chemotaxis towards electron acceptors (energy taxis) in vitro and required tetrathionate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. Tsr mediated energy taxis towards nitrate but not towards tetrathionate in vitro and required nitrate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. These data suggest that the energy taxis receptors Tsr and Aer respond to distinct in vivo signals to confer a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium during inflammation by enabling this facultative anaerobic pathogen to seek out favorable spatial niches containing host-derived electron acceptors that boost its luminal growth.

  3. Salmonella Uses Energy Taxis to Benefit from Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Winter, Sebastian E.; Lopez, Christopher A.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Maria G.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Russell, Joseph M.; Laughlin, Richard C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Bevins, Charles L.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Harshey, Rasika; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis enhances the fitness of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) during colitis. However, the chemotaxis receptors conferring this fitness advantage and their cognate signals generated during inflammation remain unknown. Here we identify respiratory electron acceptors that are generated in the intestinal lumen as by-products of the host inflammatory response as in vivo signals for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Three MCPs, including Trg, Tsr and Aer, enhanced the fitness of S. Typhimurium in a mouse colitis model. Aer mediated chemotaxis towards electron acceptors (energy taxis) in vitro and required tetrathionate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. Tsr mediated energy taxis towards nitrate but not towards tetrathionate in vitro and required nitrate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. These data suggest that the energy taxis receptors Tsr and Aer respond to distinct in vivo signals to confer a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium during inflammation by enabling this facultative anaerobic pathogen to seek out favorable spatial niches containing host-derived electron acceptors that boost its luminal growth. PMID:23637594

  4. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  5. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward phenylacetic acid is mediated by the energy taxis receptor Aer2.

    PubMed

    Luu, Rita A; Schneider, Benjamin J; Ho, Christie C; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V; Ditty, Jayna L; Parales, Rebecca E

    2013-04-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway.

  6. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward Phenylacetic Acid Is Mediated by the Energy Taxis Receptor Aer2

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Rita A.; Schneider, Benjamin J.; Ho, Christie C.; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E.; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V.; Ditty, Jayna L.

    2013-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway. PMID:23377939

  7. Customer Service Analysis of Air Combat Command Vehicle Maintenance Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    the survey, the researchers categorized the services or variables into marketing mix components: product, price, promotion, and customer service...comparing and analyzing the variables identified in the previous three phases to determine a strategic marketing mix (46:9). After analyzing the data...service/physical distribution. Additionally, they found that customer service/physical distribution was an integral component of the marketing mix , and

  8. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the process used to sequence certification projects that are... Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Sequencing to: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  11. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection?

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung

    2016-02-01

    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users.

  12. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air... subpart, if DHS transfers Federal Air Marshal Service positions from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air... subpart, if DHS transfers Federal Air Marshal Service positions from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air... in this subpart, if DHS transfers Federal Air Marshal Service positions from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air... in this subpart, if DHS transfers Federal Air Marshal Service positions from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a...

  16. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  17. Taxis but not private cars are mite allergen reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, E A; Justino, C M; Pereira, F L; Segundo, G R; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Silva, D A

    2006-01-01

    Indoor allergens are major causative agents in allergic disease development. Besides homes, public transport vehicles have been considered important mite and pet allergen reservoirs. Our recent studies on allergen exposure in automobiles showed that different allergen levels are found in private cars versus taxis. We quantified group 1 Dermatophagoides spp. (Der 1), Felis domesticus (Fel d 1), and Canis familiaris (Can f 1) allergen levels by ELISA in dust samples from 60 taxi and 60 private car upholstered seats. Mean levels of Der 1 and Fel d 1 were significantly higher in taxis than private cars. A significantly higher percentage of taxis (42%) harboring sensitizing levels of Der 1 compared to private cars (5%) was also found. In spite of the low mean Fel d 1 levels, comparison of the percentage of vehicles with moderate Fel d 1 levels showed a significant difference between taxis and private cars (43% vs. 20%). On the other hand, mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in private cars compared to taxis concomitant with a significantly higher percentage of private cars containing moderate Can f 1 levels than taxis (53% vs. 28%). We conclude that upholstered seats from Brazilian taxis but not private cars constitute an important mite allergen reservoir. Thus, additional effective measures for the reduction of allergen exposure in vehicles within the global allergen avoidance strategy should also be routinely accomplished to minimize the induction of sensitization and symptoms in allergic patients.

  18. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  19. Driving to better health: cancer and cardiovascular risk assessment among taxi cab operators in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-05-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population.

  20. Driving to Better Health: Cancer and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Taxi Cab Operators in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population. PMID:22643623

  1. Measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Kathryn M; Yin, Xiuyin; Knecht, David A; Lynes, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Cellular movement in response to external stimuli is fundamental to many cellular processes including wound healing, inflammation and the response to infection. A common method to measure chemotaxis is the Boyden chamber assay, in which cells and chemoattractant are separated by a porous membrane. As cells migrate through the membrane toward the chemoattractant, they adhere to the underside of the membrane, or fall into the underlying media, and are subsequently stained and visually counted (1). In this method, cells are exposed to a steep and transient chemoattractant gradient, which is thought to be a poor representation of gradients found in tissues (2). Another assay system, the under-agarose chemotaxis assay, (3, 4) measures cell movement across a solid substrate in a thin aqueous film that forms under the agarose layer. The gradient that develops in the agarose is shallow and is thought to be an appropriate representation of naturally occurring gradients. Chemotaxis can be evaluated by microscopic imaging of the distance traveled. Both the Boyden chamber assay and the under-agarose assay are usually configured as endpoint assays. The automated ECIS/Taxis system combines the under-agarose approach with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) (5, 6). In this assay, target electrodes are located in each of 8 chambers. A large counter-electrode runs through each of the 8 chambers (Figure 2). Each chamber is filled with agarose and two small wells are the cut in the agarose on either side of the target electrode. One well is filled with the test cell population, while the other holds the sources of diffusing chemoattractant (Figure 3). Current passed through the system can be used to determine the change in resistance that occurs as cells pass over the target electrode. Cells on the target electrode increase the resistance of the system (6). In addition, rapid fluctuations in the resistance represent changes in the interactions of cells with the electrode

  2. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  3. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  4. A Consumer Evaluation of Air Force Food Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-01

    unrounded data is indicated in parentheses in this and the following tables. 11 Table 3 presents the Air Force consumers ’ preferences for cuisine or...RECOMMENDATIONS The reader should bear in mind that the following statements are made solely to reflect the consumers ’ preferences . Words like "must

  5. Air Quality Management Using Pollution Prevention: A Joint Service Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    noncorrosive, nontoxic oil dispersant and cleanser that contains no VOCs, no known carcinogens, and no chemicals regulated by the Occupational Safety and... rinsability , corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, storage stability, and density. Once this testing is complete, the Air Force will select three stripper

  6. How to Restore Plant's Taxis in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    All plants respond to gravity, yet in micro-gravity not all plants will grow the way as they do on the Earth. Successful space experiments with plants grown from seed to seed, were performed (to the best of my knowledge) with non electrotropic plants. Such plants use phototropism instead of the gravitropism. The electrotropic plants have been successfully grown in phytotron and in a greenhouse. We used the electric field to direct their growth where we want them to grow. Normally the ground or soil is negatively charged, and plants grow upwards towards positive charges in the air or the anode (positive electrode) in plant growth chambers. In reversed field polarization with "ground positive" the lettuce grows down-wards. In horizontal electric fields it grows horizontally again towards positively charged field generating conducting plate. This is at the first glance a very surprising effect even to the physicist. But one has to remember the most important fact that the electromagnetic forces are a factor of 1038 times stronger than the gravitational force. On the Earth the gravity acts on the entire plant, but the electrical field acts only on ions which are distributed on the surface of leaves, sprouts or stem tips. The ions are directed so very much strongly (1038 times) by the electrical field, than by gravity. The electric field lines guide the concentrations of ions to follow the field lines rendering the plants electrotropic and shaping their growth pattern. There is also a clear positive dependence of the rate of plant growth on field strength and crop yield. This is why it is so important to know which plants are electrotropic not only for use in space but also in greenhouse plant cultures. It is very much cheaper to select the electrotropic plant here, and not in space experiments for best cost efficiency. Special light weight plant growth chambers have been designed and very successfully used in terrestrial experiments. We can make the plant growth

  7. Air Force Engineering and Services Laboratory Herbicide Orange Monitoring Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Air Force leaders with the latest available cata in the continuing environmental monitoring and evaluation studies at these critical sites... monitoring and evaluation studies ot areas on Johnston Island, the Naval Construction Battalion Center, and Eglin APB, previously used for the... and evaluation program by collecting samples from NCBC, JI, and Eglin AFB on a semiannual basis. This report summarizes the data on samples collected

  8. Army Air Force Exchange Service Service (AAFES) Station Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida Final Tiered Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-20

    Management, No ise, Land Use, Air Quali ty, Earth Resources, Biological Resources, Cultural Resources, Water Resources, Hazardous Materials and Wastes ...Resources, Biological Resources, Cultural Resources, Water Resources, Hazardous Materials and Wastes , Safety, Infrastructure and Util ities, Socioeconomic...No impacts to floodpl ai ns. Storm water permit ----:- ---- would be required. _ ____ _ l lazardous Materia ls and Wastes No negative short- or

  9. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  10. Combat Service Support of AirLand Battle Doctrine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-20

    thereby causing him to lose control of the battle. In the offense, it means setting the tarfa of battle and never allowing the enemy to recover from...disorganizes his forces, causes him to lose control and ultimately brings about his defeat. To achieve these conditions on the battlefield requires a...units with a command and control system that allows the coordination and redirection of combat service support assets when and where required. Implied

  11. SemanticTraj: A New Approach to Interacting with Massive Taxi Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Al-Dohuki, Shamal; Wu, Yingyu; Kamw, Farah; Yang, Jing; Li, Xin; Zhao, Ye; Ye, Xinyue; Chen, Wei; Ma, Chao; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Massive taxi trajectory data is exploited for knowledge discovery in transportation and urban planning. Existing tools typically require users to select and brush geospatial regions on a map when retrieving and exploring taxi trajectories and passenger trips. To answer seemingly simple questions such as "What were the taxi trips starting from Main Street and ending at Wall Street in the morning?" or "Where are the taxis arriving at the Art Museum at noon typically coming from?", tedious and time consuming interactions are usually needed since the numeric GPS points of trajectories are not directly linked to the keywords such as "Main Street", "Wall Street", and "Art Museum". In this paper, we present SemanticTraj, a new method for managing and visualizing taxi trajectory data in an intuitive, semantic rich, and efficient means. With SemanticTraj, domain and public users can find answers to the aforementioned questions easily through direct queries based on the terms. They can also interactively explore the retrieved data in visualizations enhanced by semantic information of the trajectories and trips. In particular, taxi trajectories are converted into taxi documents through a textualization transformation process. This process maps GPS points into a series of street/POI names and pick-up/drop-off locations. It also converts vehicle speeds into user-defined descriptive terms. Then, a corpus of taxi documents is formed and indexed to enable flexible semantic queries over a text search engine. Semantic labels and meta-summaries of the results are integrated with a set of visualizations in a SemanticTraj prototype, which helps users study taxi trajectories quickly and easily. A set of usage scenarios are presented to show the usability of the system. We also collected feedback from domain experts and conducted a preliminary user study to evaluate the visual system.

  12. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  13. A method for the determination of potentially profitable service patterns for commuter air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Deptula, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for estimating market conception was developed as a part of the short-haul air transportation program. It is based upon an analysis of actual documents which provide a record of known travel history. Applying this methodology a forecast was made of the demand for an air feeder service between Charlottesville, Virginia and Dulles International Airport. Local business travel vouchers and local travel agent records were selected to provide the documentation. The market was determined to be profitable for an 8-passenger Cessna 402B aircraft flying a 2-hour daily service pattern designed to mesh to the best extent possible with the connecting schedules at Dulles. The Charlottesville - Dulles air feeder service market conception forecast and its methodology are documented.

  14. Adaption of the Air Weather Service Fog Model to Forecast Radiation Fog Events in the Southeast United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    ADAPTATION OF THE AIR WEATHER SERVICE FO MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENT IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Andrew C. Goodnite, Captain...ENP/97M-06 ADAPTATION OF THE AIR WEATHER SERVICE FOG MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENTS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Andrew C. Goodnite...AIR WEATHER SERVICE FOG MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENTS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

  15. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  16. Best Practices in Developing Proactive Supply Strategies for Air Force Low-Demand ServiceParts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    avionics and wheels and brakes, had the third-most low-demand requi- sitions, and well as the third-most overall requisitions. Two Air Force bases...overhauls), and airframe and avionics work. Both end-users and manufacturers that we interviewed claimed that about 80 percent of the aftermarket service...example, has publicly reported it has agreements with its avionics suppliers to provide aftermarket services as long as even only one of its products

  17. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    This timeline was generated on the Integrated Mission Program (IMP). All burn events over 2 seconds are finite with IMP solving a two point boundary value setup for begin burn time, burn time and control angles. Perigee and apogee shown above are mean orbital values. Significant events are listed. Each finite thrust event has two lines. The first is the beginning time showing the initial conditions, thrust and ISP used. The second has the end burn conditions and the delta v and time of burn. This case is an abort from the 750 x 750 phasing abort, using the taxi's main engines. An abort using the Reaction Control System (RCS) was also investigated but required a large increase in RCS propellant and was abandoned.

  18. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  19. Characterization of Halobacterium halobium mutants defective in taxis.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, S A; Alam, M; Lebert, M; Spudich, J L; Oesterhelt, D; Hazelbauer, G L

    1990-05-01

    Mutant derivatives of Halobacterium halobium previously isolated by using a procedure that selected for defective phototactic response to white light were examined for an array of phenotypic characteristics related to phototaxis and chemotaxis. The properties tested were unstimulated swimming behavior, behaviorial responses to temporal gradients of light and spatial gradients of chemoattractants, content of photoreceptor pigments, methylation of methyl-accepting taxis proteins, and transient increases in rate of release of volatile methyl groups induced by tactic stimulation. Several distinct phenotypes were identified, corresponding to a mutant missing photoreceptors, a mutant defective in the methyltransferase, a mutant altered in control of the methylesterase, and mutants apparently defective in intracellular signaling. All except the photoreceptor mutant were defective in both chemotaxis and phototaxis.

  20. Glycerol elicits energy taxis of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Zhulin, I B; Rowsell, E H; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L

    1997-05-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show positive chemotaxis to glycerol, a chemical previously reported to be a repellent for E. coli. The threshold of the attractant response in both species was 10(-6) M glycerol. Glycerol chemotaxis was energy dependent and coincident with an increase in membrane potential. Metabolism of glycerol was required for chemotaxis, and when lactate was present to maintain energy production in the absence of glycerol, the increases in membrane potential and chemotactic response upon addition of glycerol were abolished. Methylation of a chemotaxis receptor was not required for positive glycerol chemotaxis in E. coli or S. typhimurium but is involved in the negative chemotaxis of E. coli to high concentrations of glycerol. We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level.

  1. Pili-taxis: Clustering of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktikos, Johannes; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Biais, Nicolas; Stark, Holger; Weitz, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The first step of colonization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, the etiological agent of gonorrhea, is the attachment to human epithelial cells. The attachment of N. gonorrhoeae bacteria to surfaces or other cells is primarily mediated by filamentous appendages, called type IV pili (Tfp). Cycles of elongation and retraction of Tfp are responsible for a common bacterial motility called twitching motility which allows the bacteria to crawl over surfaces. Experimentally, N. gonorrhoeae cells initially dispersed over a surface agglomerate into round microcolonies within hours. It is so far not known whether this clustering is driven entirely by the Tfp dynamics or if chemotactic interactions are needed. Thus, we investigate whether the agglomeration may stem solely from the pili-mediated attraction between cells. By developing a statistical model for pili-taxis, we try to explain the experimental measurements of the time evolution of the mean cluster size, number of clusters, and area fraction covered by the cells.

  2. Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies. Methods The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO2 alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified. Results Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO2 elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls). Conclusions We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of

  3. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran

    2015-05-21

    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'.

  4. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 76 FR 61245 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... obtained on reasonable terms and conditions from any company authorized to conduct an insurance business in... October 3, 2011 Part VI The President Memorandum of September 28, 2011--Provision of Aviation Insurance... Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International...

  6. 78 FR 10560 - Proposed Modification and Revocation of Air Traffic Service Routes; Jackson, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Modification and Revocation of Air Traffic Service Routes; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... jet routes and seven VOR Federal airways; and remove two VOR Federal airways in the vicinity of... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to modify two jet routes and seven...

  7. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  8. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  9. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of December 27, 2013 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  10. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 28, 2011 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  11. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of August 21, 2009 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  12. 77 FR 30437 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Routes; Southwestern United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Federal Register proposing to amend various Air Traffic Service Routes in the Southwestern United States...; Southwestern United States as published in the Federal Register of April 23, 2010 (77 FR 24156) FR Doc....

  13. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This is the thirty-sixth in a set of 36 teacher guides to the Entrepreneurial Training Modules and accompanies CE 031 100. The purpose of the module is to give students some idea of what it is like to own and operate an air conditioning and heating service. Following an overview are general notes on use of the module. Suggested steps for module…

  14. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  15. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This module on owning and operating an air conditioning and heating service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  16. AIRS Data Subsetting Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC/DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Qin, Jianchun; Li, Jason; Gerasimov, Irina; Savtchenko, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The AIRS mission, as a combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), brings climate research and weather prediction into 21st century. From NASA' Aqua spacecraft, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments measure humidity, temperature, cloud properties and the amounts of greenhouse gases. The AIRS also reveals land and sea- surface temperatures. Measurements from these three instruments are analyzed . jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, they constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to better server its users, the GES DISC/DAAC, provider of long-term archives and distribution services as well science support for the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, has developed various tools for performing channels, variables, parameter, spatial and derived products subsetting, resampling and reformatting operations. This presentation mainly describes the web-enabled subsetting services currently available at the GES DISC/DAAC that provide subsetting functions for all the Level 1B and Level 2 data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments.

  17. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly.

  18. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  19. Unexpected chemoreceptors mediate energy taxis towards electron acceptors in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Baraquet, Claudine; Théraulaz, Laurence; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Méjean, Vincent; Jourlin-Castelli, Cécile

    2009-07-01

    Shewanella oneidensis uses a wide range of terminal electron acceptors for respiration. In this study, we show that the chemotactic response of S. oneidensis to anaerobic electron acceptors requires functional electron transport systems. Deletion of the genes encoding dimethyl sulphoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide reductases, or inactivation of these molybdoenzymes as well as nitrate reductase by addition of tungstate, abolished electron acceptor taxis. Moreover, addition of nigericin prevented taxis towards trimethylamine N-oxide, dimethyl sulphoxide, nitrite, nitrate and fumarate, showing that this process depends on the DeltapH component of the proton motive force. These data, together with those concerning response to metals (Bencharit and Ward, 2005), support the idea that, in S. oneidensis, taxis towards electron acceptors is governed by an energy taxis mechanism. Surprisingly, energy taxis in S. oneidensis is not mediated by the PAS-containing chemoreceptors but rather by a chemoreceptor (SO2240) containing a Cache domain. Four other chemoreceptors also play a minor role in this process. These results indicate that energy taxis can be mediated by new types of chemoreceptors.

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  2. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  3. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  4. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  5. 14 CFR 272.9 - Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and payment of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provide such essential air service shall be submitted to the President of the United States not less than... President of the Freely Associated State concerned and the Authorities designated by that Government(s) in... THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.9 Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service...

  6. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military... military, naval, or air service: (a) Aerial transportation of mail (Pub. L. 140, 73d Congress). Persons...

  7. AIRS Data Mining Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.; Qin, J.; Pham, L.; Lynnes, C.; Eng, E.; Li, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared (IR) sounder with 2378 spectral channels flying on the EOS Aqua platform with two operational microwave sounders, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Measurements from the three instruments are analyzed jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, these three instruments constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) provides long-term archive and distribution services for AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products as well science support to assist users in understanding, accessing and using the AIRS data products. However, the high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to address this problem, the GES DAAC is expanding its data mining system to accept AIRS user's algorithms by providing online tools for spectral channels and value added product sub-settings, as well as spatial, temporal and user defined profile sub-settings. This presentation will show details of the AIRS components of the GES DAAC data mining system including technical description, input data and returning products

  8. US EPA 2012 Air Quality Fused Surface for the Conterminous U.S. Map Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains a polygon layer that depicts fused air quality predictions for 2012 for census tracts in the conterminous United States. Fused air quality predictions (for ozone and PM2.5) are modeled using a Bayesian space-time downscaling fusion model approach described in a series of three published journal papers: 1) (Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E. and Holland, D. M. (2012). Space-time fusion under error in computer model output: an application to modeling air quality. Biometrics 68, 837-848; 2) Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E. and Holland, D. M. (2010). A bivariate space-time downscaler under space and time misalignment. The Annals of Applied Statistics 4, 1942-1975; and 3) Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E., and Holland, D. M. (2010). A spatio-temporal downscaler for output from numerical models. J. of Agricultural, Biological,and Environmental Statistics 15, 176-197) is used to provide daily, predictive PM2.5 (daily average) and O3 (daily 8-hr maximum) surfaces for 2012. Summer (O3) and annual (PM2.5) means calculated and published. The downscaling fusion model uses both air quality monitoring data from the National Air Monitoring Stations/State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS/SLAMS) and numerical output from the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ). Currently, predictions at the US census tract centroid locations within the 12 km CMAQ domain are archived. Predictions at the CMAQ grid cell centroids, or any desired set of locations co

  9. Acute pain management services: a comparison between Air Force and U.S. hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rayos, C L; McDonough, J P

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of acute pain management services (APMS) in Air Force medical facilities. There are no published reports on the current status of Air Force pain programs. This study used a telephone survey to all facilities worldwide that house an anesthesia department. Anesthesia providers in charge of pain services or department chiefs were interviewed from December 1996 to May 1997. Respondents were asked questions related to the initiation of a formal APMS, components, and familiarity with the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines on pain management. Data analysis described current practices and used chi 2 analysis to compare results with a national study of U.S. hospitals. Air Force anesthesia departments (45%) had established as many acute pain services as U.S. hospitals (42%). Formal pain programs are becoming more prevalent in Air Force hospitals. These findings suggest an increased awareness of the need for pain management and future establishment of pain programs.

  10. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  11. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  12. An Airborne Communications Roadmap for the U.S. Federal Air Marshal Service: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the events of September 11, 2001, the responsibilities, operations and numbers of the U.S. Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) wer e greatly expanded. With this expansion, new critical research and te chnology needs were identified, including the need for air to ground telecommunications capabilities. To address this need, the FAMS has cr eated a working group to develop, deploy and enhance aviation communi cations with respect to security and law enforcement. This paper presents the working group's progress to date in generating a FAMS air-gro und communications roadmap identifying expected communications servic es, technology maturity, and technology gaps over a timeline. The paper includes a communications preliminary requirements summary and syst em performance characteristics needed to meet identified operational needs. The system engineering process utilized is presented beginning with the identification of users, their operational needs and relevant constraints. The operational needs are translated to desired airbor ne communications services. System technical performance requirements associated with the identified services are summarized. In addition, notional communications architectures addressing the requirements are presented. Finally, future plans to identify and assess potential ca ndidate systems and their associated technical architectures, gaps and barriers to implementation are discussed. The paper addresses the cu rrent, near term (within 5 years) and far term (10 years) timeframes for such an airborne communications system.

  13. Factors on green service industry: Case study at AirAsia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Muhammad-Azfar; Chew, Boon-Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful-Rizal

    2017-03-01

    Presently service organizations are challenged by fierce global competition, new technology and changing customer demands. These trends force service sectors to adapt environmental factors and places innovation at the core of their competitive strategy. On the other hand, service sectors challenge to deliver value memorable experiences and complete "service solutions" while lowering costs and keep sustainable. Despite, many studies have attempted to explore the factors that help toward environmental sustainability in the manufacturing sector, the service sector has not yet received a considerable attention in all world countries generally and in developing countries particularly. Thus, this paper aims to explore the factors that help to attain environmental sustainability in the service sector. A qualitative case study through semi-structured interview conducted with twenty managers from AirAsia to explore the factors that are related to environmental sustainability and green services. Besides, secondary data from document analysis was reviewed to gain more comprehensive understanding and triangulate the interview data. The finding of this paper emphasizes to three important factors namely institutional factors, process factors and result factors that each factor contain sustainability and innovations to promote competitive green service in the marketplace.

  14. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2016-08-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  15. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2017-02-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  16. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  17. Electrical nature of the taxis signal in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Murvanidze, G V; Glagolev, A N

    1982-04-01

    Electrical events after a light-dark stimulus were studied in the multicellular organism Phormidium uncinatum. Normally, such a stimulus causes the gliding trichome to reverse direction. By directing a large light spot on the end of a batch of trichomes and then switching it off, we achieved synchronization of the trichomes, since the "head" is much more sensitive than the "tail." The abrupt disappearance of a uniform light produced a depolarization wave which initiated at the head, as registered by externally applied electrodes. The second stimulus produced a depolarization of the opposite direction, reflecting the reorientation of the trichomes. No electrical response was observed at Ca2+ concentrations less than or equal to 10(-8) M. Factors causing oscillatory reversals, i.e., a combination of Ca2+ and A23187, or a viscous environment also abolished the electrical signal. Changes in an externally applied electrical field (4 V/cm2) had little effect on the motile behavior of P. uncinatum or Oscillatoria princeps. However, in the presence of 5 microM Ca2+-1 microM A23187, all the trichomes reversed synchronously to the anode after a change in polarity of an externally applied electrical field. We suggest that an increased Ca2+ concentration together with a change in delta psi (or delta mu H+) represents the taxis signal in cyanobacteria.

  18. Acute Pain Management Services: What Does the Air Force Have to Offer?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-29

    Unrelieved pain due to this nociception , after surgery or trauma is often unhealthy, but it is preventable or controllable in a majority of cases...DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leaveblank) 2. REPORT DATE 26-Sep-97 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Designed using Perform Pro, WHS/DIOR. Oct 94 ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES: WHAT DOES THE AIR FORCE HAVE TO OFFER

  19. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers.

  1. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Arphorn, Sara; Jirapongsuwan, Ann

    2016-10-08

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers' CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status.

  2. Application of ESE Data and Tools to Air Quality Management: Services for Helping the Air Quality Community use ESE Data (SHAirED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falke, Stefan; Husar, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this REASoN applications and technology project is to deliver and use Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) data and tools in support of air quality management. Its scope falls within the domain of air quality management and aims to develop a federated air quality information sharing network that includes data from NASA, EPA, US States and others. Project goals were achieved through a access of satellite and ground observation data, web services information technology, interoperability standards, and air quality community collaboration. In contributing to a network of NASA ESE data in support of particulate air quality management, the project will develop access to distributed data, build Web infrastructure, and create tools for data processing and analysis. The key technologies used in the project include emerging web services for developing self describing and modular data access and processing tools, and service oriented architecture for chaining web services together to assemble customized air quality management applications. The technology and tools required for this project were developed within DataFed.net, a shared infrastructure that supports collaborative atmospheric data sharing and processing web services. Much of the collaboration was facilitated through community interactions through the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Air Quality Workgroup. The main activities during the project that successfully advanced DataFed, enabled air quality applications and established community-oriented infrastructures were: develop access to distributed data (surface and satellite), build Web infrastructure to support data access, processing and analysis create tools for data processing and analysis foster air quality community collaboration and interoperability.

  3. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  4. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  5. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  6. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  7. Using ecosystem services to inform decisions on U.S. air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Rea, Anne W; Davis, Christine; Evans, David A; Heninger, Brian T; Van Houtven, George

    2012-06-19

    The ecosystem services (ES) framework provides a link between changes in a natural system's structure and function and public welfare. This systematic integration of ecology and economics allows for more consistency and transparency in environmental decision making by enabling valuation of nature's goods and services in a manner that is understood by the public. This policy analysis (1) assesses the utility of the ES conceptual framework in the context of setting a secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), (2) describes how economic valuation was used to summarize changes in ES affected by NOx and SOx in the review, and (3) uses the secondary NOxSOx NAAQS review as a case study to highlight the advantages and challenges of quantifying air pollutant effects on ES in a decision making context. Using an ES framework can benefit the decision making process by accounting for environmental, ecological, and social elements in a holistic manner. As formal quantitative linkages are developed between ecosystem structure and function and ES, this framework will increasingly allow for a clearer, more transparent link between changes in air quality and public welfare.

  8. Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene involved in the negative regulation of phosphate taxis.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Sakai, Y; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1994-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exhibited a positive chemotactic response to P(i). The chemotactic response was induced by P(i) limitation. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) constitutive mutant showed a chemotactic response to P(i), regardless of whether the cells were starved for P(i). Sequence analysis and complementation studies showed that the P. aeruginosa phoU gene was involved both in the regulation of AP expression and in the induction of P(i) taxis. However, unlike AP expression, P(i) taxis was not regulated by the phoB gene product.

  9. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment.

  10. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come.

  11. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  12. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  13. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  14. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  15. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  16. Air Force Chaplains' Perceived Effectiveness on Service Member's Resilience and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cafferky, Bryan; Norton, Aaron; Travis, Wendy J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how 3,777 active duty male United States Air Force service members' (SMs) rank and residence location moderated the associations between perceived chaplain effectiveness, SMs' resilience, family coping, marital satisfaction, and satisfaction with the Air Force (AF). A multiple-sample structural equation model was conducted with four subgroups of SMs who had received chaplain support: enlisted members living on base, enlisted members living off base, officers living on base, and officers living off base. Chaplain effectiveness was significantly related, both directly and indirectly, to SM's spirituality, resilience, family coping, marital satisfaction, and AF satisfaction. Resilience was significantly associated with increased AF satisfaction for all SMs, except for those living on base. However, living on base was found to strengthen the protective factor between family coping and relationship satisfaction. Rank was found to moderate the link between resilience and family coping. Family coping was significantly related to increased relationship satisfaction.

  17. AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB Data On-demand Subsetting and Visualization Services at NASA GES DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Cho, S.; Sun, D.; Qin, J.; Sharma, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared sounder closely coupled with AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) and HSB (Humidity Sounder for Brazil) on EOS Aqua spacecraft launched on May 4, 2002. The data products from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB will be archived and distributed at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) located in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DAAC). The ADDST is developing tools to read, visualize, analyze and reformat AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB data. The web-based AIRS on-the-fly/on-demand subsetter will be available to perform channel/variable subsetting and restructuring for Level1B (Calibrated Radiances) and Level2 (Atmospheric Retrievals) data products. One can narrow down criteria to subset data files with desired channels and variables and then download the subsetted file. AIRS QuickLook allows users to view AIRS/HSB/AMSU Level-1B data online for a specific channel prior to ordering or downloading data. Global map is also provided along with image to show geographic coverage of the granule and flight direction of the spacecraft. The Atmospheric Dynamics Data Support Team (ADDST) at the GES DISC/DAAC is providing various services to assist users in understanding, accessing, and using AIRS data product. Information on AIRS data and data analysis tools can be found at AIRS data support informational web site (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmodyn/airs/ ) that provides access to various technical online documents, such as, readmes, user's guides, instrument guides, images from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB data, product search and ordering interfaces, HDF-EOS format information, format conversion software, online data analysis tools, other AIRS related web links and more. Other data support services provided by the ADDST are assist with data mining, helpdesk for user questions on data and information, data ordering, and educational resources.

  18. AIRS Data Service at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services (GES DISC) and Its Application to Climate Change Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, Young-In; Vollimer, Bruce; Theobald, Mike; Hua, Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument suite is designed to observe and characterize the entire atmospheric column from the surface to the top of the atmosphere in terms of surface emissivity and temperature, atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, cloud amount and height, and the spectral outgoing infrared radiation on a global scale. The AIRS Data Support Team at the GES DISC provides data support to assist others in understanding, retrieving and extracting information from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products. Because a number of years has passed since its operation started, the amount of data has reached a certain level of maturity where we can address the climate change study utilizing AIRS data, In this presentation we will list various service we provide and to demonstrate how to utilize/apply the existing service to long-term and short-term variability study.

  19. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Zhulin, Igor B; Stuckey, Jeanne A; DiRita, Victor J

    2009-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of Aer divided between two proteins, CetA (HAMP domain containing) and CetB (PAS domain containing). In this study, we found that the CetA HAMP domain differs significantly from that of Aer in the predicted secondary structure. Using similarity searches, we identified 55 pairs of HAMP/PAS proteins encoded by adjacent genes in a diverse group of microorganisms. We propose that these HAMP/PAS pairs form a new family of bipartite energy taxis receptors. Within these proteins, we identified nine residues in the HAMP domain and proximal signaling domain that are highly conserved, at least three of which are required for CetA function. Additionally, we demonstrated that CetA contributes to the invasion of human epithelial cells by C. jejuni, while CetB does not. This finding supports the hypothesis that members of HAMP/PAS pairs possess the capacity to act independently of each other in cellular traits other than energy taxis.

  20. Continuous lateral oscillations as a core mechanism for taxis in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wystrach, Antoine; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos; Webb, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Taxis behaviour in Drosophila larva is thought to consist of distinct control mechanisms triggering specific actions. Here, we support a simpler hypothesis: that taxis results from direct sensory modulation of continuous lateral oscillations of the anterior body, sparing the need for ‘action selection’. Our analysis of larvae motion reveals a rhythmic, continuous lateral oscillation of the anterior body, encompassing all head-sweeps, small or large, without breaking the oscillatory rhythm. Further, we show that an agent-model that embeds this hypothesis reproduces a surprising number of taxis signatures observed in larvae. Also, by coupling the sensory input to a neural oscillator in continuous time, we show that the mechanism is robust and biologically plausible. The mechanism provides a simple architecture for combining information across modalities, and explaining how learnt associations modulate taxis. We discuss the results in the light of larval neural circuitry and make testable predictions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15504.001 PMID:27751233

  1. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  2. Notification: Background Investigation Services EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0017, March 7, 2014. The OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act (CAA) inspections for air toxics.

  3. Evolution of taxis responses in virtual bacteria: non-adaptive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard A; Soyer, Orkun S

    2008-05-23

    Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics mediating taxis responses

  4. Assessing the ecosystem service of air pollutant removal by urban trees in Guangzhou (China).

    PubMed

    Jim, C Y; Chen, Wendy Y

    2008-09-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Besides technical solutions to abate air pollution, urban vegetation is increasingly recognized as an alternative ameliorative method by removing some pollutants mainly through dry deposition process. This paper assesses the capability and monetary value of this ecosystem service in Guangzhou city in South China. The results indicated an annual removal of SO(2), NO(2) and total suspended particulates at about 312.03 Mg, and the benefits were valued at RMB90.19 thousand (US$1.00=RMB8.26). More removal was realized by recreational land use due to a higher tree cover. Higher concentration of pollutants in the dry winter months induced more removal. The lower cost of pollution abatement in China generated a relatively subdued monetary value of this environmental benefit in comparison with developed countries. Younger districts with more extensive urban trees stripped more pollutants from the air, and this capacity was anticipated to increase further as their trees gradually reach final dimensions and establish a greater tree cover. Tree cover and pollutant concentration constitute the main factors in pollutant removal by urban trees. The efficiency of atmospheric cleansing by trees in congested Chinese cities could be improved by planting more trees other than shrubs or grass, diversifying species composition and biomass structure, and providing sound green space management. The implications for greenery design were discussed with a view to maximizing this ecosystem service in Chinese cities and other developing metropolises.

  5. A novel approach for mental health disease management: the Air Force Medical Service's interdisciplinary model.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Christine N; Fonseca, Vincent P; Meyer, John G; Oordt, Mark S; Talcott, G Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Mental health disorders are one of the most substantial public health problems affecting society today, accounting for roughly 15% of the overall burden of disease from all causes in the United States. Although primary care (PC) has the potential to be the frontline for recognition and management of behavioral health conditions, this has been a challenge historically. In order to more effectively address the broad scope of behavioral health needs, the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) established a new model of behavioral health care. Through a series of coordinated steps, the AFMS ultimately placed trained behavioral health providers into PC clinics to serve as consultants to PC providers (PCPs). Behavioral Health Consultants (BHCs) provide focused assessments, present healthcare options to patients, and deliver brief collaborative interventions in the PC setting. BHCs see patients at the request of the PCP, in 15-30-min appointments. In the pilot study, patients averaged 1.6 visits to the BHC. Over 70% of patients fell into six categories of presenting problems: situational reactions, depressive disorders, adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, health promotion, and obesity. Patient data (n = 76) suggest 97% of patients seen were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with BHC services, and 100% of the PCPs (n = 23, 68% response rate) were highly satisfied and indicated they would "definitely recommend" others use BHC services for their patients. Both the implications and the limitations of this pilot study are discussed.

  6. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  7. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  8. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  9. Environmental Assessment for the Hilltop Community Services District, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    characterized by a relatively large range of  seasonal   variability with  cold  winters and warm, humid summers. Climate data from a weather station in Greene...Research Laboratories (USACERL). 1991. Tri‐Services Cultural  Resources  Management  Center. Cultural Resource  Investigation  for Proposed Marker Pylons...88th Air Base Wing Environmental Management Division. we are requesting information on Ohio’s rare plant’S and animals, high quality plant communiUes

  10. Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of an iterative statistical model is presented to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in confunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of Bay Area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation options with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private nonuser costs. It incorporates information modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport cost, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytical capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  12. Improving Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the structure of the `Air Pollution Course', an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this study deals with the problem of air pollution, which has a special local interest in a large and crowded city like Athens, Greece. The design of the `Air Pollution Course' was based on a combination of experimental study and the use of educational software. All the activities were carried out with the aid of contemporary technological equipment according to the Microcomputer Based Laboratory and to Information and Communication Technologies principles. This approach has encouraging results to the understanding of the problem of air pollution. Τhe laboratory course has improved pre-service elementary teachers' correct use of terms and accuracy in scientific descriptions. These facts suppose deeper conceptual understanding on air pollution phenomena. However, there is a need for further improvement of the pre-service elementary teachers' knowledge in air pollution phenomena, as they still hold misconceptions. The teaching implications of these results are discussed.

  13. The U.S. Air Service in World War I. Volume III. The Battle of St. Mihiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    of Col. Edgar S. Gorrell’s "History of the Air Service AEF," the original of which is in the National Archives.3 These sources, unfortu- nately, do...interests of clarity and to meet the requirements imposed by the format of the printed volume. Editorial comments and notes have been kept to the minimum...Graphic, published in Paris by the Institut Geographique National .9 Maps and grids used by the Air Service, AEF are described in Appendix D of this

  14. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying

    2016-04-01

    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  15. Kwazulu-Natal minibus taxi drivers' perceptions on HIV and AIDS: transmission, prevention, support and effects on the industry.

    PubMed

    McHunu, Gugu; Ncama, Busisiwe; Naidoo, Joanne Rachel; Majeke, Sisana; Myeza, Thandazile; Ndebele, Thandiwe; Pillay, Padmini

    2012-11-01

    In South Africa, the minibus taxi drivers are largely becoming another high-risk category in the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Although previous studies have shown that knowledge of HIV and AIDS is relatively high among the taxi drivers it is still not clear how this sub-population perceive the support rendered to them with regard to HIV and AIDS prevention strategies. This study aimed to focus on this atypical workplace and explore the KwaZulu-Natal, minibus taxi drivers' perceptions on HIV and AIDS. In this study, qualitative methods were utilized to determine the minibus taxi drivers' understanding of HIV and AIDS infection, HIV prevention strategies, existing support strategies and effects of HIV and AIDS on the taxi industry. Focus-group discussions were conducted, to collect data. The results showed that even though the taxi drivers had some understanding on HIV and AIDS there was still a dire need for interventions that were geared towards addressing HIV-related needs of the drivers in this industry.

  16. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  17. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  18. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  19. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  20. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air...

  1. An evaluation of the Royal Air Force helicopter search and rescue services in Britain with reference to Royal Air Force Valley 1980-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Liskiewicz, W J

    1992-01-01

    The Royal Air Force (RAF) operates a helicopter Search and Rescue (SAR) service in the United Kingdom and territorial waters; it also provides a similar service in several locations abroad. A 10-year retrospective study of the SAR helicopter service operating from the RAF base at Valley on the island of Anglesey in North Wales is presented, with national SAR statistics over a similar period provided for comparison. Analysis of records kept by SAR aircrew at RAF Valley shows that their assistance had been requested on 1490 occasions during the 10-year period studied; most of these requests were the result of incidents involving holidaymakers, particularly in the mountains or along the coast. The results illustrate the versatility and life-saving potential of a highly skilled and motivated service able to work in adverse weather and dangerous locations. In the light of current debate, the value of aeromedical evacuation of seriously ill patients using helicopters is discussed. PMID:1494160

  2. Challenges in recovery and recycling of refrigerants from Indian refrigeration and air-conditioning service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devotta, Sukumar; Asthana, Saroja; Joshi, Rahul

    India is a large producer and user of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) sector. Government of India has taken several steps to restrict the production and consumption of CFCs. Refrigerant conservation through recovery, recycling (R&R) and reclamation is one way of reducing emissions and encouraging timely phase out of CFCs in developing countries. CFC recovery, recycling and reclamation have been mandated in many developed countries. However, this practice is yet to make an impact in India although it is practiced in MAC sector to some extent. India is planning for the final phase out of CFCs in the RAC service sector, in which R&R will be one of the components. A model has been developed to assess the economics of R&R for some typical parameters in developing counties like India. The model suggests that the enterprises recycling 1500 kg/a will break even within 1 year for all scenarios. However, R&R may not be cost effective for small workshops and low volume refrigerant vendors until either the price of CFC goes up or the cost of R&R unit is subsidized. A nationwide survey on RAC service sector revealed that in India, there are very few enterprises handling more than 500 kg/a. Therefore, there is a need to provide the RAC service sector with adequate and innovative financial incentives. This paper attempts to study the issues related to R&R for various sub-sectors of RAC in developing countries with an emphasis on cost effectiveness. India is used as a model for this study.

  3. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Reporting Requirements § 298.63 Reporting...

  4. Air Force Posture Statement 2008: Department of Air Force Presentation to the House Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Fiscal Year 2009 Air Force Posture Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE PRESENTATION TO THE HOUSE ARMED SERVICES...COMMITTEE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FISCAL YEAR 2009 AIR FORCE POSTURE STATEMENT STATEMENT OF: THE HONORABLE MICHAEL W. WYNNE SECRETARY OF...Highest Quality of Life Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 4.2.1 Housing and Military Construction

  5. Video event data recording of a taxi driver used for diagnosis of epilepsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Junko; Kurita, Tsugiko; Takeda, Youji; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A video event data recorder (VEDR) in a motor vehicle records images before and after a traffic accident. This report describes a taxi driver whose seizures were recorded by VEDR, which was extremely useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy. The patient was a 63-year-old right-handed Japanese male taxi driver. He collided with a streetlight. Two years prior to this incident, he raced an engine for a long time while parked. The VEDR enabled confirmation that the accidents depended on an epileptic seizure and he was diagnosed with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. The VEDR is useful not only for traffic accident evidence; it might also contribute to a driver's health care and road safety. PMID:25667862

  6. Taxis of Artificial Swimmers in a Spatio-Temporally Modulated Activation Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiseler, Alexander; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to microbial taxis, where a tactic response to external stimuli is controlled by complex chemical pathways acting like sensor-actuator loops, taxis of artificial microswimmers is a purely stochastic effect associated with a non-uniform activation of the particles' self-propulsion. We study the tactic response of such swimmers in a spatio-temporally modulated activating medium by means of both numerical and analytical techniques. In the opposite limits of very fast and very slow rotational particle dynamics, we obtain analytic approximations that closely reproduce the numerical description. A swimmer drifts on average either parallel or anti-parallel to the propagation direction of the activating pulses, depending on their speed and width. The drift in line with the pulses is solely determined by the finite persistence length of the active Brownian motion performed by the swimmer, whereas the drift in the opposite direction results from the combination of ballistic and diffusive properties of the swimmer's dynamics.

  7. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  8. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may

  9. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the "Air Pollution Course", an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this…

  10. Step On It! - Workplace cardiovascular risk assessment of New York City yellow taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Gill, Pavan; Ramirez, Julia; Ayash, Claudia; Loeb, Rebecca; Aragones, Abraham; Leng, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple factors associated with taxi driving can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in taxi drivers. Methods This paper describes the results of Step On It!, which assessed CVD risk factors among New York City taxi drivers at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Drivers completed an intake questionnaire and free screenings for blood pressure, glucose and body mass index (BMI). Results 466 drivers participated. 9% had random plasma glucose values >200 mg/dl. 77% had elevated BMIs. Immigrants who lived in the U.S. for >10 years had 2.5 times the odds (CI: 1.1–5.9) of having high blood pressure compared to newer immigrants. Discussion Abnormalities documented in this study were significant, especially for immigrants with greater duration of residence in the U.S., and underscore the potential for elevated CVD risk in this vulnerable population, and the need to address this risk through frameworks that utilize multiple levels of intervention. PMID:25680879

  11. 76 FR 57902 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... deconflict air traffic. Some communities felt that they are unfairly impacted by low flying aircraft and that... impact is so minimal. Since this is a routine matter that will only affect air traffic procedures and air... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment and Establishment of Air...

  12. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered.

  13. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  14. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  15. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  16. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Army and Air Force Exchange Service Shopping Center Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    comprised of dust, ash, soot , smoke, or liquid droplets emitted into the air. Fires, unpaved roads, construction activities, and natural sources (wind...Employer 1(’-,:9 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper ~ DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OMAHA DISTRICT 106 SOUTH 15TH STREET REPLY

  17. Signal balancing by the CetABC and CetZ chemoreceptors controls energy taxis in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Mark; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of environmental sensing to flagella-mediated directed motility allows bacteria to move to optimum environments for growth and survival, either by sensing external stimuli (chemotaxis) or monitoring internal metabolic status (energy taxis). Sensing is mediated by transducer-like proteins (Tlp), either located in the membrane or in the cytoplasm, which commonly influence motility via the CheA-CheY chemotaxis pathway. In this study we have investigated the role of PAS-domain-containing intracellular Tlp-sensors in energy taxis of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, using plate- and tube-based assays utilising the conversion of the redox indicator dyes triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) and resazurin. Inactivation of the genes encoding the Campylobacter Energy Taxis system (CetA (Tlp9) and CetB (Aer2)) in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 resulted in reduced taxis. Inactivation of the cj1191c gene, encoding the CetB homolog CetC (Aer1), did not affect taxis per se, but the cetC gene complemented a cetB mutant in trans, indicating that CetC can form a functional signal transduction complex with CetA in the absence of CetB. Inactivation of both CetB and CetC resulted in greatly reduced taxis confirming the role of CetC in energy taxis. Inactivation of the cj1110c gene, encoding Tlp8 (CetZ), a cytoplasmic sensor with two PAS-domains, resulted in increased taxis, a phenotype opposite to that of CetAB. Inactivation of the cheA gene resulted in the same overall phenotype as the cetAB mutant in both wild-type and cetZ backgrounds, suggesting that both systems use the CheA system for signal transduction. Absence of both CetAB and CetZ resulted in the cetAB taxis phenotype, suggesting that CetZ is subordinate to CetAB. In conclusion, we present evidence that C. jejuni balances the input from two counteracting PAS-domain-containing sensory systems to position itself for optimal usage of energy resources.

  18. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  19. Big yellow taxi, or, unhealthy terms of trade?

    PubMed

    Broom, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    International trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services, are central elements of globalization. These agreements are likely to have significant implications for population health in rich nations such as Australia as well as in the developing world. But the technical language of the legal agreements and the comparative secrecy of the negotiations and approval procedures make it difficult for most people to be adequately informed about them. Australian public health academics and practitioners must become better informed and more pro-active in their approach to 'free trade' if Australia's public health infrastructure is to be protected from potential legal erosion.

  20. Commuter/Air Taxi Ditchings and Water-Related Impacts that Occurred from 1979 to 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    and Landing Gear Configuration, Total Sample 8 3.3 Frequency of First -Event Occurrence for the Total Sample 9 3.4 Occupant Injury Severity Distribution...aircraft weight class, first accident event, occupant injuries relative to aircraft weight class, and injury level relative to accident survivability. b...Gear Configurations Number Percent Amphibian 13 33 Tailwheel 4 10 Tricycle 23 57 Total 40 100 8 3.1.3 Sample Distribution by First Accident Event. A

  1. Assessment of broadcast media airings of AIDS-related public service announcements--United States, 1987-1990.

    PubMed

    1991-08-09

    Television and radio public service announcements (PSAs) are an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) public information campaigns. This report summarizes an assessment of airings of AIDS PSAs in the United States during October 1987-December 1990 that were produced by CDC's "America Responds to AIDS" (ARTA) campaign and other groups.* The assessment used data obtained from Broadcast Advertisers Reports (BAR) of the Arbitron Company.

  2. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, G D; Harrison, R M; Lynam, D R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half of the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM2.5, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rais, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  3. Risk Factors for Incident Postdeployment Mental Health Conditions Among U.S. Air Force Medical Service Personnel.

    PubMed

    Maupin, Genny M; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; White, Edward D; Lysfjord, Heather J

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of postdeployment mental health (PDMH) conditions in military health care personnel appears to be on par with that of other military personnel. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of incident PDMH conditions within the overall population of U.S. Air Force Medical Service personnel. This study explored the epidemiology of incident PDMH conditions among Air Force Medical Service personnel returning from deployment. A cohort survival analysis was conducted of 24,409 subjects without preexisting mental health conditions and at least one deployment during 2003-2013. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a PDMH condition. The primary outcome measure was an incident PDMH condition defined as a mental health diagnosis on at least two separate clinical encounters. The incidence of PDMH conditions was 59.74 per 1,000 person-years. Adjustment, anxiety, mood, sleep, and post-traumatic stress disorders accounted for 78% diagnoses. Protective factors included officer, surgeon, specific enlisted career fields, Air National Guard or Air Force Reserve, and multiple deployments. Risk factors included nurse, other specific enlisted career fields, female, and unmarried with dependents. Most subjects (73%) were diagnosed within the standard 30-month surveillance time period; median time to diagnosis was 13 months.

  4. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  5. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively.

  6. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  7. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  8. US Army Order of Battle 1919-1941. Volume 3. The Services: Air Service, Engineers, and Special Troops, 1919-41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    James A. Meissner 16 Jan 24-ao Feb 24 Maj. W. V. M. Robertson ao Apr 24-15 May 25 Maj. Sumpter Smith 15 May 25-15 Sep 29 Headquarters...Demobilized on 15 February 1929. Commanders, 35th Division Air Service Maj. William M. Robertson 23 Jun 23-16 Sep 24 Capt. William H. Leininger 21 May 25...Refueling Squadron at Seymour -Johnson, A.F.B., NC. Events: 268, 283 Commanders, 21st Reconnaissance Squadron Capt. William V. Andrews 1 Mar 35-1 Jun 35

  9. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  10. The application of a marketing systems planning framework to design a ground-air medical transport service.

    PubMed

    Chasin, S; Schlacter, J; Shirley, C

    1986-01-01

    This article has examined the application of a marketing and community planning process to the development of a regional, complete patient transportation system. The model is designed to interface with a region whose existing Emergency Medical Service System is operating at the advanced Life Support (usually paramedic) level. It is suitable for regions whose existing ambulance (ground and air) services are in need of improvement and/or coordination, and specifically utilizes the concept of ownership and management by a hospital consortium. The model, as described, is sufficiently flexible to be usable in a variety of local and regional environments, where changes in the patient transportation system can enhance the quality and operations of emergency medical services.

  11. Guidelines for evaluating air-pollution impacts on Class I wilderness areas in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Schmoldt, D.; Peterson, D.; Eilers, J.; Fisher, R.

    1992-05-01

    Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class 1 wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution having the potential to impact class 1 wilderness values. This report documents the results of a workshop where current information on air pollution effects on aquatic and terrestrial resources and visibility was gathered from participating scientists and managers. Critical air pollution concentrations were determined for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Critical values for sulfur and nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems are listed.

  12. Transposon mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni identifies a bipartite energy taxis system required for motility.

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, D R; Akerley, B J; DiRita, V J

    2001-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni constitutes the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. Little is known about virulence mechanisms in this organism because of the scarcity of suitable genetic tools. We have developed an efficient system of in vitro transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon and purified mariner transposase. Through in vitro transposition of C. jejuni chromosomal DNA followed by natural transformation of the transposed DNA, large random transposon mutant libraries consisting of approximately 16 000 individual mutants were generated. The first genetic screen of C. jejuni using a transposon-generated mutant library identified 28 mutants defective for flagellar motility, one of the few known virulence determinants of this pathogen. We developed a second genetic system, which allows for the construction of defined chromosomal deletions in C. jejuni, and demonstrated the requirement of sigma28 and sigma54 for motility. In addition, we show that sigma28 is involved in the transcription of flaA and that sigma54 is required for transcription of three other flagellar genes, flaB and flgDE. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes required for motility encoding proteins that we call CetA and CetB, which mediate energy taxis responses. Through our analysis of the Cet proteins, we propose a unique mechanism for sensing energy levels and mediating energy taxis in C. jejuni.

  13. A critical review of studies of the association between demands for hospital services and air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, F W

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility. PMID:8243395

  14. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  15. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  16. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  17. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog: USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 P" 0 0 S 5 0 0 • 0 •, 0 N = Hydrology office...Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated Meteorological Observing System ANG - Air National Guard weather facility AUT - Automated reporting

  18. Air quality climate in the Columbia River Basin. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

  19. Discrepancy analysis of driving performance of taxi drivers and non-professional drivers for red-light running violation and crash avoidance at intersections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiawei; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam

    2016-06-01

    Due to comfort, convenience, and flexibility, taxis have become increasingly more prevalent in China, especially in large cities. However, many violations and road crashes that occurred frequently were related to taxi drivers. This study aimed to investigate differences in driving performance between taxi drivers and non-professional drivers from the perspectives of red-light running violation and potential crash involvement based on a driving simulation experiment. Two typical scenarios were established in a driving simulator, which includes the red-light running violation scenario and the crash avoidance scenario. There were 49 participants, including 23 taxi drivers (14 males and 9 females) and 26 non-professional drivers (13 males and 13 females) recruited for this experiment. The driving simulation experiment results indicated that non-professional drivers paid more attention to red-light running violations in comparison to taxi drivers who had a higher probability of red-light running violation. Furthermore, it was found that taxi drivers were more inclined to turn the steering wheel in an attempt to avoid a potential collision and non-professional drivers had more abrupt deceleration behaviors when facing a potential crash. Moreover, the experiment results showed that taxi drivers had a smaller crash rate compared to non-professional drivers and had a better performance in terms of crash avoidance at the intersection.

  20. Identification of a malate chemoreceptor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by screening for chemotaxis defects in an energy taxis-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ortega, Carolina; Harwood, Caroline S

    2007-12-01

    We found that a robust energy taxis response mediated by the Aer receptor can sometimes mask chemotaxis mediated by other methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identified PA2652 as a chemoreceptor for malate by screening aer mcp double mutants by using swarm plate assays.

  1. 39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... military mail. 927.2 Section 927.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF... and military mail. (a) Report of infraction. Each mail handling irregularity will be reported in the... adapted to the respective modes of transportation, see International Mail Operations, Handbook...

  2. 39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... military mail. 927.2 Section 927.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF... and military mail. (a) Report of infraction. Each mail handling irregularity will be reported in the... adapted to the respective modes of transportation, see International Mail Operations, Handbook...

  3. 39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... military mail. 927.2 Section 927.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF... and military mail. (a) Report of infraction. Each mail handling irregularity will be reported in the... adapted to the respective modes of transportation, see International Mail Operations, Handbook...

  4. 39 CFR 927.2 - Noncontractual air service for international and military mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... military mail. 927.2 Section 927.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF... and military mail. (a) Report of infraction. Each mail handling irregularity will be reported in the... adapted to the respective modes of transportation, see International Mail Operations, Handbook...

  5. Planning and Implementing total Quality Management in an Air Force Service Organization: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    48 IV. Conclusions and Recommendations ...... 52 Lessons Learned ..... .............. 52 Practical Implications ........... 55 Recommendations...traditional quality control methods practically useless in a service-oriented environment (8:9-10). Common threads among the literature indicate these...disseminating known and tried practices , techniques and tools (1:9). Scope This case concerns a single service organization, AFALC, as the unit of

  6. Visual exploration of big spatio-temporal urban data: a study of New York City taxi trips.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nivan; Poco, Jorge; Vo, Huy T; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Cláudio T

    2013-12-01

    As increasing volumes of urban data are captured and become available, new opportunities arise for data-driven analysis that can lead to improvements in the lives of citizens through evidence-based decision making and policies. In this paper, we focus on a particularly important urban data set: taxi trips. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trips can provide unprecedented insight into many different aspects of city life, from economic activity and human behavior to mobility patterns. But analyzing these data presents many challenges. The data are complex, containing geographical and temporal components in addition to multiple variables associated with each trip. Consequently, it is hard to specify exploratory queries and to perform comparative analyses (e.g., compare different regions over time). This problem is compounded due to the size of the data-there are on average 500,000 taxi trips each day in NYC. We propose a new model that allows users to visually query taxi trips. Besides standard analytics queries, the model supports origin-destination queries that enable the study of mobility across the city. We show that this model is able to express a wide range of spatio-temporal queries, and it is also flexible in that not only can queries be composed but also different aggregations and visual representations can be applied, allowing users to explore and compare results. We have built a scalable system that implements this model which supports interactive response times; makes use of an adaptive level-of-detail rendering strategy to generate clutter-free visualization for large results; and shows hidden details to the users in a summary through the use of overlay heat maps. We present a series of case studies motivated by traffic engineers and economists that show how our model and system enable domain experts to perform tasks that were previously unattainable for them.

  7. Three types of taxis used in the response of Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 to 2-nitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Parales, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. Assays with JS42 mutants unable to oxidize 2NT showed that the first step of 2NT metabolism was required for the induced response, but not for a portion of the constitutive response, indicating that 2NT itself is an attractant. The 2NT metabolite nitrite was shown to be a strong attractant for strain JS42, and sufficient nitrite was produced during the taxis assay to account for a large part of the induced response. A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. Responses of a mutant defective for the energy-taxis receptor, Aer, indicated that a functional aer gene is required for a substantial part of the wild-type induced response to 2NT. In summary, strain JS42 utilizes three types of taxis to sense and respond to 2NT: constitutive 2NT-specific chemotaxis to directly sense 2NT, metabolism-dependent nitrite-specific chemotaxis that may be mediated by NtdY, and energy taxis mediated by Aer.

  8. Three Types of Taxis Used in the Response of Acidovorax sp. Strain JS42 to 2-Nitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 is able to utilize 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) as its sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. We report here that strain JS42 is chemotactic to 2NT and that the response is increased when cells are grown on compounds such as 2NT that are known to induce the first step of 2NT degradation. Assays with JS42 mutants unable to oxidize 2NT showed that the first step of 2NT metabolism was required for the induced response, but not for a portion of the constitutive response, indicating that 2NT itself is an attractant. The 2NT metabolite nitrite was shown to be a strong attractant for strain JS42, and sufficient nitrite was produced during the taxis assay to account for a large part of the induced response. A mutant with an inactivated ntdY gene, which is located adjacent to the 2NT degradation genes and codes for a putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, showed a defect in taxis toward 2NT that may involve a reduced response to nitrite. Responses of a mutant defective for the energy-taxis receptor, Aer, indicated that a functional aer gene is required for a substantial part of the wild-type induced response to 2NT. In summary, strain JS42 utilizes three types of taxis to sense and respond to 2NT: constitutive 2NT-specific chemotaxis to directly sense 2NT, metabolism-dependent nitrite-specific chemotaxis that may be mediated by NtdY, and energy taxis mediated by Aer. PMID:22286989

  9. A Monetary Repayment Model for Recoupment of the Educational Costs of Air Force Sponsored Graduate Education in Lieu of Completion of an Active Duty Service Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangold, Sanford Dangler

    The study develops a model which enables the Air Force to initiate recoupment action against any officer, who is separating from active service prior to the completion of a graduate education Active Duty Service Commitment (ADSC). It is set up to determine the amount of money owed by the early existing officer, at any point in the ADSC. The…

  10. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.232 Section 9701.232 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions §...

  13. Leveraging Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) Senior Leadership Corps Diversity to Improve Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    commanders and AFMS senior leadership; • Set a single PME standard for AFMS officers; • Shift provider billets to patient care roles and establish...single PME standard, and by realigning human resources to increase clinical currency, medical readiness and resource efficiency. Some structural...organizational entity. Like running a surgical service or a medical service. . . . It’s much bigger than that, because you’re dealing with finance and

  14. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) G = Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) 0...AFGWC) J = Jepsen (JEPS) K = Carswell Automated Weather Network (Det 7, AFGWC) M = Located by meteorological analysis B-6 N = Hydrology office...Airfield ACC - Area control center AERO - Aerodrome AHP - U.S. Army Heliport AUX - Auxiliary AFS - Airways Facilities Sector AMOS - Automated

  15. Taxiing, Take-Off, and Landing Simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft industry jointly with NASA is studying enabling technologies for higher speed, longer range aircraft configurations. Higher speeds, higher temperatures, and aerodynamics are driving these newer aircraft configurations towards long, slender, flexible fuselages. Aircraft response during ground operations, although often overlooked, is a concern due to the increased fuselage flexibility. This paper discusses modeling and simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft during taxiing, take-off, and landing. Finite element models of the airframe for various configurations are used and combined with nonlinear landing gear models to provide a simulation tool to study responses to different ground input conditions. A commercial computer simulation program is used to numerically integrate the equations of motion and to compute estimates of the responses using an existing runway profile. Results show aircraft responses exceeding safe acceptable human response levels.

  16. Positive taxis and sustained responsiveness to water motions in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Groneberg, Antonia H; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become favored subjects for studying the neural bases of behavior. Here, we report a highly stereotyped response of zebrafish larvae to hydrodynamic stimuli. It involves positive taxis, motion damping and sustained responsiveness to flows derived from local, non-stressful water motions. The response depends on the lateral line and has a high sensitivity to stimulus frequency and strength, sensory background and rearing conditions--also encompassing increased threshold levels of response to parallel input. The results show that zebrafish larvae can use near-field detection to locate sources of minute water motions, and offer a unique handle for analyses of hydrodynamic sensing, sensory responsiveness and arousal with accurate control of stimulus properties.

  17. Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) contains XIP but not TAXI and TLXI type xylanase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Hind; Gebruers, Kurt; Beaugrand, Johnny; Proost, Paul; Nadjemi, Boubekeur; Belhanèche-Bensemra, Naima; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-06-24

    An XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein) type xylanase inhibitor was purified from Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains and characterized for the first time. Cation exchange and affinity chromatography with immobilized Trichoderma longibrachiatum glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase resulted in electrophoretically pure protein with a molecular mass of 27-29 kDa and a pI value of 6.7. The experimentally determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified XIP protein is 87.5%, identical to that of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) XIP and 79.2% identical to that of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) XIP-I. The biochemical properties of pearl millet XIP are comparable to those described earlier for sorghum XIP, except for the higher specific activity toward a T. longibrachiatum GH family 11 xylanase. On the basis of immunoblot neither TAXI nor TLXI type xylanase inhibitors were detected in pearl millet grains.

  18. Positive taxis and sustained responsiveness to water motions in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become favored subjects for studying the neural bases of behavior. Here, we report a highly stereotyped response of zebrafish larvae to hydrodynamic stimuli. It involves positive taxis, motion damping and sustained responsiveness to flows derived from local, non-stressful water motions. The response depends on the lateral line and has a high sensitivity to stimulus frequency and strength, sensory background and rearing conditions—also encompassing increased threshold levels of response to parallel input. The results show that zebrafish larvae can use near-field detection to locate sources of minute water motions, and offer a unique handle for analyses of hydrodynamic sensing, sensory responsiveness and arousal with accurate control of stimulus properties. PMID:25798089

  19. Studying taxis in real time using optical tweezers: applications for Leishmania amazonensis parasites.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L Y; Fontes, A; de Thomaz, A A; Santos, B S; Farias, P M A; Ayres, D C; Giorgio, S; Cesar, C L

    2009-01-01

    Beads trapped by an optical tweezers can be used as a force transducer for measuring forces of the same order of magnitude as typical forces induced by flagellar motion. We used an optical tweezers to study chemotaxis by observing the force response of a flagellated microorganism when placed in a gradient of attractive chemical substances. This report shows such observations for Leishmania amazonensis, responsible for leishmaniasis, a serious disease. We quantified the movement of this protozoan for different gradients of glucose. We were able to observe both the strength and the directionality of the force. The characterization of the chemotaxis of these parasites can help to understand the mechanics of infection and improve the treatments employed for this disease. This methodology can be used to quantitatively study the taxis of any kind of flagellated microorganisms under concentration gradients of different chemical substances, or even other types of variable gradients such as temperature and pressure.

  20. Changes in functional connectivity dynamics associated with vigilance network in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Li, Zhenfeng; Qin, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lubin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Li, Hong; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have suggested that the fluctuations of low-frequency resting-state functional connectivity (FC) are not noise but are instead linked to the shift between distinct cognitive states. However, there is very limited knowledge about whether and how the fluctuations of FC at rest are influenced by long-term training and experience. Here, we investigated how the dynamics of resting-state FC are linked to driving behavior by comparing 20 licensed taxi drivers with 20 healthy non-drivers using a sliding window approach. We found that the driving experience could be effectively decoded with 90% (p<0.001) accuracy by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in some specific connections, based on a multivariate pattern analysis technique. Interestingly, the majority of these connections fell within a set of distributed regions named "the vigilance network". Moreover, the decreased amplitude of the FC fluctuations within the vigilance network in the drivers was negatively correlated with the number of years that they had driven a taxi. Furthermore, temporally quasi-stable functional connectivity segmentation revealed significant differences between the drivers and non-drivers in the dwell time of specific vigilance-related transient brain states, although the brain's repertoire of functional states was preserved. Overall, these results suggested a significant link between the changes in the time-dependent aspects of resting-state FC within the vigilance network and long-term driving experiences. The results not only improve our understanding of how the brain supports driving behavior but also shed new light on the relationship between the dynamics of functional brain networks and individual behaviors.

  1. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  2. Exposure of taxi drivers and office workers to total and respirable manganese in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Zayed, J; Mikhaïl, M; Loranger, S; Kennedy, G; L'Espérance, G

    1996-04-01

    This research measured the exposure of two groups of workers to respirable and total manganese (Mn) and characterized the Mn particles emitted from an automobile tailpipe. The exposure of 20 office workers and 9 taxi drivers in Toronto to total airborne Mn and respirable Mn was measured over a 7-day period, 24 hours per day. Subjects were asked to wear two pumps (one included a size-selective cyclone that collected the respirable particles), and two battery chargers were supplied to each person so that the pump batteries could be recharged overnight while sampling continued. All filters were analyzed by neutron activation. In addition, Mn particles emitted from a car were collected directly at the exhaust. Particles were observed using secondary electron images in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their elemental composition was determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The Mn concentrations obtained for the group of office workers ranged from 0.001 to 0.034 microgram/m3 for respirable Mn and from 0.002 to 0.044 microgram/m3 for total Mn. For the taxi drivers the Mn concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.032 microgram/m3 for respirable Mn and from 0.008 to 0.073 microgram/m3 for total Mn. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups for both respirable and total Mn. SEM analysis showed that the particles were mostly heterogeneous agglomerates varying from 1 to 100 microns. Even if the specific exposure to Mn from automobiles has not been directly established, these results suggest that the related increase of exposure may be limited.

  3. Occupational and personal factors associated with acquired lumbar spondylolisthesis of urban taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chan, W; Katz, J; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the occupational and personal factors associated with lumbar spondylolisthesis in taxi drivers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort. Information was retrieved from the medical records of standardised lumbosacral spine plain films, age, and anthropometric measures of 1242 subjects. Acquired spondylolisthesis (ASL) was defined as non-lytic spondylolisthesis involving lumbar spines above L5. Questionnaires were used to gather information on demographic features, health behaviours, exercise, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the odds ratio (OR) for prevalent ASL cases associated with personal and occupational factors. Results: A total of 40 cases (3.2%) of ASL were diagnosed. Among those driving ⩽5 years, 6–15 years, and >15 years, the estimated prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was 1.1%, 2.4%, and 7.1% respectively. Results of multiple logistic regression suggested that taxicab driving >15 years (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.7, compared to driving ⩽5 years), age (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.6 for age 46–55; and OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 12.9 for age >55), body mass index ⩾25 kg/m2 (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.6), and frequent strenuous exercise (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.5) were significantly associated with higher prevalence of spondylolisthesis. There was a consistent likely exposure-response relation between professional seniority and ASL prevalence. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the observed association between professional driving and spondylolisthesis, and to examine further the specific occupational exposures accountable for this association. PMID:15550605

  4. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Service Quality and Risk in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Lawrence F.; Young, Clifford E.; Lee, Moonkyu

    2002-01-01

    This study compares US and Korean customers in terms of their perceptions of airline service quality based on SERVPERF and industry-based measures, as well as their perceptions of risks involved in the airline choice. SERVPERF is a set of multi-dimensional measures of customer evaluations of service quality. The results indicate that: (1) US passengers are generally more satisfied with their airline service than Korean customers on most of the SERVPERF dimensions; (2) Koreans are generally more satisfied with the bumping procedures whereas US participants feel more satisfied with the airline's baggage handling, operations/safety, and connections; and (3) US participants perceive higher levels of performance and financial risks whereas Koreans feel greater social risk in choosing an airline. This study also examines the SERVPERF, industry-based measure, and perceived risk in predicting customer satisfaction with, and intention to repatronize the airline. The results suggest that US customers consider service reliability, in-flight comfort, and connections as the key factors determining satisfaction with airline service whereas Korean passengers generally regard reliability, assurance, and risk factors as predictors of satisfaction. The determining factors of customer intention to repatronize the airline are reliability and empathy for US, and reliability and overall risk for Korean customers. The study demonstrates the applicability of SERVPERF as a cross-cultural tool and indicates the importance of perceived risk in cross-cultural studies.

  5. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  6. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at David Grant Air Force Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-24

    facilities. DGMC provides a full spectrum of care to a prime service area of more than 106,000 Tricare-eligible patients in the San Francisco-Sacramento...area and 370,000 patients from the Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System that covers more than 40,000 square miles and...members of the Military Services and others entitled to or eligible for DoD medical care and benefits. U.S. Treasury FedDebt FedDebt is an online

  7. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Army and Air Force Exchange Service New Day Street Shoppette

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Table 3-5 Dominant Tree Species at MAFB Common Name Scientific Name Slash pine Pinus elliotti Live oak Quercus virginiana Pecan Carya illinoensis ...of Federal Regulations CO carbon monoxide CRMP Cultural Resource Management Plan CWA Clean Water Act dB decibel dBA A-weighted decibel DoD...consequences: air quality, noise, land use, geological resources, water resources, biological resources, transportation and circulation, cultural

  8. In Service to the Nation: Air Force Research Institute Strategic Concept for 2018-2023

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Cacadia Subduction Zone off the Oregon/Washington coast places McChord AFB at risk. To the East, Hill AFB lies in the Wasatch Fault Zone . Further east...by a century’s long preoccupation with protecting itself via a regional zone of influence. However, the demographic concerns of a low birth rate will... zones . Access to theater airspace and airfields throughout the world presents a major limiting factor to air-mobility operations. Through- out the

  9. Commercial Note-Taking Services: Effects on Attendance and Performance. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Coppola, Brian

    This study investigated student use of commercial note-taking services as a predictor of class attendance and examined the effects of their use on academic performance in science courses. The study draws upon results of a survey distributed to 1,874 undergraduate students (response rate 58.2 percent) enrolled in two large-lecture chemistry courses…

  10. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional...

  12. Member’s Perception of Service Quality At the Nellis Air Force Base Officers Open Mess

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    parsimonious 22-item SERVQUAL instrument. Perceptions were compared to expectations to achieve a SERVQUAL score for the five dimensions of service quality...90 Table 7. SERVQUAL Scores: Unweighted and Weighted ......... 95 Table 8. Relative Importance of SERVQUAL Dimensions when Club Members...Expectation/ Perception Scores ......................................... 106 Table 11. Problem Resolution: Relative Importance of SERVQUAL Dimensions when

  13. Armstrong Laboratory (AL) Analytical Services Process Improvement Team (PIT) - Air Force Team Quality Award Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    describe this process in detail 6. Identify key parameters for measuring customer satisfaction ; establish targets for improvement whenever possible...parameters for measuring customer satisfaction ; establish targets for improvement whenever possible. .Hints !Example wich parameers are most important POSSIBLE... measuring customer satisfaction : Dec 92 Need/Purpose: To find customer’s key desires on our services provided. How: Team discussed customer feedback and

  14. Using Ecosystem Services to Inform Decisions on U.S. Air Quality Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecosystem services (ES) framework provides a link between changes in a natural system’s structure and function and public welfare. This systematic integration of ecology and economics allows for more consistency and transparency in environmental decision making by enab...

  15. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Marshal Service. 9701.374 Section 9701.374 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional...

  16. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay

  17. Microbiological Evaluation of the Food Service System at Travis Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    tables in the kitchen area were almost always improperly sanitized. This was most likely due to the use of sponges and dirty cloths for wiping (see...safety of the entire food service system with emphasis on new production procedures in the In-Flight Kitchen (IFK) and S—13 operation. 4. To...study III Sanitary evaluation of the in-flight kitchen and bakery by RODAC 39 plates in the first study IV Distribution of RODAC plate counts

  18. A Strategic Decision Matrix for Analyzing Food Service Operations at Air Force Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    comment addressing this area on the returned questionnaire stated “Since our wartime mission is food and we earn a large portion of our go-to-war...looking to satisfy a craving for fast food . The menu also changes from day to day to add additional variety. But, their strategy is not based solely on...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT A Strategic Decision Matrix for Analyzing Food Service

  19. Customer Service Analysis of Tactical Air Command Base Level Supply Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    other components of the marketing mix , i.e. price, product, and promotion, and identifying the contribution of each of these components to the overall...identify a customer service and marketing strategy (28:6). They set out to test the hypothesis that the " marketing mix components of product, price...relevant criteria identified during the first three phases of the study to determine a strategic marketing mix for the industry (28:9). The variables used

  20. Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue of in-service air-engine blades, compressor and turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskiy, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In-service Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue (VHCF) regime of compressor vane and turbine rotor blades of the Al-based alloy VD-17 and superalloy GS6K, respectively, was considered. Surface crack origination occurred at the lifetime more than 1500 hours for vanes and after 550 hours for turbine blades. Performed fractographic investigations have shown that subsurface crack origination in vanes took place inspite of corrosion pittings on the blade surface. This material behavior reflected lifetime limit that was reached by the criterion VHCF. In superalloy GS6K subsurface fatigue cracking took place with the appearance of flat facet. This phenomenon was discussed and compared with specimens cracking of the same superalloy but prepared by the powder technology. In turbine blades VHCF regime appeared because of resonance of blades under the influenced gas stream. Both cases of compressor-vanes and turbine blades in-service cracking were discussed with crack growth period and stress equivalent estimations. Recommendations to continue aircrafts airworthiness were made for in-service blades.

  1. Repellent taxis in response to nickel ion requires neither Ni2+ transport nor the periplasmic NikA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Englert, Derek L; Adase, Christopher A; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    Ni(2+) and Co(2+) are sensed as repellents by the Escherichia coli Tar chemoreceptor. The periplasmic Ni(2+) binding protein, NikA, has been suggested to sense Ni(2+). We show here that neither NikA nor the membrane-bound NikB and NikC proteins of the Ni(2+) transport system are required for repellent taxis in response to Ni(2+).

  2. NASA Turbulence Technologies In-Service Evaluation: Delta Air Lines Report-Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaral, Christian; Dickson, Steve; Watts, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Concluding an in-service evaluation of two new turbulence detection technologies developed in the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program's Weather Accident Prevention Project (WxAP), this report documents Delta's experience working with the technologies, feedback gained from pilots and dispatchers concerning current turbulence techniques and procedures, and Delta's recommendations regarding directions for further efforts by the research community. Technologies evaluated included an automatic airborne turbulence encounter reporting technology called the Turbulence Auto PIREP System (TAPS), and a significant enhancement to the ability of modern airborne weather radars to predict and display turbulence of operational significance, called E-Turb radar.

  3. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran.

  4. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis.

  5. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (space taxi) with aerobraking at Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shall cover all major aspects of the design of an Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (or TAXI) for use as part of advanced manned Mars missions based on a cycling ship concept. Along with the heliocentric orbiting Cycling Spacecraft, such a TAXI would be a primary component of a long-term transportation system for Mars exploration. The Aeroassisted Manned Transfer Vehicle (AMTV) design developed shall operate along transfer trajectories between Earth and a Cycling Spacecraft (designed by the University of Michigan) and Mars. All operations of the AMTV shall be done primarily within the sphere of influence of the two planets. Maximum delta-V's for the vehicle have been established near 9 km/sec, with transfer durations of about 3 days. Acceleration deltaV's will be accomplished using 3 SSME-based hydrogen-oxygen chemical rockets (l(sub sp) = 485 sec & Thrust greater than = 300,00 Ib(sub f)/engine) with a thrust vector directly opposite the aerobraking deceleration vector. The aerobraking deceleration portion of an AMTV mission would be accomplished in this design by a moderate L/D aeroshield of an ellipsoidally-blunt, raked-off, elliptic cone (EBROEC) shape. The reusable thermal protection material comprising the shield will consist of a flexible, multi-layer, ceramic fabric stretched over a lightweight, rigid, shape - defining truss structure. Behind this truss, other components, including the engine supports, would be attached and protected from heating during aerobraking passes. Among these other components would be 2 LOX tanks and 4 LH2 tanks (and their support frames) holding over 670,000 lbm of propellant necessary to impart the required delta-V to the 98,000 lbm burnout mass vehicle. A 20,000 lbm crew module with docking port (oriented parallel to the accel./decel. axis) will provide accommodations for 9 crew members (11 under extreme conditions) for durations up to seven days, thus allowing extra time for emergency situations. This AMTV will be

  6. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women.

  7. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  8. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  9. Reactivation of latent herpes viruses in cosmonauts during a soyuz taxi mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-09-01

    The hypothesis tested by this project is that space flight increases the incidence and duration of herpes virus reactivation and shedding in saliva. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were collected from 3 crew members who participated in a 14-day Odessa Soyuz taxi mission. Saliva samples were collected before, during, and after the mission, and blood and urine were collected before and after the mission. The saliva and urine samples were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of 3 important herpes viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were tested in saliva, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was measured in urine samples. Plasma antibodies levels to these viruses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after flight. EBV reactivated before, during, and after flight; CMV reactivated before and after flight; and VZV reactivated during and after flight. In other studies, greater frequencies of positive samples and greater numbers of copies of viral DNA have been found. No increases in titer of antibodies to these viruses were found, suggesting that an immune response may not be necessary for reactivation.

  10. Effect of steady and unsteady flow on chemoattractant plume formation and sperm taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Allison F.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2015-08-01

    The formation of chemoattractant plumes around benthic invertebrate eggs in steady and unsteady shear flows is investigated for a range of shear rates, and the ability of sperm to navigate within these plumes is assessed using several chemotactic strategies. Although many of the details of sperm taxis remain uncertain, we investigate the role of basic processes using a toy model in two dimensions. Search strategies in 2D are intrinsically less complex than 3D, but many of the basic components are similar, and the simplified geometry permits an understanding and identification of the key factors of navigation tactics. Numerical simulations are used to model the advection and diffusion of the chemoattractant within the different flows, using three different sperm swimming behaviors. A Monte-Carlo approach is then used to determine the probability of a sperm reaching an egg for a range of flow conditions, initial conditions, and swimming behaviors. The spatial structure of chemoattractant plumes at the scale of the gametes is also investigated. Success rates for locating an egg decrease monotonically with increasing shear rates, and a definitive hierarchical ordering of the tested swimming strategies is identified. A conceptual framework to study and identify important aspects of this fundamental process to support further studies is provided.

  11. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  12. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  13. Notification: Background Investigation Services New Assignment Notification: EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the EPA OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the U.S. EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act inspections for air toxics.

  14. Myocardial infarction among male bus, taxi, and lorry drivers in middle Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, P; Alfredsson, L; Brunnberg, H; Hammar, N; Jakobsson, R; Reuterwall, C; Ostlin, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present case-referent study was to investigate the incidence of myocardial infarction among male professional drivers, taking the type of vehicles and area of residence into account. METHODS: The study base comprised all men aged 30-74 in five counties in middle Sweden during 1976-81 or 1976-84. Incident cases of the first episode of myocardial infarction were identified from registers of hospital admissions and causes of deaths. Referents were selected randomly from the study base. Information about occupation was obtained from the national censuses in 1970 and 1975. The possible impact from tobacco smoking and overweight were evaluated by simulations in combination with indirect data on these factors. RESULTS: The incidence of myocardial infarction was increased among bus drivers in Stockholm (relative risk (RR) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-2.05), and among taxi drivers both in Stockholm (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.30-2.11) and in the surrounding rural counties (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17-2.82). A smaller increase was found among long distance lorry drivers, whereas the relative risk among short distance lorry drivers was close to unity. Indirect comparisons make it unlikely that the excess among bus drivers in Stockholm could be explained by uncontrolled confounding from tobacco smoking or overweight. A very high proportion (more than 80%) of urban bus drivers in Sweden report a combination of high psychological demands and low control at work. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of drivers are at different risk of myocardial infarction. Bus drivers in urban areas seem to be at an increased risk, which is unlikely to be explained by uncontrolled confounding from tobacco smoking or overweight. Psychosocial work conditions may play a part in the increased incidence of myocardial infarction among urban bus drivers and should be investigated further. PMID:8664960

  15. A Delphi Study Executive Skills 2010: A Toolbox of Competencies for Air Force Medical Service Corps Officers of the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Executive Skills 2010 1 A Delphi Study Executive Skills 2010: A Toolbox of Competencies for Air Force Medical Service Corps Officers of the 21st...Century A Graduate Management Project Submitted for the Degree of Master in Health Administration 3 June 2003 Douglas E. E. Stevens, Capt, USAF, MSC...Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to

  16. Characterization of CetA and CetB, a bipartite energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Dirita, Victor J

    2008-09-01

    The energy taxis receptor Aer, in Escherichia coli, senses changes in the redox state of the electron transport system via an flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor bound to a PAS domain. The PAS domain (a sensory domain named after three proteins Per, ARNT and Sim, where it was first identified) is thought to interact directly with the Aer HAMP domain to transmit this signal to the highly conserved domain (HCD) found in chemotaxis receptors. An apparent energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni is composed of two proteins, CetA and CetB, that have the domains of Aer divided between them. CetB has a PAS domain, while CetA has a predicted transmembrane region, HAMP domain and the HCD. In this study, we examined the expression of cetA and cetB and the biochemical properties of the proteins they encode. cetA and cetB are co-transcribed independently of the flagellar regulon. CetA has two transmembrane helices in a helical hairpin while CetB is a peripheral membrane protein tightly associated with the membrane. CetB levels are CetA dependent. Additionally, we demonstrated that both CetA and CetB participate in complexes, including a likely CetB dimer and a complex that may include both CetA and CetB. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of signal transduction mechanisms within CetA/CetB.

  17. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  18. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  19. Long driving time is associated with haematological markers of increased cardiovascular risk in taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chen, Y; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between driving time and changes in haematological markers of increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional analysis of baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort in Taipei, Taiwan. They retrieved information on comorbidity, laboratory tests, age, and anthropometric measures from medical records of 1157 subjects (mean age 44.6 (SD 8.6) years). Whole blood cell (WBC) count was used as the primary haematological marker for increased CVD risk, and platelet count and haematocrit as the secondary markers. Standardised questionnaires were implemented to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of driving time on three haematological markers. Results: The mean measured hematological marker was 6656 (SD 1656) cells x106/l for WBC, 47.2 (SD 3.5) % for hematocrit, and 243 (SD 52) cells x109/l for platelets. The driving time was 264 (SD 76) hours/month. Compared with drivers who drove ⩽208 hours/month (1st quartile cut off), drivers who drove >208 hours/month had a higher WBC count (by 317 x106/l; 95% CI 99 to 535), haematocrit (by 0.8%; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2), and platelets (7.9 x109/l; 95% CI 1.0 to 14.8). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia), obesity, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and sociodemographics (education, marital status, income, and so on), long driving time was still associated with significant increases in WBC and platelets, whereas the effect on haematocrit was diminished and became statistically non-significant. Additional controls for physical workload, self-perceived job stress, and job dissatisfaction did not alter the associations with increased WBC and platelets. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the

  20. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA

    SciTech Connect

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 40% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharger) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environment point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulates and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterizations and developments. PSA Peugeot Citroen has recently (2000) launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles (500,000 vehicles with DPF have been sold today). In order to evaluate the durability of this technology over a long period of time, a study program has been set-up by ADEME (French Environmental Agency), IFP Powertrain, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Taxis G7 (a Parisian taxis Company). The objective is to study the evolution of five taxis and their after-treatment system performances over 80,000km mileage--which corresponds to the recommended mileage before the first DPF maintenance--in hard urban driving conditions, as well over 120,000km, after the DPF maintenance and remanufacturing. More specifically, the following evaluations are being performed at regular intervals (around 20,000km): regulated gaseous pollutant emissions on NEDC cycle, particulate emissions and unregulated pollutant emissions. The results obtained until now have not shown any degradation of the particulate filter efficiency (more than 90%). This paper presents the methodology set-up, and the explanation of the first results obtained. Indeed, a more

  1. Half-soliton interaction of population taxis waves in predator-prey systems with pursuit and evasion.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, M A; Biktashev, V N

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate a half-soliton interaction of waves in a mathematical model of a "prey-predator" system with taxis when of two colliding waves, one annihilates and the other continues to propagate. We show that this effect depends on the "ages" or, equivalently, "widths" of the colliding waves. In two spatial dimensions we demonstrate that the type of interaction, i.e., annihilation, quasisoliton, or half-soliton, depends not only on curvature and width of the colliding waves, but also on the angle of the collision. When conditions of collision are varying in such a way that only a part of a wave survives the collision, then "taxitons," compact pieces of solitary waves, may form, which can exist for a significant time.

  2. An Analysis of the Efficiency of Sourcing Knowledge-based Services in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    purchases, as well as where things are located in the supply chain. Using the Internet can help organizations to streamline manual processes, track...often classified as heterogeneous (Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons, 2008). Because services differ by such things as complexity, duration, location, and...they are purchasing. These behind-the-scene processes, internet - based transactions, and service personnel attitudes and expertise make it difficult

  3. Lévy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Bartumeus, Frederic; Grasso, Frank W.

    2009-10-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Lévy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Lévy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Lévy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accomodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for

  4. Attitudinal and Perceptual Barriers to Accessing Mental Health Services Among Members of the U.S. Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-02

    Psychological Help (ATSPPH) scale , which is a part of the survey, indicated that USAF members have more negative views of help seeking than their...examined two large- scale studies of mental health services in each country. The results showed that Americans were consistently more likely to use...to utilization of those services (Snowden et al., 1982). Some evidence dismisses this factor. Two large- scale studies, however, support the

  5. An Analysis of the Efficiency of Sourcing Knowledge-Based Services in the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    leaders at all levels informed of purchases, as well as where things are located in the supply chain. Using the Internet can help organizations to...often classified as heterogeneous (Fitzsimmons & Fitzsimmons, 2008). Because services differ by such things as complexity, duration, location, and price...scene processes, Internet - based transactions, and service personnel attitudes and expertise make it difficult for customers to see where the greatest

  6. The 1980 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. [Volume] 1: Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Eugene J.; And Others

    For more than 35 years, this Guide has been the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired in military life. All the courses offered by the Air Force are listed and briefly described. Each course description includes the course title and number: the length of the course, and where and when it was offered; the course objectives; the…

  7. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the time in a travel status, including delay at origin and accelerated arrival at destination, by at... gateway airport in the United States would extend time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than... the time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  9. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the time in a travel status, including delay at origin and accelerated arrival at destination, by at... gateway airport in the United States would extend time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than... the time in a travel status by at least 6 hours more than travel by a foreign-flag air...

  10. 78 FR 78302 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes in the Vicinity of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ..., except Federal holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the... file V-243 are being vectored between the Bowling Green, KY (BWG), VOR Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC... Bowling Green, KY. * * * * * Paragraph 6011 United States Area Navigation Routes * * * * * T-325...

  11. Air Force Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebicke, Mark E.

    This study evaluated the situation of women and minorities at the Air Force Academy addressing differences in performance indicators, cadets' perceptions, and Academy actions to enhance the success of women and minorities. Performance indicators for male and female cadets showed mixed results. Minority cadets had comparable physical fitness…

  12. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  13. Heave-pitch-roll analysis and testing of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Wormley, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical tools (analysis and computer simulation) needed to explain and predict the dynamic operation of air cushion landing systems (ACLS) is described. The following tasks were performed: the development of improved analytical models for the fan and the trunk; formulation of a heave pitch roll analysis for the complete ACLS; development of a general purpose computer simulation to evaluate landing and taxi performance of an ACLS equipped aircraft; and the verification and refinement of the analysis by comparison with test data obtained through lab testing of a prototype cushion. Demonstration of simulation capabilities through typical landing and taxi simulation of an ACLS aircraft are given. Initial results show that fan dynamics have a major effect on system performance. Comparison with lab test data (zero forward speed) indicates that the analysis can predict most of the key static and dynamic parameters (pressure, deflection, acceleration, etc.) within a margin of a 10 to 25 percent.

  14. Ash pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution injury, and chemical injury. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.D.; Leininger, T.D.; Wilson, A.D.; Anderson, R.L.; Thompson, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    The ashes (Fraxinus spp.) are one of the authors' more valuable hardwood resources--some 275 million board feet of ash lumber are sawn annually in the United States. Insects, diseases, and pollutants are continuing problems for the ashes, but few actually threaten their widespread use. Disease, simply stated, is a condition of abnormal growth resulting from infection by a biotic agent (fungus, bacterium, or virus), or induced by an abiotic stress such as drought or air pollution.

  15. Health risk assessment of ambient air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) in service station environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2014-06-18

    A comprehensive evaluation of the adverse health effects of human exposures to BTX from service station emissions was carried out using BTX exposure data from the scientific literature. The data was grouped into different scenarios based on activity, location and occupation and plotted as Cumulative Probability Distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 > 1 were obtained with benzene in the scenario for service station attendants and mechanics repairing petrol dispensing pumps indicating a possible health risk. The risk was minimized for service stations using vapour recovery systems which greatly reduced the benzene exposure levels. HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 were obtained for all other scenarios with benzene suggesting minimal risk for most of the exposed population. However, HQ50 and HQ95 < 1 was also found with toluene and xylene for all scenarios, suggesting minimal health risk. The lifetime excess Cancer Risk (CR) and Overall Risk Probability for cancer on exposure to benzene was calculated for all Scenarios and this was higher amongst service station attendants than any other scenario.

  16. The Public-Service Tax Credit: A Proposed Solution to the Problems of Off-Air Videotaping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troost, F. William

    1982-01-01

    Proposes a public-service tax credit that would allow copyright owners of any television program broadcast on the public airwaves to claim a limited tax credit in exchange for school rights to copy programs and retain them indefinitely for face-to-face, nonprofit, instructional purposes. (Author/MLF)

  17. Metabolism-dependent taxis towards (methyl)phenols is coupled through the most abundant of three polar localized Aer-like proteins of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Sarand, Inga; Osterberg, Sofia; Holmqvist, Sofie; Holmfeldt, Per; Skärfstad, Eleonore; Parales, Rebecca E; Shingler, Victoria

    2008-05-01

    Comparatively little is known about directed motility of environmental bacteria to common aromatic pollutants. Here, by expressing different parts of a (methyl)phenol-degradative pathway and the use of specific mutants, we show that taxis of Pseudomonas putida towards (methyl)phenols is dictated by its ability to catabolize the aromatic compound. Thus, in contrast to previously described chemoreceptor-mediated chemotaxis mechanisms towards benzoate, naphthalene and toluene, taxis in response to (methyl)phenols is mediated by metabolism-dependent behaviour. Here we show that P. putida differentially expresses three Aer-like receptors that are all polar-localized through interactions with CheA, and that inactivation of the most abundant Aer2 protein significantly decreases taxis towards phenolics. In addition, the participation of a sensory signal transduction protein composed of a PAS, a GGDEF and an EAL domain in motility towards these compounds is demonstrated. The results are discussed in the context of the versatility of metabolism-dependent coupling and the necessity for P. putida to integrate diverse metabolic signals from its native heterogeneous soil and water environments.

  18. An Analysis of Factors Related to Retirement Intentions of Upper Level Civil Service Employees in the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    first study obtained data from 175 male executives aged 63-69 that were still working in the Paris, France region during 1978 (Poitrenaud, Vallery...socioeconomic status Op *’. (Palmore et al., 1982; Schmitt, White, Coyle, Rauschenberger, a.. 1979; McPherson and Guppy , 1979). Research that focuses on...typical respondent was male (n=768), between 52 and 60 years old and averaged 27.5 years of creditable service toward retirement. Over 48% of the

  19. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Road Traffic Crash among Taxi Drivers in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia, 2014: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers’ involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Findings Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33–0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05–7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67–7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81–8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24–2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00–2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. Conclusion The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties. PMID:25781940

  20. Opposite responses by different chemoreceptors set a tunable preference point in Escherichia coli pH taxis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiling; Sourjik, Victor

    2012-12-01

    In bacterial habitats, the ability to follow spatial gradients of environmental factors that affect growth and survival can be largely advantageous. The bacterial strategy for unidirectional chemotactic movement in gradients of typical attractants or repellents, such as nutrients or toxins, is well understood. Optimal levels of other factors, however, may be found at intermediate points of a gradient and thus require a bidirectional tactic movement towards the optimum. Here we investigate the chemotactic response of Escherichia coli to pH as an example of such bidirectional taxis. We confirm that E. coli uses chemotaxis to avoid both extremes of low and high pH and demonstrate that the sign of the response is inverted from base-seeking to acid-seeking at a well-defined value of pH. Such inversion is enabled by opposing pH sensing by the two major chemoreceptors, Tar and Tsr, such that the relative strength of the response is modulated by adaptive receptor methylation. We further demonstrate that the inversion point of the pH response can be adjusted in response to changes in the cell density.

  1. Cloning and characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium-specific chemoreceptor Tcp for taxis to citrate and from phenol.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Imae, Y

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium shows an attractant response to citrate and a repellent response to phenol, and a chemoreceptor mediating these responses has been identified and named Tcp (taxis to citrate and away from phenol). Tcp is one of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins that have a molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa estimated by SDS/PAGE, and its methylation level is increased by citrate and decreased by phenol. Tcp also mediates an attractant response to metal-citrate complexes. The complete nucleotide sequence of the tcp coding region has been determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of Tcp, consisting of 547-amino acid residues, is homologous with that of the aspartate chemoreceptor of S. typhimurium. Thus, Tcp is another member of the bacterial transmembrane chemoreceptor family. Because citrate is a good carbon source for S. typhimurium but is not a carbon source for the closely related species Escherichia coli and because citrate utilization is used as a key diagnostic character to distinguish these species, it is reasonable to assume that Tcp is specific to S. typhimurium.

  2. Driving performance changes of middle-aged experienced taxi drivers due to distraction tasks during unexpected situations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Kim, Boseong; Min, Ung-Chan; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of distraction taskssuch as sending a text message with a cellphone and searching navigation with car navigation system-on the driving performance of 29 highly experienced taxi drivers in their 50s. All participants were instructed to drive using a driving simulator for 2 min. while maintaining a constant distance from the vehicle in front and a constant speed. Participants drove without any distractions for the first minute. For an additional minute, they performed Driving Only or performed a task while driving (Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation). An unexpected situation, in which the participant had to stop abruptly due to a sudden stop of the preceding vehicle, occurred during this period. Driving performance during the unexpected situation was evaluated by car control variables, medial-lateral coefficient of variation and brake time, and by motion variables such as the jerk-cost function. Compared to Driving Only, jerk-cost function, medial-lateral coefficient of variation, and brake time increased during Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation.

  3. Jobs, food, taxis and journals: complexities of implementing Stepping Stones and Creating Futures in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jewkes, Rachel; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to refocus debates on structural interventions away from 'assessing' their effectiveness towards understanding processes around how such interventions are implemented. Implementation Science is focused on understanding potential challenges of translating interventions from highly controlled conditions into 'real life' settings. Using the case study of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures a structural and behavioural intervention to reduce intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements, we explore the challenges of implementing such an approach. We move beyond simply describing challenges of implementing, to understand how these challenges had an impact on the safe social space the intervention seeks to create as its underlying theory of change. We identify four major challenges of implementation: taxi fares, food provided during the intervention, young people's ongoing need to work and journals provided during the intervention. We suggest that, in different ways, these factors all impinged on the emergence of a safe social space. Understanding the challenges of implementing the intervention is critical for reflecting on scaling up interventions. Central to this is the need to work with participants to help them negotiate the challenges of participating in interventions.

  4. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures.

  5. Air ambulance and hospital services for critically ill and injured in Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands: how can we improve?

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Jensen, Niels S Kieler; Garði, Tummas I; Harðardóttir, Helga; Stefánsdóttir, Lilja; Heimisdóttir, María

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landspítali in Reykjavík and Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjúkrahúsið Tórshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netværk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services.

  6. Air ambulance and hospital services for critically ill and injured in Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands: how can we improve?

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Jensen, Niels S Kieler; Garði, Tummas i; Harðardóttir, Helga; Stefánsdóttir, Lilja; Heimisdóttir, María

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Atlantic Cooperation (NORA) is an intergovernmental organization under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The NORA region comprises Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and western coastal areas of Norway. Historical, cultural and institutional links bind these nations together in multiple ways, and regional co-operation has in recent years become a focus of interest. This commentary addresses air medical services (AMSs) and available advanced hospital services in the 3 smallest NORA countries challenged sparse populations, hereafter referred to as the region. It seems likely that strengthened regional co-operation can help these countries to address common challenges within health care by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and improving the efficiency of care delivery. The 4 largest hospitals in the region, Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk (Greenland), Landspítali in Reykjavík and Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, (both in Iceland) and Landssjúkrahúsið Tórshavn on the Faroe Islands, have therefore undertaken the project Network for patient transport in the North-West Atlantic (in Danish: Netværk for patienttransport i Vest-Norden). The goal of the project, and of this article, is to exchange information and provide an overview of current AMSs and access to acute hospital care for severely ill or injured patients in the 3 participating countries. Of equal importance is the intention to highlight the need for increased regional co-operation to optimize use of limited resources in the provision of health care services. PMID:26066019

  7. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  8. Effects of air injection on a turbocharged Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for tests performed to assess the effects of exhaust manifold injection air flow rate on emissions and on exhaust gas temperature and turbine inlet temperature for a range of engine operating conditions (speed, torque, and fuel-air ratios) of a fuel-injected turbocharged six-cylinder air-cooled Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-360-C engine. Air injection into the exhaust gas at 80 F resulted in a decrease in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while exceeding the maximum recommended turbine inlet temperature of 1650 F at the full rich mixture of the engine. The EPA standards could be met within present turbine inlet temperature limits using commercially available air pumps, provided that the fuel-air ratios were leaned in the taxi, climb, and approach modes.

  9. Dynamic heave-pitch analysis of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, K. M.; Boghani, A. B.; Wormley, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    A program to develop analytical tools for evaluating the dynamic performance of Air Cushion Landing Systems (ACLS) is described. The heave (vertical) motion of the ACLS was analyzed, and the analysis was extended to cover coupled heave-pitch motions. The mathematical models developed are based on a fundamental analysis of the body dynamics and fluid mechanics of the aircraft-cushion-runway interaction. The air source characteristics, flow losses in the feeding ducts, trunk and cushion, the effects of fluid compressibility, and dynamic trunk deflections, including ground contact are considered. A computer program, based on the heave-pitch analysis, was developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of an ACLS during landing impact and taxi over an irregular runway. The program outputs include ACLS motions, loadings, pressures, and flows as a function of time. To illustrate program use, three basic types of simulations were carried out. The results provide an initial indication of ACLS performance during (1) a static drop, (2) landing impact, and (3) taxi over a runway irregularity.

  10. Potential Use of the Australian Satellite Communications System for School of the Air and Enhanced Educational Services. Report Prepared for the Commonwealth/State Advisory Committee on the Educational Use of Communications Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, N. G.; Gillam, J. A.

    This report considers the potential for the use of the Australian Communications Satellite System (ACSS) for the Australian Schools of the Air (SOTAs) and the delivery of enhanced educational services, and develops the concept of all SOTAs operating through one transponder in a national beam. An evolutionary introduction of satellite transmission…

  11. FAA Air Traffic Activity, Fiscal Year 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    TRAFIC CONTROL TOWERS BY STATE si-It 641. LOCATION* U Alk AIR GENERAL 11.1.6111. NAM6 11II R AOA CAMk R681 TAXI AVIAT ION MILITARY LA1.IA L&MbA...z 25 IV TUIAL UPERATIhS 22.3 799 6 123 1321 - AI TRAFIC 39SS All CLAIS81116 AS FOLLOWS, (PERCENT OF TOTAL EEPLARID FAMSENEOES) L LARGE 1.002 N MEDuM...88 N 11 16 CHIEFL AND FL 4N 64I LIRNb’UN N 16N1 LA6E KS N 169% It RANTEd NC. N 1616 I0 ARAMS M I S 169 6 11TOUGlHANAUHN PA N 1611 16 NORTH LIMA OH 5

  12. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  13. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California at the conclusion of a development flight at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus

  14. The Helicobacter pylori chemotaxis receptor TlpB (HP0103) is required for pH taxis and for colonization of the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Croxen, Matthew A; Sisson, Gary; Melano, Roberto; Hoffman, Paul S

    2006-04-01

    The location of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of mammals is defined by natural pH gradients within the gastric mucus, which are more alkaline proximal to the mucosal epithelial cells and more acidic toward the lumen. We have used a microscope slide-based pH gradient assay and video data collection system to document pH-tactic behavior. In response to hydrochloric acid (HCl), H. pylori changes its swimming pattern from straight-line random swimming to arcing or circular patterns that move the motile population away from the strong acid. Bacteria in more-alkaline regions did not swim toward the acid, suggesting the pH taxis is a form of negative chemotaxis. To identify the chemoreceptor(s) responsible for the transduction of pH-tactic signals, a vector-free allelic replacement strategy was used to construct mutations in each of the four annotated chemoreceptor genes (tlpA, tlpB, tlpC, and tlpD) in H. pylori strain SS1 and a motile variant of strain KE26695. All deletion mutants were motile and displayed normal chemotaxis in brucella soft agar, but only tlpB mutants were defective for pH taxis. tlpD mutants exhibited more tumbling and arcing swimming, while tlpC mutants were hypermotile and responsive to acid. While tlpA, tlpC, and tlpD mutants colonized mice to near wild-type levels, tlpB mutants were defective for colonization of highly permissive C57BL/6 interleukin-12 (IL-12) (p40-/-)-deficient mice. Complementation of the tlpB mutant (tlpB expressed from the rdxA locus) restored pH taxis and infectivity for mice. pH taxis, like motility and urease activity, is essential for colonization and persistence in the gastric mucosa, and thus TlpB function might represent a novel target in the development of therapeutics that blind tactic behavior.

  15. The Helicobacter pylori Chemotaxis Receptor TlpB (HP0103) Is Required for pH Taxis and for Colonization of the Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Croxen, Matthew A.; Sisson, Gary; Melano, Roberto; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2006-01-01

    The location of Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of mammals is defined by natural pH gradients within the gastric mucus, which are more alkaline proximal to the mucosal epithelial cells and more acidic toward the lumen. We have used a microscope slide-based pH gradient assay and video data collection system to document pH-tactic behavior. In response to hydrochloric acid (HCl), H. pylori changes its swimming pattern from straight-line random swimming to arcing or circular patterns that move the motile population away from the strong acid. Bacteria in more-alkaline regions did not swim toward the acid, suggesting the pH taxis is a form of negative chemotaxis. To identify the chemoreceptor(s) responsible for the transduction of pH-tactic signals, a vector-free allelic replacement strategy was used to construct mutations in each of the four annotated chemoreceptor genes (tlpA, tlpB, tlpC, and tlpD) in H. pylori strain SS1 and a motile variant of strain KE26695. All deletion mutants were motile and displayed normal chemotaxis in brucella soft agar, but only tlpB mutants were defective for pH taxis. tlpD mutants exhibited more tumbling and arcing swimming, while tlpC mutants were hypermotile and responsive to acid. While tlpA, tlpC, and tlpD mutants colonized mice to near wild-type levels, tlpB mutants were defective for colonization of highly permissive C57BL/6 interleukin-12 (IL-12) (p40−/−)-deficient mice. Complementation of the tlpB mutant (tlpB expressed from the rdxA locus) restored pH taxis and infectivity for mice. pH taxis, like motility and urease activity, is essential for colonization and persistence in the gastric mucosa, and thus TlpB function might represent a novel target in the development of therapeutics that blind tactic behavior. PMID:16547053

  16. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera

  17. Headquarters Air Weather Service Reorganization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop Publishers, Inc., 1981), p. 72. 2. J. W. Lorsch , "Organization Design: A Situational Perspective," Organizational...William B. Public Organization Behavior and Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Winthrop Publishers, Inc., 1981. Galbraith, Jay .R. Designing...Complex Organizations. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1973. Galbraith, Jay R. Organization Design. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1977. Gardner, John W. "How

  18. Quantifying the benefits of vehicle pooling with shareability networks

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Strogatz, Steven H.; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low. PMID:25197046

  19. Executive summary: Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay Area and a technology assessment of transportation system investments. [regional planning for the San Francisco Bay area of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits and costs that would result from an intra-regional air service operation in the San Francisco Bay area were determined by utilizing an iterative statistical decision model to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in conjunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation option with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private non-user costs. In so doing, it incorporates information on modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport costs, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytic capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  20. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  1. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  2. Landing performance of an air cushion landing system installed on a 1/10-scale dynamic model on the C-8 Buffalo airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.

  3. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  4. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  5. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture, Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its interplanetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  6. Human Mars Mission: SEP Architecture Crew Taxi Propulsion Stage Study and Design and Technology for Reaction and Control System. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The Mars exploration is a candidate pathway to expand human presence and useful activities in the solar system. There are several propulsion system options being considered to place the Mars payload on its inter-planetary transfer trajectory. One propulsion option is the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to spiral out with the Mars payload from an initial Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to an elliptical High Earth Orbit (HEO). This report, presented in annotated facing page format, describes the work completed on the design of a crew taxi propulsion stage used in conjunction with the SEP. Transportation system/mission analysis topics covered in this report include sub-system analysis, trajectory profile description, mass performance and crew taxi stage sizing, stage configuration, stage cost, and Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) launch window. The high efficiency of SEP is used to provide the major part of the TMI propulsion maneuver. Orbital energy is continuously added over a period of approximately twelve months. The SEP and Mars payload follow a spiral trajectory from an initial LEO to a final elliptical HEO. A small chemical stage is then used to provide the final part of the TMI. The now unloaded SEP returns to LEO to repeat another spiral trajectory with payload to HEO. The spiral phase of the SEP's trajectory takes several months to reach HEO, thus significantly increasing the exposure time of the crew to zero-gravity. In order to minimize the long zero-gravity effects, a high thrust chemical stage delivers the crew to the SEP's HEO. The crew rendezvous with the Mars payload in HEO. After a checkout period the Mars payload with the crew is injected onto a Trans-Mars Trajectory by a small chemical stage.

  7. Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: A Comparison of Acquisition Management Practices in the Army, Navy, and Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-23

    k^s^i=mlpqdo^ar^qb=p`elli= models; and Schiele and McCue (2006) studied the acquisition of consulting services in the public sector. Although these...Aeronautics and Astronautics. Schiele , J. J., & McCue, C. P. (2006). Professional service acquisition in public sector procurement. International

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  10. A Conceptual Model of the Severe-Storm Environment for Inclusion into Air Weather Service Severe-Storm Analysis and Forecast Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Severe-Storm Environment of the Great Plains 9 2. Median of 230 Soundings Representing Type I Air Structure Where Tornadoes Have Formed 10 3a. Skew T-Log...the Southern Great Plains of the United States and Mexico 13 5. Total Number of Tornadoes per 50-Mile Square Reported From 1920 to 1949, by Months 16 6...Mean Sounding of Type IV Tornado Air Mass 20 7. Major Lid Features at 700 mb 21 8. Relevant Lid Features at 850 mb 23 9. Surface Chart Showing

  11. Air Force Construction Contract Disputes: An Analysis of Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals Cases to Identify Dispute Types and Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    k 4. TITLir (wE i. AIR FORCE CONSTRUCTION CONTRAC" TYP, O, RPORT A PERoo CovEREo T Y E o r R E P R a COMPO EC•N O VR E D DISPUTES: AN ANALYSIS OF...UNCUASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dole EntereO ............. SMCURITT CLASWF14ATION OF THIS PApUrwn P ,11177907.g _ * Construction...management. 4 4 I p UNCLASSIFIED SIMUghTY CLASSIFICATION OF TWO PA69(IWh.f. Dle". . t-. .- • I LSSR 88-82 i AIR FORCE CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT DISPUTES: AN

  12. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating (Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer). Edition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This articulation guide contains 17 units of instruction for the first year of a two-year vocational program designed to prepare the high school graduate to install, maintain, and repair various types of residential and commercial heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. The units are to introduce the student to fundamental theories…

  13. A SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE PROVISION OF A SAFER, MORE ECONOMIC, AND MORE EFFICIENT AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE FOR THE ICAO NORTH ATLANTIC REGION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ICAO Fourth North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting adopted a recommendation which called for the introduction of a systems planning...concept to the ICAO North Atlantic Region. Following acceptance of this recommendation by the ICAO Council, the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) established

  14. The 1998 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. 3: Air Force, Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Marine Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired by military personnel for conversion to academic credit in degree work at colleges and universities. This volume contains recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Marine Corps, and the Department of Defense in 1990 and later years.…

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 68 - Addendum for Education Services Between [Name of Educational Institution] and the U.S. Air Force

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... U.S. Air Force B Appendix B to Part 68 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN VOLUNTARY EDUCATION PROGRAMS Pt. 68, App. B Appendix B..., invoices, degree completions, and search tools pre-built into the USAF online Voluntary Education System....

  16. 14 CFR 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Service Class F) is a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following... applicable to the performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services...

  17. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  18. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Naddumba, E K

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 2000 lives are lost in Uganda annually through road traffic accidents. In Kampala, they account for 39% of all injuries, primarily in males aged 16-44 years. They are a result of rapid motorization and urbanization in a country with a poor economy. Uganda's population is an estimated 28 million with a growth rate of 3.4% per year. Motorcycles and omnibuses, the main taxi vehicles, are the primary contributors to the accidents. Poor roads and drivers compound the situation. Twenty-three orthopaedic surgeons (one for every 1,300,000 people) provide specialist services that are available only at three regional hospitals and the National Referral Hospital in Kampala. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are managed nonoperatively by 200 orthopaedic officers distributed at the district, regional and national referral hospitals. Because of the poor economy, 9% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Patients with musculoskeletal injuries in Uganda frequently fail to receive immediate care due to inadequate resources and most are treated by traditional bonesetters. Neglected injuries typically result in poor outcomes. Possible solutions include a public health approach for prevention of road traffic injuries, training of adequate human resources, and infrastructure development.

  19. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA’s General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board’s data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P < .001], pilot error (AOR = 5.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 14.5, P = .002), aerobatic flight (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 8.2, P = .002), and off-airport location (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.5 to 7.5, P = .003). The area under the FIA score’s ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.78). Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes. PMID:27773963

  20. THE PROFITS AND PERILS OF PUBLICITY: ALLGEMEINE LITERATUR- ZEITUNG, THE THURN UND TAXIS POST, AND THE PERIODICAL TRADE AT THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-09-20

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785.

  1. Development of neuronal and sensorimotor systems in the absence of gravity: Neurobiological research on four soyuz taxi flights to the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Eberhard R.; Dournon, Christian; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Marco, Roberto; Böser, Sybille; Kirschnick, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Neurobiological experiments on 4 animal species (Xenopus laevis, Pleurodeles waltl, Drosophila melanogaster, Acheta domesticus) were performed to study effects of microgravity on development and aging of neuronal, sensory and motor systems. Animal models were selected according to their suitability to answer questions concerning μg-effects on neuroanatomy, neuronal activity, and behaviour. The studies were performed on the Soyuz Taxi flights Andromède, Cervantes, Eneide and LDM-TMA8/TMA7. Observations from these flights include: (1) In tadpoles and cricket larvae, morphological features of sensory cells and neurons are rarely affected by microgravity. (2) In crickets, in-flight fertilization was successful; after landing, flight larvae hatched earlier than ground reared siblings. (3) In crickets, proliferation of peptidergic neurons and their projection patterns within the nervous system were not affected by microgravity. (4) During aging, the impact of microgravity on peptidergic neurons of male Drosophila was limited to the size of cell body. (5) In Xenopus, neurophysiological features of the spinal motor system during fictive swimming were partially modified. (6) In Xenopus tadpoles, the vestibuloocular reflex was affected in an age-related manner. Modifications were also related to the occurrence of a tail lordosis induced by microgravity. It is concluded that adaptation to microgravity during development and aging is mainly based on physiological mechanisms within the central nervous system while structural modifications of the sensory and neuronal system contribute less.

  2. The profits and perils of publicity: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, the Thurn und Taxis Post, and the periodical trade at the end of the eighteenth century

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent historiography on the growth of periodical publishing has emphasized newspapers and journals as constituents of an emergent communications system in early modern Europe. This system comprised the newspapers, journals and other publications that contributed its content, and also the postal systems that were the principal method of distributing that content. This article describes how the growth of this system in central Europe was supported in large measure by financial incentives that it offered to both constituents. First, in contrast with postal systems in France and the UK, the Thurn und Taxis Reichspost inserted itself as a middleman in the sale of periodicals, which gave the Reichspost an incentive to promote the trade. Second, the financial conditions for periodical publication made their costs depend more heavily on costs that were scalable to circulation than is true today, which resulted in the viability of publications with a lower circulation. The same cost structure also made it possible for certain prominent periodicals of the era to earn considerable profits for their publishers, as illustrated in this article by Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung, which was published in Jena from 1785. PMID:26495577

  3. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    stringent emission levels of the gasoline fleet; update the detention of pollutant vehicles program; partial exemption of the inspection and maintenance program for cleaner and or highly efficient vehicles; substitution of 3,000 microbuses, 40,000 taxis and 1,200 buses; commissioning of the first Bus Rapid Transit system; implementation of a program for the emissions reduction for the 300 most polluted industrial facilities; and continuous update of the air quality environmental management programs. To continue improving the air quality in the MCMA, the environmental authorities will continue the implementation of the 2002-2010 Air Quality Improvement Program. In 2007 the Green Program was started, this includes those actions that have proven to be effective reduction of pollutant emissions and incorporates new actions for the reduction of local and global pollutant emissions. The most important of these new actions are: substitution of 9,500 microbuses; renewal of all the taxis fleet; commissioning of 10 Bus Rapid Transit lines; commissioning of Line 12 of the underground system; schedules and routes limitations to the cargo fleet; increase 5 percent the number of non-motorized trips (bicycling and walking); regulation of the private public transport passenger stops; requirement of private schools to provide school transport; regulation of non-occupied taxis in circulation; modifications to the circulation of 350 critical crossing points in the city; adoption of intelligent traffic lights systems; complete substitution of the local government vehicle's fleet; implement the inspection and maintenance of the cargo fleet; introduction of low- sulfur diesel, among other measures.

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SITE CHARACTERIZATION ANALYSIS PENETROMETER SYSTEM (SCAPS) LIF SENSOR - U.S. ARMY, NAVY, AND AIR FORCE (TRI-SERVICES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tri-Services Site Characterization Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) was developed by the U.S. Army (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station [WES] and the Army Environmental Center [AEC]), Navy (Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center), and ...

  5. Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Comparison and Analysis of Acquisition Management in the Army, Navy, and Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    product-based manufacturing models; and Schiele and McCue (2006) studied the acquisition of consulting services in public sector. Although these and...2008). Management of defense acquisition projects. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Schiele , J.J., & McCue, C.P

  6. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  7. An Agent-Based Model for Analyzing Control Policies and the Dynamic Service-Time Performance of a Capacity-Constrained Air Traffic Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2006-01-01

    Simple agent-based models may be useful for investigating air traffic control strategies as a precursory screening for more costly, higher fidelity simulation. Of concern is the ability of the models to capture the essence of the system and provide insight into system behavior in a timely manner and without breaking the bank. The method is put to the test with the development of a model to address situations where capacity is overburdened and potential for propagation of the resultant delay though later flights is possible via flight dependencies. The resultant model includes primitive representations of principal air traffic system attributes, namely system capacity, demand, airline schedules and strategy, and aircraft capability. It affords a venue to explore their interdependence in a time-dependent, dynamic system simulation. The scope of the research question and the carefully-chosen modeling fidelity did allow for the development of an agent-based model in short order. The model predicted non-linear behavior given certain initial conditions and system control strategies. Additionally, a combination of the model and dimensionless techniques borrowed from fluid systems was demonstrated that can predict the system s dynamic behavior across a wide range of parametric settings.

  8. 78 FR 50138 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... PanAir requesting a foreign air carrier permit to operate charter air transportation of property..., whether or not it constitutes part of a continuous operation that includes service to Panama. PanAir...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a composite of first class, coach, and mixed passenger/cargo service. The following classifications... performance of nonscheduled aircraft charters, and other air transportation services not constituting...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  14. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  15. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  16. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  17. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air...

  18. Apprentice Food Service Specialist (AFSC 62230).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This two-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for apprentice food service specialists. Covered in the first volume are fundamentals of food preparation and service (careers in food service, food service sanitation, principles of food preparation and service, and baking…

  19. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  20. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping; Zhao, Min; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-11-21

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R-2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing.

  1. ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC): an integrated quantitative high-throughput screening platform for electrical field-directed cell migration†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siwei; Zhu, Kan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zijie; Xu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Both endogenous and externally applied electrical stimulation can affect a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, migration, differentiation and division. Among those effects, the electrical field (EF)-directed cell migration, also known as electrotaxis, has received broad attention because it holds great potential in facilitating clinical wound healing. Electrotaxis experiment is conventionally conducted in centimetre-sized flow chambers built in Petri dishes. Despite the recent efforts to adapt microfluidics for electrotaxis studies, the current electrotaxis experimental setup is still cumbersome due to the needs of an external power supply and EF controlling/monitoring systems. There is also a lack of parallel experimental systems for high-throughput electrotaxis studies. In this paper, we present a first independently operable microfluidic platform for high-throughput electrotaxis studies, integrating all functional components for cell migration under EF stimulation (except microscopy) on a compact footprint (the same as a credit card), referred to as ElectroTaxis-on-a-Chip (ETC). Inspired by the R–2R resistor ladder topology in digital signal processing, we develop a systematic approach to design an infinitely expandable microfluidic generator of EF gradients for high-throughput and quantitative studies of EF-directed cell migration. Furthermore, a vacuum-assisted assembly method is utilized to allow direct and reversible attachment of our device to existing cell culture media on biological surfaces, which separates the cell culture and device preparation/fabrication steps. We have demonstrated that our ETC platform is capable of screening human cornea epithelial cell migration under the stimulation of an EF gradient spanning over three orders of magnitude. The screening results lead to the identification of the EF-sensitive range of that cell type, which can provide valuable guidance to the clinical application of EF-facilitated wound healing

  2. America's Service Academies, Your Service Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Dana H.; Phillips, Andrew T.; Trainor, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The United States Air Force Academy, United States Naval Academy, and United States Military Academy are America's three largest service academies. They are "the" primary undergraduate institutions and commissioning sources that educate and develop the officers who are expected to lead this nation's armed forces. They are special places that have…

  3. Southern Nevadas Club Ride Commuter Service Wins EPA Honor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    · Clean Air Partners Program - CLEAN AIR Force of Central Texas · Club Ride Commuter Services - Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada · Air Quality Partnership of the Delaware Valley - Delaware Valley Regional Planning

  4. National Air and Space Museum Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropaoli, Frank A.

    1986-01-01

    A branch of Smithsonian Institution Libraries, the National Air and Space Museum Library provides materials and services to support research programs of National Air and Space Museum. Brief histories of museum and its library and summary of museum programs provide background for overview of current library users, resources, and services.…

  5. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  6. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  7. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  8. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  9. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  10. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  11. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  12. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  13. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  14. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  15. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  16. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  17. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  18. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  19. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  20. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Climate Change on Children's Health: Session Two: Air Quality Impacts MODERATOR: Susan Anenberg, EPA Meredith McCormack, Johns ... University • Effects of Climate Change on Children’s Health: Air Quality Impacts Frederica Perera, Columbia University • Air quality Impacts ...

  2. Impact of Hong Kong's Voluntary Catalytic Converter Replacement Programme on Roadside Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Guo, H.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Lyu, X.; Meinardi, S.; Yam, Y. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its ongoing policies to improve roadside air quality, in 2013 the Hong Kong government launched an incentive programme to replace catalytic converters and oxygen sensors in taxis and light buses mainly fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The majority of replacements occurred from October 2013 to April 2014, with 75% of eligible vehicles participating in the programme, or 16,472 vehicles. Based on taxi exhaust measurements at a Hong Kong vehicle testing facility, the concentrations of n-butane, propane and i-butane (the primary components of LPG) decreased by 97% following the replacements. To determine the impact of the programme on roadside air quality, long-term measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed before, during and after the replacement programme, mainly at a busy roadside location in Mong Kok, Hong Kong. A clear decrease in the levels of major pollutants associated with LPG vehicle exhaust was observed at the roadside. For example, average (± 1 standard deviation) n-butane levels from October to April decreased from 13.0 ± 3.6 and 13.9 ± 2.6 ppbv in the two years preceding the programme, to 9.2 ± 2.9 ppbv during the programme, to 6.2 ± 1.7 ppbv the year after the programme. By contrast, compounds such as i-pentane that are not strongly associated with LPG or with LPG exhaust remained steady, averaging 0.90 ± 0.34, 1.01 ± 0.31, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 0.91 ± 0.42 ppbv from October to April of 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15, respectively. Impacts of the programme on roadside levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) will also be discussed. Because many taxis are high mileage vehicles that travel several hundred kilometers daily, their catalytic converters need to be replaced approximately every 18 months. Therefore ongoing vehicle maintenance will be required in order to preserve the gains made from this initial subsidy programme.

  3. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  4. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  5. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  6. United States Air Force Summary, Fifth Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    Center Armament Development & Test Center Air Force Civil Engrg Center Gen Alton D. Slay *It Gen G. H. Sylvester It Gen R. T. Marsh It Gen R. C. Henry...Systems Division Space and Missile Systems Organization Aerospace Medical Division Space & Missile Test Center Air Force FIight Test Center *Eff 1 Mar...will be lG Skantze **Mol Gen Selectee AIR FORCE COMMISSARY SERVICE Commander Mal Gen C. E. Woods AIR FORCE TEST AND EVAlUATION CENTER Commander Mal Gen

  7. Geographic Region, Weather, Pilot Age and Air Carrier Crashes: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C.; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G.; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis and commuter air carriers. Methods A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (n=373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus, recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (n=746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration’s aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 – 7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 – 4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 – 0.87). Neither pilot age nor total flight time was significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. Conclusions The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety. PMID:19378910

  8. Air Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Iraq. To provide a background for understanding why Britain commenced the policy of air policing, this paper begins with a review of contemporary...7 Omissi, Air Power, XV. 8 policing actions or the pushing home of advantages gained by the air.” Within the context of this paper , the...control operations, and therefore within the context of this paper , the term coercive airpower refers to the threat of harming a population or the threat

  9. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  10. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  11. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  12. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  13. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  14. 14 CFR 294.40 - Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft accident liability insurance....40 Aircraft accident liability insurance requirements. No Canadian charter air taxi operator shall engage in charter air service unless such carrier has and maintains in effect aircraft accident...

  15. 75 FR 18940 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision From the Office of Management and Budget of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... data collected from air taxi and commercial operators are required for the calculation of air carrier...: Enplanement data collected from air taxi and commercial operators are required for the calculation of...

  16. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  17. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  18. Taxis equations for amoeboid cells.

    PubMed

    Erban, Radek; Othmer, Hans G

    2007-06-01

    The classical macroscopic chemotaxis equations have previously been derived from an individual-based description of the tactic response of cells that use a "run-and-tumble" strategy in response to environmental cues [17,18]. Here we derive macroscopic equations for the more complex type of behavioral response characteristic of crawling cells, which detect a signal, extract directional information from a scalar concentration field, and change their motile behavior accordingly. We present several models of increasing complexity for which the derivation of population-level equations is possible, and we show how experimentally measured statistics can be obtained from the transport equation formalism. We also show that amoeboid cells that do not adapt to constant signals can still aggregate in steady gradients, but not in response to periodic waves. This is in contrast to the case of cells that use a "run-and-tumble" strategy, where adaptation is essential.

  19. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  20. Spatial Representations of Taxi Drivers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-28

    some people have suggested that adults, when they learn a new environment, proceed through these same Piagetian Stages in their representations...East Green Street Naval Postgraduate School Pasadena, CA 91101 Monterey, CA 93940 1 Special Asst. for Education and I Dr. Robert Wisher Training (OP-O1E...Research Laborat Pensacola, FL 32508 1 Dr. Gary Poock Operations Research Department Code 55PK Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93940 1 Roger W

  1. Air Force Posture Statement 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Ahmedabad, India. In April, a C–17 airlifted 10 cheetahs from Africa to America as part of a gift to the United States from the people of Namibia...the-sky” upgrades to include broadband data and direct broadcast service. As funds become available, remaining VIPSAM aircraft will be evaluated for...sustain air and space capabilities. In FY02, operations and maintenance (O&M) sustainment funding precluded fully maintaining Air Force facilities and

  2. The US Air Force Tick Identification Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-22

    Haemaphysal i s concinna - - - - - - - V STT l-e achir- - - - - - - spin gera - - - - - - - - KFD Hyal omma anatolicum - - - - - - - - CCHF asiaticum...STT minaiitumh - - - - - - - - CCHF Ixodes d-ammnini Y - - - - - - - AB holocyclus M - - - - V - - pacacifcus Y...American babesiosis, BF =boutonneuse fever, CTF = Colorado tick fever, 10 TU = tularemia, CCHF = Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, HE = human ehrlichio

  3. Air Weather Service Model Output Statistics Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    LAT LONG 57^43’N 3°20’W 58°27’N 3°05*W 57°12’N 2°12’W 54051’N 4°57’W 54O05’N 4°38*W 54018’N 1 °32’W 53°29’N 1 °00’W LAT LONG 53^10’N...Region 4 LAT LONG 51°56*N "PTF’W 51°37’N 1 °05’W 51°58’N 0°30’E 51°23’N 1 °17’W 51°10’N 1 °45’W 51°15’N 0°57’W 51°17’N 0°45’W NUMBER ICAO... 1 LAT 47^46’N

  4. Index of Air Weather Service Technical Publications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Sonde Flight Test Report," by Capt T. Earl Ley and Maj E. J. Heald, January 1976, 31 p. (AD-A056159). 76-262 "Development/Decay Potential of Active...80/001 "Wind Factor Simulation Model: Model Description," by Maj Roger C. Whiton and Capt Patrick L. Herod , April 1980, 39 p. (AD-A085733). 80/002...34Wind Factor Simulation Model: User’s Manual," by Maj Roger C. Whiton and Capt Patrick L. Herod , April 1980, 66 p. (AD-A085486). 80/003 "Bivariate

  5. Air Weather Service (AWS) Climatic Briefs: Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    00 AC PAINS 63 1 95 l 6 I . t 1: 4 1XO 0 0 NE go 42 log S05 3N W I 3 9 71 1~ 0 01 001 3~ 5 9 E 1 57 14 6 .5 -1 0 0 961 .36 10 1100 SSW6 4, 13 A 1 1...ATANUTAVAILAELE - ANTS <UNIT$SOWIEEAOEG *ISSTAIETANiEOASPAAKWIPIOS $ % CALN GROY %. PLVG OCT 1) 3600008 PAFLLEONYNO4 -. 44,101 24 39 185 3 COILIN LOSS 04l-0 50 48

  6. JBI instrumentation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccio, M.; Lopez, E.; McKeel, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) is an information management infrastructure that provides a basic set of flexible core services: publish, subscribe, and query. Managed Information Objects (MIOs) are published by JBI clients and are subsequently managed and disseminated to other subscribing JBI Clients by the JBI Core Services. MIOs can also be archived into a repository managed by the JBI Core Services upon publication and can later be queried for by JBI Clients. A reference implementation (RI) of the JBI Core Services using Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) technology is currently being developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) in Rome, NY. JBI Instrumentation Services will allow users to gain insight into what activity is occurring inside the JBI Core Services. The phase 1 Instrumentation Services implementation has been developed as a standalone system that interacts with the JBI Core Services through a set of interfaces that provide a low impact, multi-implementation compatible connection. The Instrumentation Services Architecture makes use of the Instrumentation Entity Model to create entities that describe the real elements of the JBI Core Services: platforms, connections, users, nodes, and sequences. These entities populate the Instrumentation Space and are accessed by clients through the Instrumentation Client API (ICAPI). A web-based client that makes use of this ICAPI has been developed to visualize instrumentation information and demonstrate the capabilities of the Instrumentation Services. This client utilizes numerical rate graphs and dynamic graph trees to visualize JBI activity. This paper describes the phase 1 Instrumentation Services Architecture and development efforts involved in creating the JBI Instrumentation Services and prototype instrumentation client.

  7. Association of monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during 1999-2004 with meteorological variables and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study associations between monthly averages of meteorological variables and monthly frequencies of diverse diseases in the calls to the public ambulance emergency service of the city of Buenos Aires during the years 1999-2004. Throughout this time period no changes were made in the classification codes of the illnesses. Heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiopulmonary arrest, angina pectoris, psychiatric diseases, stroke, transient ischemic attack, syncope and the total number of calls were analyzed against 11 weather variables and the four seasons. All illnesses exhibited some seasonal behavior, except cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris. The largest frequencies of illnesses that exhibited some association with the meteorological variables used to occur in winter, except the psychiatric cases. Heart failure, stroke, psychiatric diseases and the total number of calls showed significant correlations with the 11 meteorological variables considered, and the largest indices (absolute values above 0.6) were found for the former two pathologies. On the other side, cardiorespiratory arrest and angina pectoris revealed no significant correlations and nearly null indices. Variables associated with temperature were the meteorological proxies with the largest correlations against diseases. Pressure and humidity mostly exhibited positive correlations, which is the opposite of variables related to temperature. Contrary to all other diseases, psychiatric pathologies showed a clear predominance of positive correlations. Finally, the association degree of the medical dataset with recurrent patterns was further evaluated through Fourier analysis, to assess the presence of statistically significant behavior. In the Northern Hemisphere high morbidity and mortality rates in December are usually assigned to diverse factors in relation to the holidays, but such an effect is not observed in the present analysis. There seems to be no clearly preferred

  8. Medical Services: Ophthalmic Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    optometrist may be employed according to Service regulations. Such examinations will include fitting and adjusting of spectacles. All prescriptions...below. a. An ophthalmologist or optometrist competent in contact lens fitting must be available. b. Adequate diagnostic, inspection, and modification...the prescribing officer. Enter name, grade, and title of the prescribing officer (oph- thalmologist or optometrist ). DD Form 577 (Signature Card) will

  9. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  10. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  11. Landing impact studies of a 0.3-scale model air cushion landing system for a Navy fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.

  12. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  13. Impact of aircraft plume dynamics on airport local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2013-08-01

    Air quality degradation in the locality of airports poses a public health hazard. The ability to quantitatively predict the air quality impacts of airport operations is of importance for assessing the air quality and public health impacts of airports today, of future developments, and for evaluating approaches for mitigating these impacts. However, studies such as the Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow have highlighted shortcomings in understanding of aircraft plume dispersion. Further, if national or international aviation environmental policies are to be assessed, a computationally efficient method of modeling aircraft plume dispersion is needed. To address these needs, we describe the formulation and validation of a three-dimensional integral plume model appropriate for modeling aircraft exhaust plumes at airports. We also develop a simplified concentration correction factor approach to efficiently account for dispersion processes particular to aircraft plumes. The model is used to explain monitoring station results in the London Heathrow area showing that pollutant concentrations are approximately constant over wind speeds of 3-12 m s-1, and is applied to reproduce empirically derived relationships between engine types and peak NOx concentrations at Heathrow. We calculated that not accounting for aircraft plume dynamics would result in a factor of 1.36-2.3 over-prediction of the mean NOx concentration (depending on location), consistent with empirical evidence of a factor of 1.7 over-prediction. Concentration correction factors are also calculated for aircraft takeoff, landing and taxi emissions, providing an efficient way to account for aircraft plume effects in atmospheric dispersion models.

  14. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  15. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Toxics Website Rules and Implementation Related Information Air Quality Data and Tools Clean Air Act Criteria Air ... Resources Visibility and Haze Voluntary Programs for Improving Air Quality Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  16. Laying Out of a Practical Air Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, V S; Carroll, T

    1922-01-01

    Unfortunately the problem of laying out an air route has been approached by all who give it consideration as one of the hardest tasks in the world. Whereas, as a matter of fact, a very serviceable air route can be laid out with an absolute minimum of ground work.

  17. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  19. Ancillary services

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B

    1996-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC identified six ancillary services reactive power and voltage control, loss compensation, scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, and energy imbalance. Our earlier work identified 19 ancillary services Here we offer a revised set of seven ancillary services and mention several other services that merit consideration. In preparing its final rule on open-access transmission service, we suggest that FERC consider splitting its system-protection service into its two primary pieces, reliability reserve and supplemental-operating reserve. We also suggest that FERC define more sharply all of the ancillary services. especially load-following reserve and energy imbalance. Finally, we suggest that FERC consider other services and their provision in a restructured electricity industry; these services include black-start capability, time correction, standby service. planning reserve, redispatch. transmission services, power quality, and planning and engineering services.

  20. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  1. Heart rate, heart rate variability and behaviour of horses during air transport.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; de Gooijer, J-W; van den Broek, J; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2013-01-05

    Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and behaviour score (BS) of nine horses were evaluated during an eight-hour air transport between The Netherlands and New York. HR and HRV parameters were calculated every five minutes during the air transport. Compared with transit (40±3), mean HRs were higher during loading into the jet stall (67±21, P<0.001), loading into the aircraft (47±6, P=0.011), taxiing (50±8, P=0.001), and during periods of in-flight turbulence (46±7, P=0.017). During the flight, individual horses showed differences in mean HR (P=0.005) and peak HR (P<0.001). By contrast with HR data, HRV data did not differ between stages or horses. BS was highest during turbulence (3.2±0.4). However, behaviour did not always correspond with HR measurements: the least responsive horse had the highest HR. Loading into the jet stall caused the highest increase in HR and was considered the most stressful event. During transit, HR was generally comparable with resting rates. Previous studies have shown that loading and transporting by road caused more elevation in HR than during loading and transporting by air. HRV data were not found to be useful, and caution is needed when interpreting HRV data. Not every horse exhibited stress through visible (evasive) behaviour, and HR measurements may provide an additional tool to assess stress in horses.

  2. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  3. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  4. 75 FR 8917 - Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of a Meeting of the Agricultural Air Quality Task Force AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of a meeting..., Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 6165 South...

  5. Manual on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

  6. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  7. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  8. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  9. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  10. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  11. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  12. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  13. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  14. 47 CFR 24.55 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 24... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 24.55 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. Licensees that own their antenna structures must not allow these antenna structures to become...

  15. 47 CFR 27.56 - Antenna structures; air navigation safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures; air navigation safety. 27... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.56 Antenna structures; air navigation safety. A licensee that owns its antenna structure(s) must not allow such antenna structure(s)...

  16. AIRS Mission Support from GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer; Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Audrey; Ding, Feng; Esfandiari, Ed; Theobald, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the support and distribution of AIRS (Atmospheric Infra Red Sounding) data products that are archived and distributed from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. Along with data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to enhance the usability of data and broaden the user base. We will provide a brief summary of the current online archive and distribution metrics for the AIRS v5 and v6 products. We will also describe collaborative data sets and services (e.g., visualization and potential science applications) and solicit feedback for potential future services.

  17. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  19. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  20. 5 CFR 842.207 - Air traffic controllers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic controllers. 842.207 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.207 Air traffic controllers... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing 25 years of service as an air traffic...