Science.gov

Sample records for air taxi service

  1. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  2. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  3. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  4. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  5. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service. (a) Providers of taxi service are subject to the requirements of this part for private entities primarily...

  6. Modeling level of urban taxi services using neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Wong, S.C.; Tong, C.O.; Yang, H.

    1999-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling of the complex demand-supply relationship in urban taxi services. A neural network model is developed, based on a taxi service situation observed in the urban area of Hong Kong. The input consists of several exogenous variables including number of licensed taxis, incremental charge of taxi fare, average occupied taxi journey time, average disposable income, and population and customer price index; the output consists of a set of endogenous variables including daily taxi passenger demand, passenger waiting time, vacant taxi headway, average percentage of occupied taxis, taxi utilization, and average taxi waiting time. Comparisons of the estimation accuracy are made between the neural network model and the simultaneous equations model. The results show that the neural network-based macro taxi model can obtain much more accurate information of the taxi services than the simultaneous equations model does. Although the data set used for training the neural network is small, the results obtained thus far are very encouraging. The neural network model can be used as a policy tool by regulator to assist with the decisions concerning the restriction over the number of taxi licenses and the fixing of the taxi fare structure as well as a range of service quality control.

  7. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  8. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  9. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  10. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  11. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  12. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a...

  13. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a...

  14. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a...

  15. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a...

  16. 14 CFR 298.21 - Filing for registration by air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing for registration by air taxi... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Registration for Exemption by Air Taxi Operators § 298.21 Filing for registration by air taxi operators. (a...

  17. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator shall...

  18. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator shall...

  19. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator shall...

  20. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator shall...

  1. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator shall...

  2. Pilot age and error in air taxi crashes.

    PubMed

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2009-07-01

    The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air taxi crashes. Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Of the 1751 air taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the "safe worker effect."

  3. An evaluation of the taxi service available to wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Cooney, M; Walsh, D; Gannon, S

    2007-06-01

    Adverse accounts of wheelchair user's experience of the taxi service have been reported. It is not clear whether these experiences are "once off" or reflect those of the user group. Wheelchair users living in cities throughout Ireland were surveyed. Of 306 questionnaires a response rate of 40.3% was achieved. Nearly 50% felt they had been refused a taxi because of their condition. Fifty one percent felt inadequately secured in a taxi with 35% rating driver's knowledge of handling as poor or very poor. Eight people (7%) had been injured as a result of unsafe handling by the taxi driver. Thirty percent said the modifications to the vehicles were inadequate and 45% said further modifications were needed. The results suggest that wheelchair users do not have access to a reliable, safe taxi service. The most important finding of the study was that that taxi driver's lack knowledge of how to handle and secure wheelchairs and people are being injured as a result. This study illustrates two things; the need to educate taxi drivers and the need to revisit the specifications for wheelchair accessible taxis to ensure modifications are adequate for users needs.

  4. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  5. Air Taxi at Your Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under an exclusive agreement with Eclipse Aviation Corporation, Williams International is manufacturing the EJ22 engine, a commercial version of the NASA/Williams FJX-2, for the Eclipse 500 aircraft. The new engine, which weighs approximately 85 pounds and delivers over 770 pounds of thrust, provides a higher thrust-to-weight ratio than any commercial turbofan ever produced. Being the smallest, quietest, and lightest commercial aircraft engine currently available, the EJ22 engine makes a whole new class of twinjet light aircraft feasible.

  6. Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-13

    Project No. 8CH -0008.01) Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations Executive Summary Introduction. We performed the...Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations (Project No. 8CH -0008.01) This is in response to your December 28...Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations (Project No. 8CH -0008.01) Finding: The decision to contract out the bus and taxi service operations at

  7. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...

  8. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...

  9. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...

  10. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...

  11. 14 CFR 330.29 - What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must air taxi operators... COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Application Procedures § 330.29 What information must air taxi operators submit on Form 330 (Final) and Form 330-C? As an air taxi operator, you must complete Form 330 (Final) in...

  12. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  13. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  14. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Part 330—Forms for Air Taxi Operators ER20AU02.009 ER20AU02.010 ER20AU02.011 ER20AU02.012 ER20AU02.013...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Part 330—Forms for Air Taxi Operators ER20AU02.009 ER20AU02.010 ER20AU02.011 ER20AU02.012 ER20AU02.013...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Part 330—Forms for Air Taxi Operators ER20AU02.009 ER20AU02.010 ER20AU02.011 ER20AU02.012 ER20AU02.013...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... Part 330—Forms for Air Taxi Operators ER20AU02.009 ER20AU02.010 ER20AU02.011 ER20AU02.012 ER20AU02.013...

  18. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 330 - Forms for Air Taxi Operators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms for Air Taxi Operators C Appendix C to Part 330 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR COMPENSATION OF AIR CARRIERS Pt. 330, App. C Appendix C...

  20. 77 FR 12103 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... the following collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi Operations, responsibility for which has been... obtain economic authority from DOT. The information to be collected is necessary for DOT to determine whether an air taxi operation meets DOT's criteria for an economic authorization in accordance with DOT...

  1. The Effects of Very Light Jet Air Taxi Operations on Commercial Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of Very Light Jet (VLJ) air taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The affordable cost relative to existing business jets and ability to use many of the existing small, minimally equipped, but conveniently located airports is projected to stimulate a large demand for the aircraft. The resulting increase in air traffic operations will mainly be at smaller airports, but this study indicates that VLJs have the potential to increase further the pressure of demand at some medium and large airports, some of which are already operating at or near capacity at peak times. The additional delays to commercial passenger air transportation due to VLJ air taxi operations are obtained from simulation results using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) simulator. The direct increase in operating cost due to additional delays is estimated. VLJs will also cause an increase in traffic density, and this study shows increased potential for conflicts due to VLJ operations.

  2. Design Reference Missions (DRM): Integrated ODM 'Air-Taxi' Mission Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt; Starr, Ginn; Saltzman, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Design Reference Missions (DRM): Integrated ODM Air-Taxi Mission Features, Hybrid Electric Integrated System Testbed (HEIST) flight control. Structural Health, Energy Storage, Electric Components, Loss of Control, Degraded Systems, System Health, Real-Time IO Operator Geo-Fencing, Regional Noise Abatement and Trusted Autonomy Inter-operability.

  3. Acceptability testing of radioluminescent lights for VFR-night air taxi operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tritium-powered radioluminescent (RL) lights have been under development for remote, austere, and tactical airfield lighting applications. The State of Alaska has requested FAA approval for use of the technology as a safe alternative lighting system to meet the airfield lighting needs of air taxi operations and general aviation in the state. The tests described in this report were performed by PNL for the DOE Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. These tests are a step toward gaining the required approvals.

  4. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  5. Exposure of Paris taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants within their vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Zagury, E.; Le Moullec, Y.; Momas, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the exposure of Parisian taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants during their professional activity.
METHODS—A cross sectional study was carried out from 27 January to 27 March 1997, with measurements performed in the vehicles of 29 randomly selected drivers. Carbon monoxide (CO) content was measured over an 8 hour period by a CO portable monitor. The fine suspended particles were measured according to the black smoke index (BS), with a flow controlled portable pump provided with a cellulose filter. The nitrogen oxides, NO and NO2 were measured with a passive sampler.
RESULTS—These drivers are exposed during their professional activity to relatively high concentrations of pollutants (mean, median (SD) 3.8, 2 (1.7) ppm for CO, 168, 164 (53) µg/m3 for BS, 625, 598 (224) µg/m3 for NO, and 139, 131 (43) µg/m3 for NO2.) For CO the concentrations were clearly lower than the threshold values recommended by the World Health Organisation. The situation is less satisfactory for the other pollutants, especially for the BS index. All concentrations of pollutants recorded were noticeably higher than concentrations in air recorded by the ambient Parisian air monitoring network and were close to, or slightly exceeded, the concentrations measured at the fixed stations close to automobile traffic. Pollutant concentrations were also influenced greatly by weather conditions.
CONCLUSION—This first French study conducted in taxi drivers shows that they are highly exposed to automobile pollutants. The results would justify a medical follow up of this occupational group.


Keywords: taxi drivers; exposure assessment PMID:10810130

  6. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter... to show cause why it should revoke the Commuter Air Carrier Authorization issued to Friendship...

  7. Using a safe taxi service to transport newborn babies home from hospital.

    PubMed

    Eventov-Friedman, S; Bar-Oz, B; Zisk-Rony, R Y

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate an intervention to enhance parents' use of car safety seats (CSSs) for their newborn baby's first journey home from the hospital in a population not usually exposed to television, internet and mainstream printed media. Parents of newborn babies who did not bring a CSS to the hospital before their baby was discharged were lent a CSS to use in a 'safe taxi' service. All taxi drivers were trained to install the CSS safely. The intervention was evaluated using preprogramme questionnaires and follow-up interviews 4-8 weeks after discharge. Twelve parents participated in the intervention during the study period (January to April 2011) and in the evaluation process. Eleven couples were Jewish and one was Muslim. Most (75%) reported that they had not previously used CSS routinely and the reason was not financial. Following the 'safe taxi' intervention, 83% reported the use of CSS when travelling in all vehicles (excluding buses). On follow-up, most participants reported that the intervention increased their awareness and the use of CSS. The intervention, targeted at this specific population, was well received by the parents, increased awareness, changed practices and assured that more newborns travelled home safely in a CSS. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Biomarkers of occupational exposure to air pollution, inflammation and oxidative damage in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; Durgante, Juliano; Freitas, Fernando; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Bulcão, Rachel P; Bubols, Guilherme B; Ferrari, Pedro D; Thiesen, Flávia V; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta M M F; de Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from traffic-related air pollution. Experimental studies indicate that PAH exposure could be associated with inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the biomarker of PAH exposure is associated with biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and if these effects modulate the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in workers exposed to air pollution. This study included 60 subjects, comprising 39 taxi drivers and 21 non-occupationally exposed persons. Environmental PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels, in addition to biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage, were determined. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and hs-CRP) and serum levels of oxidised LDL (ox-LDL), auto-antibodies (ox-LDL-Ab) and homocysteine (Hcy) were also evaluated. PM2.5 and BaP exhibited averages of 12.4±6.9 μg m(-3) and 1.0±0.6 ng m(-3), respectively. Urinary 1-OHP levels were increased in taxi drivers compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05) and were positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with antioxidants. Furthermore, taxi drivers had elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative damage, and ox-LDL, ox-LDL-Ab and Hcy levels, although antioxidant enzymes were decreased compared to the non-occupationally exposed subjects (p<0.05). In summary, our findings indicate that taxi drivers showed major exposure to pollutants, such as PAHs, in relation to non-occupationally exposed subjects. This finding was associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers and Hcy, which represent important predictors for cardiovascular events. These data suggest a contribution of PAHs to cardiovascular diseases upon occupational exposure. © 2013.

  9. Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Moro, Angela M; Ferrari, Pedro; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Fracasso, Rafael; Durgante, Juliano; Thiesen, Flávia V; Duarte, Marta M; Gioda, Adriana; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-05-01

    Consistent evidence has indicated that the exposure to environmental air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to air pollution, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of co-morbidities on the atherosclerotic process and inflammation. For that, biomarkers of exposure such as 1-hydroxypyrene urinary, oxidative damage and markers of cardiovascular risk were determined in plasma, serum and blood. In addition, inflammation models such as carotid intima-media thickness and serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in 58 taxi drivers with and without co-morbidity. The results demonstrated that considering only taxi drivers without co-morbidities, 15% presented carotid intima-media thickness above reference values. For the first time it has been demonstrated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were associated with carotid intima-media thickness and with serum homocysteine levels. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that several factors may contribute to the increased carotid intima-media thickness, among which age, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and exposure to PAHs stand out. In summary, our results suggest that chronic occupational exposure to atmospheric pollution could be an additional contributor to the atherogenesis process, leading to impaired vascular health. Moreover, carotid intima-media thickness, serum homocysteine levels, fibrinogen and the total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio could be suggested as preventive measures to monitor drivers' health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 14 CFR 294.30 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for... air service, and the exemption provided by this part to Canadian charter air taxi operators that... charter air taxi operator shall not use large aircraft for charter air service until it has been granted a...

  11. 14 CFR 294.30 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for... air service, and the exemption provided by this part to Canadian charter air taxi operators that... charter air taxi operator shall not use large aircraft for charter air service until it has been granted a...

  12. 14 CFR 294.30 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for... air service, and the exemption provided by this part to Canadian charter air taxi operators that... charter air taxi operator shall not use large aircraft for charter air service until it has been granted a...

  13. 14 CFR 294.30 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for... air service, and the exemption provided by this part to Canadian charter air taxi operators that... charter air taxi operator shall not use large aircraft for charter air service until it has been granted a...

  14. 14 CFR 294.30 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for... air service, and the exemption provided by this part to Canadian charter air taxi operators that... charter air taxi operator shall not use large aircraft for charter air service until it has been granted a...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or...

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your agency...

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or valet parking... will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, courtesy transportation driver, or...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.421 - How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How much will my agency reimburse me for a tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? 301-10.421 Section 301... tip to a taxi, shuttle service, or courtesy transportation driver? An amount which your agency...

  20. Hearing Deficit in a Birth Cohort of U.S. Male Commuter Air Carrier and Air Taxi Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Long-term exposure to multiple risk factors in aviation may place pilots at excess risk of developing hearing deficits. We examined the incidence and risk factors for hearing deficit in a birth cohort of male commuter and air taxi pilots. Methods The subjects (N = 3019), who were 45–54 yr of age and held Class I medical certificates in 1987, were followed up from 1987 to 1997 through the medical certification system of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In this study, hearing deficit refers to the FAA pathology code 220 (defective hearing, deafness, not elsewhere classified). Poisson regression modeling based on generalized estimation equations was used to assess the associations between pilot characteristics and the risk of developing hearing deficit. Results The 10-yr follow-up accumulated a total of 20,671 person-years and 574 incident cases of hearing deficit, yielding an incidence rate of 27.8 per 1000 person-years. Compared with age 45–49 yr, the risk of developing hearing deficit at age 50–54 yr, 55–59 yr, and 60–64 yr increased by 12% [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.30], 34% (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13–1.59), and 79% (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.20–2.67), respectively. Conclusions Hearing deficit is prevalent among commuter air carrier and air taxi pilots and the risk of hearing deficit increases progressively with pilot age. Effective programs for preventing excess hearing loss in the pilot population are warranted. PMID:18998487

  1. Association of Heart Rate Variability in Taxi Drivers with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Niu, Jie; Huang, Qinsheng; Liu, Youcheng; Guo, Xinbiao

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, especially in older patients and those with cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PM exposure on cardiac autonomic function in young, healthy adults has received less attention. Objectives We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traffic-related PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and HRV in a highly exposed panel of taxi drivers. Methods Continuous measurements of personal exposure to PM2.5 and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring were conducted on 11 young healthy taxi drivers for a 12-hr work shift during their work time (0900–2100 hr) before, during, and after the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate associations between PM2.5 exposure and percent changes in 5-min HRV indices after combining data from the three time periods and controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results Personal exposures of taxi drivers to PM2.5 changed markedly across the three time periods. The standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals decreased by 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), −3.8% to −0.6%] with an interquartile range (IQR; 69.5 μg/m3) increase in the 30-min PM2.5 moving average, whereas the low-frequency and high-frequency powers decreased by 4.2% (95% CI, −9.0% to 0.8%) and 6.2% (95% CI, −10.7% to −1.5%), respectively, in association with an IQR increase in the 2-hr PM2.5 moving average. Conclusions Marked changes in traffic-related PM2.5 exposure were associated with altered cardiac autonomic function in young healthy adults. PMID:20056565

  2. On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

    2011-11-15

    Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions.

  3. A cross-sectional study with an improved methodology to assess occupational air pollution exposure and respiratory health in motorcycle taxi driving.

    PubMed

    Lawin, Herve; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Ayelo, Paul; Kagima, Jacqueline; Sonoukon, Rodrigue; Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand H; Awopeju, Olayemi; Vollmer, William M; Nemery, Benoit; Burney, Peter; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-04-15

    Motorcycle taxi driving is common in many African cities. This study tested whether this occupation is associated with more respiratory disorders in a context of widespread urban air pollution with an improved methodology. In a cross sectional study we compared 85 male motorcycle taxi drivers in the capital city of the Republic of Benin (Cotonou) with an age and neighborhood matched control group. All participants carried a portable carbon monoxide data logger for 8 hours per day to assess exposure to air pollution. Respiratory symptoms were obtained using a standardized questionnaire and pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry. The two groups did not differ significantly (p>0.10) in their age, height, educational level, and exposures to smoke from biomass fuels and tobacco products. The taxi drivers were exposed to higher mean (SD) levels of carbon monoxide (7.6±4.9ppmvs. 5.4±3.8ppm p=0.001). They reported more phlegm and tended to have slightly lower levels of lung function, although these differences were not statistically significant. In this cross sectional study of young motorcycle taxi drivers with substantial exposure to urban traffic and a matched control group, we found no evidence for respiratory impairment. A follow-up of such study population with other pollution exposure surrogate and other clinical endpoint may provide a more robust conclusion regarding the exposure response in this professional group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oregon Air Ambulance Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    A 85 aboard unpressurized aircraft. These two patients, both of whom suffered from a bowel obstruction , were transported aboard unpressurized...services can safely transport patients with conditions (i.e. bowel obstruction , facial fractures, pneumothorax, intracranial air) which are clearly

  5. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  6. Perseus Taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle is seen here as it taxis on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The

  7. Perseus Taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle is seen here as it taxis on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The

  8. Questionable practices in the selection of transportation services for small lots of hazardous or sensitive cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-31

    The Department of Defense spends several million dollars a year to transport small lots of hazardous or sensitive cargo. Truck and air taxi operators actively compete for this cargo. Despite the similarities in the truck and air taxi prices and service, DOD routed far more cargo to trucks than to air taxis. Also, more business was routed to one air taxi than to the others. Consequently, DOD lost opportunities to purchase the least cost, best service available. The problems resulted because routing technicians did not have the data they needed, did not use all the data available, or ignored certain criteria established for selecting the mode and carrier to be used.

  9. Ag-Air Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  10. Health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane.

    PubMed

    Ramukumba, Tendani S; Mathikhi, Makwena S

    2016-11-30

    Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers. The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors. An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician. The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation. The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.

  11. The impact of rainfall on the temporal and spatial distribution of taxi passengers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Liangpeng; Geng, Nana; Li, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of rainfall on the temporal and spatial distribution of taxi passengers. The main objective is to provide guidance for taxi scheduling on rainy days. To this end, we take the occupied and empty states of taxis as units of analysis. By matching a taxi's GPS data to its taximeter data, we can obtain the taxi's operational time and the taxi driver's income from every unit of analysis. The ratio of taxi operation time to taxi drivers' income is used to measure the quality of taxi passengers. The research results show that the spatio-temporal evolution of urban taxi service demand differs based on rainfall conditions and hours of operation. During non-rush hours, taxi demand in peripheral areas is significantly reduced under increasing precipitation conditions, whereas during rush hours, the demand for highly profitable taxi services steadily increases. Thus, as an intelligent response for taxi operations and dispatching, taxi services should guide cruising taxis to high-demand regions to increase their service time and ride opportunities.

  12. NASA's space shuttle Atlantis and its 747 carrier taxied on the Edwards Air Force Base flightline as the unusual combination left for Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March 1, 2001

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-01

    NASA's space shuttle Atlantis and its 747 carrier taxied on the Edwards Air Force Base flightline as the unusual combination left for Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on March 1, 2001. Atlantis and the shuttle Columbia were both airborne on the same day as they migrated from California to Florida. Columbia underwent refurbishing at nearby Palmdale, California.

  13. Taxi-Aware Map: Identifying and Predicting Vacant Taxis in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phithakkitnukoon, Santi; Veloso, Marco; Bento, Carlos; Biderman, Assaf; Ratti, Carlo

    Knowing where vacant taxis are and will be at a given time and location helps the users in daily planning and scheduling, as well as the taxi service providers in dispatching. In this paper, we present a predictive model for the number of vacant taxis in a given area based on time of the day, day of the week, and weather condition. The history is used to build the prior probability distributions for our inference engine, which is based on the naïve Bayesian classifier with developed error-based learning algorithm and method for detecting adequacy of historical data using mutual information. Based on 150 taxis in Lisbon, Portugal, we are able to predict for each hour with the overall error rate of 0.8 taxis per 1x1 km2 area.

  14. Occupant-level injury severity analyses for taxis in Hong Kong: A Bayesian space-time logistic model.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanyu; Xu, Pengpeng; Wong, S C; Huang, Helai; Li, Y C

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the crash-related severity level of injuries in taxis and quantify the associations between these factors and taxi occupant injury severity. Casualties resulting from taxi crashes from 2004 to 2013 in Hong Kong were divided into four categories: taxi drivers, taxi passengers, private car drivers and private car passengers. To avoid any biased interpretation caused by unobserved spatial and temporal effects, a Bayesian hierarchical logistic modeling approach with conditional autoregressive priors was applied, and four different model forms were tested. For taxi drivers and passengers, the model with space-time interaction was proven to most properly address the unobserved heterogeneity effects. The results indicated that time of week, number of vehicles involved, weather, point of impact and driver age were closely associated with taxi drivers' injury severity level in a crash. For taxi passengers' injury severity an additional factor, taxi service area, was influential. To investigate the differences between taxis and other traffic, similar models were established for private car drivers and passengers. The results revealed that although location in the network and driver gender significantly influenced private car drivers' injury severity, they did not influence taxi drivers' injury severity. Compared with taxi passengers, the injury severity of private car passengers was more sensitive to average speed and whether seat belts were worn. Older drivers, urban taxis and fatigued driving were identified as factors that increased taxi occupant injury severity in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal. ...

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal. ...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal. ...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal. ...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.420 - When may I use a taxi, shuttle service or other courtesy transportation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... service furnished by hotels/motels to the maximum extent possible as a first source of transportation... provided by hotels/motels between the place of lodging at the TDY station and the common carrier terminal. ...

  1. Ambient particulate matter may affect lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Arphorn, Sara; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hara, Kunio; Mahasandana, Suwisa

    2017-07-26

    The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM10 and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. The findings of the Thailand Pollution Control Department were used to estimate the annual ambient PM10 concentration levels in the metropolis. Pulmonary functions of motorcycle taxi drivers and enclosed vehicle taxi drivers were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the effects of PM10 exposure on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers. A total of 1,283 motorcycle taxi drivers and 600 taxi drivers were investigated. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of the motorcycle taxi drivers was significantly lower than that of the taxi drivers (p < 0.001). The mean FEV1/FVC of motorcycle taxi drivers exposed to ? 50 µg/m3 PM10 was statistically lower (-2.82%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -4.54 to -1.09) and the mean FVC% of those exposed to 40-49.9 µg/m3 PM10 was statistically lower than that of motorcycle taxi drivers exposed to < 30 µg/m3 PM10 (-3.33%; 95%CI -5.79 to -0.87). Motorcycle taxi drivers were directly exposed to air pollution in their working environment. As a result, their lung function might decrease more than that of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. With the possible exposure to ? 50 µg/m3 PM10, the vehicular emission standards should be vigorously enforced. Further investigation is warranted to clarify the effect of lung dysfunction on the work and lifestyle of motorcycle taxi drivers. Implication Statement Motorcycle taxi drivers are directly exposed to air pollution in their work

  2. Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations caused by air pollutants in some taxi drivers from two polluted districts of urban Tehran and its comparison with drivers from rural areas of Lahijan: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Sara; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kamali, Koorosh; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome instability is the most common form of genomic instability. Genomic instability can lead to tumorogenesis. High level of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker for cancer. Air pollution is one of the most important factors that cause chromosomal instability (CIN). In this comparative study we used classic Cytogenetic technique to analyze the effects of air pollutants on chromosome stability. We collected peripheral blood from 30 taxi drivers of two polluted districts (districts 6 and 7) in Tehran and 30 taxi drivers from rural areas of Lahijan, north of Iran. Comparison of the level of chromosome breakage in the two groups showed an increased level of chromosome breakage in the drivers from polluted districts of Tehran, although not significant, using Fisher exact test (p-value = 0.300). However, the overall chromosome aberration rate (including both chromosome and chromatid gaps), the difference was significant using Chi-square test (p-value = 0.012). An increased level of chromosome aberration was present in the drivers from polluted districts of Tehran compared to drivers from non-polluted areas in Lahijan.

  3. Taxi-based paratransit technology/operations packages in Europe. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The report describes a new generation of dispatching systems emerging in Europe that link a central taxi dispatching service to all vehicles in the fleet through computerization and digital communications. The actual matching of customers with particular taxis and sending of the cab is left to the systems computer. The document provides an overview of the evolution of these advanced taxi dispatching systems, and how such systems operate, both from the perspective of users and of the taxi drivers. The various European technologies available for these functions are reviewed: the factors that originally led to their development, their actual on-street deployment and operations, and the specific factors that make each approach unique. The cost of implementation and potential benefits in terms of improved taxi service and economics are covered. The document also explores how to plan and implement a new operation or upgrade an existing manual one. The European approaches appear fully transferable to U.S. taxi systems.

  4. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  5. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-01-17

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  6. 14 CFR 272.5 - Determination of essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of essential air service. 272... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.5 Determination of essential air service. Procedures for the determination of essential air service under this...

  7. 14 CFR 298.37 - Prohibition of services not covered by insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... insurance. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier shall not operate in air transportation or provide...

  8. 14 CFR 298.37 - Prohibition of services not covered by insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... insurance. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier shall not operate in air transportation or provide...

  9. 14 CFR 298.37 - Prohibition of services not covered by insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... insurance. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier shall not operate in air transportation or provide...

  10. 14 CFR 298.37 - Prohibition of services not covered by insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... insurance. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier shall not operate in air transportation or provide...

  11. 14 CFR 298.37 - Prohibition of services not covered by insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... insurance. An air taxi operator or commuter air carrier shall not operate in air transportation or provide...

  12. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  13. Comparison of Taxi Time Prediction Performance Using Different Taxi Speed Decision Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2017-01-01

    In the STBO modeler and tactical surface scheduler for ATD-2 project, taxi speed decision trees are used to calculate the unimpeded taxi times of flights taxiing on the airport surface. The initial taxi speed values in these decision trees did not show good prediction accuracy of taxi times. Using the more recent, reliable surveillance data, new taxi speed values in ramp area and movement area were computed. Before integrating these values into the STBO system, we performed test runs using live data from Charlotte airport, with different taxi speed settings: 1) initial taxi speed values and 2) new ones. Taxi time prediction performance was evaluated by comparing various metrics. The results show that the new taxi speed decision trees can calculate the unimpeded taxi-out times more accurately.

  14. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier...

  15. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier...

  16. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier...

  17. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier...

  18. 14 CFR 380.11 - Payment to direct air carrier(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier(s). Except for air taxi operators and commuter air carriers (which are governed by 14 CFR 298.38) and Canadian charter air taxi operators (which are governed by 14 CFR 294.32), the direct air carrier...

  19. 75 FR 22891 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Airways, Inc., d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi reapplying for issuance of commuter air authority to enable Yellow Air Taxi to engage in interstate and foreign scheduled air transportation operations utilizing small...

  20. Pleiotropic aspartate taxis and serine taxis mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reader, R W; Tso, W W; Springer, M S; Goy, M F; Adler, J

    1979-04-01

    Mutants that at one time were thought to be specifically defective in taxis toward aspartate and related amino acids (tar mutants) or specifically defective in taxis toward serine and related amino acids (tar mutants) are now shown to be pleiotropic in their defects. The tar mutants also lack taxis toward maltose and away from Co2+ and Ni2+. The tsr mutants are altered in their response to a variety of repellents. Double mutants (tar tsr) fail in nearly all chemotactic responses. The tar and tsr mutants provide evidence for two complementary, converging pathways of information flow: certain chemoreceptors feed information into the tar pathway and others into the tsr pathway. The tar and tsr products have been shown to be two different sets of methylated proteins.

  1. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: male taxi driver attitudes regarding transactional relationships in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Cheryl; Strebel, Anna; Shefer, Tamara; Wagner, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both the men and the young women, often referred to as taxi queens, remains an important question in the light of the current challenges of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little research has been undertaken on this issue, especially regarding the perceptions and experiences of taxi drivers. Thus this paper aims to provide some preliminary findings on taxi drivers' attitudes and beliefs about taxi queens and their relationships with taxi drivers. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 223 male taxi drivers in two regions in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Taxi drivers in this study largely saw the relationship between taxi drivers and the young girls who ride with them as providing status for both the girls and drivers, and there seemed to be recognition of the transactional nature of the relationship between taxi drivers and taxi queens. The stigmatisation of young girls who ride with taxi drivers was evident. Drivers had knowledge and awareness of the risks of unsafe sex and supported condom use, although there appeared to be some uncertainty and confusion about the likelihood of HIV infection between drivers and girls. While taxi drivers recognised the role of alcohol in relationships with young girls, they seemed to deny that the abuse of drugs was common. The study highlights a number of key areas that need to be explored with men in the taxi industry, in order to address risk behaviours for both taxi drivers and the girls who ride with them.

  2. 14 CFR 298.31 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... transportation, and the exemption provided by this part to air taxi operators and commuter air carriers that...

  3. 14 CFR 298.31 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... transportation, and the exemption provided by this part to air taxi operators and commuter air carriers that...

  4. 14 CFR 298.31 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... transportation, and the exemption provided by this part to air taxi operators and commuter air carriers that...

  5. 14 CFR 298.31 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... transportation, and the exemption provided by this part to air taxi operators and commuter air carriers that...

  6. 14 CFR 298.31 - Scope of service and equipment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS... transportation, and the exemption provided by this part to air taxi operators and commuter air carriers that...

  7. Japan taxis already on LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, K.D.

    1980-09-15

    Most of Japan's taxi fleet has been using liquefied propane or butane gas for more than a decade. About 45,000 taxis in Tokyo, logging an average of approx. 75,000 mi/yr, use LPG because of significant (50%) savings on fuel costs. LPG use requires good engineering of the vehicle and rigorous maintenance, including a mandatory change of gas tanks every two years. Peoples Gas Light and Coke Co. is planning to fuel its fleet of automotive vehicles with natural gas.

  8. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  9. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  10. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  11. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  12. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  13. A water-cannon salute from two Air Force fire trucks heralds NASA research pilot Gordon Fullerton's final mission as his NASA F/A-18 taxis beneath the spray.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-21

    Long-time NASA Dryden research pilot and former astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton capped an almost 50-year flying career, including more than 38 years with NASA, with a final flight in a NASA F/A-18 on Dec. 21, 2007. Fullerton and Dryden research pilot Jim Smolka flew a 90-minute pilot proficiency formation aerobatics flight with another Dryden F/A-18 and a Dryden T-38 before concluding with two low-level formation flyovers of Dryden before landing. Fullerton was honored with a water-cannon spray arch provided by two fire trucks from the Edwards Air Force Base fire department as he taxied the F/A-18 up to the Dryden ramp, and was then greeted by his wife Marie and several hundred Dryden staff after his final flight. Fullerton began his flying career with the U.S. Air Force in 1958 after earning bachelor's and master's degrees in mechanical engineering from the California Institute of Technology. Initially trained as a fighter pilot, he later transitioned to multi-engine bombers and became a bomber operations test pilot after attending the Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. He then was assigned to the flight crew for the planned Air Force Manned Orbital Laboratory in 1966. Upon cancellation of that program, the Air Force assigned Fullerton to NASA's astronaut corps in 1969. He served on the support crews for the Apollo 14, 15, 16 and 17 lunar missions, and was later assigned to one of the two flight crews that piloted the space shuttle prototype Enterprise during the Approach and Landing Test program at Dryden. He then logged some 382 hours in space when he flew on two early space shuttle missions, STS-3 on Columbia in 1982 and STS-51F on Challenger in 1985. He joined the flight crew branch at NASA Dryden after leaving the astronaut corps in 1986. During his 21 years at Dryden, Fullerton was project pilot on a number of high-profile research efforts, including the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft, the high-speed landing tests of

  14. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-21

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis-especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting-other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars.

  15. Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) consists of two inhibitors, TAXI I and TAXI II, with different specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Gebruers, K; Debyser, W; Goesaert, H; Proost, P; Van Damme J; Delcour, J A

    2001-01-01

    The Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) discovered by Debyser and Delcour [(1997) Eur. Pat. filed April 1997, published as WO 98/49278] and Debyser, Derdelinckx and Delcour [(1997) J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 55, 153-156] seems to be a mixture of two different endoxylanase inhibitors, called TAXI I and TAXI II. By using Aspergillus niger as well as Bacillus subtilis endoxylanases for assaying inhibition activity, both inhibitors could be purified to homogeneity from wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Soissons). TAXI I and TAXI II have similar molecular structures. They both have a molecular mass of approx. 40.0 kDa, are not glycosylated and occur in two molecular forms, i.e. a non-proteolytically processed one and a proteolytically processed one. However, the pI of TAXI II (at least 9.3) is higher than that of TAXI I (8.8). TAXI I and TAXI II clearly show different inhibition activities towards different endoxylanases. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both inhibitors show a high degree of identity, which might indicate that there is an evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:11139386

  16. Moon Taxi - A European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J. H.; Grimard, M.; Fazi, C.; Theillier, F.

    1992-08-01

    A review is conducted of transportation concepts for relatively small transfer vehicles for earth-to-lunar orbits, lunar shuttles, and earth-return vehicles. Attention is given to the use of Ariane-5 derivatives to accomplish these tasks specifically in the areas of propellant supply, and vehicle maintenance/logistics. Launcher optimization is considered for these tasks with orbital and payload considerations taken into account. A 'lunar vicinity shuttle' is proposed that can accomplish both lunar landings and returns to lunar orbit. The combination of the vehicles is named the Moon Taxi transportation system, and a preliminary feasibility study indicates the suitability of Ariane-5 products for the mass and Isp targets. Specific technological areas critical for the Moon Taxi concept are: cryogenic propellant control, restartable 10-t-thrust engines, and capsule reentry technologies.

  17. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  18. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  19. 77 FR 55893 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Exemptions for Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Exemptions for Air Taxi... classification of air carriers known as air taxi operators and their filings of a one-page form that enables them... determine whether an air taxi operator meets DOT's criteria for an economic authorization in accordance with...

  20. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  1. Pattern formation in prey-taxis systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hillen, T; Lewis, M A

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial predator-prey models with diffusion and prey-taxis. We investigate necessary conditions for pattern formation using a variety of non-linear functional responses, linear and non-linear predator death terms, linear and non-linear prey-taxis sensitivities, and logistic growth or growth with an Allee effect for the prey. We identify combinations of the above non-linearities that lead to spatial pattern formation and we give numerical examples. It turns out that prey-taxis stabilizes the system and for large prey-taxis sensitivity we do not observe pattern formation. We also study and find necessary conditions for global stability for a type I functional response, logistic growth for the prey, non-linear predator death terms, and non-linear prey-taxis sensitivity.

  2. Assessment of the market for compressed air services

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive and balanced view of the market for engineering and consulting services to improve the energy efficiency of plant compressed air systems. The report is intended for use by Compressed Air Challenge and other industrial energy efficiency program operators in developing strategies to encourage the growth of the compressed air system efficiency and enhance the quality of the services it offers.

  3. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  4. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  5. Air Conditioning. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Youth Programs.

    This manual on air conditioning is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids covering theory of operation, diagnosis, and repair. Information is presented for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focus is on air conditioning systems for mobile machines, but most of the information also…

  6. Air service to small communities, directions for the future. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The seminar on the problems of providing air service to low and medium density points is reported. National transport policies and programs are discussed along with the technology aspects. Recommendations for ATC, CAB, and FAA are included.

  7. Bacterial energy taxis: a global strategy?

    PubMed

    Schweinitzer, Tobias; Josenhans, Christine

    2010-07-01

    A functional energy metabolism is one of the most important requirements for survival of all kinds of organisms including bacteria. Therefore, many bacteria actively seek conditions of optimal metabolic activity, a behaviour which can be termed "energy taxis". Motility, combined with the sensory perception of the internal energetic conditions, is prerequisite for tactic responses to different energy levels and metabolic yields. Diverse mechanisms of energy sensing and tactic response have evolved among various bacteria. Many of the known energy taxis sensors group among the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-like sensors. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of energy taxis and explores the current concept that energy taxis is an important part of the bacterial behavioural repertoire in order to navigate towards more favourable metabolic niches and to survive in a specific habitat.

  8. 106. Air defense command "master plan", base map," RCA Service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Air defense command "master plan", base map," RCA Service Company tab no. F-1, sheet 1 of 2, dated 22 October, 1965. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. Perseus B Taxi Tests in Preparation for a New Series of Flight Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-27

    The Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft taxis on the runway at Edwards Air Force Base, California, before a series of development flights at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center. The Perseus B is the latest of three versions of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program.

  10. 47 CFR 22.881 - Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air... exclusive initial applications for general aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses and mutually exclusive initial applications for commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses are subject...

  11. 47 CFR 22.881 - Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air... exclusive initial applications for general aviation Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses and mutually exclusive initial applications for commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service licenses are subject to...

  12. Post-Service Utilization of Air Force-Gained Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Anthony J.; Thompson, Paul D.

    More complete information is needed to determine the extent of utilization in the civilian economy of skills developed during military service. Post-service occupation data have been obtained through a questionnaire mailed ten months after separation to each first-term Air Force enlisted man separated between 1 July 1968 and 31 March 1970. As of…

  13. Post-Service Utilization of Air Force-Gained Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Anthony J.; Thompson, Paul D.

    More complete information is needed to determine the extent of utilization in the civilian economy of skills developed during military service. Post-service occupation data have been obtained through a questionnaire mailed ten months after separation to each first-term Air Force enlisted man separated between 1 July 1968 and 31 March 1970. As of…

  14. Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Robert A.; Hirata, Glenn T.

    The document presents the final report of the Assessment and Improvement of Related Services (AIRS) Project, an effort to assess the impact and effectiveness of special education related services in Hawaii. Each of the four project objectives focused on accomplishment of one of the evaluation types specified in the Context-Input-Process-Product…

  15. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  16. Simultaneous service approach for reducing air passenger queue time

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.A.; Sodeinde, T.

    2000-02-01

    Simultaneous service offers service-oriented organizations, such as the air passenger transportation industry, the opportunity to differentiate themselves by providing superior customer service. The concept of simultaneous service is analogous to the concept of simultaneous engineering. However, while simultaneous engineering strives to minimize product development time, simultaneous service strives to minimize customer processing time. Overall customer processing time is reduced by the identification and simultaneous alignment of previously sequentially executed customer service activities. A simultaneous service approach was applied to the international ticketing counter at a major international airport. This involved developing both equipment and operational policy alternatives to the normal sequencing of the ticketing and baggage check-in process. A total of five alternative simultaneous service approaches were investigated. Simulation analysis of these alternatives indicates that a 36% improvement in customer queue and servicing time was possible with this approach.

  17. Death by a Thousand Cuts: Micro-Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    exotic approaches as air suction/injection along the wing surface (which might require micro -valves and micro - pumps ), wall heat transfer, or...AU/AWC/___/2001-4 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DEATH BY A THOUSAND CUTS: MICRO -AIR VEHICLES (MAV) IN THE SERVICE OF AIR FORCE MISSIONS by...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Death by a thousand Cuts: Micro -Air Vehicles (MAV) in the Service of Air Force Missions Contract

  18. User-side subsidies for shared-ride taxis in Kinston, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Kinston User-Side Subsidy Demonstration began operation in September, 1977. This was one of four simultaneous demonstrations of the user-side subsidy concepts conducted under the UMTA Service and Methods Demonstration Program, and involved the provision of reduced-fare conventional taxi service to the elderly and handicapped with the primary objective of increasing their mobility. Eligible individuals who registered with the subsidy program were able to purchase tickets for regular taxi rides within Kinston for one-half of their face value (i.e., a 50% subsidy). After tickets were used by registrants to pay for rides, taxi operators redeemed them for full face value. This report summarizes the findings of the independent evaluation of the Kinston project. In Kinston, user-side subsidies were found to be administratively feasible and were utilized almost exclusively by the most mobility-disadvantaged segments of the eligible population. These individuals, who typically had low incomes and/or few travel alternatives, used the project to increase their frequency of total tripmaking by 3 to 4%, and to make some trips by taxi that otherwise would have been made by a less-preferred mode (e.g., walking). The resulting changes in taxi-use frequency caused some changes in the supply of taxi service, though these were concentrated among firms that carried a large proportion of elderly and handicapped riders prior to the demonstration. Overall, the Kinston project provides evidence that user-side subsidies can be a viable and practical technique for facilitating the mobility of the elderly and handicapped.

  19. Ecological role of energy taxis in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Gladys; Greer-Phillips, Suzanne; Zhulin, Igor B

    2004-02-01

    Motile microorganisms rapidly respond to changes in various physico-chemical gradients by directing their motility to more favorable surroundings. Energy generation is one of the most important parameters for the survival of microorganisms in their environment. Therefore it is not surprising that microorganisms are able to monitor changes in the cellular energy generating processes. The signal for this behavioral response, which is called energy taxis, originates within the electron transport system. By coupling energy metabolism and behavior, energy taxis is fine-tuned to the environment a cell finds itself in and allows efficient adaptation to changing conditions that affect cellular energy levels. Thus, energy taxis provides cells with a versatile sensory system that enables them to navigate to niches where energy generation is optimized. This behavior is likely to govern vertical species stratification and the active migration of motile cells in response to shifting gradients of electron donors and/or acceptors which are observed within microbial mats, sediments and soil pores. Energy taxis has been characterized in several species and might be widespread in the microbial world. Genome sequencing revealed that many microorganisms from aquatic and soil environments possess large numbers of chemoreceptors and are likely to be capable of energy taxis. In contrast, species that have a fewer number of chemoreceptors are often found in specific, confined environments, where relatively constant environmental conditions are expected. Future studies focusing on characterizing behavioral responses in species that are adapted to diverse environmental conditions should unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying sensory behavior in general and energy taxis in particular. Such knowledge is critical to a better understanding of the ecological role of energy taxis.

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.134 - What is U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is U.S. flag air... Common Carrier Transportation Use of United States Flag Air Carriers § 301-10.134 What is U.S. flag air carrier service? U.S. flag air carrier service is service provided on an air carrier which holds a...

  1. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  2. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  3. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  4. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  5. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  6. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): AIRS_AQS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Air Quality System (AQS). The AQS contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, State, Local, and Tribal air pollution control agencies from thousands of monitoring stations. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to monitoring stations once the AQS data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  7. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and installed so that: (a)...

  12. Fine particle concentrations in buses and taxis in Florence, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fondelli, M. Cristina; Chellini, Elisabetta; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cenni, Isabella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Nava, Silvia; Garcia-Orellana, Isabel; Lupi, Andrea; Grechi, Daniele; Mallone, Sandra; Jantunen, Matti

    On October 2004, a sampling survey was carried out in Florence to estimate urban fine particle exposure concentrations inside commuting vehicles during workdays characterized by heavy traffic. Portable samplers were positioned inside four regularly scheduled diesel-powered buses and four taxis during eight weekdays. Each sampler consisted of a 2.5 μm size pre-separator cyclone, a direct-reading data logging photometer (pDR-1200), and a 4 L min -1 filter sampler for the determination of PM 2.5 mass concentration. Based on reflectance analysis measurements, a PM 2.5 Black Smoke Index was determined for each filter, and the elemental composition of the PM 2.5 was analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). PM 2.5 mass concentrations inside the vehicles correlated well with the urban ambient air PM 2.5 concentrations measured at the fixed-site monitoring stations. The PM 2.5 excess above the urban ambient level was on average 32 μg m -3 (range: 22-52 μg m -3) and 20 μg m -3 (range: 11-29 μg m -3) in buses and taxis, respectively. The PM 2.5-bound sulfur concentration was also higher in the buses than in the taxis. Based on daily Time-Microenvironment-Activity-Diary (TMAD) data, the Florentines spend on average 9.7% of their day in traffic, and the corresponding average exposure is approximately 12% of their daily PM 2.5 personal exposure. The obtained data could be used to plan interventions to minimize the PM 2.5 citizen exposures in commuting.

  13. An Automated Information System for Air Force Food Service Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    ACCESSION NO. 3. Rgi (^NATICK/TR-84/031 j) /^Q ’ /^>M (o l6j5 4. ’riTi.-fr<* _^N AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR AIR FORCE FOOD SERVICE OPERATIONS 7...ABSTRACT fTMiflMia ■■ m^ I l4mmtHr br Mac* nuattarj :^An automated management information system concept for US Air Force food service operations in...readers on the serving line. These electronic cash registers and card readers provide information regarding which food items have been sold and how

  14. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sihai; Wang, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big data analysis in

  15. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sihai; Wang, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers’ destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big data analysis in

  16. The Effects of Taxi on Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun

    Taxi will come to one complete halt during the boarding/alighting period and might produce stop-and-go without passengers, so it often produces traffic interruption on the single-lane system. Tang et al. pointed out that the traffic flow model [Chin. Phys. 18, 975 (2009)] can be used to directly describe various micro phenomena resulted by traffic interruption on the single-lane system, if we properly define the traffic interruption probability, so in this paper we adopt this model to study the micro phenomena resulted by taxi on the single-lane system. The numerical results show that this model can describe the effects that taxi has on the trails of each vehicle's motion and the evolutions of the flow and the density on the single-lane system, but that these effects are relevant to the initial conditions of the whole system.

  17. Continuous traveling waves for prey-taxis.

    PubMed

    Lee, J M; Hillen, T; Lewis, M A

    2008-04-01

    Spatially moving predators are often considered for biological control of invasive species. The question arises as to whether introduced predators are able to stop an advancing pest or foreign population. In recent studies of reaction-diffusion models, it has been shown that the prey invasion can only be stopped if the prey dynamics observes an Allee effect. In this paper, we include prey-taxis into the model. Prey-taxis describe the active movement of predators to regions of high prey density. This effect leads to the observation that predators are drawn away from the leading edge of a prey invasion where its density is low. This leads to counterintuitive result that prey-taxis can actually reduce the likelihood of effective biocontrol.

  18. Global stability of prey-taxis systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hai-Yang; Wang, Zhi-An

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we prove the global boundedness and stability of the predator-prey system with prey-taxis in a two-dimensional bounded domain with Neumann boundary conditions. By deriving an entropy-like equality and a boundedness criterion, we show that the intrinsic interaction between predators and preys is sufficient to prevent the population overcrowding even the prey-taxis is included and strong. Furthermore, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals, we show that prey-only steady state is globally asymptotically stable if the predation is weak, and the co-existence steady state is globally asymptotically stable under some conditions (like the prey-taxis is weak or the prey diffuses fast) if the predation is strong. The convergence rates of solutions to the steady states are derived in the paper.

  19. Diversity at its best: bacterial taxis.

    PubMed

    Krell, Tino; Lacal, Jesús; Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Reyes-Darias, José Antonio; Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; García-Fontana, Cristina; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial taxis is one of the most investigated signal transduction mechanisms. Studies of taxis have primarily used Escherichia coli and Salmonella as model organism. However, more recent studies of other bacterial species revealed a significant diversity in the chemotaxis mechanisms which are reviewed here. Differences include the genomic abundance, size and topology of chemoreceptors, the mode of signal binding, the presence of additional cytoplasmic signal transduction proteins or the motor mechanism. This diversity of chemotactic mechanisms is partly due to the diverse nature of input signals. However, the physiological reasons for the majority of differences in the taxis systems are poorly understood and its elucidation represents a major research need. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Bacterial energy taxis: a global strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Schweinitzer, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    A functional energy metabolism is one of the most important requirements for survival of all kinds of organisms including bacteria. Therefore, many bacteria actively seek conditions of optimal metabolic activity, a behaviour which can be termed “energy taxis”. Motility, combined with the sensory perception of the internal energetic conditions, is prerequisite for tactic responses to different energy levels and metabolic yields. Diverse mechanisms of energy sensing and tactic response have evolved among various bacteria. Many of the known energy taxis sensors group among the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-like sensors. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of energy taxis and explores the current concept that energy taxis is an important part of the bacterial behavioural repertoire in order to navigate towards more favourable metabolic niches and to survive in a specific habitat. PMID:20411245

  1. Learning at Air Navigation Services after Initial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teperi, Anna-Maria; Leppanen, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training period. The study also aims to find out what practices need to be improved to enhance learning at work. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected…

  2. Learning at Air Navigation Services after Initial Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teperi, Anna-Maria; Leppanen, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training period. The study also aims to find out what practices need to be improved to enhance learning at work. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected…

  3. 49 CFR 27.77 - Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies. 27... Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies. Any air carrier receiving Federal financial assistance from the Department of Transportation under the Essential Air Service Program shall, as a condition of...

  4. 49 CFR 27.77 - Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies. Any air carrier receiving Federal financial assistance from the Department of Transportation under the Essential Air Service Program shall, as a condition of... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recipients of Essential Air Service subsidies. 27...

  5. Aircraft taxiing route planning based on airport hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Zuo, Qinghai

    2017-05-01

    In order to avoid airport surface hotspots, taxiing route planned for aircraft based on surface hotspots is proposed in this paper. Firstly, airport is abstracted into node-link model and aircraft taxiing avoidance mechanism is established. Then, a ground taxiing route optimization model which minimizes total taxiing time is proposed. A simulation is conducted based on a practical setting of 9 flights on runway 02L at a central-south airport. Simulation results indicate that total taxiing time is reduced by 243s after optimization and no taxiing conflict occurs. Meanwhile, the number of flight that taxi through hotspots area is reduced f, which effectively alleviates the risk level of hotspots and improves airport operation safety.

  6. Monopoly Profits: The Market for Taxi Licenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Presents a case study dealing with open versus closed markets for use in college economics classes. Using the example of the taxi license monopoly in Dublin, Ireland, students examine how theories of supply and demand explain the characteristics of open and closed markets. (AM)

  7. Math on the Job. Taxi Driver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of taxi drivers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to the…

  8. Differences in cognitive process-related skills between taxi and non-taxi drivers between 50 and 70 years old.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Hsu, Chun-Chia; Doong, Ji-Liang; Lin, Chih-Yung; Lai, Ching-Huei

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated differences between 50- to 70-yr.-old taxi and non-taxi drivers with respect to cognitive process-related skills. Psychological indicators associated with perceptuomotor, attentional, and spatial memory recall abilities were collected for 173 taxi drivers (7 women, 166 men; M age = 57.5 yr.) and 175 non-taxi drivers (85 women, 90 men; M age = 58.2 yr.). The taxi drivers had shorter reaction times and motor times in response to stimuli in simple stimulus-response tasks. There was an age-related decline in monocular vision detection on both sides, processing speed for fovea stimuli, and higher-level cognition for drivers. Accordingly, the frontal visual information processing speed of the taxi drivers was superior to the non-taxi drivers, but a distinct age-related decline was observed for all drivers.

  9. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.

  11. Emission characteristics of nonmethane hydrocarbons from private cars and taxis at different driving speeds in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Zou, S. C.; Tsai, W. Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-05-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of a number of air pollutants including nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in urban area. The emission composition and emission factors of NMHCs from vehicles are currently lacking in Hong Kong. In this study, speciation and emission factors of NMHCs emitted from gasoline-fuelled private cars and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-fuelled taxis at different driving speeds were constructed using a chassis dynamometer. Large variations in the contributions of individual NMHC species to total emission were observed for different private cars at different driving speeds. The variations of individual NMHC emissions were relatively smaller for taxis due to their relatively homogeneous year of manufacture and mileages. Incomplete combustion products like ethane, ethene and propene were the major component of both types of vehicles, while unburned fuel component was also abundant in the exhausts of private cars and taxis (i.e. i-pentane and toluene for private car, and propane and butanes for taxi). Emission factors of major NMHCs emitted from private cars and taxis were estimated. High emission factors of ethane, n-butane, i/ n-pentanes, methylpentanes, trimethylpentanes, ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and xylenes were found for private cars, whereas propane and i/ n-butanes had the highest values for taxis. By evaluating the effect of vehicular emissions on the ozone formation potential (OFP), it was found that the contributions of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons to OFP were higher than that from paraffinic hydrocarbons for private car, whereas the contributions of propane and i/ n-butanes were the highest for taxis. The total OFP value was higher at lower speeds (≤50 km h -1) for private cars while a minimum value at driving speed of 100 km h -1 was found for taxis. At the steady driving speeds, the total contribution of NMHCs emitted from LPG-fuelled taxis to the OFP was much lower than that from gasoline

  12. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air Service...

  13. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air Service...

  14. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air Service...

  15. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic... or from a High Density Traffic Airport under the Department of Transportation's Essential Air Service...

  16. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  17. 14 CFR 204.4 - Carriers proposing to provide essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriers proposing to provide essential air....4 Carriers proposing to provide essential air service. Applicants proposing to provide essential air...-subsidized essential air service when the incumbent leaves the market must file the following information: (1...

  18. The application of algorithm in taxi security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengyu

    2017-08-01

    With the booming of the society and economy today, Taxis and private cars have gradually become one of the most popular tools in transportation for their low price and convenience. However, because of the breakdown in the security system, a few accidents occurred due to the illegal taxi. The unreliable security management has attributed to the lack of trust in taxi companies and relevant regulatory authorities, which considered to be the reason why people are worried about it. Accordingly, we put forward a design for a taxi security system, making use of modern technology such as NFC, iBeacon, GPS combined with algorithms, automatically recognize the taxi we take, and reflecting basic information of taxi and driver on our mobile phone.

  19. 14 CFR 272.6 - Considerations in the determination of essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... essential air service. 272.6 Section 272.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.6 Considerations in the determination of essential air service. (a) In the determination of...

  20. 14 CFR 325.10 - Modification of the designated level of essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... essential air service. 325.10 Section 325.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.10 Modification of the designated level of essential air service. (a) Any person may file with DOT a petition...

  1. 77 FR 30437 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service... Federal Register proposing to amend various Air Traffic Service Routes in the Southwestern United States... to the authority delegated to me, the NPRM for the proposed amendment of Air Traffic Service...

  2. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  3. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  4. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  5. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  6. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  7. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  8. Effect of Surface Traffic Count on Taxi Time at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gupta, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of air traffic increases over the years, most airports simply do not have the means of expanding to handle the intensified traffic on the surface that will ensue. Precise surveillance equipment and automation concepts, as well as advanced surface traffic algorithms are being developed to improve airport efficiency. These surface algorithms require inputs unique to each airport to ensure maximum efficiency, and minimal taxi delay. This study analyzes surface traffic at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) to determine the effect of the number of aircraft on the surface and the amount of stop and go situations they experience to the amount of additional taxi time encountered. If the surface capacity of an airport is known, minimal delay can be accomplished by limiting the number of taxiing aircraft to that capacity. This concept is related to highways, where traffic flow drastically decreases as more cars occupy the road. An attempt to minimize this effect on highways is seen with the use of metering lights at freeway on-ramps. Since the surface traffic at airports is highly regulated, and aircraft are less mobile on the ground, limiting the surface count to a certain number can greatly reduce the amount of additional taxi time encountered, as well as reduce hazardous emissions. This study will also find the regions of an airport that encounter the most additional taxi time when the number of aircraft in that area is increased. This could help surface traffic algorithms avoid congesting that area, or re-route aircraft to different runways when that area reaches its capacity. The relationship between the amount of stop and go situations an aircraft encounters and their effect on the taxi time of that aircraft will also be investigated. This will help to determine the effect of holding an aircraft on the taxiway as opposed to re-routing it. The lesser of the two should be used when developing surface traffic algorithms to further minimize the

  9. 14 CFR 330.43 - What classes of air carriers are eligible under the set-aside?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... are two classes of eligible air carriers: (a) You are a Class I air carrier if you are an air taxi... month of August, 2001. (b) You are a Class II air carrier if you are an air taxi, regional, commuter or...

  10. 14 CFR 330.43 - What classes of air carriers are eligible under the set-aside?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are two classes of eligible air carriers: (a) You are a Class I air carrier if you are an air taxi... month of August, 2001. (b) You are a Class II air carrier if you are an air taxi, regional, commuter or...

  11. 14 CFR 330.43 - What classes of air carriers are eligible under the set-aside?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... are two classes of eligible air carriers: (a) You are a Class I air carrier if you are an air taxi... month of August, 2001. (b) You are a Class II air carrier if you are an air taxi, regional, commuter or...

  12. 14 CFR 330.43 - What classes of air carriers are eligible under the set-aside?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are two classes of eligible air carriers: (a) You are a Class I air carrier if you are an air taxi... month of August, 2001. (b) You are a Class II air carrier if you are an air taxi, regional, commuter or...

  13. 14 CFR 330.43 - What classes of air carriers are eligible under the set-aside?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... are two classes of eligible air carriers: (a) You are a Class I air carrier if you are an air taxi... month of August, 2001. (b) You are a Class II air carrier if you are an air taxi, regional, commuter or...

  14. Taxis Response of Various Denitrifying Bacteria to Nitrate and Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P.

    2002-01-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds. PMID:11976082

  15. Taxis response of various denitrifying bacteria to nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P

    2002-05-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds.

  16. Artificial neural network model for identifying taxi gross emitter from remote sensing data of vehicle emission.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Guo, Hua-fang; Hu, Yue-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle emission has been the major source of air pollution in urban areas in the past two decades. This article proposes an artificial neural network model for identifying the taxi gross emitters based on the remote sensing data. After carrying out the field test in Guangzhou and analyzing various factors from the emission data, the artificial neural network modeling was proved to be an advisable method of identifying the gross emitters. On the basis of the principal component analysis and the selection of algorithm and architecture, the Back-Propagation neural network model with 8-17-1 architecture was established as the optimal approach for this purpose. It gave a percentage of hits of 93%. Our previous research result and the result from aggression analysis were compared, and they provided respectively the percentage of hits of 81.63% and 75%. This comparison demonstrates the potentiality and validity of the proposed method in the identification of taxi gross emitters.

  17. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25.491 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi...

  18. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25.491 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi...

  19. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25.491 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi...

  20. Taxi-cabs as Subjects for a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, J. A.; Bradley, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the use of capture-recapture techniques to estimate the population of taxis in Liverpool and demonstrates the points of similarity to animal population estimation. Considers advantages of studying taxis rather than organisms in introductory studies of the techniques. (AL)

  1. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25.491 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi...

  2. 14 CFR 25.491 - Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxi, takeoff and landing roll. 25.491 Section 25.491 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.491 Taxi...

  3. [The clinical analysis of 51 taxi drivers with peptic ulcer].

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-wen; Zhao, Jie; Fu, Yun-xian; Ma, A-huo

    2012-02-01

    To explore the main pathogenic factor causing the peptic ulcer of taxi drivers, which provide the basis for its prevention. 98 taxi drivers were inspected by electronic endoscopy, according to the inspection all cases were divided into ulcers group and normal group. Then various factors were statuses by the logistic regression analysis according to the results of questionnaire. The prevalence of peptic ulcer of taxi drivers was 52.0%, and logistic regression analysis showed that dining time, taste spicy, meals temperature, smoking,alcohol, mental stress, HP infection and stomach health knowledge were statistically significant (P < 0.05), which would be the risk factors for peptic ulcer of taxi drivers. By emphasis on diet and lifestyle adjustments, stress regulation on the basis of eradication of HP infection will help the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer of the taxi driver.

  4. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness.

    PubMed

    Graser, John C; Blum, Daniel; Brancato, Kevin; Burks, James J; Chan, Edward W; Nicosia, Nancy; Neumann, Michael J; Ritschard, Hans V; Mundell, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    The prime mission of the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS), like those of the medical departments of its sister services, is to provide medical care during wartime. AFMS currently runs three successful in-theater hospitals that treat severely injured or wounded U.S. personnel from all four services. But this wartime mission depends on capabilities built at home, as critical-care specialists maintain their technical proficiency, as much as peacetime opportunities allow, by meeting health-care needs of Department of Defense beneficiaries at home. These patients have ranged from young, healthy active-duty personnel to aging retirees, historically presenting a broad range of injuries and illnesses for treatment. However, between the demands of deployments creating gaps in staff at home and changes in care plans, some beneficiaries now seek care in the civilian sector. In addition, several AFMS hospitals stateside have been closed, converted to clinics, or combined with those of other services for various reasons. All is problematic for two reasons: First, inpatient workloads in particular represent the best opportunities for critical care providers to prepare for their wartime missions. AFMS will need to increase these opportunities, perhaps working with other services, the Department of Veterans Affairs, or civilian hospitals. Second, AFMS's funding depends, in part, on the workload performed, but current measurement methods do not necessarily do a good job of accounting for the work AFMS practitioners accomplish outside their home stations. Some imminent changes may help resolve this situation, but AFMS should pursue opportunities to create additional workload for its medical personnel and to increase its budgets.

  5. Taxi and Expedition Three crews pose for a group photo in Zvezda during Expedition Three

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    ISS003-E-7032 (23-31 October 2001) --- The Expedition Three crew (bottom) and the Soyuz Taxi crew assemble for a group photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition Three crewmembers are astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (center), mission commander, and cosmonauts Mikhail Tyurin (left) and Vladimir N. Dezhurov, both flight engineers. The Soyuz Taxi crewmembers are Commander Victor Afanasyev (left), French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere, and Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev. Tyurin, Dezhurov, Afanasyev, and Kozeev represent Rosaviakosmos. Haignere represents ESA, carrying out a flight program for CNES, the French Space Agency, under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  6. Taxi and Expedition Three crews pose for a group photo in Zvezda during Expedition Three

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    ISS003-E-7039 (23-31 October 2001) --- The Expedition Three crew (bottom) and the Soyuz Taxi crew assemble for a group photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition Three crewmembers are astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (center), mission commander, and cosmonauts Mikhail Tyurin (left) and Vladimir N. Dezhurov, both flight engineers. The Soyuz taxi crewmembers are Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev (left), Commander Victor Afanasyev, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere. Tyurin, Dezhurov, Afanasyev, and Kozeev represent Rosaviakosmos. Haignere represents ESA, carrying out a flight program for CNES, the French Space Agency, under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  7. Taxi and Expedition Three crews prepare for a group photo in Zvezda during Expedition Three

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    ISS003-E-7029 (23-31 October 2001) --- The Expedition Three crew (bottom) and the Soyuz Taxi crew assemble for a group photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition Three crewmembers are astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (center), mission commander, and cosmonauts Mikhail Tyurin (left) and Vladimir N. Dezhurov, both flight engineers. The Soyuz Taxi crewmembers are Commander Victor Afanasyev (left), French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere, and Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev. Tyurin, Dezhurov, Afanasyev, and Kozeev represent Rosaviakosmos. Haignere represents ESA, carrying out a flight program for CNES, the French Space Agency, under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  8. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...-share service on Internet Web sites and elsewhere by air carriers, their agents, and third party sellers... the disclosure of code-share service, in the context of Web site displays, must be included in any... and in particular with respect to disclosure of code-share service on the agents' Web sites. Based on...

  9. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ravara, Sofia B; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Aguiar, Pedro; Calheiros, Jose M

    2013-02-14

    Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010). 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate). Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8%) approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p < 0.001). The major reason for not allowing smoking was the legal ban and associated fines (71.2%). Of the smokers, 66.1% admitted smoking in their taxi. Stale smoke smells were detected in 37.6% of the cars. None of the taxi drivers did ever receive a fine for non-compliance. Heavy smoking, night-shift and allowing smoking prior the ban predicted non-compliance. Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong policies.

  10. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  11. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  12. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  13. Ground Taxi Navigation Problems and Training Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Cheryl; Walter, Kim E.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions can put considerable strain on the National Airspace System. Even small decreases in visibility on the airport surface can create delays, hinder safe movement and lead to errors. Studies of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) surface movement incidents support the need for technologies and procedures to improve ground operations in low-visibility conditions. This study examined 139 ASRS reports of low-visibility surface movement incidents at 10 major U.S. airports. Errors were characterized in terms of incident type, contributing factors and consequences. The incidents in the present sample were comprised of runway transgressions, taxiway excursions and ground conflicts. The primary contributing factors were Airport Layout and Markings, Communication and Distraction. In half the incidents the controller issued a new clearance or the flight crew took an evasive action and in the remaining half, no recovery attempt was made because the error was detected after the fact. By gaining a better understanding the factors that affect crew navigation in low visibility and the types of errors that are likely to occur, it will be possible to develop more robust technologies to aid pilots in the ground taxi task. Implications for crew training and procedure development for low-visibility ground taxi are also discussed.

  14. Stochastic models for cell motion and taxis.

    PubMed

    Ionides, Edward L; Fang, Kathy S; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Oster, George F

    2004-01-01

    Certain biological experiments investigating cell motion result in time lapse video microscopy data which may be modeled using stochastic differential equations. These models suggest statistics for quantifying experimental results and testing relevant hypotheses, and carry implications for the qualitative behavior of cells and for underlying biophysical mechanisms. Directional cell motion in response to a stimulus, termed taxis, has previously been modeled at a phenomenological level using the Keller-Segel diffusion equation. The Keller-Segel model cannot distinguish certain modes of taxis, and this motivates the introduction of a richer class of models which is nevertheless still amenable to statistical analysis. A state space model formulation is used to link models proposed for cell velocity to observed data. Sequential Monte Carlo methods enable parameter estimation via maximum likelihood for a range of applicable models. One particular experimental situation, involving the effect of an electric field on cell behavior, is considered in detail. In this case, an Ornstein- Uhlenbeck model for cell velocity is found to compare favorably with a nonlinear diffusion model.

  15. Perception and reality of particulate matter exposure in New York City taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Prasad, Lakshmi; Leng, Jennifer; Lee, Trevor; Thurston, George D; Gordon, Terry; Acharya, Sudha; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) have been linked to negative health risks, but exposure among professional taxi drivers is understudied. This pilot study measured drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about air pollution compared with direct measures of exposures. Roadside and in-vehicle levels of PM2.5 and BC were continuously measured over a single shift on each subject, and exposures compared with central site monitoring. One hundred drivers completed an air pollution KAB questionnaire, and seven taxicabs participated in preliminary in-cab air sampling. Taxicab PM2.5 and BC concentrations were elevated compared with nearby central monitoring. Average PM2.5 concentrations per 15-min interval were 4-49 μg/m(3). BC levels were also elevated; reaching>10 μg/m(3). Fifty-six of the 100 drivers surveyed believed they were more exposed than non-drivers; 81 believed air pollution causes health problems. Air pollution exposures recorded suggest that driver exposures would likely exceed EPA recommendations if experienced for 24 h. Surveys indicated that driver awareness of this was limited. Future studies should focus on reducing exposures and increasing awareness among taxi drivers.

  16. Resources and Fact Sheets on Servicing Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Summary Page)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides links to resources that can assist motor vehicle air-conditioning system technicians in understanding system servicing requirements and best practices, and learn about alternative refrigerants.

  17. Standardization of databases for AMDB taxi routing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pschierer, C.; Sindlinger, A.; Schiefele, J.

    2010-04-01

    Input, management, and display of taxi routes on airport moving map displays (AMM) have been covered in various studies in the past. The demonstrated applications are typically based on Aerodrome Mapping Databases (AMDB). Taxi routing functions require specific enhancements, typically in the form of a graph network with nodes and edges modeling all connectivities within an airport, which are not supported by the current AMDB standards. Therefore, the data schemas and data content have been defined specifically for the purpose and test scenarios of these studies. A standardization of the data format for taxi routing information is a prerequisite for turning taxi routing functions into production. The joint RTCA/EUROCAE special committee SC-217, responsible for updating and enhancing the AMDB standards DO-272 [1] and DO-291 [2], is currently in the process of studying different alternatives and defining reasonable formats. Requirements for taxi routing data are primarily driven by depiction concepts for assigned and cleared taxi routes, but also by database size and the economic feasibility. Studied concepts are similar to the ones described in the GDF (geographic data files) specification [3], which is used in most car navigation systems today. They include - A highly aggregated graph network of complex features - A modestly aggregated graph network of simple features - A non-explicit topology of plain AMDB taxi guidance line elements This paper introduces the different concepts and their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Energy Taxis Is the Dominant Behavior in Azospirillum brasilense

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Gladys; Greer, Suzanne E.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2000-01-01

    Energy taxis encompasses aerotaxis, phototaxis, redox taxis, taxis to alternative electron acceptors, and chemotaxis to oxidizable substrates. The signal for this type of behavior is originated within the electron transport system. Energy taxis was demonstrated, as a part of an overall behavior, in several microbial species, but it did not appear as the dominant determinant in any of them. In this study, we show that most behavioral responses proceed through this mechanism in the alpha-proteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense. First, chemotaxis to most chemoeffectors typical of the azospirilla habitat was found to be metabolism dependent and required a functional electron transport system. Second, other energy-related responses, such as aerotaxis, redox taxis, and taxis to alternative electron acceptors, were found in A. brasilense. Finally, a mutant lacking a cytochrome c oxidase of the cbb3 type was affected in chemotaxis, redox taxis, and aerotaxis. Altogether, the results indicate that behavioral responses to most stimuli in A. brasilense are triggered by changes in the electron transport system. PMID:11029423

  19. An energy taxis transducer promotes root colonization by Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Greer-Phillips, Suzanne E; Stephens, Bonnie B; Alexandre, Gladys

    2004-10-01

    Motility responses triggered by changes in the electron transport system are collectively known as energy taxis. In Azospirillum brasilense, energy taxis was shown to be the principal form of locomotor control. In the present study, we have identified a novel chemoreceptor-like protein, named Tlp1, which serves as an energy taxis transducer. The Tlp1 protein is predicted to have an N-terminal periplasmic region and a cytoplasmic C-terminal signaling module homologous to those of other chemoreceptors. The predicted periplasmic region of Tlp1 comprises a conserved domain that is found in two types of microbial sensory receptors: chemotaxis transducers and histidine kinases. However, the function of this domain is currently unknown. We characterized the behavior of a tlp1 mutant by a series of spatial and temporal gradient assays. The tlp1 mutant is deficient in (i) chemotaxis to several rapidly oxidizable substrates, (ii) taxis to terminal electron acceptors (oxygen and nitrate), and (iii) redox taxis. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that Tlp1 mediates energy taxis in A. brasilense. Using qualitative and quantitative assays, we have also demonstrated that the tlp1 mutant is impaired in colonization of plant roots. This finding supports the hypothesis that energy taxis and therefore bacterial metabolism might be key factors in determining host specificity in Azospirillum-grass associations.

  20. Airport shared-ride taxi programs in New York, Chicago and Boston. Final report, September 1978-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.; Freilich, J.

    1987-12-01

    This report summarizes the development and operation of three shared-ride taxi operations at major US airports. These are: New York's LaGuardia Airport Share-A-Cab; Super Saver Taxi in Chicago; and Share-A-Cab service at Boston's Logan Airport. The Chicago operation provided service from O'Hare and Midway Airports and also, for a short time, within three downtown zones. The report presents information on ridership, costs, and special operating characteristics derived from personal interviews, on-site observations, and review of accumulated data. Special attention is paid to the institutional environment in which the services were implemented and the special role played by institutional and operational factors in the success or failure of the services.

  1. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  2. The many cases of XFJ: suitable to drive a taxi or "killer cabbie"?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Vanessa; Nankivell, Janette

    2012-09-01

    For 10 years, the refugee now known by the pseudonym XFJ attempted to gain accreditation to drive a taxi-cab. After many internal reviews and rejections by the Victorian Taxi Directorate, XFJ appealed to the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT). The difficulty for XFJ was that shortly after arriving in Australia, he had killed his estranged wife. The Supreme Court of Victoria subsequently found him not guilty of murder on the grounds of insanity. Since XFJ's mental health has been stable for many years, much of the legal argument at VCAT and the court cases that followed centred around whether he was "suitable in other respects to provide the service" of driving a taxi, as required by s 169(1)(b)(ii) of the Transport Act 1983 (Vic). This article looks at the tension between the expert medical evidence and the concept of "suitable in other respects" which XFJ's opponents claimed included the maintenance of public confidence and the meeting of community expectations.

  3. Taxi Drivers: A Target Population for the Prevention of Transmissible Disease?

    PubMed

    Limper, Heather M; Burns, Jennifer L; Alexander, Kenneth A

    2016-04-01

    We set out to assess the feasibility and uptake of an on-site influenza vaccination campaign targeting taxi drivers in airport taxicab lots in Chicago, Illinois. Influenza vaccine was provided by the Chicago Department of Public Health as this event aligned with ongoing efforts to provide influenza vaccinations throughout the city. Clinicians and clinic support staff were volunteers recruited from the University of Chicago Medicine and incorporated nursing staff, physicians, physician residents, and administrative support. Together, this allowed for a cost-effective approach to provide free influenza vaccines to the primarily uninsured taxi driver population. During these events, 545 taxi drivers received influenza vaccine in 2012 while 354 drivers were immunized in 2013. Nearly all drivers reported uninsured or under-insured status. The ability to use volunteers and healthcare organization's desires to meet the needs of the community, in collaboration with often under-staffed but highly dedicated local health departments have the potential to offer valuable public health services to underserved members of the community. Educational initiatives targeting vaccine hesitancy and misinformation may be necessary to improve immunization coverage among this population.

  4. Computations underlying Drosophila photo-taxis, odor-taxis, and multi-sensory integration.

    PubMed

    Gepner, Ruben; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Bernat, Natalie M; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    2015-05-06

    To better understand how organisms make decisions on the basis of temporally varying multi-sensory input, we identified computations made by Drosophila larvae responding to visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli. We modeled the larva's navigational decision to initiate turns as the output of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascade. We used reverse-correlation to fit parameters to this model; the parameterized model predicted larvae's responses to novel stimulus patterns. For multi-modal inputs, we found that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction by measuring larvae's responses to coordinated changes in odor and light. We studied other navigational decisions and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway.

  5. Identification of structural determinants for inhibition strength and specificity of wheat xylanase inhibitors TAXI-IA and TAXI-IIA.

    PubMed

    Pollet, Annick; Sansen, Stefaan; Raedschelders, Gert; Gebruers, Kurt; Rabijns, Anja; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2009-07-01

    Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI)-type inhibitors are active against microbial xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 11, but the inhibition strength and the specificity towards different xylanases differ between TAXI isoforms. Mutational and biochemical analyses of TAXI-I, TAXI-IIA and Bacillus subtilis xylanase A showed that inhibition strength and specificity depend on the identity of only a few key residues of inhibitor and xylanase [Fierens K et al. (2005) FEBS J 272, 5872-5882; Raedschelders G et al. (2005) Biochem Biophys Res Commun335, 512-522; Sorensen JF & Sibbesen O (2006) Protein Eng Des Sel 19, 205-210; Bourgois TM et al. (2007) J Biotechnol 130, 95-105]. Crystallographic analysis of the structures of TAXI-IA and TAXI-IIA in complex with glycoside hydrolase family 11 B. subtilis xylanase A now provides a substantial explanation for these observations and a detailed insight into the structural determinants for inhibition strength and specificity. Structures of the xylanaseinhibitor complexes show that inhibition is established by loop interactions with active-site residues and substrate-mimicking contacts in the binding subsites. The interaction of residues Leu292 of TAXI-IA and Pro294 of TAXI-IIA with the -2 glycon subsite of the xylanase is shown to be critical for both inhibition strength and specificity. Also, detailed analysis of the interaction interfaces of the complexes illustrates that the inhibition strength of TAXI is related to the presence of an aspartate or asparagine residue adjacent to the acid/base catalyst of the xylanase, and therefore to the pH optimum of the xylanase. The lower the pH optimum of the xylanase, the stronger will be the interaction between enzyme and inhibitor, and the stronger the resulting inhibition.

  6. Perception and reality of particulate matter exposure in New York City taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Prasad, Lakshmi; Leng, Jennifer; Lee, Trevor; Thurston, George D; Gordon, Terry; Acharya, Sudha; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) have been linked to negative health risks, but exposure among professional taxi drivers is unknown. This study measured drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about air pollution compared to direct measures of exposures. Methods Roadside and in-vehicle levels of PM2.5 and BC were continuously measured over a single shift and compared to central site monitoring. Participants completed an air pollution KAB questionnaire. Results Taxicab PM2.5 and BC concentrations were elevated compared to central monitoring. Average PM2.5 concentrations per 15-minute interval were 4 - 49 μg/m3; 1-minute peaks measured up to 452 μg/m3. BC levels were also elevated; reaching > 10 μg/m3. 56 of 100 drivers surveyed believed they were more exposed than non-drivers; 81 believed air pollution causes health problems. Conclusions Air pollution exposure among drivers likely exceeds EPA recommendations. Future studies should focus on reducing exposures and increasing awareness among taxi drivers. PMID:27168392

  7. Taxi Arrival of Second SR-71 to Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of two initial U.S. Air Force SR-71A reconnaissance aircraft that was retired from operational service and loaned to NASA for high-speed research programs taxis in to the ramp on its arrival at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California in March 1990. Data from the SR-71 high speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the

  8. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  9. Taxis toward hydrogen gas by Methanococcus maripaludis.

    PubMed

    Brileya, Kristen A; Connolly, James M; Downey, Carey; Gerlach, Robin; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-11-05

    Knowledge of taxis (directed swimming) in the Archaea is currently expanding through identification of novel receptors, effectors, and proteins involved in signal transduction to the flagellar motor. Although the ability for biological cells to sense and swim toward hydrogen gas has been hypothesized for many years, this capacity has yet to be observed and demonstrated. Here we show that the average swimming velocity increases in the direction of a source of hydrogen gas for the methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis using a capillary assay with anoxic gas-phase control and time-lapse microscopy. The results indicate that a methanogen couples motility to hydrogen concentration sensing and is the first direct observation of hydrogenotaxis in any domain of life. Hydrogenotaxis represents a strategy that would impart a competitive advantage to motile microorganisms that compete for hydrogen gas and would impact the C, S and N cycles.

  10. Health and safety strategies of urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara Jean; Gillen, Marion; White, Mary Castle

    2012-08-01

    This study describes health and safety concerns and self-care strategies of San Francisco taxi drivers. Focus groups and a written cross-sectional survey were done in a convenience sample of taxi drivers working in San Francisco. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed in English, and independently coded to identify major health and safety themes, using thematic content analysis. Strategies to manage health and safety issues are the focus of this analysis. Five focus groups were held in 2009 with 36 participants. Major health and safety themes included stress, body pain, danger, vulnerable employment status, and concerns related to unhealthy working conditions. Self-care strategies included diffusion/decompression to manage stress, maintaining a positive attitude, maintaining power and control, and practicing proactive self-care. Creative self-care strategies were described by taxi drivers to keep healthy and safe at work. These data will inform future self-care interventions to reduce health and safety risks of taxi driving.

  11. View southwest; taxi office New Canaan Railroad Station, Approximately ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest; taxi office - New Canaan Railroad Station, Approximately 200 feet southwest of intersection of Park & Elm Streets & approximately 150 feet north of Pine Street, New Canaan, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 14 CFR 93.219 - Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations. 93.219 Section 93.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airports § 93.219 Allocation of slots for essential air service operations and applicable limitations...

  13. 14 CFR 272.3 - Places eligible for guaranteed essential air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Places eligible for guaranteed essential... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.3 Places eligible for guaranteed essential air service. (a) Subject to the provisions of this part...

  14. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  15. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  16. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  17. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  18. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not...

  19. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  20. An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis of Air Force Medical Service Pharmaceuticals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis of Air Force Medical Service Pharmaceuticals THESIS Blake...Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-133 An Inventory and Safety Stock Analysis of Air Force Medical...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-133 AN INVENTORY AND SAFETY STOCK ANALYSIS OF AIR FORCE MEDICAL

  1. Air quality management in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wilderness areas

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Porter

    2000-01-01

    Proper management of air resources is vital to maintaining the wilderness character of an area. Air pollution can affect natural resources and has caused injury to vegetation, bioaccumulation of mercury in fish, eutrophication of coastal ecosystems and visibility impairment in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) wilderness areas. Sources of air pollution include power...

  2. Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan.

  3. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Molecular identification of wheat endoxylanase inhibitor TAXI-II and the determinants of its inhibition specificity.

    PubMed

    Raedschelders, Gert; Fierens, Katleen; Sansen, Stefaan; Rombouts, Sigrid; Gebruers, Kurt; Robben, Johan; Rabijns, Anja; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Van Campenhout, Steven; Volckaert, Guido

    2005-09-23

    Wheat grains contain Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor (TAXI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases, some of which are used in cereal based food industries. These inhibitors may play a role in plant defence. Among the TAXI isoforms described so far, TAXI-II displays a deviating inhibition specificity pattern. Here, we report on the molecular identity of TAXI-II and the basis of its inhibition specificity. Three candidate TAXI-II encoding sequences were isolated and recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris. To identify TAXI-II, the resulting proteins were tested against glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 11 xylanases of Aspergillus niger (ANX) and Bacillus subtilis (BSX). One of these proteins (rTAXI-IB) inhibited both enzymes, like natural TAXI-I. The other candidates (rTAXI-IIA and rTAXI-IIB) showed an inhibition pattern typical for natural TAXI-II, only clearly inhibiting BSX. Comparative analysis of these highly similar sequences with distinct inhibition activity patterns, combined with information on the structural basis for ANX inhibition by TAXI-I [S. Sansen, C.J. De Ranter, K. Gebruers, K. Brijs, C.M. Courtin, J.A. Delcour, A. Rabijns, Structural basis for inhibition of Aspergillus niger xylanase by Triticum aestivum xylanase inhibitor-I, J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 36022-36028], indicated a crucial role for Pro294 of TAXI-IIA and Gln376 of TAXI-IIB in determining the reduced inhibition activity towards ANX. Consequently, single point mutants rTAXI-IIA[P294L] and rTAXI-IIB[Q376H], both displaying the Leu/His combination corresponding to TAXI-I, were able to inhibit ANX. These results show that TAXI-II inhibition specificity bears on the identity of two key residues at positions 294 and 376, which are involved in the interaction at the -2 glycon subsite and the active site of GHF 11, respectively.

  5. Analyzing Impact Factors of Airport Taxiing Delay Based on Ads-B Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.; Xu, Y.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Identifying the factors that cause taxiing delay on airports is a prerequisite for optimizing aircraft taxiing schemes, and helps improve the efficiency of taxiing system. Few of current studies had quantified the potential influencing factors and further investigated their intrinsic relationship. In view of these problems, this paper uses ADS-B data to calculate taxiing delay time by restoring taxiing route and identifying key status points, and further analyzes the impact factors of airport taxiing delay by investigating the relationship between delay time and environmental data such as weather, wind, visibility etc. The case study in Guangzhou Baiyun Airport validates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Taxi cab syndrome: a review of the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers and what we can do to help.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alon Y; Goldfarb, David S; Shah, Ojas

    2014-01-01

    This review consolidates knowledge regarding the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers. Taxi cab, livery, truck, and other drivers all objectively and subjectively may have more voiding dysfunction, infertility, urolithiasis, bladder cancer, and urinary infections as compared with nonprofessional drivers; this is called taxi cab syndrome. Together with governmental and medical assistance, simple interventions-such as education, the addition of taxi relief stations, and possibly the use of sanitary urinary collection devices-to curb the progression of genitourinary disease in taxi drivers should be prospectively studied. It is postulated that many of these interventions may also benefit other groups of occupationally related infrequent voiders.

  7. Taxi Cab Syndrome: A Review of the Extensive Genitourinary Pathology Experienced by Taxi Cab Drivers and What We Can Do to Help

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Alon Y; Goldfarb, David S; Shah, Ojas

    2014-01-01

    This review consolidates knowledge regarding the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers. Taxi cab, livery, truck, and other drivers all objectively and subjectively may have more voiding dysfunction, infertility, urolithiasis, bladder cancer, and urinary infections as compared with nonprofessional drivers; this is called taxi cab syndrome. Together with governmental and medical assistance, simple interventions—such as education, the addition of taxi relief stations, and possibly the use of sanitary urinary collection devices—to curb the progression of genitourinary disease in taxi drivers should be prospectively studied. It is postulated that many of these interventions may also benefit other groups of occupationally related infrequent voiders. PMID:25337038

  8. [Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Zhao-Xin; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Li, Jin-Xiang; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2015-03-01

    Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was

  9. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-02

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft No. 911, with the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour securely mounted atop its fuselage, taxies to the runway to begin the ferry flight from Rockwell's Plant 42 at Palmdale, California, where the orbiter was built, to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. At Kennedy, the space vehicle was processed and launched on orbital mission STS-49, which landed at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, 16 May 1992. NASA 911, the second modified 747 that went into service in November 1990, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the added weight of the orbiters.

  10. The Soyuz Taxi crew pose for a group photo in Zvezda during Expedition Three

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    ISS003-E-7033 (23-31 October 2001) --- The Soyuz Taxi crewmembers assemble for a group photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). From the left are Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, Commander Victor Afanasyev, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere. Afanasyev and Kozeev represent Rosaviakosmos, and Haignere represents ESA, carrying out a flight program for CNES, the French Space Agency, under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  11. Taxi and Expedition Three crews pose for a group photo in Zvezda during Expedition Three

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    ISS003-E-7037 (23-31 October 2001) --- Astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (foreground), Expedition Three mission commander, and the Soyuz Taxi crewmembers assemble for a group photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). From the left are Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, Commander Victor Afanasyev, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere. Afanasyev and Kozeev represent Rosaviakosmos, and Haignere represents ESA, carrying out a flight program for CNES, the French Space Agency, under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  12. Taxi and Expedition Three crews pose for a group photo in Zvezda during Expedition Three

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-23

    ISS003-E-7036 (23-31 October 2001) --- Astronaut Frank L. Culbertson, Jr. (foreground), Expedition Three mission commander, and the Soyuz Taxi crewmembers assemble for a group photo in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). From the left are Flight Engineer Konstantin Kozeev, Commander Victor Afanasyev, and French Flight Engineer Claudie Haignere. Afanasyev and Kozeev represent Rosaviakosmos, and Haignere represents ESA, carrying out a flight program for CNES, the French Space Agency, under a commercial contract with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. This image was taken with a digital still camera.

  13. TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahlport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). (The name TAXI as used here is derived from the acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.) The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility. The control, data-recording, and data-postprocessing equipment of the facility are located in a control room at a safe distance from the test stand. Heretofore, the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment has entailed post-test downloading via software, requiring many hours to days of post-test reduction before the data could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test. The instrumentation is connected to the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the data signals to an identical fiber-optic transceiver in the control room. On the way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface that is the focus of this article, the data signals are processed through a companion special purpose circuit denoted by the similar name parallel TAXI interface.

  14. TAXI Direct-to-Disk Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahlport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface is a special-purpose interface circuit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). (The name TAXI as used here is derived from the acronym TAXI, which signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface.) The TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket-testing facility. The control, data-recording, and data-postprocessing equipment of the facility are located in a control room at a safe distance from the test stand. Heretofore, the transfer of data from the instrumentation to the postprocessing equipment has entailed post-test downloading via software, requiring many hours to days of post-test reduction before the data could be viewed in a channelized format. The installation of the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test. The instrumentation is connected to the input terminals of the signal-processing unit of multichannel recorder by standard coaxial cables. The coaxial output of the signal processing unit is converted to fiber-optic output by means of a commercial coaxial-cable/fiber-optic converter (that is, a fiber-optic transceiver) designed specifically for this application. The fiber-optic link carries the data signals to an identical fiber-optic transceiver in the control room. On the way to the TAXI Direct-to-Disk interface that is the focus of this article, the data signals are processed through a companion special purpose circuit denoted by the similar name parallel TAXI interface.

  15. Customer Management Skills for Effective Air Force Civil Engineering Customer Service.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    RD-RI74 1 4 CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE AIR FORCE / I CIVIL ENGINEERING CUST (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON RFS ON...I93 -A CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEERING CUSTOMER SERVICE THESIS Danny S.- Long Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/DEM/86S-1 7...1I 9 AFIT/GEM/DEM/86 CUSTOMER MANAGEMENT SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEERING CUSTOMER SERVICE THESIS Danny S. Long Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM

  16. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  17. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  18. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  19. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-15

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  20. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery. PMID:26073316

  1. Analyses on influencing factors of airborne VOCS pollution in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2014-11-01

    Due to the long time in vehicular cabins, people have high exposure to the airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCS), which will lead to negative effects on human health. In order to analyze the influencing factors of in-car VOCS pollution concentrations, 38 taxis were investigated on the static and closed conditions. The interior air of taxis was collected through activated Tenax adsorption tubes, and the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The average concentrations of in-car benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, butyl acetate, undecane, and total VOCS (TVOC) were 82.7, 212.3, 74.7, 182.3, 24.7, 33.5, 61.3, and 1,441.7 μg/m(3), respectively. Furthermore, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations increase with the rise of in-car temperature and relative humidity, and decrease with the increase of car age and total mileage. In addition, the VOCS and TVOC concentrations are higher in vehicles with small cabins than in ones with big cabins, and change with different sampling sites and various vehicular grades. Finally, according to the multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, car age is the most important factor influencing airborne VOCS and TVOC pollution concentrations in vehicular cabins, followed by interior temperature and total mileage.

  2. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  3. Drosophila photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gepner, Ruben; Bernat, Natalie; Kaplow, Margarita; Gershow, Marc

    In natural environments, the Drosophila larva makes navigational decisions based on variable and conflicting sensory inputs. How larvae respond to multi-modal stimuli and how their neural circuits integrate and prioritize multi-sensory information remains unknown. To identify larval navigational computations we developed a high-throughput reverse-correlation assay. We provided larvae with visual and optogenetically induced fictive olfactory stimuli and measured the correlation between the presented stimulus and evoked turn decisions. We used this technique to fit parameters of a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson model describing computations underlying turn decisions. For uni-modal inputs, the parameterized model allowed us to predict the behavior of populations of larvae responding to novel stimulus presentations. For multi-modal inputs, our assay showed that larvae linearly combine olfactory and visual signals upstream of the decision to turn. We verified this prediction using controlled combinations of stimuli. We studied other navigational decisions that determine the size and directions of turns and found that larvae integrated odor and light according to the same rule in all cases. These results suggest that photo-taxis and odor-taxis are mediated by a shared computational pathway.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnoea among professional taxi drivers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Firestone, Ridvan Tua; Mihaere, Kara; Gander, Philippa H

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the distribution of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) among taxi drivers, and to investigate differences by ethnicity in OSAS symptoms among drivers. A two-page postal questionnaire was completed by 241 professional taxi drivers from Wellington, New Zealand. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was defined as having an estimated 15 or more respiratory disturbances, per hour of sleep (Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI)> or =15) and self-reported daytime sleepiness. Pacific and Māori taxi drivers were more likely to have symptoms and risk factors for OSAS, compared to non-Māori non-Pacific drivers. In particular, Pacific drivers had a significantly increased pre-test probability of having moderate-severe OSA (RDI> or =15). Some professional taxi drivers are at increased risk for moderate-severe OSAS, especially Pacific and Māori taxi drivers. Untreated OSAS increases motor vehicle crash risk, so these findings have implications for the health and safety of drivers and their passengers. They suggest a need for more comprehensive research to guide policy on medical examinations required for licensing professional drivers as fit to drive.

  5. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  6. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting

    2016-06-01

    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  7. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the process used to sequence certification projects that are... Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Sequencing to: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  8. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions § 9701.232... system that is parallel to the classification system that was applicable to the Federal Air Marshal... directives on converting Federal Air Marshal Service employees to any new classification system that may...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.232 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions § 9701.232... system that is parallel to the classification system that was applicable to the Federal Air Marshal... directives on converting Federal Air Marshal Service employees to any new classification system that may...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air... in this subpart, if DHS transfers Federal Air Marshal Service positions from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.374 - Special transition rules for Federal Air Marshal Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special transition rules for Federal Air... in this subpart, if DHS transfers Federal Air Marshal Service positions from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to another organization within DHS, DHS may cover those positions under a...

  14. X-Wing RSRA - 80 Knot Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    tests, flown by Ames pilot G. Warren Hall and Army Maj (soon promoted to Lt. Col.) Patrick Morris, began in May and continued until October 1984, when the RSRA vehicle returned to Ames. The project manager at Dryden for the flights was Wen Painter. These early tests were preparatory for a future X-Wing rotor flight test project to be sponsored by NASA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and Sikorsky Aircraft. A later derivative X-Wing flew in 1987. The modified RSRA was developed to provide a vehicle for in-flight investigation and verification of new helicopter rotor-system concepts and supporting technology. The RSRA could be configured to fly as an airplane with fixed wings, as a helicopter, or as a compound vehicle that could transition between the two configurations. NASA and DARPA selected Sikorsky in 1984 to convert one of the original RSRAs to the new demonstrator aircraft for the X-Wing concept. Developers of X-Wing technology did not view the X-Wing as a replacement for either helicopters (rotor aircraft) or fixed-wing aircraft. Instead, they envisioned it as an aircraft with special enhanced capabilities to perform missions that call for the low-speed efficiency and maneuverability of helicopters combined with the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. Some such missions include air-to-air and air-to-ground tactical operations, airborne early warning, electronic intelligence, antisubmarine warfare, and search and rescue. The follow-on X-Wing project was managed by James W. Lane, chief of the RSRA/X-Wing Project Office, Ames Research Center. Coordinating the Ames-Dryden flight effort in 1987 was Jack Kolf. The X-Wing project was a joint effort of NASA-Ames, DARPA, the U.S. Army, and Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut. The modified X-Wing aircraft was delivered to Ames-Dryden by Sikorsky Aircraft on September 25, 1986. Following taxi tests, initial flights in the aircraft mode without main rotors attached took place at Dryden in

  15. Transition of AIRS Products to the National Weather Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) is a proven community leader for transitioning satellite products to operational end users and is working hard to bring data from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to forecasters. SPoRT products using AIRS data are currently or will soon be evaluated at WFOs and National Centers (1) T and q profiles: HWT, Alaska WFOs, HRD/OPC, HMT (2) Ozone profiles: HPC/OPC (3) Carbon Monoxide: Southern and Western Region WFOs SPoRT is actively evaluating differences between V5 and V6 profiles for selected cases and will continue to provide feedback to the AIRS team as V6 development efforts conclude.

  16. Department of Defense Clean Air Act (CAA) Services Steering Committee Climate Change: Greenhouse Gases and the CAA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    Clean Air Act Services Steering Committee 6 May 2009 Department of Defense Clean Air Act (CAA) Services Steering Committee Climate Change: Greenhouse...1. REPORT DATE 06 MAY 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Department of Defense Clean Air Act (CAA...DoD) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting  Role of the DoD Clean Air Act Services Steering Committee  Current GHG Issues Overview 2

  17. The Public Service of the Official Time at the Observatorio Naval Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, A.; Esperón, C.; Osorio, J.; Amenna, J.; Salday, J.; Silva, G.

    2014-06-01

    The Observatorio Naval Buenos Aires (ONBA), through the Public Service of the Official Time Argentina (hereinafter, Time Service) generates, maintains and disseminates UTC (ONBA), which is the basis of the Argentine legal time. We present activities, projects such as time stamping to digital signature and new equipment acquired to improve traceability UTC (ONBA) to UTC.

  18. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  19. Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research evaluating enforcement and compliance with smoking partial bans is rather scarce, especially in countries with relative weak tobacco control policies, such as Portugal. There is also scarce evidence on specific high risk groups such as vehicle workers. In January 2008, Portugal implemented a partial ban, followed by poor enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a partial smoking ban in a pro-smoking environment, specifically transportation by taxi in the city of Lisbon. Ban effectiveness was generally defined by ban awareness and support, compliance and enforcement. Methods Exploratory cross-sectional study; purposive sampling in selected Lisbon streets. Structured interviews were conducted by trained researchers while using taxi services (January 2009-December 2010). Participants: 250 taxi drivers (98.8% participation rate). Chi-square, McNemar, Man Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression were performed. Results Of the participants, 249 were male; median age was 53.0 years; 43.6% were current smokers. Most participants (82.8%) approved comprehensive bans; 84.8% reported that clients still asked to smoke in their taxis; 16.8% allowed clients to smoke. Prior to the ban this value was 76.9% (p < 0.001). The major reason for not allowing smoking was the legal ban and associated fines (71.2%). Of the smokers, 66.1% admitted smoking in their taxi. Stale smoke smells were detected in 37.6% of the cars. None of the taxi drivers did ever receive a fine for non-compliance. Heavy smoking, night-shift and allowing smoking prior the ban predicted non-compliance. Conclusions Despite the strong ban support observed, high smoking prevalence and poor enforcement contribute to low compliance. The findings also suggest low compliance among night-shift and vehicle workers. This study clearly demonstrates that a partial and poorly-enforced ban is vulnerable to breaches, and highlights the need for clear and strong

  20. Air Quality Management Using Pollution Prevention: A Joint Service Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    noncorrosive, nontoxic oil dispersant and cleanser that contains no VOCs, no known carcinogens, and no chemicals regulated by the Occupational Safety and... rinsability , corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, storage stability, and density. Once this testing is complete, the Air Force will select three stripper

  1. Defining a 21st Century Air Force (Services) Business Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-10

    Virtual Fitness Kiosks Set Up at 66 Locations. Air Force News. September 11, 2013. http://www.af.mil/mobile/News/tabid/252/Article/467089/virtual...fitness- kiosks -set-up-at-66-locations.aspx (accessed September 11, 2013). Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Publication 1 - Doctrine for the Armed

  2. Aeronautical mobile satellite service: Air traffic control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Canada's history both in aviation and in satellite communications development spans several decades. The introduction of aeronautical mobile satellite communications will serve our requirements for airspace management in areas not served by line-of-sight radio and radar facilities. The ensuing improvements in air safety and operating efficiency are eagerly awaited by the aviation community.

  3. Analyzing communication errors in an air medical transport service.

    PubMed

    Dalto, Joseph D; Weir, Charlene; Thomas, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Poor communication can result in adverse events. Presently, no standards exist for classifying and analyzing air medical communication errors. This study sought to determine the frequency and types of communication errors reported within an air medical quality and safety assurance reporting system. Of 825 quality assurance reports submitted in 2009, 278 were randomly selected and analyzed for communication errors. Each communication error was classified and mapped to Clark's communication level hierarchy (ie, levels 1-4). Descriptive statistics were performed, and comparisons were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Sixty-four communication errors were identified in 58 reports (21% of 278). Of the 64 identified communication errors, only 18 (28%) were classified by the staff to be communication errors. Communication errors occurred most often at level 1 (n = 42/64, 66%) followed by level 4 (21/64, 33%). Level 2 and 3 communication failures were rare (, 1%). Communication errors were found in a fifth of quality and safety assurance reports. The reporting staff identified less than a third of these errors. Nearly all communication errors (99%) occurred at either the lowest level of communication (level 1, 66%) or the highest level (level 4, 33%). An air medical communication ontology is necessary to improve the recognition and analysis of communication errors. Copyright © 2013 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coupling metabolism and chemotaxis-dependent behaviours by energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Gladys

    2010-08-01

    Bacteria have evolved the ability to monitor changes in various physico-chemical parameters and to adapt their physiology and metabolism by implementing appropriate cellular responses to these changes. Energy taxis is a metabolism-dependent form of taxis and is the directed movement of motile bacteria in gradients of physico-chemical parameters that affect metabolism. Energy taxis has been described in diverse bacterial species and several dedicated energy sensors have been identified. The molecular mechanism of energy taxis has not been studied in as much detail as chemotaxis, but experimental evidence indicates that this behaviour differs from metabolism-independent taxis only by the presence of dedicated energy taxis receptors. Energy taxis receptors perceive changes in energy-related parameters, including signals related to the redox and/or intracellular energy status of the cell. The best-characterized energy taxis receptors are those that sense the redox state of the electron transport chain via non-covalently bound FAD cofactors. Other receptors shown to mediate energy taxis lack any recognizable redox cofactor or conserved energy-sensing motif, and some have been suggested to monitor changes in the proton motive force. The exact energy-sensing mechanism(s) involved are yet to be elucidated for most of these energy sensors. By monitoring changes in energy-related parameters, energy taxis receptors allow cells to couple motility behaviour with metabolism under diverse environmental conditions. Energy taxis receptors thus provide fruitful models to decipher how cells integrate sensory behaviours with metabolic activities.

  5. Air Force Engineering and Services Laboratory Herbicide Orange Monitoring Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Air Force leaders with the latest available cata in the continuing environmental monitoring and evaluation studies at these critical sites... monitoring and evaluation studies ot areas on Johnston Island, the Naval Construction Battalion Center, and Eglin APB, previously used for the... and evaluation program by collecting samples from NCBC, JI, and Eglin AFB on a semiannual basis. This report summarizes the data on samples collected

  6. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  7. Psychosocial work factors and low back pain in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Elshatarat, Rami A

    2017-08-01

    Taxi drivers are at high risk for low back pain (LBP). Identify the association between psychosocial-work factors (Job strain, Iso-strain, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], unfairness, and mental exertion) and LBP in taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was done with 129 taxi drivers. Approximately 63% reported LBP in the prior 12 months. Chi square or t-test analyses identified the associations between demographic, work, health, and psychosocial work factors, and self-report of LBP in the prior 12 months. Depression, perceived physical exertion, dispatcher and manager support, unfair treatment at work, and unfair treatment due to nationality were significantly associated with LBP in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression was done to identify the predictors of LBP. High dispatcher support remained the sole significant predictor for lower prevalence of LBP (OR = 0.66, P = 0.017). Greater understanding of psychosocial work factors may aid in developing interventions to prevent LBP in taxi drivers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relationship between blood metals and inflammation in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Bubols, Guilherme; Nascimento, Sabrina; Goethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Prohmann, Ana C; Rocha, Rafael; Moresco, Rafael; Sangoi, Manuela; Hausen, Bruna S; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana; Gioda, Adriana; Duarte, Marta; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Cardiovascular disease is a cause of concern in public health worldwide, reinforcing the need for studies related to the identification of potential agents that contribute to the inflammation process and atherosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether metals are associated with inflammatory and kidney damage and could contribute to the atherosclerosis process. Blood metals, inflammatory markers, homocysteine, antioxidants and renal markers were measured in 42 taxi drivers and 27 controls (non-occupationally exposed). Taxi drivers had increased Hg, As, Pb and Cd levels, however Cu and Zn levels were decreased compared to controls (p<0.05). Hg, As and Pb levels were positively associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and negatively associated with glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, Hg, As and Pb presented positive associations with homocysteine, an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Regarding markers of kidney function, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase levels were increased in taxi drivers and correlated to inflammation markers. Hg levels were found above the recommended limits in taxi drivers and both Hg and As levels showed associations with inflammatory process, oxidative status and homocysteine. Thus, chemical substances as Hg and As can be considered as additional contributors to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-10-24

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring 'The Knowledge' of London's complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also subjecting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable with controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus.

  10. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2013-01-01

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring ‘The Knowledge’ of London’s complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also submitting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable to controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus. PMID:22955143

  11. Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES): Its Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    its strategic mission, and the benefits it provides to its cliental. It finally considers whether competitive commercial retailers could better...statutes and regulations, its strategic mission, and the benefits it provides to its cliental. It finally considers whether competitive commercial...and the benefits it provides to the uniformed services and its authorized patrons. It also compares AAFES with its commercial retail competitors

  12. Impulsivity and risky decision making among taxi drivers in Hong Kong: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ting, K H; Liu, Karen P Y; Ba, Yutao

    2016-10-01

    Taxi drivers play an important role in providing safe and professional public transport services. However, they tend to be more involved than other professional driver groups in accidents caused by deliberate recklessness. This study used an event-related potential (ERP) experiment to examine risk-taking behavior arising from impulsivity by comparing the underlying neural processes of taxi drivers with and without traffic offence records in Hong Kong. A sample of 15 traffic offenders and 15 nonoffenders, matched by sociodemographic characteristics, was recruited. The results show that the offender group demonstrated significantly less negative-going (less negative) feedback-related negativity but more positive-going (more positive) feedback-related P300 when than with their nonoffending counterparts. These findings show that taxi drivers with traffic offence records were less sensitive to the consequences of behavior and more attuned to the magnitude of potential reward. In addition, behavioral data revealed that they were more willing to make risky decisions. All these characteristics pertain to impulsive personality traits. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the offenders in this sample were more impulsive than their nonoffending counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. The Economics of Air Force Medical Service Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    deployable medical force by providing professional opportunities that help attract high- quality medical personnel. Graduate medical education and...institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. This electronic document was made available from www.rand.org as a...public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND

  15. New Systems of Food Service Management for the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Pasquale’s Tamale, to be associated with the appropriated fund operation, will feature home style pizza and Mexican food. It will be created in a...Total Base Management were considered. Options 1 and 2 create a new food service outlet (a Pizza /Mexican fast food convenience type restaurant) and...restaurant, to be located on Travis Avenue, which features home style pizza and Mexican food. This fast food stand would be located near the library and

  16. A method for the determination of potentially profitable service patterns for commuter air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Deptula, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for estimating market conception was developed as a part of the short-haul air transportation program. It is based upon an analysis of actual documents which provide a record of known travel history. Applying this methodology a forecast was made of the demand for an air feeder service between Charlottesville, Virginia and Dulles International Airport. Local business travel vouchers and local travel agent records were selected to provide the documentation. The market was determined to be profitable for an 8-passenger Cessna 402B aircraft flying a 2-hour daily service pattern designed to mesh to the best extent possible with the connecting schedules at Dulles. The Charlottesville - Dulles air feeder service market conception forecast and its methodology are documented.

  17. a Web-Based Platform for Visualizing Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Big Taxi Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, H.; Chen, L.; Gui, Z.

    2017-09-01

    With more and more vehicles equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), access to large-scale taxi trajectory data has become increasingly easy. Taxis are valuable sensors and information associated with taxi trajectory can provide unprecedented insight into many aspects of city life. But analysing these data presents many challenges. Visualization of taxi data is an efficient way to represent its distributions and structures and reveal hidden patterns in the data. However, Most of the existing visualization systems have some shortcomings. On the one hand, the passenger loading status and speed information cannot be expressed. On the other hand, mono-visualization form limits the information presentation. In view of these problems, this paper designs and implements a visualization system in which we use colour and shape to indicate passenger loading status and speed information and integrate various forms of taxi visualization. The main work as follows: 1. Pre-processing and storing the taxi data into MongoDB database. 2. Visualization of hotspots for taxi pickup points. Through DBSCAN clustering algorithm, we cluster the extracted taxi passenger's pickup locations to produce passenger hotspots. 3. Visualizing the dynamic of taxi moving trajectory using interactive animation. We use a thinning algorithm to reduce the amount of data and design a preloading strategyto load the data smoothly. Colour and shape are used to visualize the taxi trajectory data.

  18. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  19. Finding of No Significant Impact: Construction and Operation of an Emergency Services Center United States Air Force Academy, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-08

    FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMP ACT Construction and Operation of an Emergency Services Center United States Air Force Academy, Colorado An...Operation of an Emergency Services Center United States Air Force Academy, Colorado 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Operation of an Emergency Services Center U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado USAFA 10 CES/CECP 8120 Edgerton Drive United

  20. Adaption of the Air Weather Service Fog Model to Forecast Radiation Fog Events in the Southeast United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    ADAPTATION OF THE AIR WEATHER SERVICE FO MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENT IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Andrew C. Goodnite, Captain...ENP/97M-06 ADAPTATION OF THE AIR WEATHER SERVICE FOG MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENTS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Andrew C. Goodnite...AIR WEATHER SERVICE FOG MODEL TO FORECAST RADIATION FOG EVENTS IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of

  1. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. AIRS Data Subsetting Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC/DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Qin, Jianchun; Li, Jason; Gerasimov, Irina; Savtchenko, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The AIRS mission, as a combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), brings climate research and weather prediction into 21st century. From NASA' Aqua spacecraft, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments measure humidity, temperature, cloud properties and the amounts of greenhouse gases. The AIRS also reveals land and sea- surface temperatures. Measurements from these three instruments are analyzed . jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, they constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to better server its users, the GES DISC/DAAC, provider of long-term archives and distribution services as well science support for the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, has developed various tools for performing channels, variables, parameter, spatial and derived products subsetting, resampling and reformatting operations. This presentation mainly describes the web-enabled subsetting services currently available at the GES DISC/DAAC that provide subsetting functions for all the Level 1B and Level 2 data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments.

  4. AIRS Data Subsetting Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC/DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Qin, Jianchun; Li, Jason; Gerasimov, Irina; Savtchenko, Andrey

    2004-01-01

    The AIRS mission, as a combination of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), brings climate research and weather prediction into 21st century. From NASA' Aqua spacecraft, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments measure humidity, temperature, cloud properties and the amounts of greenhouse gases. The AIRS also reveals land and sea- surface temperatures. Measurements from these three instruments are analyzed . jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, they constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to better server its users, the GES DISC/DAAC, provider of long-term archives and distribution services as well science support for the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products, has developed various tools for performing channels, variables, parameter, spatial and derived products subsetting, resampling and reformatting operations. This presentation mainly describes the web-enabled subsetting services currently available at the GES DISC/DAAC that provide subsetting functions for all the Level 1B and Level 2 data products from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments.

  5. Comparing taxi clearance input layouts for advancements in flight deck automation for surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lara W. S.

    Airport moving maps (AMMs) have been shown to decrease navigation errors, increase taxiing speed, and reduce workload when they depict airport layout, current aircraft position, and the cleared taxi route. However, current technologies are limited in their ability to depict the cleared taxi route due to the unavailability of datacomm or other means of electronically transmitting clearances from ATC to the flight deck. This study examined methods by which pilots can input ATC-issued taxi clearances to support taxi route depictions on the AMM. Sixteen general aviation (GA) pilots used a touchscreen monitor to input taxi clearances using two input layouts, softkeys and QWERTY, each with and without feedforward (graying out invalid inputs). QWERTY yielded more taxi route input errors than the softkeys layout. The presence of feedforward did not produce fewer taxi route input errors than in the non-feedforward condition. The QWERTY layout did reduce taxi clearance input times relative to the softkeys layout, but when feedforward was present this effect was observed only for the longer, 6-segment taxi clearances. It was observed that with the softkeys layout, feedforward reduced input times compared to non-feedforward but only for the 4-segment clearances. Feedforward did not support faster taxi clearance input times for the QWERTY layout. Based on the results and analyses of the present study, it is concluded that for taxi clearance inputs, (1) QWERTY remain the standard for alphanumeric inputs, and (2) feedforward be investigated further, with a focus on participant preference and performance of black-gray contrast of keys.

  6. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. [Student Guide]. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This module on owning and operating an air conditioning and heating service is one of 36 in a series on entrepreneurship. The introduction tells the student what topics will be covered and suggests other modules to read in related occupations. Each unit includes student goals, a case study, and a discussion of the unit subject matter. Learning…

  7. Manpower Requirements for Air Traffic Control and Flight Service Specialists in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Office of Manpower Studies.

    As of January 1, 1968 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States Department of Transportation employed 6,963 controllers in airport towers, 7,617 controllers in Air Route Traffic Control Centers, and 4,459 flight service specialists at airport locations. Projected needs are as follows: (1) Controllers in airport towers:…

  8. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  9. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  10. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of December 27, 2013 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  11. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 28, 2011 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  12. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of August 21, 2009 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  13. U.S. Forest Service Region 1 Lake Chemistry, NADP, and IMPROVE air quality data analysis

    Treesearch

    Jill Grenon; Mark Story

    2009-01-01

    This report was developed to address the need for comprehensive analysis of U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Region 1 air quality monitoring data. The monitoring data includes Phase 3 (long-term data) lakes, National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Annual and seasonal data for the periods of record...

  14. 76 FR 61245 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... obtained on reasonable terms and conditions from any company authorized to conduct an insurance business in... October 3, 2011 Part VI The President Memorandum of September 28, 2011--Provision of Aviation Insurance... Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International...

  15. Getting Down to Business: Air Conditioning and Heating Service, Module 36. Teacher Guide. Entrepreneurship Training Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Barbara

    This is the thirty-sixth in a set of 36 teacher guides to the Entrepreneurial Training Modules and accompanies CE 031 100. The purpose of the module is to give students some idea of what it is like to own and operate an air conditioning and heating service. Following an overview are general notes on use of the module. Suggested steps for module…

  16. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  18. Electron acceptor taxis and blue light effect on bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B L; Miller, J B; Warrick, H M; Koshland, D E

    1979-11-01

    Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli from anaerobic cultures displayed tactic responses to gradients of nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen when the appropriate electron transport pathway was present. Such responses were named "electron acceptor taxis" because they are elicited by terminal electron acceptors. Mutant strains of S. typhimurium and E. coli were used to establish that functioning electron transport pathways to nitrate and fumarate are required for taxis to these compounds. Aerotaxis in S. typhimurium was blocked by 1.0 mM KCN, which inhibited oxygen uptake. Similarly, a functioning electron transport pathway was shown to be essential for the tumbling response of S. typhimurium and E. coli to intense light (290 to 530 nm). Some inhibitors and uncouplers of respiration were repellents of S. typhimurium. We propose that behavioral responses to light or electron acceptors involve electron transport-mediated perturbations of the proton motive force.

  19. The scaling of human mobility by taxis is exponential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Xudong; Lv, Weifeng; Zhu, Tongyu; Xu, Ke

    2012-03-01

    As a significant factor in urban planning, traffic forecasting and prediction of epidemics, modeling patterns of human mobility draws intensive attention from researchers for decades. Power-law distribution and its variations are observed from quite a few real-world human mobility datasets such as the movements of banking notes, trackings of cell phone users' locations and trajectories of vehicles. In this paper, we build models for 20 million trajectories with fine granularity collected from more than 10 thousand taxis in Beijing. In contrast to most models observed in human mobility data, the taxis' traveling displacements in urban areas tend to follow an exponential distribution instead of a power-law. Similarly, the elapsed time can also be well approximated by an exponential distribution. Worth mentioning, analysis of the interevent time indicates the bursty nature of human mobility, similar to many other human activities.

  20. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2009-01-01

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25 000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

  1. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  2. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2009-05-27

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25,000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature.

  3. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.

  4. Media Controller For Receiving Data From A TAXI(TM) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, David R.; Mcmahon, Rebecca Stempski

    1995-01-01

    TAXI(TM) media controller (TMC) is interface circuit that supports operation of test equipment in diagnosis of telemetry system in which data communicated via TAXI(TM) links. TMC designed specifically for use with TAXI(TM) test adapter for monitoring and testing telemetry data signals generated by payloads and other subsystems of Space Station Freedom. Overall, TMC characterized as providing interface between output part of a TAXI(TM) receiving chip and input port of memory system in test adapter. TMC detects some abnormalities in received data stream and resynchronizes stream to locally generated clock signal.

  5. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    PubMed Central

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m3 and 522±581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm2 and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001). The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010) and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020) in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs

  6. Work-related violence experienced by urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Gillen, Marion; White, Mary C

    2014-12-01

    This study measured violence (physical assault, robbery, or weapon confrontation) in taxi drivers, and determined socio-demographic/work factors associated with violence. In 2010, 130 taxi drivers, working in a large city in the Western US, were administered a survey evaluating workplace violence events. The study population was male (94%), mean age 45, married (54%), foreign-born (55%), with 24% speaking Arabic at home. Drivers drove at night (51%), for an average of 9.7 years and 41 hr/week. Almost half reported a history of violence during their driving careers: physical assault, weapon confrontation, or robbery. In the prior 12 months, 12% were physically assaulted, 8% robbed, and 6% confronted with a weapon. Night drivers reported more assaults over their lifetime compared to day drivers (mean = 1.64 [sd 4.29] vs. mean = 0.53 [sd 1.05], P = 0.047). Taxi drivers experience violence at work. Strategies are needed to prevent violence especially in night drivers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Salmonella uses energy taxis to benefit from intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Winter, Sebastian E; Lopez, Christopher A; Xavier, Mariana N; Winter, Maria G; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Russell, Joseph M; Laughlin, Richard C; Lawhon, Sara D; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Bevins, Charles L; Tsolis, Renée M; Harshey, Rasika; Adams, L Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis enhances the fitness of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) during colitis. However, the chemotaxis receptors conferring this fitness advantage and their cognate signals generated during inflammation remain unknown. Here we identify respiratory electron acceptors that are generated in the intestinal lumen as by-products of the host inflammatory response as in vivo signals for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Three MCPs, including Trg, Tsr and Aer, enhanced the fitness of S. Typhimurium in a mouse colitis model. Aer mediated chemotaxis towards electron acceptors (energy taxis) in vitro and required tetrathionate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. Tsr mediated energy taxis towards nitrate but not towards tetrathionate in vitro and required nitrate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. These data suggest that the energy taxis receptors Tsr and Aer respond to distinct in vivo signals to confer a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium during inflammation by enabling this facultative anaerobic pathogen to seek out favorable spatial niches containing host-derived electron acceptors that boost its luminal growth.

  8. Understanding intra-urban trip patterns from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Song; Xiao, Yu; Tian, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Intra-urban human mobility is investigated by means of taxi trajectory data that are collected in Shanghai, China, where taxis play an important role in urban transportation. From the taxi trajectories, approximately 1.5 million trips of anonymous customers are extracted on seven consecutive days. The globally spatio-temporal patterns of trips exhibit a significant daily regularity. Since each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, the distributions of the distance and direction of the extracted trips are investigated in this research. The direction distribution shows an NEE-SWW-dominant direction, and the distance distribution can be well fitted by an exponentially truncated power law, with the scaling exponent β = 1.2 ± 0.15. The observed patterns are attributed to the geographical heterogeneity of the study area, which makes the spatial distribution of trajectory stops to be non-uniform. We thus construct a model that integrates both the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect, to interpret the observed patterns. Our Monte Carlo simulation results closely match to the observed patterns and thus validate the proposed model. According to the proposed model, in a single-core urban area, the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect improve each other when influencing human mobility patterns. Geographical heterogeneity leads to a faster observed decay, and the distance decay effect makes the spatial distribution of trips more concentrated.

  9. Salmonella Uses Energy Taxis to Benefit from Intestinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Winter, Sebastian E.; Lopez, Christopher A.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Maria G.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Russell, Joseph M.; Laughlin, Richard C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Sterzenbach, Torsten; Bevins, Charles L.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Harshey, Rasika; Adams, L. Garry; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis enhances the fitness of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) during colitis. However, the chemotaxis receptors conferring this fitness advantage and their cognate signals generated during inflammation remain unknown. Here we identify respiratory electron acceptors that are generated in the intestinal lumen as by-products of the host inflammatory response as in vivo signals for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). Three MCPs, including Trg, Tsr and Aer, enhanced the fitness of S. Typhimurium in a mouse colitis model. Aer mediated chemotaxis towards electron acceptors (energy taxis) in vitro and required tetrathionate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. Tsr mediated energy taxis towards nitrate but not towards tetrathionate in vitro and required nitrate respiration to confer a fitness advantage in vivo. These data suggest that the energy taxis receptors Tsr and Aer respond to distinct in vivo signals to confer a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium during inflammation by enabling this facultative anaerobic pathogen to seek out favorable spatial niches containing host-derived electron acceptors that boost its luminal growth. PMID:23637594

  10. System considerations, projected requirements and applications for aeronautical mobile satellite communications for air traffic services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.; Miller, C. M.; Scales, W. C.; Dement, D. K.

    1990-01-01

    The projected application and requirements in the near term (to 1995) and far term (to 2010) for aeronautical mobile services supporting air traffic control operations are addressed. The implications of these requirements on spectrum needs, and the resulting effects on the satellite design and operation are discussed. The U.S. is working with international standards and regulatory organizations to develop the necessary aviation standards, signalling protocols, and implementation methods. In the provision of aeronautical safety services, a number of critical issues were identified, including system reliability and availability, access time, channel restoration time, interoperability, pre-emption techniques, and the system network interfaces. Means for accomplishing these critical services in the aeronautical mobile satellite service (AMSS), and the various activities relating to the future provision of aeronautical safety services are addressed.

  11. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military... military, naval, or air service: (a) Aerial transportation of mail (Pub. L. 140, 73d Congress). Persons...

  12. 14 CFR 272.9 - Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and payment of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of a carrier to provide essential... SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.9 Selection of a carrier to provide essential air service and...

  13. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  14. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  15. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  16. AIRS Data Mining Service at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.; Qin, J.; Pham, L.; Lynnes, C.; Eng, E.; Li, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared (IR) sounder with 2378 spectral channels flying on the EOS Aqua platform with two operational microwave sounders, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Measurements from the three instruments are analyzed jointly to filter out the effects of clouds from the IR data in order to derive clear-column air-temperature profiles and surface temperatures with high vertical resolution and accuracy. Together, these three instruments constitute an advanced operational sounding data system that have contributed to improve global modeling efforts and numerical weather prediction; enhance studies of the global energy and water cycles, the effects of greenhouse gases, and atmosphere-surface interactions; and facilitate monitoring of climate variations and trends. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC) provides long-term archive and distribution services for AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products as well science support to assist users in understanding, accessing and using the AIRS data products. However, the high data volume generated by the AIRS/AMSU/HSB instruments and the complexity of its data format (Hierarchical Data Format, HDF) are barriers to AIRS data use. Although many researchers are interested in only a fraction of the data they receive or request, they are forced to run their algorithms on a much larger data set to extract the information of interest. In order to address this problem, the GES DAAC is expanding its data mining system to accept AIRS user's algorithms by providing online tools for spectral channels and value added product sub-settings, as well as spatial, temporal and user defined profile sub-settings. This presentation will show details of the AIRS components of the GES DAAC data mining system including technical description, input data and returning products

  17. US EPA 2012 Air Quality Fused Surface for the Conterminous U.S. Map Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web service contains a polygon layer that depicts fused air quality predictions for 2012 for census tracts in the conterminous United States. Fused air quality predictions (for ozone and PM2.5) are modeled using a Bayesian space-time downscaling fusion model approach described in a series of three published journal papers: 1) (Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E. and Holland, D. M. (2012). Space-time fusion under error in computer model output: an application to modeling air quality. Biometrics 68, 837-848; 2) Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E. and Holland, D. M. (2010). A bivariate space-time downscaler under space and time misalignment. The Annals of Applied Statistics 4, 1942-1975; and 3) Berrocal, V., Gelfand, A. E., and Holland, D. M. (2010). A spatio-temporal downscaler for output from numerical models. J. of Agricultural, Biological,and Environmental Statistics 15, 176-197) is used to provide daily, predictive PM2.5 (daily average) and O3 (daily 8-hr maximum) surfaces for 2012. Summer (O3) and annual (PM2.5) means calculated and published. The downscaling fusion model uses both air quality monitoring data from the National Air Monitoring Stations/State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS/SLAMS) and numerical output from the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ). Currently, predictions at the US census tract centroid locations within the 12 km CMAQ domain are archived. Predictions at the CMAQ grid cell centroids, or any desired set of locations co

  18. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward Phenylacetic Acid Is Mediated by the Energy Taxis Receptor Aer2

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Rita A.; Schneider, Benjamin J.; Ho, Christie C.; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E.; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V.; Ditty, Jayna L.

    2013-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway. PMID:23377939

  19. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward phenylacetic acid is mediated by the energy taxis receptor Aer2.

    PubMed

    Luu, Rita A; Schneider, Benjamin J; Ho, Christie C; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V; Ditty, Jayna L; Parales, Rebecca E

    2013-04-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway.

  20. Acute pain management services: a comparison between Air Force and U.S. hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rayos, C L; McDonough, J P

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of acute pain management services (APMS) in Air Force medical facilities. There are no published reports on the current status of Air Force pain programs. This study used a telephone survey to all facilities worldwide that house an anesthesia department. Anesthesia providers in charge of pain services or department chiefs were interviewed from December 1996 to May 1997. Respondents were asked questions related to the initiation of a formal APMS, components, and familiarity with the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines on pain management. Data analysis described current practices and used chi 2 analysis to compare results with a national study of U.S. hospitals. Air Force anesthesia departments (45%) had established as many acute pain services as U.S. hospitals (42%). Formal pain programs are becoming more prevalent in Air Force hospitals. These findings suggest an increased awareness of the need for pain management and future establishment of pain programs.

  1. Air ambulance services in the Arctic 1999-2009: a Norwegian study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Air ambulance services in the Arctic have to deal with remote locations, long distances, rough weather conditions and seasonable darkness. Despite these challenges, the people living in the area expect a high quality of specialist health care. Aims The objective of this study was to analyse the air ambulance operations performed in the Norwegian Arctic and study variations in diagnoses and flight patterns around the year. Methods A retrospective analysis. All air ambulance operations performed during the time 1999 - 2009 period were analysed. The subjects were patients transported and flights performed. The primary outcome measures were patients' diagnoses and task patterns around the year. Results A total of 345 patients were transported and 321 flights performed. Coronary heart and vascular disease, bone fractures and infections were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (85%) had NACA score 3 or 4. Half of all fractures occurred in April and August. Most patients were males (66%), and one fourth was not Norwegian. The median flying time (one way) was 3 h 33 m. Ten percent of the flights were delayed, and only 14% were performed between midnight and 8.00 AM. The period April to August was the busiest one (58% of operations). Conclusions Norway has run a safe air ambulance service in the Arctic for the last 11 years. In the future more shipping and polar adventure operations may influence the need for air ambulances, especially during summer and autumn. PMID:21407997

  2. The Clean Air Act Amendments section 112(r) risk management plan regulation -- Tri-service implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.A.

    1997-12-31

    Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 directs the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address the potential for an air release of certain substances that would have serious impacts to the public if they were released in large quantities. The EPA is performing this task with the promulgation of Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under Clean Air Act Section 112(r)(7), published on 20 June 1996. The rule requires that a four element program be established to prepare for and prevent accidental releases of substances which could lead to serious and immediate injury or death to the public. The military Services have been tracking the development of this rule in preparation for successful implementation through a 112(r) Workgroup formed under the Hazardous Air Pollutants Subcommittee of the Tri-Service Steering Committee for Implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The 112(r) regulation contains many legal, technical, and policy challenges. The workgroup has acted to meet these challenges by coordinating comments, policy, and implementation issues. This coordination has yielded technical assistance provided to the affected installations for meeting 112(r) requirements. Discussion of the assistance provided and lessons learned from applying the requirements of the rule to military installations will be presented.

  3. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection?

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung

    2016-02-01

    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Airborne Communications Roadmap for the U.S. Federal Air Marshal Service: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the events of September 11, 2001, the responsibilities, operations and numbers of the U.S. Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) wer e greatly expanded. With this expansion, new critical research and te chnology needs were identified, including the need for air to ground telecommunications capabilities. To address this need, the FAMS has cr eated a working group to develop, deploy and enhance aviation communi cations with respect to security and law enforcement. This paper presents the working group's progress to date in generating a FAMS air-gro und communications roadmap identifying expected communications servic es, technology maturity, and technology gaps over a timeline. The paper includes a communications preliminary requirements summary and syst em performance characteristics needed to meet identified operational needs. The system engineering process utilized is presented beginning with the identification of users, their operational needs and relevant constraints. The operational needs are translated to desired airbor ne communications services. System technical performance requirements associated with the identified services are summarized. In addition, notional communications architectures addressing the requirements are presented. Finally, future plans to identify and assess potential ca ndidate systems and their associated technical architectures, gaps and barriers to implementation are discussed. The paper addresses the cu rrent, near term (within 5 years) and far term (10 years) timeframes for such an airborne communications system.

  5. Factors on green service industry: Case study at AirAsia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Muhammad-Azfar; Chew, Boon-Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful-Rizal

    2017-03-01

    Presently service organizations are challenged by fierce global competition, new technology and changing customer demands. These trends force service sectors to adapt environmental factors and places innovation at the core of their competitive strategy. On the other hand, service sectors challenge to deliver value memorable experiences and complete "service solutions" while lowering costs and keep sustainable. Despite, many studies have attempted to explore the factors that help toward environmental sustainability in the manufacturing sector, the service sector has not yet received a considerable attention in all world countries generally and in developing countries particularly. Thus, this paper aims to explore the factors that help to attain environmental sustainability in the service sector. A qualitative case study through semi-structured interview conducted with twenty managers from AirAsia to explore the factors that are related to environmental sustainability and green services. Besides, secondary data from document analysis was reviewed to gain more comprehensive understanding and triangulate the interview data. The finding of this paper emphasizes to three important factors namely institutional factors, process factors and result factors that each factor contain sustainability and innovations to promote competitive green service in the marketplace.

  6. 76 FR 33639 - Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Water Taxi 10th Anniversary... to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of New York Water Taxi. The fireworks will commence at 9 p.m. on... CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  7. Taxis but not private cars are mite allergen reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, E A; Justino, C M; Pereira, F L; Segundo, G R; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Silva, D A

    2006-01-01

    Indoor allergens are major causative agents in allergic disease development. Besides homes, public transport vehicles have been considered important mite and pet allergen reservoirs. Our recent studies on allergen exposure in automobiles showed that different allergen levels are found in private cars versus taxis. We quantified group 1 Dermatophagoides spp. (Der 1), Felis domesticus (Fel d 1), and Canis familiaris (Can f 1) allergen levels by ELISA in dust samples from 60 taxi and 60 private car upholstered seats. Mean levels of Der 1 and Fel d 1 were significantly higher in taxis than private cars. A significantly higher percentage of taxis (42%) harboring sensitizing levels of Der 1 compared to private cars (5%) was also found. In spite of the low mean Fel d 1 levels, comparison of the percentage of vehicles with moderate Fel d 1 levels showed a significant difference between taxis and private cars (43% vs. 20%). On the other hand, mean Can f 1 levels were significantly higher in private cars compared to taxis concomitant with a significantly higher percentage of private cars containing moderate Can f 1 levels than taxis (53% vs. 28%). We conclude that upholstered seats from Brazilian taxis but not private cars constitute an important mite allergen reservoir. Thus, additional effective measures for the reduction of allergen exposure in vehicles within the global allergen avoidance strategy should also be routinely accomplished to minimize the induction of sensitization and symptoms in allergic patients.

  8. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  9. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Treesearch

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  10. Driving to better health: cancer and cardiovascular risk assessment among taxi cab operators in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-05-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population.

  11. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Eleanor A.; Gadian, David G.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Good, Catriona D.; Ashburner, John; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2000-01-01

    Structural MRIs of the brains of humans with extensive navigation experience, licensed London taxi drivers, were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects who did not drive taxis. The posterior hippocampi of taxi drivers were significantly larger relative to those of control subjects. A more anterior hippocampal region was larger in control subjects than in taxi drivers. Hippocampal volume correlated with the amount of time spent as a taxi driver (positively in the posterior and negatively in the anterior hippocampus). These data are in accordance with the idea that the posterior hippocampus stores a spatial representation of the environment and can expand regionally to accommodate elaboration of this representation in people with a high dependence on navigational skills. It seems that there is a capacity for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands. PMID:10716738

  12. Driving to Better Health: Cancer and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Taxi Cab Operators in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population. PMID:22643623

  13. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  14. Application of ESE Data and Tools to Air Quality Management: Services for Helping the Air Quality Community use ESE Data (SHAirED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falke, Stefan; Husar, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this REASoN applications and technology project is to deliver and use Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) data and tools in support of air quality management. Its scope falls within the domain of air quality management and aims to develop a federated air quality information sharing network that includes data from NASA, EPA, US States and others. Project goals were achieved through a access of satellite and ground observation data, web services information technology, interoperability standards, and air quality community collaboration. In contributing to a network of NASA ESE data in support of particulate air quality management, the project will develop access to distributed data, build Web infrastructure, and create tools for data processing and analysis. The key technologies used in the project include emerging web services for developing self describing and modular data access and processing tools, and service oriented architecture for chaining web services together to assemble customized air quality management applications. The technology and tools required for this project were developed within DataFed.net, a shared infrastructure that supports collaborative atmospheric data sharing and processing web services. Much of the collaboration was facilitated through community interactions through the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Air Quality Workgroup. The main activities during the project that successfully advanced DataFed, enabled air quality applications and established community-oriented infrastructures were: develop access to distributed data (surface and satellite), build Web infrastructure to support data access, processing and analysis create tools for data processing and analysis foster air quality community collaboration and interoperability.

  15. Evaluation of aero commander propeller acoustic data: Taxi operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The acoustic data from ground tests performed on an Aero Commander propeller driven aircraft are analyzed. An array of microphones flush mounted on the side of the fuselage were used to record data. The propeller blade passage noise during operations at several different taxi speeds is considered and calculations of the magnitude and phase of the blade passage tones, the amplitude stability of the tones, and the spatial phase and coherence of the tones are included. The measured results are compared to theoretical predictions for propeller noise and various evaluations which reveal important details of propeller noise characteristics are presented.

  16. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  17. Measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Kathryn M; Yin, Xiuyin; Knecht, David A; Lynes, Michael A

    2012-04-01

    Cellular movement in response to external stimuli is fundamental to many cellular processes including wound healing, inflammation and the response to infection. A common method to measure chemotaxis is the Boyden chamber assay, in which cells and chemoattractant are separated by a porous membrane. As cells migrate through the membrane toward the chemoattractant, they adhere to the underside of the membrane, or fall into the underlying media, and are subsequently stained and visually counted (1). In this method, cells are exposed to a steep and transient chemoattractant gradient, which is thought to be a poor representation of gradients found in tissues (2). Another assay system, the under-agarose chemotaxis assay, (3, 4) measures cell movement across a solid substrate in a thin aqueous film that forms under the agarose layer. The gradient that develops in the agarose is shallow and is thought to be an appropriate representation of naturally occurring gradients. Chemotaxis can be evaluated by microscopic imaging of the distance traveled. Both the Boyden chamber assay and the under-agarose assay are usually configured as endpoint assays. The automated ECIS/Taxis system combines the under-agarose approach with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) (5, 6). In this assay, target electrodes are located in each of 8 chambers. A large counter-electrode runs through each of the 8 chambers (Figure 2). Each chamber is filled with agarose and two small wells are the cut in the agarose on either side of the target electrode. One well is filled with the test cell population, while the other holds the sources of diffusing chemoattractant (Figure 3). Current passed through the system can be used to determine the change in resistance that occurs as cells pass over the target electrode. Cells on the target electrode increase the resistance of the system (6). In addition, rapid fluctuations in the resistance represent changes in the interactions of cells with the electrode

  18. XB-70A during startup and ramp taxi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    The XB-70 was the world's largest experimental aircraft. Capable of flight at speeds of three times the speed of sound (2,000 miles per hour) at altitudes of 70,000 feet, the XB-70 was used to collect in-flight information for use in the design of future supersonic aircraft, military and civilian. This 35-second video shows the startup of the XB-70A airplane engines, the beginning of its taxi to the runway, and a turn on the ramp that shows the unique configuration of this aircraft.

  19. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Airline Special Services.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-07-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Treating physicians should advise patients in need of special services to contact the airline well before travel to find out if the required services will be available. Ensuring the required services are available throughout a journey can be challenging, especially when different airlines and aircraft types are involved. For example, airlines carry a limited supply of oxygen for use in the event of an unexpected in-flight emergency; however, this supply is not intended for use by passengers needing supplemental oxygen. Arrangements must be made in advance with the airline. Therefore, early contact with the airline is helpful.

  20. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  1. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  2. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  3. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of This Part § 294.84 Air competency requirements. Registrants shall conform to the airworthiness...

  4. How to Restore Plant's Taxis in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    All plants respond to gravity, yet in micro-gravity not all plants will grow the way as they do on the Earth. Successful space experiments with plants grown from seed to seed, were performed (to the best of my knowledge) with non electrotropic plants. Such plants use phototropism instead of the gravitropism. The electrotropic plants have been successfully grown in phytotron and in a greenhouse. We used the electric field to direct their growth where we want them to grow. Normally the ground or soil is negatively charged, and plants grow upwards towards positive charges in the air or the anode (positive electrode) in plant growth chambers. In reversed field polarization with "ground positive" the lettuce grows down-wards. In horizontal electric fields it grows horizontally again towards positively charged field generating conducting plate. This is at the first glance a very surprising effect even to the physicist. But one has to remember the most important fact that the electromagnetic forces are a factor of 1038 times stronger than the gravitational force. On the Earth the gravity acts on the entire plant, but the electrical field acts only on ions which are distributed on the surface of leaves, sprouts or stem tips. The ions are directed so very much strongly (1038 times) by the electrical field, than by gravity. The electric field lines guide the concentrations of ions to follow the field lines rendering the plants electrotropic and shaping their growth pattern. There is also a clear positive dependence of the rate of plant growth on field strength and crop yield. This is why it is so important to know which plants are electrotropic not only for use in space but also in greenhouse plant cultures. It is very much cheaper to select the electrotropic plant here, and not in space experiments for best cost efficiency. Special light weight plant growth chambers have been designed and very successfully used in terrestrial experiments. We can make the plant growth

  5. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  6. Using ecosystem services to inform decisions on U.S. air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Rea, Anne W; Davis, Christine; Evans, David A; Heninger, Brian T; Van Houtven, George

    2012-06-19

    The ecosystem services (ES) framework provides a link between changes in a natural system's structure and function and public welfare. This systematic integration of ecology and economics allows for more consistency and transparency in environmental decision making by enabling valuation of nature's goods and services in a manner that is understood by the public. This policy analysis (1) assesses the utility of the ES conceptual framework in the context of setting a secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), (2) describes how economic valuation was used to summarize changes in ES affected by NOx and SOx in the review, and (3) uses the secondary NOxSOx NAAQS review as a case study to highlight the advantages and challenges of quantifying air pollutant effects on ES in a decision making context. Using an ES framework can benefit the decision making process by accounting for environmental, ecological, and social elements in a holistic manner. As formal quantitative linkages are developed between ecosystem structure and function and ES, this framework will increasingly allow for a clearer, more transparent link between changes in air quality and public welfare.

  7. Resilience of urban ambulance services under future climate, meteorology and air pollution scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Francis; Chapman, Lee; Fisher, Paul; Mahmood, Marliyyah; Sangkharat, Kamolrat; Thomas, Neil; Thornes, John

    2017-04-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature, other meteorological and air pollution variables on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use ambulance call out obtained from various ambulance services worldwide which have significantly different meteorologies, climatologies and pollution conditions. A time-series analysis is utilized to understand the relation between meteorological conditions, air pollutants and different call out categories. We will present findings that support the opinion that ambulance attendance call outs records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorology, climate, air pollution and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather, climate and pollution forecasts.

  8. Low back pain among taxi drivers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yu, J; Liu, N; Liu, Z; Wei, X; Yan, F; Yu, S

    2017-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common occupational problem for drivers all over the world. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated LBP among taxi drivers. To investigate the prevalence of LBP and associated work-related factors among Chinese taxi drivers. A cross-sectional survey was administered to all participants. Using cluster sampling, questionnaires were collected from taxi drivers of three major taxi companies in Jinan, China. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among participants. A total of 800 taxi drivers were invited to take part, with a participation rate of 90%. The 1-year period prevalence of LBP was 54%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that longer daily driving duration (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.9), night shifts (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) and increasing work years as a taxi driver (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) were associated with increased risk of reporting LBP; while increased rest days per month (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), longer sleep duration (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and more physical activity (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) were significantly associated with decreased risk of reporting LBP. The prevalence of LBP among professional taxi drivers in China was associated with a number of occupational features.

  9. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  10. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  11. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  12. 5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10, 2004. 842.811 Section 842.811 Administrative... Regulations Pertaining to Noncodified Statutes § 842.811 Deposits for second-level supervisory air...

  13. 48 CFR 47.403-1 - Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability and unavailability of U.S.-flag air carrier service. 47.403-1 Section 47.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers...

  14. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come.

  15. Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by Air Force nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen H A; Bedrick, Edward J; Parshall, Mark B

    2014-11-01

    We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment.

  16. SemanticTraj: A New Approach to Interacting with Massive Taxi Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Al-Dohuki, Shamal; Wu, Yingyu; Kamw, Farah; Yang, Jing; Li, Xin; Zhao, Ye; Ye, Xinyue; Chen, Wei; Ma, Chao; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Massive taxi trajectory data is exploited for knowledge discovery in transportation and urban planning. Existing tools typically require users to select and brush geospatial regions on a map when retrieving and exploring taxi trajectories and passenger trips. To answer seemingly simple questions such as "What were the taxi trips starting from Main Street and ending at Wall Street in the morning?" or "Where are the taxis arriving at the Art Museum at noon typically coming from?", tedious and time consuming interactions are usually needed since the numeric GPS points of trajectories are not directly linked to the keywords such as "Main Street", "Wall Street", and "Art Museum". In this paper, we present SemanticTraj, a new method for managing and visualizing taxi trajectory data in an intuitive, semantic rich, and efficient means. With SemanticTraj, domain and public users can find answers to the aforementioned questions easily through direct queries based on the terms. They can also interactively explore the retrieved data in visualizations enhanced by semantic information of the trajectories and trips. In particular, taxi trajectories are converted into taxi documents through a textualization transformation process. This process maps GPS points into a series of street/POI names and pick-up/drop-off locations. It also converts vehicle speeds into user-defined descriptive terms. Then, a corpus of taxi documents is formed and indexed to enable flexible semantic queries over a text search engine. Semantic labels and meta-summaries of the results are integrated with a set of visualizations in a SemanticTraj prototype, which helps users study taxi trajectories quickly and easily. A set of usage scenarios are presented to show the usability of the system. We also collected feedback from domain experts and conducted a preliminary user study to evaluate the visual system.

  17. Air Force Chaplains' Perceived Effectiveness on Service Member's Resilience and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cafferky, Bryan; Norton, Aaron; Travis, Wendy J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how 3,777 active duty male United States Air Force service members' (SMs) rank and residence location moderated the associations between perceived chaplain effectiveness, SMs' resilience, family coping, marital satisfaction, and satisfaction with the Air Force (AF). A multiple-sample structural equation model was conducted with four subgroups of SMs who had received chaplain support: enlisted members living on base, enlisted members living off base, officers living on base, and officers living off base. Chaplain effectiveness was significantly related, both directly and indirectly, to SM's spirituality, resilience, family coping, marital satisfaction, and AF satisfaction. Resilience was significantly associated with increased AF satisfaction for all SMs, except for those living on base. However, living on base was found to strengthen the protective factor between family coping and relationship satisfaction. Rank was found to moderate the link between resilience and family coping. Family coping was significantly related to increased relationship satisfaction.

  18. AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB Data On-demand Subsetting and Visualization Services at NASA GES DISC DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Cho, S.; Sun, D.; Qin, J.; Sharma, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared sounder closely coupled with AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) and HSB (Humidity Sounder for Brazil) on EOS Aqua spacecraft launched on May 4, 2002. The data products from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB will be archived and distributed at the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) located in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DAAC). The ADDST is developing tools to read, visualize, analyze and reformat AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB data. The web-based AIRS on-the-fly/on-demand subsetter will be available to perform channel/variable subsetting and restructuring for Level1B (Calibrated Radiances) and Level2 (Atmospheric Retrievals) data products. One can narrow down criteria to subset data files with desired channels and variables and then download the subsetted file. AIRS QuickLook allows users to view AIRS/HSB/AMSU Level-1B data online for a specific channel prior to ordering or downloading data. Global map is also provided along with image to show geographic coverage of the granule and flight direction of the spacecraft. The Atmospheric Dynamics Data Support Team (ADDST) at the GES DISC/DAAC is providing various services to assist users in understanding, accessing, and using AIRS data product. Information on AIRS data and data analysis tools can be found at AIRS data support informational web site (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmodyn/airs/ ) that provides access to various technical online documents, such as, readmes, user's guides, instrument guides, images from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB data, product search and ordering interfaces, HDF-EOS format information, format conversion software, online data analysis tools, other AIRS related web links and more. Other data support services provided by the ADDST are assist with data mining, helpdesk for user questions on data and information, data ordering, and educational resources.

  19. Notification: Background Investigation Services EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0017, March 7, 2014. The OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act (CAA) inspections for air toxics.

  20. AIRS Data Service at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services (GES DISC) and Its Application to Climate Change Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, Young-In; Vollimer, Bruce; Theobald, Mike; Hua, Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument suite is designed to observe and characterize the entire atmospheric column from the surface to the top of the atmosphere in terms of surface emissivity and temperature, atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, cloud amount and height, and the spectral outgoing infrared radiation on a global scale. The AIRS Data Support Team at the GES DISC provides data support to assist others in understanding, retrieving and extracting information from the AIRS/AMSU/HSB data products. Because a number of years has passed since its operation started, the amount of data has reached a certain level of maturity where we can address the climate change study utilizing AIRS data, In this presentation we will list various service we provide and to demonstrate how to utilize/apply the existing service to long-term and short-term variability study.

  1. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  2. Detecting Hotspots from Taxi Trajectory Data Using Spatial Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P. X.; Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, C. K.; Chen, Y. X.

    2015-07-01

    A method of trajectory clustering based on decision graph and data field is proposed in this paper. The method utilizes data field to describe spatial distribution of trajectory points, and uses decision graph to discover cluster centres. It can automatically determine cluster parameters and is suitable to trajectory clustering. The method is applied to trajectory clustering on taxi trajectory data, which are on the holiday (May 1st, 2014), weekday (Wednesday, May 7th, 2014) and weekend (Saturday, May 10th, 2014) respectively, in Wuhan City, China. The hotspots in four hours (8:00-9:00, 12:00-13:00, 18:00-19:00 and 23:00-24:00) for three days are discovered and visualized in heat maps. In the future, we will further research the spatiotemporal distribution and laws of these hotspots, and use more data to carry out the experiments.

  3. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    This timeline was generated on the Integrated Mission Program (IMP). All burn events over 2 seconds are finite with IMP solving a two point boundary value setup for begin burn time, burn time and control angles. Perigee and apogee shown above are mean orbital values. Significant events are listed. Each finite thrust event has two lines. The first is the beginning time showing the initial conditions, thrust and ISP used. The second has the end burn conditions and the delta v and time of burn. This case is an abort from the 750 x 750 phasing abort, using the taxi's main engines. An abort using the Reaction Control System (RCS) was also investigated but required a large increase in RCS propellant and was abandoned.

  4. Characterization of Halobacterium halobium mutants defective in taxis.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, S A; Alam, M; Lebert, M; Spudich, J L; Oesterhelt, D; Hazelbauer, G L

    1990-01-01

    Mutant derivatives of Halobacterium halobium previously isolated by using a procedure that selected for defective phototactic response to white light were examined for an array of phenotypic characteristics related to phototaxis and chemotaxis. The properties tested were unstimulated swimming behavior, behaviorial responses to temporal gradients of light and spatial gradients of chemoattractants, content of photoreceptor pigments, methylation of methyl-accepting taxis proteins, and transient increases in rate of release of volatile methyl groups induced by tactic stimulation. Several distinct phenotypes were identified, corresponding to a mutant missing photoreceptors, a mutant defective in the methyltransferase, a mutant altered in control of the methylesterase, and mutants apparently defective in intracellular signaling. All except the photoreceptor mutant were defective in both chemotaxis and phototaxis. Images PMID:2332402

  5. Characterization of Halobacterium halobium mutants defective in taxis.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, S A; Alam, M; Lebert, M; Spudich, J L; Oesterhelt, D; Hazelbauer, G L

    1990-05-01

    Mutant derivatives of Halobacterium halobium previously isolated by using a procedure that selected for defective phototactic response to white light were examined for an array of phenotypic characteristics related to phototaxis and chemotaxis. The properties tested were unstimulated swimming behavior, behaviorial responses to temporal gradients of light and spatial gradients of chemoattractants, content of photoreceptor pigments, methylation of methyl-accepting taxis proteins, and transient increases in rate of release of volatile methyl groups induced by tactic stimulation. Several distinct phenotypes were identified, corresponding to a mutant missing photoreceptors, a mutant defective in the methyltransferase, a mutant altered in control of the methylesterase, and mutants apparently defective in intracellular signaling. All except the photoreceptor mutant were defective in both chemotaxis and phototaxis.

  6. Pili-taxis: Clustering of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktikos, Johannes; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Biais, Nicolas; Stark, Holger; Weitz, David A.

    2012-02-01

    The first step of colonization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria, the etiological agent of gonorrhea, is the attachment to human epithelial cells. The attachment of N. gonorrhoeae bacteria to surfaces or other cells is primarily mediated by filamentous appendages, called type IV pili (Tfp). Cycles of elongation and retraction of Tfp are responsible for a common bacterial motility called twitching motility which allows the bacteria to crawl over surfaces. Experimentally, N. gonorrhoeae cells initially dispersed over a surface agglomerate into round microcolonies within hours. It is so far not known whether this clustering is driven entirely by the Tfp dynamics or if chemotactic interactions are needed. Thus, we investigate whether the agglomeration may stem solely from the pili-mediated attraction between cells. By developing a statistical model for pili-taxis, we try to explain the experimental measurements of the time evolution of the mean cluster size, number of clusters, and area fraction covered by the cells.

  7. Glycerol elicits energy taxis of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Zhulin, I B; Rowsell, E H; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L

    1997-05-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show positive chemotaxis to glycerol, a chemical previously reported to be a repellent for E. coli. The threshold of the attractant response in both species was 10(-6) M glycerol. Glycerol chemotaxis was energy dependent and coincident with an increase in membrane potential. Metabolism of glycerol was required for chemotaxis, and when lactate was present to maintain energy production in the absence of glycerol, the increases in membrane potential and chemotactic response upon addition of glycerol were abolished. Methylation of a chemotaxis receptor was not required for positive glycerol chemotaxis in E. coli or S. typhimurium but is involved in the negative chemotaxis of E. coli to high concentrations of glycerol. We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level.

  8. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on CMOS imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2005-01-01

    CMOS image sensors now become increasingly competitive with respect to their CCD counterparts, while adding advantages such as no blooming, simpler driving requirements and the potential of on-chip integration of sensor, analogue circuitry, and digital processing functions. A safety monitoring system for taxi based on cmos imager that can record field situation when unusual circumstance happened is described in this paper. The monitoring system is based on a CMOS imager (OV7120), which can output digital image data through parallel pixel data port. The system consists of a CMOS image sensor, a large capacity NAND FLASH ROM, a USB interface chip and a micro controller (AT90S8515). The structure of whole system and the test data is discussed and analyzed in detail.

  9. Increasing influenza vaccination in New York City taxi drivers: A community driven approach.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Mujawar, Imran

    2015-05-21

    The Healthy People 2020 influenza immunization goal is 80% for non-institutionalized adults 18-64. However, vaccination rates remain stubbornly low. Culturally tailored approaches to communities with poor vaccine uptake are necessary. Taxi drivers are at risk for influenza and its complications, could serve as vectors for influenza infection, and could be an effective vaccination target to enhance herd immunity of the urban population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study related to influenza vaccination among taxi drivers. The NYC Taxi Network surveyed a convenience sample of 53 taxi drivers to understand vaccination barriers. Only 17% had been vaccinated. Results informed a pilot tailored workplace intervention, which resulted in vaccinations for 44% of unvaccinated drivers. The study revealed that older drivers were more likely to be vaccinated than younger drivers, while the most common barrier to immunization was that drivers thought vaccination was 'not necessary'.

  10. Continuous lateral oscillations as a core mechanism for taxis in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Wystrach, Antoine; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos; Webb, Barbara

    2016-10-18

    Taxis behaviour in Drosophila larva is thought to consist of distinct control mechanisms triggering specific actions. Here, we support a simpler hypothesis: that taxis results from direct sensory modulation of continuous lateral oscillations of the anterior body, sparing the need for 'action selection'. Our analysis of larvae motion reveals a rhythmic, continuous lateral oscillation of the anterior body, encompassing all head-sweeps, small or large, without breaking the oscillatory rhythm. Further, we show that an agent-model that embeds this hypothesis reproduces a surprising number of taxis signatures observed in larvae. Also, by coupling the sensory input to a neural oscillator in continuous time, we show that the mechanism is robust and biologically plausible. The mechanism provides a simple architecture for combining information across modalities, and explaining how learnt associations modulate taxis. We discuss the results in the light of larval neural circuitry and make testable predictions.

  11. Assessing the ecosystem service of air pollutant removal by urban trees in Guangzhou (China).

    PubMed

    Jim, C Y; Chen, Wendy Y

    2008-09-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Besides technical solutions to abate air pollution, urban vegetation is increasingly recognized as an alternative ameliorative method by removing some pollutants mainly through dry deposition process. This paper assesses the capability and monetary value of this ecosystem service in Guangzhou city in South China. The results indicated an annual removal of SO(2), NO(2) and total suspended particulates at about 312.03 Mg, and the benefits were valued at RMB90.19 thousand (US$1.00=RMB8.26). More removal was realized by recreational land use due to a higher tree cover. Higher concentration of pollutants in the dry winter months induced more removal. The lower cost of pollution abatement in China generated a relatively subdued monetary value of this environmental benefit in comparison with developed countries. Younger districts with more extensive urban trees stripped more pollutants from the air, and this capacity was anticipated to increase further as their trees gradually reach final dimensions and establish a greater tree cover. Tree cover and pollutant concentration constitute the main factors in pollutant removal by urban trees. The efficiency of atmospheric cleansing by trees in congested Chinese cities could be improved by planting more trees other than shrubs or grass, diversifying species composition and biomass structure, and providing sound green space management. The implications for greenery design were discussed with a view to maximizing this ecosystem service in Chinese cities and other developing metropolises.

  12. Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies. Methods The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO2 alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified. Results Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO2 elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls). Conclusions We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of

  13. Taxis assays measure directional movement of mosquitoes to olfactory cues.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Lena M; Keane, Aidan; Moore, Jason D; Munk, Cristina J; Seeholzer, Laura; Mseka, Antony; Simfukwe, Emmanuel; Ligamba, Joseph; Turner, Elizabeth L; Biswaro, Lubandwa R; Okumu, Fredros O; Killeen, Gerry F; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Moore, Sarah J

    2013-05-03

    Malaria control methods targeting indoor-biting mosquitoes have limited impact on vectors that feed and rest outdoors. Exploiting mosquito olfactory behaviour to reduce blood-feeding outdoors might be a sustainable approach to complement existing control strategies. Methodologies that can objectively quantify responses to odour under realistic field conditions and allow high-throughput screening of many compounds are required for development of effective odour-based control strategies. The olfactory responses of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae in a semi-field tunnel and A. arabiensis females in an outdoor field setting to three stimuli, namely whole human odour, a synthetic blend of carboxylic acids plus carbon dioxide and CO(2) alone at four distances up to 100 metres were measured in two experiments using three-chambered taxis boxes that allow mosquito responses to natural or experimentally-introduced odour cues to be quantified. Taxis box assays could detect both activation of flight and directional mosquito movement. Significantly more (6-18%) A. arabiensis mosquitoes were attracted to natural human odour in the field up to 30 metres compared to controls, and blended synthetic human odours attracted 20% more A. gambiae in the semi-field tunnel up to 70 metres. Whereas CO(2) elicited no response in A. arabiensis in the open field, it was attractive to A. gambiae up to 50 metres (65% attraction compared to 36% in controls). We have developed a simple reproducible system to allow for the comparison of compounds that are active over medium- to long-ranges in semi-field or full-field environments. Knowing the natural range of attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to potential blood sources has substantial implications for the design of malaria control strategies, and adds to the understanding of olfactory behaviour in mosquitoes. This experimental strategy could also be extended from malaria vectors to other motile arthropods of medical, veterinary and

  14. Prevention of taxi accidents in Xi'an, China: what matters most?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Ming; Du, Jianhua; Mao, Chengyuan

    2015-03-01

    Since the city of Xi'an has been extremely concerned with the serious problem of taxi involved crashes, injuries and fatalities, the primary purpose of this study is to identify the risk factors associated with the magnitude and nature of the problem and provide possible measures for enhancing the overall safety performance of taxi industry. Using 726 crash samples from the original of 7,183 observations in Xi'an over the period from 2006 to 2012, comparative statistics and systematic analysis were employed to describe the distribution of taxi crashes by driver characteristics, roadway contributors and environmental factors and then determine the significant factors contributing to crash injuries and fatalities. The trend and pattern of taxi involved crashes vary significantly. Middle aged (77.27%) male (91.60%) drivers with limited education (68.59%) and less driving (31.27%) and job (82.50%) experience were much more likely to be involved in such a crash. Additionally, it is found that a large majority of taxi crashes occurred with the most frequent type of rear end collisions (30.72%), on six-lane segments without median (16.94%) or four legged intersections (15.29%), under adverse weather conditions (31.82%), at weekends (34.99%), and during winter days (34.72%), but fatal and serious crashes were more likely to happen at night (30.72%) or under wet road surface conditions (16.94%), due to driver's overspeeding, unbelted, disregarding signs or signals, or other types of risk driving behaviour. The risk of taxi related crashes varies by drivers, roadways and environment. To reduce the risk of potential crashes for taxi drivers, we recommend the targeted legislation and enforcement, stronger night and trip restrictions, awareness of risk behaviour, and periodical training requirement. Such proposals and measures are expected to help mitigate taxi crashes and promote road safety in China.

  15. [Intraosseous infusion in the German Air Rescue Service : Guideline recommendations versus mission reality].

    PubMed

    Helm, M; Schlechtriemen, T; Haunstein, B; Gäßler, M; Lampl, L; Braun, J

    2013-12-01

    In emergency medicine intraosseous access (IOA) has been established as an alternative to conventional intravenous access. Originally the use of IOA was strictly limited to children up to 6 years of age and to adults for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These limitations have been relaxed and the indications for IOA have been expanded. A retrospective nationwide analysis of rescue missions by all helicopter emergency medical services of the German Automobile Club (ADAC) Air Rescue Service as well as the German Air Rescue (DRF) over a 7-year period was carried out. A total of 466,813 patients were treated during the study period and an IOA was established in 1,498 (0.32 %) patients. There was a significant increase in using an IOA from 0.1-0.5 % (p < 0.05) from 2005 to 2011. Furthermore, there was an increase in using an IOA in elderly patients and in patients with lower degrees of severity according to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) scales (2005-2011): decreased use of IOA in patients up to 6 years of age from 92.4 % to 19.7 % (p < 0.05) and in patients with NACA grades VII/VI from 74.4 % to 46.6 % (p < 0.05) and temporarily limited increase of non-indicated IOA use in patients with NACA grade III between 2008 and 2010. Furthermore, there was an increase in the number of the different drug groups used for intraosseous infusion over the study period. The current guidelines and recommendations for the use of IOA in the prehospital setting are reflected more and more in mission reality for helicopter emergency medical services.

  16. Statins and Musculoskeletal Conditions in U.S. Air Force Active Duty Service Members.

    PubMed

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Wagner, Joseph H; Maupin, Genny M; Schroeder, Valarie M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association of statin use and musculoskeletal conditions in statin users and nonusers within the population of U.S. Air Force active duty Service members in the military health care system. The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of Service members between 2004 and 2014 as identified from personnel data having physical fitness and cardiac risk data available and who were free of musculoskeletal diagnoses for 6 months before the study period. Based on pharmacy data, participants were divided into two groups: statin users (received a statin for at least 90 days) and nonusers (never received a statin throughout the study period). Using participants' baseline characteristics, a propensity score was generated and used to match statin users to nonusers in a 1:3 ratio. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for a musculoskeletal injury. A total of 123,138 participants met study criteria (592 statin users and 122,546 nonusers). Of these, 516 statin users were propensity score matched to 1,548 nonusers. Among matched pairs, statin users had a higher OR (OR: 1.369; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.166-1.606) for musculoskeletal conditions. This association was driven by a higher frequency of back problems in statin users relative to nonusers. The number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed was 20.104 (95% CI: 10.326-232.711). Statin use was associated with an increased likelihood of musculoskeletal conditions in the population of U.S. Air Force active duty Service members. Further investigations should evaluate the contribution of duty-related physical requirements as well as the duration of musculoskeletal condition-associated duty limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. PMID:26236770

  18. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  19. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liyong; Zhang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly.

  20. Unexpected chemoreceptors mediate energy taxis towards electron acceptors in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Baraquet, Claudine; Théraulaz, Laurence; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Méjean, Vincent; Jourlin-Castelli, Cécile

    2009-07-01

    Shewanella oneidensis uses a wide range of terminal electron acceptors for respiration. In this study, we show that the chemotactic response of S. oneidensis to anaerobic electron acceptors requires functional electron transport systems. Deletion of the genes encoding dimethyl sulphoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide reductases, or inactivation of these molybdoenzymes as well as nitrate reductase by addition of tungstate, abolished electron acceptor taxis. Moreover, addition of nigericin prevented taxis towards trimethylamine N-oxide, dimethyl sulphoxide, nitrite, nitrate and fumarate, showing that this process depends on the DeltapH component of the proton motive force. These data, together with those concerning response to metals (Bencharit and Ward, 2005), support the idea that, in S. oneidensis, taxis towards electron acceptors is governed by an energy taxis mechanism. Surprisingly, energy taxis in S. oneidensis is not mediated by the PAS-containing chemoreceptors but rather by a chemoreceptor (SO2240) containing a Cache domain. Four other chemoreceptors also play a minor role in this process. These results indicate that energy taxis can be mediated by new types of chemoreceptors.

  1. Early access to patients with life-threatening cardiovascular disease by an air ambulance service.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Takahiro; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Yokoyama, Shinya; Shinada, Takuro; Tokuyama, Kenichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Shiiba, Kunito; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Takuhiro, Kitoji; Mashiko, Kunihiro

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of an air ambulance service using a helicopter with a critical care physician and nurse on board (doctor helicopter service; DHS) could shorten the prehospital delay. We evaluated the initial treatment time and the transport time in 30 patients transported by DHS and 30 patients transported by ground ambulance service (GAS). The initial treatment time was significantly shorter in the DHS group (11.3+/-5.4 min) than in the GAS group (29.5+/-15.3 min). But the transport time in the DHS group (26.1+/-8.6 min) was not different from that in the GAS group. The difference in the initial treatment time was remarkable for patients transported from distant areas (12.7+/-5.6 min for DHS, and 42.1+/-13.8 min for GAS) and DHS shortened the initial treatment time by 30 min compared with GAS. The transport time was shorter for DHS (30.5+/-9.9 min) than for GAS (42.1+/-13.8 min) for patients transported from distant areas, but it was not significantly different for patients transported from nearby areas (22.3+/-5.0 min for DHS, and 18.4+/-2.4 min for GAS). In conclusion, DHS is important in the management of life-threatening cardiovascular diseases, and has a significant impact when GAS cannot transport a patient to the hospital within 20 min.

  2. A novel approach for mental health disease management: the Air Force Medical Service's interdisciplinary model.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Christine N; Fonseca, Vincent P; Meyer, John G; Oordt, Mark S; Talcott, G Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Mental health disorders are one of the most substantial public health problems affecting society today, accounting for roughly 15% of the overall burden of disease from all causes in the United States. Although primary care (PC) has the potential to be the frontline for recognition and management of behavioral health conditions, this has been a challenge historically. In order to more effectively address the broad scope of behavioral health needs, the Air Force Medical Service (AFMS) established a new model of behavioral health care. Through a series of coordinated steps, the AFMS ultimately placed trained behavioral health providers into PC clinics to serve as consultants to PC providers (PCPs). Behavioral Health Consultants (BHCs) provide focused assessments, present healthcare options to patients, and deliver brief collaborative interventions in the PC setting. BHCs see patients at the request of the PCP, in 15-30-min appointments. In the pilot study, patients averaged 1.6 visits to the BHC. Over 70% of patients fell into six categories of presenting problems: situational reactions, depressive disorders, adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, health promotion, and obesity. Patient data (n = 76) suggest 97% of patients seen were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with BHC services, and 100% of the PCPs (n = 23, 68% response rate) were highly satisfied and indicated they would "definitely recommend" others use BHC services for their patients. Both the implications and the limitations of this pilot study are discussed.

  3. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  4. 14 CFR 294.84 - Air competency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air competency requirements. 294.84 Section 294.84 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS Terms, Conditions, and Limitations of...

  5. Testing and analysis of dual-mode adaptive landing gear, taxi mode test system for YF-12A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of a dual mode adaptive landing gear system in reducing the dynamic response of an airplane during ground taxiing was studied. The dynamic taxi tests of the YF-12A research airplane are presented. A digital computer program which simulated the test conditions is discussed. The dual mode system as tested provides dynamic taxi response reductions of 25 percent at the cg and 30 to 45 percent at the cockpit.

  6. A user evaluation of a local air ambulance service in North Wales.

    PubMed

    Gruffudd, Gwilym Siôn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current state and utilisation of user evaluation consultation adopted by Wales Air Ambulance (WAA) within the policy context. It is intended to provide a baseline for further evaluative research in the field and to highlight existing practices and resources. Gaps in strategic planning and service delivery are identified, with local recommendations proposed. Semi-structured, in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with ten participants drawn from a convenient sample representative of stakeholders including practitioners, fundraisers and operational staff. These groups represent primary actors involved in the delivery of services and policy implementation and also secondary actors involved in the delivery as users. Documentary analysis of WAA dispatch policy and protocols combined with secondary quantitative data of key performance indicators was undertaken. In total, 80 per cent of the sample stated their satisfaction with WAA dispatch policy with no perceived need or benefit to further development of policy or local agreements. About 70 per cent of participants had received direct comments that were 100 per cent positive from primary users/patients. All organisations shared the same concerns regarding lack of appropriate present communication. The research design was driven by practicalities of time-scale and resources. Owing to these constraints, plus the legal and ethical requirements relating to the involvement of patients in research, primary users were not included in this study. Areas for future research are identified. Recommendations being implemented by WAA include further engagement with primary users of the service in order to enhance standards. This paper reports the first empirical research conducted with WAA and users of the service.

  7. [The profile of victims attended by the Pernambuco prehospital air service].

    PubMed

    Nardoto, Emanuella Maria Lopes; Diniz, Jackeline Maria Tavares; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Gouvêa

    2011-03-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study was performed using a quantitative approach to address the profile of victims attended by the Pernambuco prehospital air service. The events were evaluated from August 2007 to July 2008, corresponding to the first year of the hangar working in Recife. In the studied period, 283 event forms were studied, with an average 23 events per month. Regarding the flights, 66% were rescue flights with an answer-time of 11 minutes. As for the causes, 79% were external, mainly traffic accidents. Most victims were male, with a median age range of 34 years. The rescue of severe cases should be fast and effective, thus this study analyzed the association between the severity of a victim and the answer-time.

  8. Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of an iterative statistical model is presented to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in confunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of Bay Area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation options with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private nonuser costs. It incorporates information modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport cost, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytical capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  9. Improving Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the structure of the `Air Pollution Course', an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this study deals with the problem of air pollution, which has a special local interest in a large and crowded city like Athens, Greece. The design of the `Air Pollution Course' was based on a combination of experimental study and the use of educational software. All the activities were carried out with the aid of contemporary technological equipment according to the Microcomputer Based Laboratory and to Information and Communication Technologies principles. This approach has encouraging results to the understanding of the problem of air pollution. Τhe laboratory course has improved pre-service elementary teachers' correct use of terms and accuracy in scientific descriptions. These facts suppose deeper conceptual understanding on air pollution phenomena. However, there is a need for further improvement of the pre-service elementary teachers' knowledge in air pollution phenomena, as they still hold misconceptions. The teaching implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  11. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  12. The U.S. Air Service in World War I. Volume III. The Battle of St. Mihiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    of Col. Edgar S. Gorrell’s "History of the Air Service AEF," the original of which is in the National Archives.3 These sources, unfortu- nately, do...interests of clarity and to meet the requirements imposed by the format of the printed volume. Editorial comments and notes have been kept to the minimum...Graphic, published in Paris by the Institut Geographique National .9 Maps and grids used by the Air Service, AEF are described in Appendix D of this

  13. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  14. Exposures to PM₂.₅ components and heart rate variability in taxi drivers around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Niu, Jie; Huang, Qinsheng; Liu, Youcheng; Guo, Xinbiao

    2011-06-01

    Carbonaceous and metallic components of particles have been shown to play a role in particles' effects on cardiac autonomic function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV). Previously we reported the association of HRV with marked changes in traffic-related particulate air pollution around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in a panel of taxi drivers. We further investigated the relationship between exposures to the carbonaceous and metallic components of traffic-related particles and HRV in the same population. Repeated measurements of in-car exposures to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM₂.₅), carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were conducted in a group of 14 taxi drivers for one work shift in four study periods around the Beijing 2008 Olympics. The quantities of organic/elemental carbons and 27 elements of the in-car PM₂.₅ mass were determined laboratorially. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the impact of exposures to different PM₂.₅ components on HRV while controlling for potential confounders. Taxi drivers' exposures to in-car PM₂.₅ and its components showed dramatic changes across the four study periods around the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Differences in associations of in-car PM₂.₅ components with HRV were found. An interquartile range (IQR: 917.9 ng/m³) increase in calcium was associated with a 5.48 millisecond [ms, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71, 10.24] increase in standard deviations of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, while an IQR (4.1 ng/m³) increase in nickel was associated with a 1.53 ms (95% CI: 0.14, 2.92) increase in SDNN index. Additionally, a decline of 8.11 ms (95% CI: -15.26, -0.97) in SDNN per IQR (481.4 ng/m³) increase in iron was also found. The results support associations of PM₂.₅ metallic components with HRV in younger healthy individuals. Future studies are needed to clarify the interaction among different PM₂.₅ components or the role of PM₂.₅ mixtures

  15. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  16. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2016-08-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  17. Nonconstant Positive Steady States and Pattern Formation of 1D Prey-Taxis Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Yang; Shao, Lingjie

    2017-02-01

    Prey-taxis is the process that predators move preferentially toward patches with highest density of prey. It is well known to have an important role in biological control and the maintenance of biodiversity. To model the coexistence and spatial distributions of predator and prey species, this paper concerns nonconstant positive steady states of a wide class of prey-taxis systems with general functional responses over 1D domain. Linearized stability of the positive equilibrium is analyzed to show that prey-taxis destabilizes prey-predator homogeneity when prey repulsion (e.g., due to volume-filling effect in predator species or group defense in prey species) is present, and prey-taxis stabilizes the homogeneity otherwise. Then, we investigate the existence and stability of nonconstant positive steady states to the system through rigorous bifurcation analysis. Moreover, we provide detailed and thorough calculations to determine properties such as pitchfork and turning direction of the local branches. Our stability results also provide a stable wave mode selection mechanism for thee reaction-advection-diffusion systems including prey-taxis models considered in this paper. Finally, we provide numerical studies of prey-taxis systems with Holling-Tanner kinetics to illustrate and support our theoretical findings. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the 2× 2 prey-taxis system is able to model the formation and evolution of various striking patterns, such as spikes, periodic oscillations, and coarsening even when the domain is one-dimensional. These dynamics can model the coexistence and spatial distributions of interacting prey and predator species. We also give some insights on how system parameters influence pattern formation in these models.

  18. An evaluation of the Royal Air Force helicopter search and rescue services in Britain with reference to Royal Air Force Valley 1980-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Liskiewicz, W J

    1992-01-01

    The Royal Air Force (RAF) operates a helicopter Search and Rescue (SAR) service in the United Kingdom and territorial waters; it also provides a similar service in several locations abroad. A 10-year retrospective study of the SAR helicopter service operating from the RAF base at Valley on the island of Anglesey in North Wales is presented, with national SAR statistics over a similar period provided for comparison. Analysis of records kept by SAR aircrew at RAF Valley shows that their assistance had been requested on 1490 occasions during the 10-year period studied; most of these requests were the result of incidents involving holidaymakers, particularly in the mountains or along the coast. The results illustrate the versatility and life-saving potential of a highly skilled and motivated service able to work in adverse weather and dangerous locations. In the light of current debate, the value of aeromedical evacuation of seriously ill patients using helicopters is discussed. PMID:1494160

  19. Air Force Posture Statement 2008: Department of Air Force Presentation to the House Armed Services Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Fiscal Year 2009 Air Force Posture Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE PRESENTATION TO THE HOUSE ARMED SERVICES...COMMITTEE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FISCAL YEAR 2009 AIR FORCE POSTURE STATEMENT STATEMENT OF: THE HONORABLE MICHAEL W. WYNNE SECRETARY OF...Highest Quality of Life Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 4.2.1 Housing and Military Construction

  20. Challenges in recovery and recycling of refrigerants from Indian refrigeration and air-conditioning service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devotta, Sukumar; Asthana, Saroja; Joshi, Rahul

    India is a large producer and user of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) sector. Government of India has taken several steps to restrict the production and consumption of CFCs. Refrigerant conservation through recovery, recycling (R&R) and reclamation is one way of reducing emissions and encouraging timely phase out of CFCs in developing countries. CFC recovery, recycling and reclamation have been mandated in many developed countries. However, this practice is yet to make an impact in India although it is practiced in MAC sector to some extent. India is planning for the final phase out of CFCs in the RAC service sector, in which R&R will be one of the components. A model has been developed to assess the economics of R&R for some typical parameters in developing counties like India. The model suggests that the enterprises recycling 1500 kg/a will break even within 1 year for all scenarios. However, R&R may not be cost effective for small workshops and low volume refrigerant vendors until either the price of CFC goes up or the cost of R&R unit is subsidized. A nationwide survey on RAC service sector revealed that in India, there are very few enterprises handling more than 500 kg/a. Therefore, there is a need to provide the RAC service sector with adequate and innovative financial incentives. This paper attempts to study the issues related to R&R for various sub-sectors of RAC in developing countries with an emphasis on cost effectiveness. India is used as a model for this study.

  1. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  2. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Mukesh Suresh; Srivastav, Manissha

    2013-09-01

    Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers' health. The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. [corrected] The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive) study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59%) of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1%) was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%), too many speed breakers (41%), rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42%) and bad weather (36%). Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers.

  3. Study the epidemiological profile of taxi drivers in the background of occupational environment, stress and personality characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Mukesh Suresh; Srivastav, Manissha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Work hazards have been a major cause of concern in driving industry especially in taxi drivers. This study integrates the various factors that influence physical and emotional well-being of taxi drivers into the theoretical model that shows that the work environment, stress and personality characteristics directly influence taxi drivers’ health. Objective: The aim of the following study is to study the relative and combined influence of work environment, personality characteristics and stress on the health of taxi drivers. Meterials and Methods: The present study is cross-sectional (descriptive) study taxi drivers in Mumbai. They are selected using multistage random sampling method. Calculated sample size is 508. Data produced after the survey is analyzed using IBM SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Nearly 65% of taxi drivers belonged to middle-age group of 21-40 years of age. Majority (59%) of taxi drivers belonged to the lower upper socio-economic class. 70% of taxi drivers worked for more than 8 h daily. 63% gave the history of one or more addictions. 52% taxi drivers had type B1 personality, only 6% had stress prone and aggressive type A1 personality. Traffic congestion (67.1%) was reported as the leading stressor followed by narrow bottle neck roads (43%), too many speed breakers (41%), rude gestures and behavior by other drivers (42%) and bad weather (36%). Nearly 86% taxi drivers had one or more symptoms of morbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms predominated followed by musculoskeletal symptoms and depression. Conclusion: Socio-demographic attributes, work environment, stress and personality significantly influence physical and psychological morbidities in taxi drivers. PMID:24872669

  4. Evaluation of urinary metabolites of 1-nitropyrene as biomarkers for exposure to diesel exhaust in taxi drivers of Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P; Paulsen, Michael; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Tamura, Kenji; Dong, Lijun; Zhang, Xuemei; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Yost, Michael G; Simpson, Christopher D

    2013-03-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant contributor to the toxicity associated with particulate matter (PM). 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) has been used as a molecular marker for DE, and the urinary metabolites of 1-NP have been proposed as biomarkers for exposure to DE. In this study, several urinary 1-NP metabolites were evaluated for their utility as markers of short-term exposures to DE. The study population was a cohort of 24 taxi drivers from Shenyang, China, who submitted urine samples collected before, after, and the next morning following their workshifts. The urinary metabolites studied were isomers of hydroxy-1-nitropyrene (3-, 6-, 8- OHNPs) and hydroxy-N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (3-,6-, 8-OHNAAPs). Exposure to DE was estimated based on exposure to 1-NP in air samples collected during and after the driver's workshift; 6- and 8-OHNP, and 8-OHNAAP were consistently detected in the drivers' urine. Concentrations of the metabolites in the taxi drivers' urine were greater than metabolite levels previously reported in non-occupationally exposed subjects; however no associations were observed between subject-specific exposures to 1-NP and urinary metabolites measured at the end of the workshift or in the next morning void. Significant autocorrelation was observed in metabolite levels in successive urine samples, from which half-lives for urinary elimination of ~10-12 h were estimated. These observations suggest that, in an occupational setting, urinary 1-NP metabolites may be more suitable as markers of ongoing exposure (timescales of several days) rather than indicators of acute exposure associated with single workshifts.

  5. Electrical nature of the taxis signal in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Murvanidze, G V; Glagolev, A N

    1982-04-01

    Electrical events after a light-dark stimulus were studied in the multicellular organism Phormidium uncinatum. Normally, such a stimulus causes the gliding trichome to reverse direction. By directing a large light spot on the end of a batch of trichomes and then switching it off, we achieved synchronization of the trichomes, since the "head" is much more sensitive than the "tail." The abrupt disappearance of a uniform light produced a depolarization wave which initiated at the head, as registered by externally applied electrodes. The second stimulus produced a depolarization of the opposite direction, reflecting the reorientation of the trichomes. No electrical response was observed at Ca2+ concentrations less than or equal to 10(-8) M. Factors causing oscillatory reversals, i.e., a combination of Ca2+ and A23187, or a viscous environment also abolished the electrical signal. Changes in an externally applied electrical field (4 V/cm2) had little effect on the motile behavior of P. uncinatum or Oscillatoria princeps. However, in the presence of 5 microM Ca2+-1 microM A23187, all the trichomes reversed synchronously to the anode after a change in polarity of an externally applied electrical field. We suggest that an increased Ca2+ concentration together with a change in delta psi (or delta mu H+) represents the taxis signal in cyanobacteria.

  6. [Time in care of trauma patients in the air rescue service: implications for disposition?].

    PubMed

    Gries, A; Sikinger, M; Hainer, C; Ganion, N; Petersen, G; Bernhard, M; Schweigkofler, U; Stahl, P; Braun, J

    2008-06-01

    Time plays a crucial role in treating multiple traumatized patients and delays in management worsen the prognosis. Furthermore, current studies show that trauma patients profit from primary delivery to a trauma center. Therefore, the goal of physician-staffed ground and air rescue services in Germany is to treat these patients as quickly as possible and deliver them to a suitable trauma center. The aim of the present study was to investigate prehospital treatment times for the air rescue team in terms of disposition and efficiency when a ground rescue team was already present at the scene. In a nationwide, multicenter analysis emergency missions carried out for traumatological emergencies in 2006 by 28 air rescue centers (ARC) of the TeamDRF and 6 ARC of the federal police were evaluated using the medical database MEDAT of the German Air Rescue Service. A distinction was made between combined missions with (MEDAT 1 group) and without (MEDAT 2 group) physician-staffed ground emergency medical services already being present at the emergency site and in particular the rescue helicopter treatment times for both groups were investigated. Furthermore, combined missions (MAN 1 group) and solo missions (MAN 2 group) for traumatological emergencies in the period 01.05.2006 to 31.01.2007 were investigated in a complementary prospective regional study at the ARC Heidelberg/Mannheim "Christoph 53". In both groups the total treatment times for all physician-staffed emergency systems involved in treatment at the scene were investigated. Nationwide, 26,010 primary missions could be evaluated and of these, 11,464 missions were traumatological emergencies (44.1%) with 2,229 (19.4%) carried out by the MEDAT 1 group and 9,235 (80.6%) by the MEDAT 2 group. For both groups the helicopter treatment times depended on the severity of the injuries (NACA classification) and were between 17+/-12 min (NACA I) and 34+/-19 min (NACA VII) in MEDAT group 1 versus 21+/-10 and 36+/-19 min in MEDAT

  7. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the "Air Pollution Course", an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this…

  8. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Treesearch

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  9. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the "Air Pollution Course", an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this…

  10. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Arphorn, Sara; Jirapongsuwan, Ann

    2016-10-08

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers' CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status.

  11. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers’ CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status. PMID:27151439

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New York city taxi trips: Dynamic networks following inconsistent power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianjun; Zheng, Maohui

    The present paper maps the records of urban taxi trips into dynamic networks, where nodes are the communities and links represent the recorded taxi trips between them. The dynamic urban taxi trip networks, where nodes are the communities and links represent the recorded taxi trips between them, are formulated here as a special type of large-scale traffic system with an enormous impact on the city, in which the existence of uncertainties together with the spatial and temporal variation in the distribution of the taxi trips are considered. Three types of indicators are proposed to facilitate the measurement of the activities between and inside the communities (nodes of the network) from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. It could be found from the analysis of the records within the New York city that these indicators are inconsistent to each other, and nevertheless, none of them distributes uniformly within the city but generally follows the power law in spite of their time-dependent properties. Further, the unusually low values of the scaling parameters from the curve fitting with power law for all the proposed indicators illustrate the severe inhomogeneity of the networks (also the city).

  14. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Air enema reduction of intussusception: a registrar-led, protocol-driven service is safe and effective.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Edward John; Allan, Rosemary Anne; Negus, April Samantha; Murphy, Feilim; Okoye, Bruce Obi

    2013-08-01

    In the UK, air enema reduction of intussusception is predominantly performed by consultant radiologists. At our institution, it is usually performed by a team involving radiology and surgical registrars. The purpose of this study was to assess who performs air enemas in the UK and the efficacy and safety of our registrar-led service. A telephone survey of paediatric surgical centres in the UK was performed asking who performs air enema in these institutions. Following this, a retrospective review of all air enemas at our institution between January 2005 and 2011 was performed. Cases were identified from radiology databases and reviewed for grade of radiologist, perforation and outcome. At all 25 centres, consultant radiologists performed air enemas. At our institution 145 enemas were performed in 6 years. 141 were analysed (54 girls, 87 boys). Median age was 9 months (range 3-107 months). 82 % were performed by the registrar-only team. Over 6 years the registrar-led reduction rate was 77.5 % and in the last 3 years 84 %. The perforation rate was 0.9 %. A paediatric surgical registrar-led service for air enema reduction can be safe and effective ensuring a team approach is adopted, equipment is efficient and a strict protocol is applied.

  16. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  17. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name. (a) A Canadian charter air taxi operator, in holding out charter air service to the public and... this part. The Department may require a Canadian charter air taxi operator to change such names where...

  18. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name. (a) A Canadian charter air taxi operator, in holding out charter air service to the public and... this part. The Department may require a Canadian charter air taxi operator to change such names where...

  19. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name. (a) A Canadian charter air taxi operator, in holding out charter air service to the public and... this part. The Department may require a Canadian charter air taxi operator to change such names where...

  20. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name. (a) A Canadian charter air taxi operator, in holding out charter air service to the public and... this part. The Department may require a Canadian charter air taxi operator to change such names where...

  1. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name. (a) A Canadian charter air taxi operator, in holding out charter air service to the public and... this part. The Department may require a Canadian charter air taxi operator to change such names where...

  2. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  3. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems

  4. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Army and Air Force Exchange Service Shopping Center Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    comprised of dust, ash, soot , smoke, or liquid droplets emitted into the air. Fires, unpaved roads, construction activities, and natural sources (wind...Employer 1(’-,:9 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper ~ DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OMAHA DISTRICT 106 SOUTH 15TH STREET REPLY

  6. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly.

  7. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control 1: Automatic rollout, turnoff, and taxis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    A study developed for the TCV B-737, designed to apply existing navigation aids plus magnetic leader cable signals and develop breaking and reverse thrust guidance laws to provide for rapid automated rollout, turnoff, and taxi to reduce runway occupation time for a wide variety of landing conditions for conventional commercial-type aircraft, is described. Closed loop guidance laws for braking and reverse thrust are derived for rollout, turnoff, and taxi, as functions of the landing speed, the desired taxi speed and the distance to go. Brake limitations for wet runway conditions and reverse thrust limitations are taken into account to provide decision rules to avoid tire skid and to choose an alternate turnoff point, farther down the runway, to accommodate extreme landing conditions.

  8. Step On It! Workplace Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of New York City Yellow Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Gill, Pavan; Ramirez, Julia; Ayash, Claudia; Loeb, Rebecca; Aragones, Abraham; Leng, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Multiple factors associated with taxi driving can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in taxi drivers. This paper describes the results of Step On It!, which assessed CVD risk factors among New York City taxi drivers at John F. Kennedy International Airport. Drivers completed an intake questionnaire and free screenings for blood pressure, glucose and body mass index (BMI). 466 drivers participated. 9 % had random plasma glucose values >200 mg/dl. 77 % had elevated BMIs. Immigrants who lived in the US for >10 years had 2.5 times the odds (CI 1.1-5.9) of having high blood pressure compared to newer immigrants. Abnormalities documented in this study were significant, especially for immigrants with greater duration of residence in the US, and underscore the potential for elevated CVD risk in this vulnerable population, and the need to address this risk through frameworks that utilize multiple levels of intervention.

  9. Aeroassisted manned transfer vehicle (TAXI) for advanced Mars Transportation: NASA/USRA 1987 Senior Design Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design study of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle is discussed. Nicknamed TAXI, it will ferry personnel and cargo: (1) between low Earth orbit and a spacecraft circling around the Sun in permanent orbit intersecting gravitational fields of Earth and Mars, and (2) between the cycling spacecraft and a Mars orbiting station, co-orbiting with Phobos. Crew safety and mission flexibility (in terms of ability to provide a wide range of delta-V) were given high priority. Three versions were considered, using the same overall configuration based on a low L/D aerobrake with the geometry of a raked off elliptical cone with ellipsoidal nose and a toroidal skirt. The propulsion system consists of three gimballed LOX/LH2 engines firing away from the aerobrake. The versions differ mainly in the size of the aeroshields and propellant tanks. TAXI A version resulted from an initial effort to design a single transfer vehicle able to meet all delta-V requirements during the 15-year period (2025 to 2040) of Mars mission operations. TAXI B is designed to function with the cycling spacecraft moving in a simplified, nominal trajectory. On Mars missions, TAXI B would be able to meet the requirements of all the missions with a relative approach velocity near Mars of less than 9.3 km/sec. Finally, TAXI C is a revision of TAXI A, a transfer vehicle designed for missions with a relative velocity near Mars larger than 9.3 km/sec. All versions carry a crew of 9 (11 with modifications) and a cargo of 10000 lbm. Trip duration varies from 1 day for transfer from LEO to the cycling ship to nearly 5 days for transfer from the ship to the Phobos orbit.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene involved in the negative regulation of phosphate taxis.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Sakai, Y; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1994-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exhibited a positive chemotactic response to P(i). The chemotactic response was induced by P(i) limitation. An alkaline phosphatase (AP) constitutive mutant showed a chemotactic response to P(i), regardless of whether the cells were starved for P(i). Sequence analysis and complementation studies showed that the P. aeruginosa phoU gene was involved both in the regulation of AP expression and in the induction of P(i) taxis. However, unlike AP expression, P(i) taxis was not regulated by the phoB gene product.

  11. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  12. Tools for Schools: Filtration for Improved Air Quality. Technical Services Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This product bulletin addresses air pollution control in educational facilities to enhance educational performance, provides air quality recommendations for schools, and examines the filtration needs of various school areas. The types of air particles typically present are highlighted, and the use of proper filtration to control gases and vapors…

  13. Discrete Address Beacon System/Automated Traffic Advisory and Resolution Service/Air Traffic Control Operational System Description.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. Prepared for U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION LA-i Systems...the U.S. public S a Air Traffic Control through the National Technical Informa- Cunicans ATARS tion Service, Springfield, VirginiaCommunications 22161...Beacon Reports 6-20 6.2.3 Commmunications Link Interface 6-21 6.2.4 Surveillance-Related Comunications 6-22 6.2.4.1 ATCRBS ID Code 6-22 6.2.4.2 Track

  14. Assessment of broadcast media airings of AIDS-related public service announcements--United States, 1987-1990.

    PubMed

    1991-08-09

    Television and radio public service announcements (PSAs) are an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) public information campaigns. This report summarizes an assessment of airings of AIDS PSAs in the United States during October 1987-December 1990 that were produced by CDC's "America Responds to AIDS" (ARTA) campaign and other groups.* The assessment used data obtained from Broadcast Advertisers Reports (BAR) of the Arbitron Company.

  15. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  16. Risk Factors for Incident Postdeployment Mental Health Conditions Among U.S. Air Force Medical Service Personnel.

    PubMed

    Maupin, Genny M; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; White, Edward D; Lysfjord, Heather J

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of postdeployment mental health (PDMH) conditions in military health care personnel appears to be on par with that of other military personnel. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of incident PDMH conditions within the overall population of U.S. Air Force Medical Service personnel. This study explored the epidemiology of incident PDMH conditions among Air Force Medical Service personnel returning from deployment. A cohort survival analysis was conducted of 24,409 subjects without preexisting mental health conditions and at least one deployment during 2003-2013. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a PDMH condition. The primary outcome measure was an incident PDMH condition defined as a mental health diagnosis on at least two separate clinical encounters. The incidence of PDMH conditions was 59.74 per 1,000 person-years. Adjustment, anxiety, mood, sleep, and post-traumatic stress disorders accounted for 78% diagnoses. Protective factors included officer, surgeon, specific enlisted career fields, Air National Guard or Air Force Reserve, and multiple deployments. Risk factors included nurse, other specific enlisted career fields, female, and unmarried with dependents. Most subjects (73%) were diagnosed within the standard 30-month surveillance time period; median time to diagnosis was 13 months. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Physical activity overcomes the effects of cumulative work time on hypertension prevalence among Brazilian taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Vieira, M C; Sperandei, S; Reis, A

    2015-02-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity profile of taxi drivers and its relationship with hypertension prevalence in this group of workers. Cross sectional exploratory study. Between November 2008 and April 2009, 491 taxi drivers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, answered a questionnaire focusing on previous hypertension diagnosis, occupational characteristics and physical activity habits. Two logistic models were developed to determine risk factors related to hypertension and to find variables associated with a higher probability of sedentarism. Hypertension prevalence was 22.6%. The workload of the group investigated was high. Results indicate that 'age', 'body mass index', 'physical activity', and 'years as a taxi driver' are related to the probability of hypertension. Physical activity was shown to be a protection factor for hypertension, even considering the deleterious effect of time as a taxi driver. Our results also determined that the practice of physical activity is influenced by age, level of education and workload. It is recommended that programs to combat sedentary lifestyles as well as measures to reduce workloads be developed as strategies to prevent hypertension.

  18. [Analysis of risk factors for hypertension among taxi drivers on different shifts].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuxiao; Yan, Fengfeng; Wei, Xiaomin; Yu, Sufang

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors for hypertension among taxi drivers working different shifts. Using the cluster sampling method, 415 day-shift and 304 night-shift taxi drivers in Jinan, China were selected and investigated. The influencing factors for hypertension were analyzed. The incidence of hypertension in all taxi drivers was 33.2%. The incidence of hypertension in night-shift drivers was significantly higher than that in day-shift drivers (37.8% vs 29.9%, P<0.05). According to multivariate analysis, the incidence of hypertension in day-shift drivers was closely related to body mass index (BMI), working years, working hours, sleep duration, rest days, diet quality, water intake, and smoking, while the incidence of hypertension in night-shift drivers was closely related to BMI, working years, working hours, part-time job, sleep duration, rest days, and drinking. BMI, working years, and working hours are the common risk factors for hypertension in day-shift and night-shift drivers. Sleep duration and rest days are the common protective factors. The risk factors for hypertension in taxi drivers vary with different shifts.

  19. Physical activity overcomes the effects of cumulative work time on hypertension prevalence among Brazilian taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcelo C; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne C

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity profile of taxi drivers and its relationship with hypertension prevalence in this group of workers. Cross sectional exploratory study. Between November 2008 and April 2009, 491 taxi drivers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, answered a questionnaire focusing on previous hypertension diagnosis, occupational characteristics and physical activity habits. Two logistic models were developed to determine risk factors related to hypertension and to find variables associated with a higher probability of sedentarism. Hypertension prevalence was 22.6%. The workload of the group investigated was high. Results indicate that 'age', 'Body Mass Index', 'physical activity', and 'years as a taxi driver' are related to the probability of hypertension. Physical activity was shown to be a protection factor for hypertension, even considering the deleterious effect of time as a taxi driver. Our results also determined that the practice of physical activity is influenced by age, level of education and workload. It is recommended that programs to combat sedentary lifestyles as well as measures to reduce workloads be developed as strategies to prevent hypertension.

  20. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  1. A comparative analysis of intra-city human mobility by taxi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjun; Pan, Lin; Yuan, Ning; Zhang, Sen; Liu, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative understanding of human movement behaviors would provide helpful insights into the mechanisms of many socioeconomic phenomena. In this paper, we investigate human mobility patterns through analyzing taxi-trace datasets collected from five metropolitan cities in two countries. We focus on three statistics for each dataset: the displacement of each occupied trip, the duration of each occupied trip, and the time interval between successive occupied trips by the same taxi (interevent time). The results indicate that the displacement distributions of human travel by taxi tend to follow exponential laws in two displacement ranges rather than power laws; the trip duration distributions can be approximated by log-normal distributions; the interevent time distributions can be well characterized by log-normal bodies followed by power law tails. For each considered measure, the rescaled distributions of all cities collapsed into a master curve. These results provide empirical evidence supporting the common regularity of intra-city human mobility. Moreover, we show that airport locations could play a role in explaining the spikes of displacement distributions of taxi trips in certain cities.

  2. Soluble electron shuttles can mediate energy taxis toward insoluble electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Tiedje, James M; Chiu, Chichia; Worden, R Mark

    2012-03-06

    Shewanella species grow in widely disparate environments and play key roles in elemental cycling, especially in environments with varied redox conditions. To obtain a system-level understanding of Shewanella's robustness and versatility, the complex interplay of cellular growth, metabolism, and transport under conditions of limiting carbon sources, energy sources, and electron acceptors must be elucidated. In this paper, population-level taxis of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells in the presence of a rate-limiting, insoluble electron acceptor was investigated. A novel mechanism, mediated energy taxis, is proposed by which Shewanella use riboflavin as both an electron shuttle and an attractant to direct cell movement toward local sources of insoluble electron acceptors. The cells secrete reduced riboflavin, which diffuses to a nearby particle containing an insoluble electron acceptor and is oxidized. The oxidized riboflavin then diffuses away from the particle, establishing a spatial gradient that draws cells toward the particle. Experimental and modeling results are presented to support this mechanism. S. oneidensis MR-1 cells inoculated into a uniform dispersion of MnO(2) particles in dilute agar exhibited taxis outward, creating a clear zone within which riboflavin was detected by mass spectrometry. Cells inoculated into dilute agar containing oxidized riboflavin similarly exhibited taxis, rapidly forming an expanding zone of reduced riboflavin. A mathematical model based on the proposed mechanism was able to predict experimental trends, including how concentrations of riboflavin and insoluble electron acceptors (e.g., MnO(2)) affected tactic cell migration.

  3. Continuous lateral oscillations as a core mechanism for taxis in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wystrach, Antoine; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos; Webb, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Taxis behaviour in Drosophila larva is thought to consist of distinct control mechanisms triggering specific actions. Here, we support a simpler hypothesis: that taxis results from direct sensory modulation of continuous lateral oscillations of the anterior body, sparing the need for ‘action selection’. Our analysis of larvae motion reveals a rhythmic, continuous lateral oscillation of the anterior body, encompassing all head-sweeps, small or large, without breaking the oscillatory rhythm. Further, we show that an agent-model that embeds this hypothesis reproduces a surprising number of taxis signatures observed in larvae. Also, by coupling the sensory input to a neural oscillator in continuous time, we show that the mechanism is robust and biologically plausible. The mechanism provides a simple architecture for combining information across modalities, and explaining how learnt associations modulate taxis. We discuss the results in the light of larval neural circuitry and make testable predictions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15504.001 PMID:27751233

  4. Conserved residues in the HAMP domain define a new family of proposed bipartite energy taxis receptors.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Zhulin, Igor B; Stuckey, Jeanne A; DiRita, Victor J

    2009-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of Aer divided between two proteins, CetA (HAMP domain containing) and CetB (PAS domain containing). In this study, we found that the CetA HAMP domain differs significantly from that of Aer in the predicted secondary structure. Using similarity searches, we identified 55 pairs of HAMP/PAS proteins encoded by adjacent genes in a diverse group of microorganisms. We propose that these HAMP/PAS pairs form a new family of bipartite energy taxis receptors. Within these proteins, we identified nine residues in the HAMP domain and proximal signaling domain that are highly conserved, at least three of which are required for CetA function. Additionally, we demonstrated that CetA contributes to the invasion of human epithelial cells by C. jejuni, while CetB does not. This finding supports the hypothesis that members of HAMP/PAS pairs possess the capacity to act independently of each other in cellular traits other than energy taxis.

  5. Portraits of the Postmodern Person in "Taxi Driver,""Raging Bull," and "The King of Comedy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Argues that a postmodern theory of identity (i.e., the subject as coherent, integrated, discoverable self is a fiction of modernity) links Martin Scorsese's major films. Examines "Taxi Driver,""Raging Bull," and "King of Comedy." Concludes that these films articulate a major cultural shift and chronicle a…

  6. 14 CFR 294.86 - Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited. 294.86 Section 294.86 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS...

  7. 14 CFR 294.86 - Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited. 294.86 Section 294.86 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS...

  8. 14 CFR 294.86 - Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited. 294.86 Section 294.86 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS...

  9. 14 CFR 294.86 - Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industrial/agricultural/other nontransport air operations prohibited. 294.86 Section 294.86 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS...

  10. Minibus taxi drivers' sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ncama, Busisiwe; Mchunu, Gugu; Naidoo, Joanne; Majeke, Sisana; Pillay, Padmini; Myeza, Thandazile; Ndebele, Thandiwe

    2013-01-08

    Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  11. His374 of wheat endoxylanase inhibitor TAXI-I stabilizes complex formation with glycoside hydrolase family 11 endoxylanases.

    PubMed

    Fierens, Katleen; Gils, Ann; Sansen, Stefaan; Brijs, Kristof; Courtin, Christophe M; Declerck, Paul J; De Ranter, Camiel J; Gebruers, Kurt; Rabijns, Anja; Robben, Johan; Campenhout, Steven; Volckaert, Guido; Delcour, Jan A

    2005-11-01

    Wheat endoxylanase inhibitor TAXI-I inhibits microbial glycoside hydrolase family 11 endoxylanases. Crystallographic data of an Aspergillus niger endoxylanase-TAXI-I complex showed His374 of TAXI-I to be a key residue in endoxylanase inhibition. Its role in enzyme-inhibitor interaction was further investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of His374 into alanine, glutamine or lysine. Binding kinetics and affinities of the molecular interactions between A. niger, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma longibrachiatumendoxylanases and wild-type TAXI-I and TAXI-I His374 mutants were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Enzyme-inhibitor binding was in accordance with a simple 1 : 1 binding model. Association and dissociation rate constants of wild-type TAXI-I towards the endoxylanases were in the range between 1.96 and 36.1 x 10(4)m(-1) x s(-1) and 0.72-3.60 x 10(-4) x s(-1), respectively, resulting in equilibrium dissociation constants in the low nanomolar range. Mutation of TAXI-I His374 to a variable degree reduced the inhibition capacity of the inhibitor mainly due to higher complex dissociation rate constants (three- to 80-fold increase). The association rate constants were affected to a smaller extent (up to eightfold decrease). Substitution of TAXI-I His374 therefore strongly affects the affinity of the inhibitor for the enzymes. In addition, the results show that His374 plays a critical role in the stabilization of the endoxylanase-TAXI-I complex rather than in the docking of inhibitor onto enzyme.

  12. Evolution of Taxis Responses in Virtual Bacteria: Non-Adaptive Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Richard A.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics mediating taxis responses

  13. Evolution of taxis responses in virtual bacteria: non-adaptive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard A; Soyer, Orkun S

    2008-05-23

    Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics mediating taxis responses

  14. Variables Related to Pre-Service Cannabis Use in a Sample of Air Force Enlistees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Cecil J.; And Others

    This report is an attempt to add to the existing information about cannabis use, its correlates, and its effects. The sample population consisted of self-admitted abusers of various drugs, identified shortly after entering the Air Force. The subjects (N=4688) were located through the Drug Control Office at Lackland Air Force Base. Variables…

  15. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people, and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. METHODS A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in a self-administered questionnaire survey, which included height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns; and sleep profile. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with risk factors related to fatigue among taxi drivers. RESULTS A high proportion of taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. CONCLUSION We hope that the findings of the present study will improve awareness of the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward efforts to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving may lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all. PMID:25532512

  16. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-02-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in this self-administered questionnaire survey, with height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns and sleep profile; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the risk factors related to fatigue among the taxi drivers. A high proportion of the taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of the quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. We hope that the findings of the present study will improve the awareness regarding the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward the effort to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving will lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all.

  17. The application of a marketing systems planning framework to design a ground-air medical transport service.

    PubMed

    Chasin, S; Schlacter, J; Shirley, C

    1986-01-01

    This article has examined the application of a marketing and community planning process to the development of a regional, complete patient transportation system. The model is designed to interface with a region whose existing Emergency Medical Service System is operating at the advanced Life Support (usually paramedic) level. It is suitable for regions whose existing ambulance (ground and air) services are in need of improvement and/or coordination, and specifically utilizes the concept of ownership and management by a hospital consortium. The model, as described, is sufficiently flexible to be usable in a variety of local and regional environments, where changes in the patient transportation system can enhance the quality and operations of emergency medical services.

  18. Analysis of the change of health status among the republic of Korea air force soldiers during military service.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Kwan; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the health status of Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) soldiers changed after one year of military service. We selected 483 ROKAF soldiers from the 11 749 recruits who participated in the 2011 physical examination. The selected soldiers underwent another physical examination in 2012 for advancement to senior airman. Data from 2011 and 2012 were merged. To collect data on lifestyle, a questionnaire was sent to all included subjects via the military intranet e-mail service. The percentage of recruits with an abnormal alanine transaminase level (normal range <40 IU/L) decreased from recruitment (13.7%) to the following year (2.7%). Moreover, the percentage of obese soldiers (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) decreased from recruitment (20.5%) to the following year (10.4%). There was a significant change in mean duration of exercise carried out each day before (0.8±1.3 hours) and after (1.0±0.7 hours) joining the ROKAF service. These ROKAF soldiers were generally in good health before and after joining the armed service. After one year of military service, the health status of most soldiers improved, especially with respect to body mass index and alanine transaminase level. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the health status of Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) soldiers changed after one year of military service. We selected 483 ROKAF soldiers from the 11 749 recruits who participated in the 2011 physical examination. The selected soldiers underwent another physical examination in 2012 for advancement to senior airman. Data from 2011 and 2012 were merged. To collect data on lifestyle, a questionnaire was sent to all included subjects via the military intranet e-mail service. The percentage of recruits with an abnormal alanine transaminase level (normal range <40 IU/L) decreased from recruitment (13.7%) to the following year (2.7%). Moreover, the percentage of obese soldiers (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2

  19. Guidelines for evaluating air-pollution impacts on Class I wilderness areas in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.; Schmoldt, D.; Peterson, D.; Eilers, J.; Fisher, R.

    1992-05-01

    Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class 1 wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution having the potential to impact class 1 wilderness values. This report documents the results of a workshop where current information on air pollution effects on aquatic and terrestrial resources and visibility was gathered from participating scientists and managers. Critical air pollution concentrations were determined for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Critical values for sulfur and nitrogen deposition to forest ecosystems are listed.

  20. A critical review of studies of the association between demands for hospital services and air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, F W

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility. PMID:8243395

  1. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  2. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  3. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  4. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  5. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  6. Effect of fee-for-service air-conditioning management in balancing thermal comfort and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Peng; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shih, Wen-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Balancing thermal comfort with the requirement of energy conservation presents a challenge in hot and humid areas where air-conditioning (AC) is frequently used in cooling indoor air. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to demonstrate the adaptive behaviors of occupants in relation to the use of fans and AC in a school building employing mixed-mode ventilation where AC use was managed under a fee-for-service mechanism. The patterns of using windows, fans, and AC as well as the perceptions of students toward the thermal environment were examined. The results of thermal perception evaluation in relation to the indoor thermal conditions were compared to the levels of thermal comfort predicted by the adaptive models described in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 55 and EN 15251 and to that of a local model for evaluating thermal adaption in naturally ventilated buildings. A thermal comfort-driven adaptive behavior model was established to illustrate the probability of fans/AC use at specific temperature and compared to the temperature threshold approach to illustrate the potential energy saving the fee-for-service mechanism provided. The findings of this study may be applied as a reference for regulating the operation of AC in school buildings of subtropical regions.

  7. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  8. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  9. Air Weather Service Master Station Catalog: USAFETAC Climatic Database Users Handbook No. 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    MA MAURITIUS 61 MC MOROCCO 60 MD MADEIRA 08 MF ST.MARTIN, ST.BARTHOLOMEW, GUADELOUPE , AND FR ISLANDS 78 MG MADAGASCAR 67 MH MARSHALL ISLANDS 91 MI...THE SOUTH 78 MN ST. MAARTEN, ST.EUSTATIUS, AND SABA 78 MF ST. MARTIN, ST. BARTHOLOMEW, GUADELOUPE , AND FR ISLANDS 78 SU SUDAN 62 SM SURINAME 81 SV...strait z = zaliv ..... gulf AGMS - Agricultural meteorological station AGRO - Agricultural station AMSG - Air weather station of the civil air fleet

  10. Collocating Air Force Weapon Systems Inventory with the Defense Logistics Agency Premium Service Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    GSA) contract with Federal Express (FedEx), the customer is refunded charges associated with the shipment.8 Notes 1 Mattern , Virginia A, “Inventory...considered. Inventory reduction has inherent risks, which must be explored. In an Air Force Journal of Logistics article, Virginia A. Mattern of the Logistics...capability to make the final leg of the journey to the warfighter. Notes 1 Mattern , Virginia A., “Inventory Reduction: When Is Enough Enough?” Air Force

  11. Air quality climate in the Columbia River Basin. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

  12. Best Practices in Developing Proactive Supply Strategies for Air Force Low-Demand ServiceParts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Many had responded to the economic downturn in 2001 by setting enterprise-level goals for their service operations and becoming more efficient...back to buy new products.2 Once a product is purchased, aftermarket services become the primary face of manufacturing or retail companies to the...purchased, the OEM often becomes a sole-source supplier for parts and service similar to what happens in the DoD. Customer satisfaction becomes a com

  13. Analysis of the Change of Health Status Among the Republic of Korea Air Force Soldiers During Military Service

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Kwan; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the health status of Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) soldiers changed after one year of military service. Methods: We selected 483 ROKAF soldiers from the 11 749 recruits who participated in the 2011 physical examination. The selected soldiers underwent another physical examination in 2012 for advancement to senior airman. Data from 2011 and 2012 were merged. To collect data on lifestyle, a questionnaire was sent to all included subjects via the military intranet e-mail service. Results: The percentage of recruits with an abnormal alanine transaminase level (normal range <40 IU/L) decreased from recruitment (13.7%) to the following year (2.7%). Moreover, the percentage of obese soldiers (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) decreased from recruitment (20.5%) to the following year (10.4%). There was a significant change in mean duration of exercise carried out each day before (0.8±1.3 hours) and after (1.0±0.7 hours) joining the ROKAF service. Conclusions: These ROKAF soldiers were generally in good health before and after joining the armed service. After one year of military service, the health status of most soldiers improved, especially with respect to body mass index and alanine transaminase level. PMID:25139169

  14. Workplace air-conditioning and health services attendance among French middle-aged women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, P; Czernichow, S; Gehanno, P; Hercberg, S

    2004-10-01

    To assess the relationship between type of ventilation in the workplace, health services attendance, and sickness absence among middle-aged women. In a national sample of 920 professionally active women aged 49-65 yr from the SU.VI.MAX cohort, recruited from the general population in France, health services attendance and sickness absence were assessed prospectively during 1999. Being exposed to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in the workplace proved to be a risk factor for attendance at global and several specialist medical services. The adjusted odds ratio for otorhinolaryngologist attendance was 2.33 (95% CI = 1.35-4.04) in the HVAC group compared with the natural ventilation group, and 1.70 (1.13-2.58) for sickness absence. Dermatologist and global medical services attendance rates may also be higher in this group (P = 0.06 in both cases). Exposure to HVAC systems was a strong and significant risk factor for otorhinolaryngologist attendance and sickness absence. HVAC systems are prevalent in recent office buildings and have been shown to be associated with several adverse health effects in terms of morbidity and mortality. From a public-health perspective, our results outline the need for a quantitative assessment of the health impact of ventilation systems, taking into account the possible loss of production that exists in addition to the direct costs of medical services use.

  15. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in jinan, china.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Xiao-Sheng; Tian, Cui-Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shu-Qing

    2014-04-01

    Taxi drivers are exposed to various risk factors such as work overload, stress, an irregular diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, which make these individuals vulnerable to many diseases. This study was designed to assess the health status of this occupational group. The objective was to explore the health status, the intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education among taxi drivers in Jinan, China. The sample-size was determined scientifically. The systematic sampling procedure was used for selecting the sample. Four hundred taxi drivers were randomly selected from several taxi companies in Jinan. In total, 396 valid questionnaires (from 370 males and 26 females) were returned. Health status, intention to seek health examination, and participation in health education were assessed by a self-designed questionnaire. Other personal information including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, years of employment as a taxi driver, education level, and habits were also collected. This survey revealed that 54.8% of taxi drivers reported illness in the last two weeks and 44.7% of participants reported chronic diseases. The prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastroenteritis, arthritis, and heart disease were 18.2%, 8.8%, 26%, 18.4%, and 4.8% of questioned taxi drivers, respectively. Significant self-reported symptoms included fatigue, waist and back pain, headache, dyspepsia, and dry throat affecting 49.7%, 26.2%, 23.5%, 26%, and 27% of participants, respectively. In total, 90.1% of subjects thought that it was necessary to receive a regular health examination. Only 17.9% of subjects had been given information about health education, and significantly, more than 87% of subjects who had been given information about health education reported that the information had been helpful. Taxi drivers' health was poor in our survey. Thus, using health education interventions to improve knowledge and change in behaviors are necessary and

  16. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying

    2016-04-01

    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  17. Implementation of fuel-cost reduction measures in Costa Rican private bus and taxi fleets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-11

    The project focused on demonstrations of fuel-conservation measures in private bus and taxi fleets and a public information and awareness campaign. In Costa Rica, buses and taxis tend to be grouped into cooperatives and umbrella associations that provide convenient host organizations for such a project. The demonstrations were of a practical nature, and featured proven measures that would produce significant savings under actual operating conditions.

  18. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p < 0.007); dyspneoa (p < 0.001); and sinusitis (p < 0.03). A higher prevalence of all acute symptoms was recorded in garage workers than in taxi drivers, although the differences were significant only for throat (p < 0.02), hearing problems (p < 0.002); nose (dryness, bleeding and secretion) (p < 0.008); and low back pain (p < 0.05). Almost all forced spirometric tests in the exposed garage workers were lower than in taxi drivers. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only phlegm, sinusitis, hearing problems, nasal catarrh, throat, low back pain, smoking and FEF25-75, variables were statistically significant predictors as risk factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated with exposure to motor vehicle exhaust emission in garage working places. Long-term working as garage workers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  19. Planning and Implementing total Quality Management in an Air Force Service Organization: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    48 IV. Conclusions and Recommendations ...... 52 Lessons Learned ..... .............. 52 Practical Implications ........... 55 Recommendations...traditional quality control methods practically useless in a service-oriented environment (8:9-10). Common threads among the literature indicate these...disseminating known and tried practices , techniques and tools (1:9). Scope This case concerns a single service organization, AFALC, as the unit of

  20. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.