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Sample records for air temperature co2

  1. Effects of free-air CO2 and temperature enrichment on soybean growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Vera, U. M.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    According to the growing degree days approach, the progression of plant developmental stages requires certain accumulation of heat; therefore greenhouse gas-induced warming of the atmosphere could contribute to more rapid plant development. However, the influence of rising carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on development of crops is uncertain, accelerating and other times delaying certain developmental stages. In soybean, the increase of [CO2] is shown to delay reproductive development, which is attributed to a higher investment of resources into extra nodes. The combined effects of elevated temperature and [CO2] can have significant changes in the progression through development that can influence on total grain production, carbon uptake, and susceptibility to early end-of-season frosts. We designed the Temperature by Free Air CO2 Enrichment (T-FACE) experiment to test over two growing seasons (2009 and 2011) and under field conditions the impact of increased temperature and/or [CO2] on soybean. The heated T-FACE subplots were situated in the larger FACE plots at 385 or 585 ppm of [CO2] and subjected to either ambient or heated (+~3.5°C) temperatures. The experiment is full factorial with ambient temperature and [CO2] (control), elevated temperature (eT), elevated [CO2] (eC) and combined (eT+eC) treatments. We hypothesized that soybean grown (1) under elevated [CO2] will produce more nodes than control, (2) under high temperature will produce nodes faster than control and (3) under both elevated temperature and [CO2] will produce more nodes in less time than control. For reproductive development, we hypothesized that (1) reproductive development will initiate simultaneously regardless of increased [CO2] or temperature because soybean reproduction is triggered by day length, (2) elevated temperature will accelerate the progression through key reproductive stages and (3) the delay in soybean reproductive development by elevated [CO2] will be ameliorated by the

  2. [Effect of air temperature and rainfall on wetland ecosystem CO2 exchange in China].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiao-jing; Han, Guang-xuan

    2015-10-01

    Wetland can be a potential efficient sink to reduce global warming due to its higher primary productivity and lower carbon decomposition rate. While there has been a series progress on the influence mechanism of ecosystem CO2 exchange over China' s wetlands, a systematic metaanalysis of data still needs to be improved. We compiled data of ecosystem CO2 exchange of 21 typical wetland vegetation types in China from 29 papers and carried out an integrated analysis of air temperature and precipitation effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), the response of NEE to PAR, and the response of Reco to temperature. The results showed that there were significant responses (P<0.05) of NEE (R2 = 50%, R2=57%), GPP (R2 = 60%, R2 = 50%) Reco (R2 = 44%, R2=50%) with increasing air temperature and enhanced precipitation on the annual scale. On the growing season scale, air temperature accounted for 50% of the spatial variation of NEE, 36% of GPP and 19% of Reco, respectively. Both NEE (R2 = 33%) and GPP (R2 =25%) were correlated positively with precipitation (P<0.05). However, the relationship between Reco and precipitation was not significant (P>0.05). Across different Chinese wetlands, both precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on apparent quantum yield (α) or ecosystem respiration in the daytime (Reco,day, P>0.05). The maximum photosynthesis rate (Amax) was remarkably correlated with precipitation (P <0.01), but not with air temperature. Besides, there was no significant correlation between basal respiration (Rref) and precipitation (P>0.05). Precipitation was negatively correlated with temperature sensitivity of Reco (Q10, P<0.05). Furthermore, temperature accounted for 35% and 46% of the variations in temperature sensitivity of Reco (Q10) and basal respiration (Rref P<0.05), respectively. PMID:26995905

  3. Biases in the air-sea flux of CO2 resulting from ocean surface temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B.; Wanninkhof, R.; McGillis, W. R.; Jessup, A. T.; Degrandpre, M. D.; Hare, J. E.; Edson, J. B.

    2004-08-01

    The difference in the fugacities of CO2 across the diffusive sublayer at the ocean surface is the driving force behind the air-sea flux of CO2. Bulk seawater fugacity is normally measured several meters below the surface, while the fugacity at the water surface, assumed to be in equilibrium with the atmosphere, is measured several meters above the surface. Implied in these measurements is that the fugacity values are the same as those across the diffusive boundary layer. However, temperature gradients exist at the interface due to molecular transfer processes, resulting in a cool surface temperature, known as the skin effect. A warm layer from solar radiation can also result in a heterogeneous temperature profile within the upper few meters of the ocean. Here we describe measurements carried out during a 14-day study in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (GasEx-2001) aimed at estimating the gradients of CO2 near the surface and resulting flux anomalies. The fugacity measurements were corrected for temperature effects using data from the ship's thermosalinograph, a high-resolution profiler (SkinDeEP), an infrared radiometer (CIRIMS), and several point measurements at different depths on various platforms. Results from SkinDeEP show that the largest cool skin and warm layer biases occur at low winds, with maximum biases of -4% and +4%, respectively. Time series ship data show an average CO2 flux cool skin retardation of about 2%. Ship and drifter data show significant CO2 flux enhancement due to the warm layer, with maximums occurring in the afternoon. Temperature measurements were compared to predictions based on available cool skin parameterizations to predict the skin-bulk temperature difference, along with a warm layer model.

  4. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Margaret Torn

    2015-01-14

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  5. Measurements of the CO_2 15 μm Band System Broadened by Air, N_2 and CO_2 at Terrestrial Atmospheric Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A. H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Blake, T. A.; Sams, R. L.

    2009-06-01

    In earth remote sensing, retrievals of atmospheric temperature profiles are often based on observed radiances in infrared spectral regions where emission from atmospheric CO_2 predominates. To achieve improved retrieval accuracy, systematic errors in the forward model must be reduced, especially those associated with errors in the spectroscopic line calculation. We have recorded more than 110 new high-resolution infrared spectra of the 15-μm band system of CO_2 to accurately determine line intensities, self-, air- and N_2-broadened widths and pressure-induced line shifts, along with their temperature dependences. The spectra were recorded with the Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform spectrometer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and temperature-controlled sample cells. Sample temperatures were between 206K and 298K. Maximum total pressures were 15 Torr for self-broadening and 613 Torr for air- and N_2-broadening. Analysis is done using a multispectrum fitting technique to retrieve the spectroscopic parameters. Line mixing and other non-Lorentz, non-Voigt line shapes are also assessed. The resulting line parameters are compared with the HITRAN database and with other measurements. D. Chris Benner, C.P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M.A.H. Smith, and D. Atkins, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 705-721 (1995) L.S. Rothman et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005) L.S. Rothman et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, in press (2009)

  6. Simulation of free air CO2 enriched wheat growth and interaction with water, nitrogen, and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural system simulation models are key tools for assessment of possible impacts of climate change on crop production and environmental quality. In this study, the CERES-wheat 4.0 module in the RZWQM2 model was calibrated and validated for simulating spring wheat grown under elevated CO2 condi...

  7. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

  8. On the calculation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the presence of temperature and salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Donlon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of vertical temperature and salinity gradients in the upper ocean and the occurrence of variations in temperature and salinity on time scales from hours to many years complicate the calculation of the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) across the sea surface. Temperature and salinity affect the interfacial concentration of aqueous CO2 primarily through their effect on solubility with lesser effects related to saturated vapor pressure and the relationship between fugacity and partial pressure. The effects of temperature and salinity profiles in the water column and changes in the aqueous concentration act primarily through the partitioning of the carbonate system. Climatological calculations of flux require attention to variability in the upper ocean and to the limited validity of assuming "constant chemistry" in transforming measurements to climatological values. Contrary to some recent analysis, it is shown that the effect on CO2 fluxes of a cool skin on the sea surface is large and ubiquitous. An opposing effect on calculated fluxes is related to the occurrence of warm layers near the surface; this effect can be locally large but will usually coincide with periods of low exchange. A salty skin and salinity anomalies in the upper ocean also affect CO2 flux calculations, though these haline effects are generally weaker than the thermal effects.

  9. Linking phytoplankton community size composition with temperature, plankton food web structure and sea-air CO 2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Lise-Lotte; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    2011-08-01

    production and community size structure appear to be related to ocean uptake of CO 2 from the atmosphere. The reported results suggest that ocean warming may directly alter plankton community structure. This, in turn, may alter the structure of marine food webs and impact the performance of the open ocean as a natural carbon sink.

  10. Sensitivity of Global Sea-Air CO2 Flux to Gas Transfer Algorithms, Climatological Wind Speeds, and Variability of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Signorini, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity analyses of sea-air CO2 flux to gas transfer algorithms, climatological wind speeds, sea surface temperatures (SST) and salinity (SSS) were conducted for the global oceans and selected regional domains. Large uncertainties in the global sea-air flux estimates are identified due to different gas transfer algorithms, global climatological wind speeds, and seasonal SST and SSS data. The global sea-air flux ranges from -0.57 to -2.27 Gt/yr, depending on the combination of gas transfer algorithms and global climatological wind speeds used. Different combinations of SST and SSS global fields resulted in changes as large as 35% on the oceans global sea-air flux. An error as small as plus or minus 0.2 in SSS translates into a plus or minus 43% deviation on the mean global CO2 flux. This result emphasizes the need for highly accurate satellite SSS observations for the development of remote sensing sea-air flux algorithms.

  11. Leaf photosynthesis and Rubisco activity and kinetics of soybean, peanut, and rice grown under elevated atmospheric CO2, supraoptimal air temperature, and soil water deficit.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, peanut and rice were grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and under varying day/night temperature (T) regimes ranging from 28/18 to 48/38C for soybean and peanut, or soil water deficit for rice, (a) to determine the interactive impacts of high CO2-high T, or high CO2-drought, on midday leaf...

  12. Interannual and seasonal variabilities in air-sea CO2 fluxes along the U.S. eastern continental shelf and their sensitivity to increasing air temperatures and variable winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Bronwyn; Wilkin, John; Fennel, Katja; Vandemark, Doug; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Uncertainty in continental shelf air-sea CO2 fluxes motivated us to investigate the impact of interannual and seasonal variabilities in atmospheric forcing on the capacity of three shelf regions along the U.S. eastern continental shelf to act as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2. Our study uses a coupled biogeochemical-circulation model to simulate scenarios of "present-day" and "future-perturbed" mesoscale forcing variability. Overall, the U.S. eastern continental shelf acts as a sink for atmospheric CO2. There is a clear gradient in air-sea CO2 flux along the shelf region, with estimates ranging from -0.6 Mt C yr-1 in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) to -1.0 Mt C yr-1 in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and -2.5 Mt C yr-1 in the Gulf of Maine (GOM). These fluxes are associated with considerable interannual variability, with the largest interannual signal exhibited in the Gulf of Maine. Seasonal variability in the fluxes is also evident, with autumn and winter being the strongest CO2 sink periods and summer months exhibiting some outgassing. In our future-perturbed scenario spatial differences tend to cancel each other out when the fluxes are integrated over the MAB and GOM, resulting in only minor differences between future-perturbed and present-day air-sea CO2 fluxes. This is not the case in the SAB where the position of the along-shelf gradient shifts northward and the SAB becomes a source of CO2 to the atmosphere (0.7 Mt C yr-1) primarily in response to surface warming. Our results highlight the importance of temperature in regulating air-sea CO2 flux variability.

  13. How will soybeans respond to elevated temperatures when grown at future CO2 concentrations under fully open air field conditions (FACE)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevating CO2 and temperature both influence plant productivity through their direct effects on photosynthesis. This is true because O2 and CO2 compete for same active sites of ribulose bisphophate carboxylase-oxygenase (rubisco). Increasing temperature increases oxygenation relative to carboxylati...

  14. Direct Air Capture of CO2 by Physisorbent Materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amrit; Madden, David G; Lusi, Matteo; Chen, Kai-Jie; Daniels, Emma A; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2015-11-23

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture, DAC), could mitigate carbon emissions. Here five materials are investigated for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and other gas mixtures. The sorbents studied are benchmark materials that encompass four types of porous material, one chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15 (amine-modified mesoporous silica) and four physisorbents: Zeolite 13X (inorganic); HKUST-1 and Mg-MOF-74/Mg-dobdc (metal-organic frameworks, MOFs); SIFSIX-3-Ni, (hybrid ultramicroporous material). Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments afforded information about the contents of each sorbent under equilibrium conditions and their ease of recycling. Accelerated stability tests addressed projected shelf-life of the five sorbents. The four physisorbents were found to be capable of carbon capture from CO2-rich gas mixtures, but competition and reaction with atmospheric moisture significantly reduced their DAC performance. PMID:26440308

  15. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  16. Flame temperature theory-based model for evaluation of the flammable zones of hydrocarbon-air-CO2 mixtures.

    PubMed

    Shu, Gequn; Long, Biao; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2015-08-30

    Theoretical models to evaluate the flammable zones of mixtures made up of hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide and air have been proposed in present study. A three-step reaction hypothesis for hydrocarbon combustion was introduced for predicting the upper flammability limit. The method to predict the parameters at fuel inertization point was put forward as well. Validation of these models has been conducted on existing experimental data reported in the literature, including the cases of methane, propane, propylene and isobutane, and an acceptable precision has been achieved. The average relative differences between the estimated results and experimental ones, except for the results at fuel inertization point, are less than 8.8% and 3.3% for upper and lower flammability limit, respectively. This work also indicated that these models possess practical application capacity and can provide safe prediction limits for nonflammable ranges of hydrocarbon diluted with carbon dioxide. PMID:25867586

  17. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  18. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children. PMID:16223714

  19. The Potential Impact of CO2 and Air Temperature Increases on Krummholz's Transformation into Arborescent Form in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Im, S. T.; Ranson, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Trees in the southern Siberian Mountains forest-tundra ecotone have considerably increased their radial and apical growth increments during the last few decades. This leads to the widespread vertical transformation of mat and prostrate krummholz forms of larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour). An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that these transformations began in the mid-1980s. Larch showed a greater resistance to the harsh alpine environment and attained a vertical growth form in areas where Siberian pine is still krummholz. Upper larch treeline is about 10 m higher than Siberian pine treeline. Observed apical and radial growth increment increases were correlated with CO2 concentration (r = 0.83-0.87), summer temperatures (r = 0.55-0.64), and "cold period" (i.e. September-May) air temperatures (r = 0.36-0.37). Positive correlation between growth increments and winter precipitation was attributed to snow cover protection for trees during wintertime.

  20. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)‑ can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  1. Instant conversion of air to a clathrate hydrate: CO(2) hydrates directly from moist air and moist CO(2)(g).

    PubMed

    Devlin, J Paul; Monreal, I Abrrey

    2010-12-23

    The rapid conversion of vapor mixtures containing the gases CO(2), H(2)S, and HCN to clathrate hydrates was reported recently. The novel method is based on the pulsing of warm vapor mixtures, including a carrier gas, into a cold condensation chamber. With cooling, the vapors, which also include ∼1% water and either tetrahydrofuran or trimethylene oxide as a catalyst, nucleate aqueous solution nanodroplets that, on a millisecond time scale, crystallize as hydrate nanoparticles that consume 100% of the water. Humid air approximates the content of mixtures used successfully in the vapor-to-hydrate conversions. FTIR spectra are examined for gas hydrates formed directly from air and air enriched with CO(2), as well as hydrate particles for which CO(2)(g) serves as both guest and aerosol medium. In each instance all of the water in the condensed phase converts to a clathrate hydrate. The subsecond ether-catalyzed formation of the hydrates near 230 K requires only a few percent of the CO(2) pressure used in conventional processes that yield fractional amounts of gas hydrates on an hour time scale in the same temperature range. PMID:21105676

  2. Does atmospheric CO2 seasonality play an important role in governing the air-sea flux of CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, P. R.

    2012-06-01

    The amplitude, phase, and form of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 concentrations varies on many time and space scales (Peters et al., 2007). Intra-annual CO2 variation is primarily driven by seasonal uptake and release of CO2 by the terrestrial biosphere (Machta et al., 1977; Buchwitz et al., 2007), with a small (Cadule et al., 2010; Heimann et al., 1998), but potentially changing (Gorgues et al., 2010) contribution from the ocean. Variability in the magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal drivers of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) will be induced by, amongst other factors, anthropogenic CO2 release (Keeling et al., 1996), land-use change (Zimov et al., 1999) and planetary orbital variability, and will lead to changes in CO2atm seasonality. Despite CO2atm seasonality being a dynamic and prominent feature of the Earth System, its potential to drive changes in the air-sea flux of CO2 has not previously (to the best of my knowledge) been explored. It is important that we investigate the impact of CO2atm seasonality change, and the potential for carbon-cycle feedbacks to operate through the modification of the CO2atm seasonal cycle, because the decision had been made to prescribe CO2atm concentrations (rather than emissions) within model simulations for the fifth IPCC climate assessment (Taylor et al., 2009). In this study I undertake ocean-model simulations within which different magnitude CO2atm seasonal cycles are prescribed. These simulations allow me to examine the effect of a change in CO2atm seasonal cycle magnitude on the air-sea CO2 flux. I then use an off-line model to isolate the drivers of the identified air-sea CO2 flux change, and propose mechanisms by which this change may come about. Three mechanisms are identified by which co-variability of the seasonal cycles in atmospheric CO2 concentration, and seasonality in sea-ice extent, wind-speed and ocean temperature, could potentially lead to changes in the air-sea flux of CO2 at mid

  3. Photorespiration in Air and High CO(2)-Grown Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Shelp, B J; Canvin, D T

    1981-12-01

    Oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis and CO(2) evolution during photorespiration were compared in high CO(2)-grown and air-grown Chlorella pyrenoidosa, using the artificial leaf technique at pH 5.0. High CO(2) cells, in contrast to air-grown cells, exhibited a marked inhibition of photosynthesis by O(2), which appeared to be competitive and similar in magnitude to that in higher C(3) plants. With increasing time after transfer to air, the photosynthetic rate in high CO(2) cells increased while the O(2) effect declined. Photorespiration, measured as the difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake, was much greater and sensitive to O(2) in high CO(2) cells. Some CO(2) evolution was also present in air-grown algae; however, it did not appear to be sensitive to O(2). True photosynthesis was not affected by O(2) in either case. The data indicate that the difference between high CO(2) and air-grown algae could be attributed to the magnitude of CO(2) evolution. This conclusion is discussed with reference to the oxygenase reaction and the control of photorespiration in algae. PMID:16662134

  4. Low pCO2 Air-Polarized CO2 Concentrator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1997-01-01

    Life Systems completed a Ground-based Space Station Experiment Development Study Program which verifies through testing the performance and applicability of the electrochemical Air-Polarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (APC) process technology for space missions requiring low (i.e., less than 3 mm Hg) CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the cabin atmosphere. Required test hardware was developed and testing was accomplished at an approximate one-person capacity CO2 removal level. Initially, two five-cell electrochemical modules using flight-like 0.5 sq ft cell hardware were tested individually, following by their testing at the integrated APC system level. Testing verified previously projected performance and established a database for sizing of APC systems. A four person capacity APC system was sized and compared with four candidate CO2 removal systems. At its weight of 252 lb, a volume of 7 cu ft and a power consumption of 566 W while operating at 2.2 mm Hg pCO2, the APC was surpassed only by an Electrochemical Depolarized CO2 Concentrator (EDC) (operating with H2), when compared on a total equivalent basis.

  5. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  6. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  7. How seasonal temperature or water inputs affect the relative response of C3 crops to elevated [CO2]: A global analysis of open top chamber and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) has the potential to positively impact C3 food crop production by directly stimulating photosynthetic carbon gain (A), which feeds forward to increase crop biomass and yield. Further stimulation of A and yield can result from an indirect mechan...

  8. Performance Prediction Method of CO2 Cycle for Air Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Shigeru; Xue, Jun; Kuwahara, Ken

    From the perspective of global environmental protection and energy-saving, the research and development on high-efficiency heat pump and refrigeration systems using environment-friendly refrigerants have become one of the most important issues in the air-conditioning and refrigeration sector. In the present work, a steady-state model of the CO2 transcritical cycle for air cooling, which consists of a rotary compressor, a fin-tube gas cooler,a fin-tube evaporator and an expansion valve, has been developed. The detailed model of fin-tube heat exchanger has been constructed by means of the finite volume method, in which the local heat transfer and flow characteristics are evaluated. It should be noted that the effects of the dew condensation generated on the cooling surface are considered in the evaporator model. As a calculation example, the effects of the indoor air wet-bulb temperature on the cycle performance have been examined with this developed simulator.

  9. Heat-tolerant rice cultivars retain grain appearance quality under free-air CO2 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat-tolerant rice cultivars have been developed as a countermeasure to poor grain appearance quality under high temperatures. Recent studies showed that elevated CO2 concentrations (E-[CO2]) also reduce grain quality. To determine whether heat-tolerant cultivars also tolerate E-[CO2], we conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment with 12 rice cultivars differing in heat tolerance. Results The percentage of undamaged grains of five standard cultivars (Akitakomachi, Kinuhikari, Koshihikari, Matsuribare, Nipponbare) averaged 61.7% in the ambient [CO2] (AMB) plot and 51.7% in the FACE plot, whereas that of heat-tolerant cultivars (Eminokizuna, Wa2398, Kanto 257, Toyama 80, Mineharuka, Kanto 259, Saikai 290) averaged 73.5% in AMB and 71.3% in FACE. This resulted in a significant [CO2] by cultivar interaction. The percentage of white-base or white-back grains increased from 8.4% in AMB to 17.1% in FACE in the sensitive cultivars, but from only 2.1% in AMB to only 4.4% in FACE in the heat-tolerant cultivars. Conclusion Heat-tolerant cultivars retained their grain appearance quality at E-[CO2] under present air temperatures. Further improvements in appearance quality under present conditions will be needed to achieve improvements under E-[CO2], because E-[CO2] will likely lower the threshold temperature for heat stress. PMID:24920972

  10. Seasonal variations of seawater pCO2 and sea-air CO2 fluxes in a fringing coral reef, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongqiang; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Tan, Yehui; Liu, Guohui; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shu; Chen, Tianran; Wang, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence based on four field surveys conducted between July 2009 and April 2011 indicates that both sea surface partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) and sea-air CO2 fluxes at Luhuitou fringing reef in Sanya, Hainan Island, northern South China Sea (SCS) are subject to significant seasonal variations. The diurnal variation of seawater pCO2 ranges from 264 to 579 μatm in summer, which is much larger than that in autumn (152-335 μatm), in winter (84-260 μatm), and in spring (114-228 μatm). The sea-air CO2 flux in summer (˜9.6 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1) is also larger than that in other seasons (i.e.,˜3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 in spring, ˜3.5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 in autumn, and ˜2.7 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 in winter). The atmospheric pCO2 in this reef shows small diurnal and seasonal variations. The integration of the time-series pCO2 data shows that the reef area is a weak source of atmospheric CO2 at ˜0.54 mol CO2 m-2 yr-1. Further analyses indicate that the seasonal variations of the surface seawater pCO2 in Luhuitou fringing reef are mainly affected by seasonally-dependent biological metabolic processes (organic processe and inorganic process), and that the organic process play a more important role than the inorganic process. Seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations and hydrodynamic processes may also have some influence on seawater pCO2 variation.

  11. Temperature and Precipitation Interactions Eliminate Benefits of Free-air CO2 Enrichment to Soybean Water Relations in Two Out of Five Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key assumption in projections of future food supply and ecosystem function is that elevated [CO2], through reduced stomatal conductance (gs), results in lower water use, conservation of soil moisture and amelioration of losses in productivity due to drought stress. A 5-year dataset from the soybea...

  12. Sea-air of CO2 in the North Pacific using shipboard and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Mark P.; Samuels, Geoffrey; Olson, Donald B.; Fine, Rana A.; Takahashi, Taro

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to produce high-resolution maps of pCO2 in surface water for the North Pacific using satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data and statistical relationships between measured pCO2 and temperature. In the subtropical North Pacific the pCO in seawater is controlled primarily by temperature. Accordingly, pCO2 values that are calculated from the satellite SST data have good agreement with the measured values (rms deviation of +/- microatm). In the northwestern subpolar region the pCO2 is controlled not only by temperature, but also by significant seasonal changes in the total CO2 concentration, which are caused by seasonal changes in primary production, mixing with subsurface waters and sea-air exchange. Consequently, the parameterization of oceanic p CO2 based on SST data alone is not totally successful in the northwestern region (rms deviation of +/- 40 microatm). The use of additional satellite products, such as wind and ocean color data, as planned for a future study, is considered necessary to account for the pCO2 variability caused by seasonal changes in the total CO2 concentration. The net CO2 flux for the area of the North Pacific included in this study (north of 10 deg N) has been calculated using the monthly pCO2 distributions computed, and monthly wind speeds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The region is found to be a net source to the atmosphere of 1.9 x 10(exp 12) to 5.8 x 10(exp 12) moles of CO2 per year (or 0.02-0.07 Gt C/yr), most of the outflux occurring in the subtropics.

  13. Methods to reduce the CO(2) concentration of educational buildings utilizing internal ventilation by transferred air.

    PubMed

    Kalema, T; Viot, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to develop internal ventilation by transferred air to achieve a good indoor climate with low energy consumption in educational buildings with constant air volume (CAV) ventilation. Both measurements of CO2 concentration and a multi-room calculation model are presented. The study analyzes how to use more efficiently the available spaces and the capacity of CAV ventilation systems in existing buildings and the impact this has on the indoor air quality and the energy consumption of the ventilation. The temperature differences can be used to create natural ventilation airflows between neighboring spaces. The behavior of temperature-driven airflows between rooms was studied and included in the calculation model. The effect of openings between neighboring spaces, such as doors or large apertures in the walls, on the CO2 concentration was studied in different classrooms. The air temperatures and CO2 concentrations were measured using a wireless, internet-based measurement system. The multi-room calculation model predicted the CO2 concentration in the rooms, which was then compared with the measured ones. Using transferred air between occupied and unoccupied spaces can noticeably reduce the total mechanical ventilation rates needed to keep a low CO2 concentration. PMID:23841677

  14. Influence of O2 on the dielectric properties of CO2 at the elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Mingzhe; Sun, Hao; Yang, Fei; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Mingliang

    2014-11-01

    SF6 gas is widely used in the high voltage circuit breakers but considering its high global warming potential other substitutes are being sought. Among them CO2 was investigated and even has been used in some practical products. However, at room temperature, the dielectric properties of CO2 are relatively lower than SF6 and air. The goal of this work is to investigate a CO2-based gas to improve the performance of the pure CO2. In this paper, the dielectric properties of hot CO2/O2 mixtures related to the dielectric recovery phase of the circuit breaker were investigated in the temperature range from 300 K to 4000 K and in the pressure range from 0.01 MPa to 1.0 MPa. The species compositions of hot CO2/O2 were obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and local chemical equilibrium. The reduced critical electric field strength of CO2/O2 was determined by balancing electron generation and loss. These were calculated using the electron energy distribution function by solving the Boltzmann transport equation. The validity of the calculation method and the cross sections data was confirmed by comparing the measurements and calculations of the electron swarm data in previous work. The results indicate that in pure CO2 the critical electric field strength is higher only in higher temperature range. By adding the O2 into the CO2, the critical electric field strength at lower temperature is effectively enhanced. CO2/O2 mixtures have a much better dielectric strength than both the pure CO2 and air and thus have the potential to improve the CO2-based gas circuit breakers. Similar conclusions can also be found in others' work, which further confirm the validity of these results.

  15. Annual and seasonal fCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, S. K.; Chierici, M.; Counillon, F.; Omar, A.; Nondal, G.; Johannessen, T.; Olsen, A.

    2013-03-01

    The Barents Sea is the strongest CO2 sink in the Arctic region, yet estimates of the air-sea CO2 flux in this area show a large span reflecting uncertainty as well as significant variability both seasonally and regionally. Here we use a previously unpublished data set of seawater CO2 fugacity (fCO2), and map these data over the western Barents Sea through multivariable linear regressions with SeaWiFS/MODIS remote sensing and TOPAZ model data fields. We find that two algorithms are necessary in order to cover the full seasonal cycle, mainly because not all proxy variables are available for the entire year, and because variability in fCO2 is driven by different mechanisms in summer and winter. A comprehensive skill assessment indicates that there is a good overall correspondence between observations and predictions. The algorithms are also validated using two independent data sets, with good results. The gridded fCO2 fields reveal tight links between water mass distribution and fCO2 in all months, and particularly in winter. The seasonal cycle show peaks in the total air-sea CO2 influx in May and September, caused by respectively biological drawdown of CO2 and low sea ice concentration leaving a large open water area. For 2007 the annual average air-sea CO2 flux is - 48 ± 5 gC m- 2, which is comparable to previous estimates.

  16. Temperature and pressure dependence of CO2 extinction coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Patapoff, M.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of CO2 extinction coefficient measurements that were performed under conditions of temperature and pressure different from those used by previous investigators. The results show that, whereas pressure effects are generally negligible, temperature dependence is strong enough to invalidate the use of room temperature data for the Mars atmosphere.

  17. Elevated CO2 significantly delays reproductive development of soybean under Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Castro, Joseph C; Dohleman, Frank G; Bernacchi, Carl J; Long, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide [CO(2)] on the reproductive development of soybean (Glycine max. Merr) has not been evaluated under open-air field conditions. Soybeans grown under Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) exhibit warmer canopies due to decreased latent heat loss because of decreased stomatal conductance. According to development models based on accumulated thermal time, or growing degree days ( degrees Cd), increased canopy temperature should accelerate development. The SoyFACE research facility (Champaign, Illinois, USA) was used to test the hypothesis that development is accelerated in soybean when grown in [CO(2)] elevated to 548 micromol mol(-1). Canopy temperature was measured continuously with infrared thermometry, and used in turn to calculate GDD. Opposite to expectation, elevated [CO(2)], while increasing canopy temperature, delayed reproductive development by up to 3 days (P <0.05). Soybean grown in elevated [CO(2)] required approximately 49 degrees Cd more GDD (P <0.05) to complete full bloom stage (R2) and approximately 52 degrees Cd more GDD (P <0.05) to complete the beginning seed (R5) stage, but needed approximately 46 degrees Cd fewer GDD (P <0.05) to complete seed filling (R6). Soybeans grown in elevated [CO(2)] produced significantly more nodes (P <0.01) on the main stem than those grown under current [CO(2)]. This may explain the delay in completion of reproductive development and final maturation of the crop under elevated [CO(2)]. These results show a direct effect of rising [CO(2)] on plant development that will affect both projections of grain supply and may be significant to other species including those in natural communities. PMID:19561049

  18. Surface Ocean pCO2 Seasonality and Sea-Air CO2 Flux Estimates for the North American East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G., Jr.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Salisbury, Joe; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Underway and in situ observations of surface ocean pCO2, combined with satellite data, were used to develop pCO2 regional algorithms to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of surface ocean pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux for five physically and biologically distinct regions of the eastern North American continental shelf: the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), the Gulf of Maine (GoM), Nantucket Shoals and Georges Bank (NS+GB), and the Scotian Shelf (SS). Temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon variability are the most influential factors driving the seasonality of pCO2. Estimates of the sea-air CO2 flux were derived from the available pCO2 data, as well as from the pCO2 reconstructed by the algorithm. Two different gas exchange parameterizations were used. The SS, GB+NS, MAB, and SAB regions are net sinks of atmospheric CO2 while the GoM is a weak source. The estimates vary depending on the use of surface ocean pCO2 from the data or algorithm, as well as with the use of the two different gas exchange parameterizations. Most of the regional estimates are in general agreement with previous studies when the range of uncertainty and interannual variability are taken into account. According to the algorithm, the average annual uptake of atmospheric CO2 by eastern North American continental shelf waters is found to be between 3.4 and 5.4 Tg C/yr (areal average of 0.7 to 1.0 mol CO2 /sq m/yr) over the period 2003-2010.

  19. Effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and maize (Zea mays) grown under open-air field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By mid century, [CO2] is predicted to increase above 550 ppm and temperature (T) by 3.5 degrees C. Higher T can have different effects on photosynthesis depending on plant specific T optimum. An increase in [CO2] is expected to raise photosynthesis in C3 but not in C4 plants. This experiment analyze...

  20. CO 2-water-basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO 2 sequestration into basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Stefánsson, Andri

    2011-09-01

    reactions between clays (Ca-Fe smectites) and carbonates at low pH, and zeolites and clays (Mg-Fe smectites) and carbonates at high pH, controlled the availability of Ca, Mg and Fe, playing a key role for low temperature CO 2 mineralization and sequestration into basalts. Several problems of the present model point to the need of improvement in future work. The determinant factors linking time to low temperature reaction path modeling may not only be controlled by the primary dissolving phase, which presents challenges concerning non-stoichiometric dissolution, the leached layer model and reactive surface area, but may include secondary mineral precipitation kinetics as rate limiting step for specific reactions such as retrieved from the present reaction path study.

  1. Capture CO2 from Ambient Air Using Nanoconfined Ion Hydration.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoyang; Xiao, Hang; Lackner, Klaus S; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-14

    Water confined in nanoscopic pores is essential in determining the energetics of many physical and chemical systems. Herein, we report a recently discovered unconventional, reversible chemical reaction driven by water quantities in nanopores. The reduction of the number of water molecules present in the pore space promotes the hydrolysis of CO3(2-) to HCO3(-) and OH(-). This phenomenon led to a nano-structured CO2 sorbent that binds CO2 spontaneously in ambient air when the surrounding is dry, while releasing it when exposed to moisture. The underlying mechanism is elucidated theoretically by computational modeling and verified by experiments. The free energy of CO3 (2-) hydrolysis in nanopores reduces with a decrease of water availability. This promotes the formation of OH(-), which has a high affinity to CO2 . The effect is not limited to carbonate/bicarbonate, but is extendable to a series of ions. Humidity-driven sorption opens a new approach to gas separation technology. PMID:26914978

  2. Development of balloon-borne CO2 sonde: CO2 vertical profile (0-10km) observations and comparison with the air craft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, M.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration has drastically increased since the Industrial Revolution due to the mass consumption of fossil fuels and natural gas by human activities. CO2 is considered to be a major factor of global warming; therefore it is important to measure CO2 correctly. CO2 vertical profile measurement is the key to estimate CO2 sources and sinks in high precision. However, current CO2 monitoring sites are limited and there are few CO2 vertical profile measurements. We have been developing a balloon-borne instrument that can measure the vertical distribution of CO2 in any place in the world under any kind of weather conditions (CO2 sonde). The target specifications of altitude range is from surface to 10 km. Time resolution is 1min. The CO2 sensor, originally developed for upper air sounding by our team, is based on the non-dispersed infrared absorption spectroscopy technique (NDIR) at the wavelengths of 4.0 and 4.3 micrometer. The data of the optical infrared absorption are transmitted through a GPS sonde with temperature, humidity and GPS data every second. In this study, we will show simultaneous measurement campaigns of the balloon-borne instruments and in-situ aircraft measurements in January and February 2011 in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan. We will present the comparisons between the results of CO2 sonde (5 flights) and two types of aircraft measurements. One is observed by the CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner) and the other is chartered flight measurements operated by NIES/JAXA.

  3. Linearity between temperature peak and bioenergy CO2 emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Gasser, Thomas; Bright, Ryan M.; Ciais, Philippe; Strømman, Anders H.

    2014-11-01

    Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bioenergy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bioenergy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO2 emissions from bioenergy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR; ref. ) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bioenergy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bioenergy CO2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO2 emissions from bioenergy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 °C by 2100, early emissions from bioenergy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bioenergy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years).

  4. Reconstruction of super-resolution fields of ocean pCO2 and air-sea fluxes of CO2 from satellite imagery in the Southeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Yahia, H.; Garbe, C.; Paulmier, A.; Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Dadou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of Green House Gases GHGs fluxes at the air-sea interface at high resolution is crucial to accurately quantify the role of the ocean in the absorption and emission of GHGs. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4 km) using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Ocean Colour (OC) data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). Inference of super-resolution of pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes is performed using novel nonlinear signal processing methodologies that prove efficient in the context of oceanography. The theoretical background comes from the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism which unlocks the geometrical determination of cascading properties of physical intensive variables. As a consequence, a multiresolution analysis performed on the signal of the so-called singularity exponents allows the correct and near optimal cross-scale inference of GHGs fluxes, as the inference suits the geometric realization of the cascade. We apply such a methodology to the study offshore of the Benguela area. The inferred representation of oceanic partial pressure of CO2 improves and enhances the description provided by CarbonTracker, capturing the small scale variability. We examine different combinations of Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Temperature products in order to increase the number of valid points and the quality of the inferred pCO2 field. The methodology is validated using in-situ measurements by means of statistical errors. We obtain that mean absolute and relative errors in the inferred values of pCO2 with respect to in-situ measurements are smaller than for CarbonTracker.

  5. Reconstruction of super-resolution ocean pCO2 and air-sea fluxes of CO2 from satellite imagery in the southeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Yahia, H.; Garbe, C.; Paulmier, A.; Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Dadou, I.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    An accurate quantification of the role of the ocean as source/sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs) requires to access the high-resolution of the GHG air-sea flux at the interface. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) and air-sea CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4 km, i.e., 1/32° at these latitudes) using sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color (OC) data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). Inference of super-resolution pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes is performed using novel nonlinear signal processing methodologies that prove efficient in the context of oceanography. The theoretical background comes from the microcanonical multifractal formalism which unlocks the geometrical determination of cascading properties of physical intensive variables. As a consequence, a multi-resolution analysis performed on the signal of the so-called singularity exponents allows for the correct and near optimal cross-scale inference of GHG fluxes, as the inference suits the geometric realization of the cascade. We apply such a methodology to the study offshore of the Benguela area. The inferred representation of oceanic partial pressure of CO2 improves and enhances the description provided by CarbonTracker, capturing the small-scale variability. We examine different combinations of ocean color and sea surface temperature products in order to increase the number of valid points and the quality of the inferred pCO2 field. The methodology is validated using in situ measurements by means of statistical errors. We find that mean absolute and relative errors in the inferred values of pCO2 with respect to in situ measurements are smaller than for CarbonTracker.

  6. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  7. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE, SOIL MOISTURE AND SEASONALITY BUT NOT CO2 AFFECT CANOPY ASSIMILATION AND SYSTEM RESPIRATION IN SEEDLING DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and air temperature on C cycling in trees and associated soil system, focusing on canopy CO2 assimilation (Asys) and system CO2 loss through respiration (Rsys). We hypothesized that both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature...

  8. Atmospheric CO2: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A.

    2010-01-01

    Ample physical evidence shows that carbon dioxide (CO2) is the single most important climate-relevant greenhouse gas in Earth s atmosphere. This is because CO2, like ozone, N2O, CH4, and chlorofluorocarbons, does not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere at current climate temperatures, whereas water vapor can and does. Noncondensing greenhouse gases, which account for 25% of the total terrestrial greenhouse effect, thus serve to provide the stable temperature structure that sustains the current levels of atmospheric water vapor and clouds via feedback processes that account for the remaining 75% of the greenhouse effect. Without the radiative forcing supplied by CO2 and the other noncondensing greenhouse gases, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound Earth state.

  9. Atmospheric CO2: principal control knob governing Earth's temperature.

    PubMed

    Lacis, Andrew A; Schmidt, Gavin A; Rind, David; Ruedy, Reto A

    2010-10-15

    Ample physical evidence shows that carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the single most important climate-relevant greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. This is because CO(2), like ozone, N(2)O, CH(4), and chlorofluorocarbons, does not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere at current climate temperatures, whereas water vapor can and does. Noncondensing greenhouse gases, which account for 25% of the total terrestrial greenhouse effect, thus serve to provide the stable temperature structure that sustains the current levels of atmospheric water vapor and clouds via feedback processes that account for the remaining 75% of the greenhouse effect. Without the radiative forcing supplied by CO(2) and the other noncondensing greenhouse gases, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound Earth state. PMID:20947761

  10. Comparison of CO2 and O2 concentrations in soil air: A lesson learned about CO2 diffusivity in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, A.; Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K.; Yakir, D.; Luz, B.

    2002-12-01

    Soil respiration is a major component of the global carbon and oxygen cycles and accounts for about one quarter of global respiration. Since respiration consumes O2 and emits CO2, a simple relationship may be expected between the concentration of these gases in soil-air. However, because the [O2] signal in well-drained soils is small, deriving this relationship from field observations is not trivial. In this study, we present high accuracy measurements of O2 concentrations in soil air, that for the first time, enable precise comparison of these concentrations with CO2 concentrations. Soil air was sampled in two sites: an orchard in Israel, and a temperate forest (Harvard forest). The expected ratio of the decrease in [O2] in soil air to the increase in [CO2] can be calculated from the ratio of O2 consumption to CO2 emission in respiration, and the ratio between the diffusivities of these two gases in air as 0.79-0.07. The measured ratio of the decrease in [O2] to the increase in [CO2] in soil air was 0.56-2.48 in the orchard site and 1.06-1.20 in Harvard Forest. These ratios deviate strongly from the expected relationship. In the orchard site, these deviations were probably caused by reactions in the carbonate system due to the calcareous soil of this site. At Harvard Forest, such reactions cannot be quantitatively important because of the low pH of the soil. In this site, we propose that the relationship between CO2 and O2 in the soil air indicates that the ratio of diffusivity of O2 and CO2 in soils is higher than the diffusivity ratio in air. Our results demonstrate that a combination of high accuracy measurements of the O2 and CO2 in soil air is important for better understanding of the soil CO2 dynamics. Such observations will improve estimates of soil respiration that are based only on CO2 concentration and diffusivity.

  11. Air-Sea Exchange Of CO2: A Multi-Technology Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengberg, A.; Almroth, E.; Anderson, L.; Hall, P.; Hjalmarsson, S.; Lefevre, D.; Omstedt, A.; Rutgersson, A.; Sahlee, E.; Smedman, A.; Wesslander, K.

    2006-12-01

    We report on experiences and results from a multidisciplinary project in which we try to elucidate the complex processes involved in air-sea exchange of CO2. This study was performed in the Baltic Sea (off the Swedish island Gotland) and combined the following technologies: - Meteorological measurements of wind, turbulence, temperature, humidity, humidity flux, CO2 and CO2 flux at several levels from a fixed observation tower - Hourly PCO2 measurements with a moored automatic instrument - Collection of dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and turbidity data at different levels in the water column at 1-minute intervals - Daily light (PAR) and primary production measurements obtained with a moored automatic incubator - Daily primary production measurements using manual methods - Use of an acoustic current profiler to collect water column information on currents, turbulence, water level and waves - Repetitive water column profiles, from a ship, of dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, nutrients, alkalinity, pH, PAR, Chlorophyll A, salinity and temperature

  12. Small CO2 Sensors Operate at Lower Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    Solid-electrolyte-based amperometric sensors for measuring concentrations of CO2 in air are being developed for use in detection of fires, environmental monitoring, and other applications where liquid-based electrochemical cells are problematic. These sensors are small (sizes of the order of a millimeter), are robust, are amenable to batch fabrication at relatively low cost, and exhibit short response times (seconds) and wide detection ranges. A sensor of this type at a previous stage of development included a solid electrolyte of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 deposited mainly between interdigitated Pt electrodes on an alumina substrate, all overcoated with an auxiliary solid electrolyte of (Na2CO3:BaCO3 in a molar ratio of 1:1.7). It was necessary to heat this device to a temperature as high as 600 C to obtain the desired sensitivity and rapid response. Heating sensors increases the power consumption of the sensor system and complicates the use of the sensor in some applications. Thus, decreasing a sensor s power consumption while maintaining its performance is a technical goal of ongoing development.

  13. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-20

    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  14. Air--Sea CO2 Cycling in the Southeastern Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Else, Brent Gordon Thomas

    During the fourth International Polar Year, an interdisciplinary study was conducted to examine the couplings between sea ice, ocean, atmosphere, and ecosystem in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. This thesis examines components of the system that control the air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide. Using eddy covariance measurements, we found enhanced CO2 exchange associated with new ice formation in winter flaw leads. This exchange was typically directed towards the surface, although we also measured one instance of outgassing. Sea surface dissolved CO2 measurements (pCO 2sw) in Amundsen Gulf showed significant undersaturation with respect to the atmosphere at freeze-up, followed by a slow increase over the winter until spring phytoplankton blooms caused strong undersaturation at break-up. Over the summer, pCO2sw increased until becoming slightly supersaturated due to surface warming. Along the southern margins of Amundsen Gulf and on the Mackenzie Shelf we found pCO2sw supersaturations in the fall due to wind-driven coastal upwelling. In the spring, this upwelling occurred along the landfast ice edges of Amundsen Gulf. By combining observations of enhanced winter gas exchange with observations of pCO 2sw in Amundsen Gulf, we derived an annual budget of air-sea CO2 exchange for the region. This exercise showed that uptake through the winter season was as important as the open water season, making the overall annual uptake of CO2 about double what had previously been calculated. Prior to this work, the prevailing paradigm of airsea CO2 cycling in Arctic polynya regions posited that strong CO2 absorption occurs in the open water seasons, and that a potential outgassing during the winter is inhibited by the sea ice cover. As a new paradigm, we propose that the spatial and temporal variability of many processes---including phytoplankton blooms, sea surface temperature and salinity changes, upwelling, river input, continental shelf processes, and the potential for high rates

  15. Temperature dependence of self-broadened halfwidths of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos B.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The temperature dependence of self-broadened halfwidths of CO2 was studied in the temperature range 165-300 K for the band at 4978/cm. Assuming a power-law of the form gamma(T) = delta(T0)(T0/T)-exp n, the exponent has been determined for J = 6-32. An average value of n = 0.745 + or - 7 percent has been found.

  16. Low-Temperature CO-Oxidation Catalysts for Long-Life CO2 Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R. (Editor); Hoflund, Gar B. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature CO-oxidation catalysts are necessary for closed-cycle pulsed CO2 lasers as well as for other applications, including air purification. The papers presented in this volume discuss several such catalysts, including information on catalyst preparation, techniques for enhancing catalyst performance, laboratory and laser test results, and mechanistic considerations.

  17. Formation and Evaluation of Protective Layer over Magnesium Melt Under CO2/Air Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2015-02-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air that contains various concentrations of CO2 was investigated, including the kinetics of the oxide layer growth. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgO-C layer was formed under the test conditions. The thicknesses of this layer formed under CO2/air ranged from 500 nm to 12 μm. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using SEM and EDS.

  18. On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X. San

    2016-02-01

    We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes.

  19. On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature.

    PubMed

    Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X San

    2016-01-01

    We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes. PMID:26900086

  20. On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature

    PubMed Central

    Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X. San

    2016-01-01

    We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes. PMID:26900086

  1. Functionalized Polysilsesquioxane-Based Hybrid Silica Solid Amine Sorbents for the Regenerative Removal of CO2 from Air.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, Kochukunju Adisser Saraladevi; Deepthi, Thomas; Sadhana, Retnakumari Amma; Benny, K George

    2015-08-19

    Functionalized polysilsesquioxane-based hybrid silica materials are presented as solid amine sorbents for direct CO2 capture from air. The sorbent was synthesized from amine and vinyl functionalized alkoxysilanes by a simple, energy efficient, and cost-effective co-condensation method. The material, containing bound amine functionalities, was found to have a selective CO2 capturing capacity of 1.68 mmol/g from atmospheric air with an adsorption half time of 50 min. This material also showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 2.28 mmol/g in pure CO2 and 1.92 mmol/g in 10% CO2. Desorption started at a temperature as low as 60 °C, and complete desorption occurred at 80 °C. The sorbent exhibited high recycling ability, and 100 cycles of adsorption/desorption were demonstrated in pure CO2 and 50 cycles in ambient air without any loss in efficiency. PMID:26196267

  2. Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the California Current System: an eddy-resolving modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2014-02-01

    We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical-biogeochemical oceanic model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and from ∼33° N to 46° N is essentially neutral with regard to atmospheric CO2: the model simulates an integrated uptake flux of -0.9 ± 3.6 Tg C yr-1, corresponding to an average flux density of -0.05 ± 0.20 mol C m-2 yr-1. This near zero flux is a consequence of an almost complete regional compensation between (i) strong outgassing in the nearshore region (first 100 km) that brings waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the surface and (ii) and a weaker, but more widespread uptake flux in the offshore region due to an intense biological reduction of this DIC, driven by the nutrients that are upwelled together with the DIC. The air-sea CO2 fluxes vary substantially in time, both on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales, largely driven by variations in surface ocean pCO2. Most of the variability in pCO2 is associated with the seasonal cycle, with the exception of the nearshore region, where sub-seasonal variations driven by mesoscale processes dominate. In the regions offshore of 100 km, changes in surface temperature are the main driver, while in the nearshore region, changes in surface temperature, as well as anomalies in DIC and alkalinity (Alk) owing to changes in circulation, biological productivity and air-sea CO2 fluxes dominate. The prevalence of eddy-driven variability in the nearshore 100 km leads to a complex spatiotemporal mosaic of surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes that require a substantial observational effort to determine the source

  3. [Study of CO2 spectroscopic parameters at high temperature near 1.57 microm].

    PubMed

    Cai, Ting-Dong; Wang, Gui-Shi; Chen, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2009-06-01

    Measurements strategies based on absorption spectroscopy techniques, especially the measurements in high temperature, require accurate values of important spectroscopic parameters of the probed species. Sometimes the parameters listed in widely used HITRAN and HITEMP2004 database are uncertain to some extent. In order to validate the spectroscopic parameters of 9 selected CO2 lines which should be used in combustion diagnosis, spectra of those lines were recorded in a high temperature experiment setup as a function of temperature (in the range of 300-800 K) and pressure (in the range of 9-450 torr) using a distributed feed-back (DFB) diode laser. The recorded absorption spectra were fitted to Voigt profile. Line intensity, air-broadening coefficient and temperature exponent of each line were deduced from those data. Through comparison of experimental results and those listed in HITRAN and HITEMP2004 database, the discrepancies of most line intensities, air-broadening coefficients and their temperature exponents are less than 3%, 5% and 2% respectively. Those results show good consistency between the experimental data and that in HITRAN and HITEMP2004 database. The discrepancy in line intensities may be caused by the fitting of absorption spectra, the reading of thermocouple and pressure gage, uniformity of temperature in the heated cell, and uncertainty of the optical path. Those factors also cause the discrepancy in air-broadening coefficients and their temperature exponent. CO2 contained in air also introduces error in air-broadening coefficients and their temperature exponent beside those factors. Though we have deducted them in data-processing, the little change of CO2 in partial region also exists. Those results will be helpful to the measurement of CO2 concentration in combustion diagnosis in the future. PMID:19810509

  4. Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the California Current System: an eddy-resolving modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2013-08-01

    nutrient concentrations of the upwelled waters a primary determinant of the overall source/sink nature of the CalCS. The comparison of the standard simulation with one for preindustrial conditions show that the CalCS is taking up anthropogenic CO2 at a rate of about -1 mol C m-2 yr-1, implying that the region was a small source of CO2 to the atmosphere in preindustrial times. The air-sea CO2 fluxes vary substantially in time, both on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales, largely driven by variations in surface ocean pCO2. There are important differences among the subregions. Notably, the total variance of the fluxes in the central nearshore CalCS is roughly 4-5 times larger than elsewhere. Most of the variability in pCO2 is associated with the seasonal cycle, except in the nearshore, where sub-seasonal variations driven by mesoscale processes dominate. In the regions offshore of 100 km, changes in surface temperature are the main driver, while in the nearshore region, changes in surface temperature, as well as anomalies in DIC and alkalinity (Alk) owing to changes in circulation, biological productivity and air-sea CO2 fluxes dominate. The dominance of eddy-driven variability in the nearshore 100 km leads to a complex spatiotemporal mosaic of surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes that require a substantial observational effort to determine the source/sink nature of this region reliably.

  5. Extraction of CO2 from air samples for isotopic analysis and limits to ultra high precision delta18O determination in CO2 gas.

    PubMed

    Werner, R A; Rothe, M; Brand, W A

    2001-01-01

    The determination of delta18O values in CO2 at a precision level of +/-0.02 per thousand (delta-notation) has always been a challenging, if not impossible, analytical task. Here, we demonstrate that beyond the usually assumed major cause of uncertainty - water contamination - there are other, hitherto underestimated sources of contamination and processes which can alter the oxygen isotope composition of CO2. Active surfaces in the preparation line with which CO2 comes into contact, as well as traces of air in the sample, can alter the apparent delta18O value both temporarily and permanently. We investigated the effects of different surface materials including electropolished stainless steel, Duran glass, gold and quartz, the latter both untreated and silanized. CO2 frozen with liquid nitrogen showed a transient alteration of the 18O/16O ratio on all surfaces tested. The time to recover from the alteration as well as the size of the alteration varied with surface type. Quartz that had been ultrasonically cleaned for several hours with high purity water (0.05 microS) exhibited the smallest effect on the measured oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 before and after freezing. However, quartz proved to be mechanically unstable with time when subjected to repeated large temperature changes during operation. After several days of operation the gas released from the freezing step contained progressively increasing trace amounts of O2 probably originating from inclusions within the quartz, which precludes the use of quartz for cryogenically trapping CO2. Stainless steel or gold proved to be suitable materials after proper pre-treatment. To ensure a high trapping efficiency of CO2 from a flow of gas, a cold trap design was chosen comprising a thin wall 1/4" outer tube and a 1/8" inner tube, made respectively from electropolished stainless steel and gold. Due to a considerable 18O specific isotope effect during the release of CO2 from the cold surface, the thawing time had to

  6. Crop responses to elevated CO2 and interactions with H2O, N, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    About twenty-seven years ago, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was developed that enabled the air above open-field plots to be enriched with CO2 for entire growing seasons. Since then, FACE experiments have been conducted on cotton, wheat, ryegrass, clover, potato, grape, rice, barley, sugar beet, soybean, cassava, rape, mustard, coffee (C3 crops), and sorghum and maize (C4 crops). Elevated CO2 (550ppm from an ambient concentration of about 353ppm in 1990) decreased evapotranspiration about 10% on average and increased canopy temperatures about 0.7°C. Biomass and yield were increased by FACE in all C3 species, but not in C4 species except when water was limiting. Yields of C3 grain crops were increased on average about 19%. PMID:27043481

  7. Dual-Pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Temperature and CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucht, Robert P.; Velur-Natarajan, Viswanathan; Carter, Campbell D.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Gord, James R.; Danehy, Paul M.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and CO2 concentration using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, (CARS) are described. The measurements were performed in laboratory flames,in a room-temperature gas cell, and on an engine test stand at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. A modeless dye laser, a single-mode Nd:YAG laser, and an unintensified back-illuminated charge-coupled device digital camera were used for these measurements. The CARS measurements were performed on a single-laser-shot basis. The standard deviations of the temperatures and CO2 mole fractions determined from single-shot dual-pump CARS spectra in steady laminar propane/air flames were approximately 2 and 10% of the mean values of approximately 2000 K and 0.10, respectively. The precision and accuracy of single-shot temperature measurements obtained from the nitrogen part of the dual-pump CARS system were investigated in detail in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air/CO2 flames. The precision of the CARS temperature measurements was found to be comparable to the best results reported in the literature for conventional two-laser, single-pump CARS. The application of dual-pump CARS for single-shot measurements in a swirl-stabilized combustor fueled with JP-8 was also demonstrated.

  8. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. PMID:23564676

  9. Respiratory CO(2) as Carbon Source for Nocturnal Acid Synthesis at High Temperatures in Three Species Exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Winter, K; Schröppel-Meier, G; Caldwell, M M

    1986-06-01

    TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOCTURNAL CARBON GAIN AND NOCTURNAL ACID ACCUMULATION WERE STUDIED IN THREE SPECIES OF PLANTS EXHIBITING CRASSULACEAN ACID METABOLISM: Mamillaria woodsii, Opuntia vulgaris, and Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Under conditions of high soil moisture, nocturnal CO(2) gain and acid accumulation had temperature optima at 15 to 20 degrees C. Between 5 and 15 degrees C, uptake of atmospheric CO(2) largely accounted for acid accumulation. At higher tissue temperatures, acid accumulation exceeded net carbon gain indicating that acid synthesis was partly due to recycling of respiratory CO(2). When plants were kept in CO(2)-free air, acid accumulation based on respiratory CO(2) was highest at 25 to 35 degrees C. Net acid synthesis occurred up to 45 degrees C, although the nocturnal carbon balance became largely negative above 25 to 35 degrees C. Under conditions of water stress, net CO(2) exchange and nocturnal acid accumulation were reduced. Acid accumulation was proportionally more decreased at low than at high temperatures. Acid accumulation was either similar over the whole temperature range (5-45 degrees C) or showed an optimum at high temperatures, although net carbon balance became very negative with increasing tissue temperatures. Conservation of carbon by recycling respiratory CO(2) was temperature dependent. At 30 degrees C, about 80% of the dark respiratory CO(2) was conserved by dark CO(2) fixation, in both well irrigated and water stressed plants. PMID:16664827

  10. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration and temperature across an urban-rural transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, K.; Ziska, L. H.; Bunce, J. A.; Quebedeaux, B.

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers are well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO 2 and air temperature from rural to urban areas are consistently different from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables for 5 years. Atmospheric CO 2 was consistently and significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the 5 years of the study. Air temperature was also consistently and significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 °C) compared to the suburban (13.6 °C) and rural (12.7 °C) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites whereas the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. An increase in nitrogen deposition at the rural site of 0.6% and 1.0% compared to the suburban and urban sites was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO 2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Arabidopsis Transcript and Metabolite Profiles: Ecotype-specific Acclimation to Open-air Elevated [CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) experiment compared physiological parameters, and transcript and metabolite profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Cvi-0 at ambient (~375ppm) and elevated (~550ppm) CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Photosynthesis and photoassimilate pool sizes were enhanced in...

  12. Diffuse CO 2 soil degassing and CO 2 and H 2S concentrations in air and related hazards at Vulcano Island (Aeolian arc, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapezza, M. L.; Barberi, F.; Ranaldi, M.; Ricci, T.; Tarchini, L.; Barrancos, J.; Fischer, C.; Perez, N.; Weber, K.; Di Piazza, A.; Gattuso, A.

    2011-10-01

    La Fossa crater on Vulcano Island is quiescent since 1890. Periodically it undergoes "crises" characterized by marked increase of temperature (T), gas output and concentration of magmatic components in the crater fumaroles (T may exceed 600 °C). During these crises, which so far did not lead to any eruptive reactivation, the diffuse CO 2 soil degassing also increases and in December 2005 an anomalous CO 2 flux of 1350 tons/day was estimated by 1588 measurements over a surface of 1.66 km 2 extending from La Fossa crater to the inhabited zone of Vulcano Porto. The crater area and two other anomalously degassing sites (Levante Beach and Palizzi) have been periodically investigated from December 2004 to August 2010 for diffuse CO 2 soil flux. They show a marked variation with time of the degassing rate, with synchronous maxima in December 2005. Carbon dioxide soil flux and environmental parameters have been also continuously monitored for over one year by an automatic station at Vulcano Porto. In order to assess the hazard of the endogenous gas emissions, CO 2 and H 2S air concentrations have been measured by Tunable Diode Laser profiles near the fumaroles of the crater rim and of the Levante Beach area, where also the viscous gas flux has been estimated. In addition, CO 2 air concentration has been measured both indoor and outdoor in an inhabited sector of Vulcano Porto. Results show that in some sites usually frequented by tourists there is a dangerous H 2S air concentration and CO 2 exceeds the hazardous thresholds in some Vulcano houses. These zones should be immediately monitored for gas hazard should a new crisis arise.

  13. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  14. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  15. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, S. V. Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  16. Simulation of climate change impacts on grain sorghum production grown under free air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tongcheng; Ko, Jonghan; Wall, Gerard W.; Pinter, Paul J.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Kim, Han-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Potential impacts of climate change on grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) productivity were investigated using the CERES-sorghum model in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer v4.5. The model was first calibrated for a sorghum cultivar grown in a free air CO2 enrichment experiment at the University of Arizona, Maricopa, Arizona, USA in 1998. The model was then validated with an independent dataset collected in 1999. The simulated grain yield, growth, and soil water of sorghum for the both years were in statistical agreement with the corresponding measurements, respectively. Neither simulated nor measured yields responded to elevated CO2, but both were sensitive to water supply. The validated model was then applied to simulate possible effects of climate change on sorghum grain yield and water use efficiency in western North America for the years 2080-2100. The projected CO2 fertilizer effect on grain yield was dominated by the adverse effect of projected temperature increases. Therefore, temperature appears to be a dominant driver of the global climate change influencing future sorghum productivity. These results suggest that an increase in water demand for sorghum production should be anticipated in a future high-CO2 world.

  17. Enhanced sea-air CO2 exchange influenced by a tropical depression in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingyang; Tang, DanLing; Legendre, Louis; Shi, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Ship measurements made 2 days after the passage of a tropical depression (TD) in the South China Sea (SCS, April 2011) showed two contrasted responses of the partial pressure of CO2 at sea surface (pCO2,sw). In low sea-surface salinity (SSS) water, pCO2,sw was low (349 ± 7 μatm), and the area was a carbon sink (-4.7 ± 1.8 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), whereas in water with high SSS and chlorophyll a and low dissolved oxygen and sea surface temperature, pCO2,sw was higher than for normal SCS water (376 ± 8 versus 362 ± 4 μatm) and the area was a carbon source (1.2 ± 3.1 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1). Satellite data showed two large areas of low SSS before the TD, which were likely influenced by rainfall, and these areas were considered to have low pCO2,sw because of their low SSS. The high pCO2,sw after the TD is explained by the uplifting to the surface of deeper and CO2-rich water, due to winds accompanied by the TD. The difference in sea-air CO2 flux between the TD-affected area and the lower-SSS water was 1.99 + 4.70 = 6.7 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1, indicating a 100% change caused by the TD compared to the average seasonal value in spring in southern SCS (3.3 ± 0.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1). Undersaturation of CO2 prior to the TD due to dilution by freshwater and the preexisting cold eddy, and slow translation speed of the TD, are considered to account for the CO2 flux change.

  18. Biotite dissolution in brine at varied temperatures and CO2 pressures: its activation energy and potential CO2 intercalation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Jun, Young-Shin

    2012-10-16

    For sustainable geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), it is important to understand the effects of temperature and CO(2) pressure on mica's dissolution and surface morphological changes under saline hydrothermal conditions. Batch experiments were conducted with biotite (Fe-end member mica) under conditions relevant to GCS sites (35-95 °C and 75-120 atm CO(2)), and 1 M NaCl solution was used to mimic the brine. With increasing temperature, a transition from incongruent to congruent dissolution of biotite was observed. The dissolution activation energy based on Si release was calculated to be 52 ± 5 kJ mol(-1). By comparison with N(2) experiments, we showed that CO(2) injection greatly enhanced biotite's dissolution and its surface morphology evolutions, such as crack formation and detachment of newly formed fibrous illite. For biotite's dissolution and morphological evolutions, the pH effects of CO(2) were differentiated from the effects of bicarbonate complexation and CO(2) intercalation. Bicarbonate complexation effects on ion release from biotite were found to be minor under our experimental conditions. On the other hand, the CO(2) molecules in brine could get into the biotite interlayer and cause enhanced swelling of the biotite interlayer and hence the observed promotion of biotite surface cracking. The cracking created more reactive surface area in contact with brine and thus enhanced the later ion release from biotite. These results provide new information for understanding CO(2)-brine-mica interactions in saline aquifers with varied temperatures and CO(2) pressures, which can be useful for GCS site selection and operations. PMID:22989382

  19. Temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange in a low-emission estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2016-07-01

    There is the need for further study of whether global estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange in estuarine systems capture the relevant temporal variability and, as such, the temporal variability of bulk parameterized and directly measured CO2 fluxes was investigated in the Danish estuary, Roskilde Fjord. The air-sea CO2 fluxes showed large temporal variability across seasons and between days and that more than 30% of the net CO2 emission in 2013 was a result of two large fall and winter storms. The diurnal variability of ΔpCO2 was up to 400 during summer changing the estuary from a source to a sink of CO2 within the day. Across seasons the system was suggested to change from a sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring to near neutral during summer and later to a source of atmospheric CO2 during fall. Results indicated that Roskilde Fjord was an annual low-emission estuary, with an estimated bulk parameterized release of 3.9 ± 8.7 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 during 2012-2013. It was suggested that the production-respiration balance leading to the low annual emission in Roskilde Fjord, was caused by the shallow depth, long residence time and high water quality in the estuary. In the data analysis the eddy covariance CO2 flux samples were filtered according to the H2Osbnd CO2 cross-sensitivity assessment suggested by Landwehr et al. (2014). This filtering reduced episodes of contradicting directions between measured and bulk parameterized air-sea CO2 exchanges and changed the net air-sea CO2 exchange from an uptake to a release. The CO2 gas transfer velocity was calculated from directly measured CO2 fluxes and ΔpCO2 and agreed to previous observations and parameterizations.

  20. Application of amine-tethered solid sorbents for direct CO2 capture from the ambient air.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Eisenberger, Peter M; Jones, Christopher W

    2011-03-15

    While current carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies for large point sources can help address the impact of CO(2) buildup on global climate change, these technologies can at best slow the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration. In contrast, the direct CO(2) capture from ambient air offers the potential to be a truly carbon negative technology. We propose here that amine-based solid adsorbents have significant promise as key components of a hypothetical air capture process. Specifically, the CO(2) capture characteristics of hyperbranched aminosilica (HAS) materials are evaluated here using CO(2) mixtures that simulate ambient atmospheric concentrations (400 ppm CO(2) = "air capture") as well as more traditional conditions simulating flue gas (10% CO(2)). The air capture experiments demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of HAS adsorbents are only marginally influenced even with a significant dilution of the CO(2) concentration by a factor of 250, while capturing CO(2) reversibly without significant degradation of performance in multicyclic operation. These results suggest that solid amine-based air capture processes have the potential to be an effective approach to extracting CO(2) from the ambient air. PMID:21323309

  1. Influence of vertical temperature contrasts and diel cycles on near-surface seawater pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Robin; deYoung, Brad

    2016-04-01

    While the oceanic mixed layer is sometimes assumed to be of vertically-uniform temperature, it is well-known that considerable temperature gradients (>0.1C/m) can develop within its upper few meters, particularly in the tropics during daytime. Given that the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2sw) is strongly temperature-dependent, ceteris paribus (all else being equal), we would expect to observe sizeable corresponding vertical pCO2sw gradients under such situations. If prevalent and persistent, such gradients could affect the accuracy of large-scale air-sea CO2 flux estimates since, while intended to be representative of the sea surface skin, the pCO2sw measurements used to compute these are typically from underway systems sampling at 2-4m depth. Vertical variability in pCO2sw could thus be an important but as yet, poorly quantified uncertainty in air-sea CO2 flux estimates. As a first step towards assessing this uncertainty, we derive a global gridded monthly climatology for the peak daily vertical temperature contrast between the upper (0-2m) and lower (2-10m) sea surface and compute the corresponding vertical pCO2sw differences these would cause, ceteris paribus. The latter are an estimate of the temperature-driven pCO2 contrast we would expect to find in a given month between the upper sea surface and the sampling depth of an underway system at the time of the peak temperature contrast in the daily cycle. In addition, we construct a monthly climatology for the amplitude of diel variation in upper sea temperature and compute the corresponding diel pCO2sw amplitudes these would generate, ceteris paribus. While these analyses reveal the locations and months for which vertical temperature contrasts and diel cycles are likely to exert a strong influence on pCO2sw, temperature is only one factor influencing this carbonate chemistry parameter. In situ measurements are required to reveal the actual dynamics of pCO2sw under the influence of all competing factors

  2. The influence of photosynthetic acclimation to rising CO2 and warmer temperatures on leaf and canopy photosynthesis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, Justin; Rosenthal, David M.; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M.; Siebers, Matthew H.; Kumar, Praveen; Ort, Donald R.; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2015-02-01

    There is an increasing necessity to understand how climate change factors, particularly increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 ([CO2]) and rising temperature, will influence photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A). Based on theory, an increased [CO2] concomitant with a rise in temperature will increase A in C3 plants beyond that of an increase in [CO2] alone. However, uncertainty surrounding the acclimation response of key photosynthetic parameters to these changes can influence this response. In this work, the acclimation responses of C3 photosynthesis for soybean measured at the SoyFACE Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment are incorporated in a leaf biochemical and canopy photosynthesis model. The two key parameters used as model inputs, the maximum velocity for carboxylation (Vc,max) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), were measured in a full factorial [CO2] by temperature experiment over two growing seasons and applied in leaf- and canopy-scale models to (1) reassess the theory of combined increases in [CO2] and temperature on A, (2) determine the role of photosynthetic acclimation to increased growth [CO2] and/or temperature in leaf and canopy predictions of A for these treatments, and (3) assess the diurnal and seasonal differences in leaf- and canopy-scale A associated with the imposed treatments. The results demonstrate that the theory behind combined increases in [CO2] and temperature is sound; however, incorporating more recent parameterizations into the photosynthesis model predicts greater increases in A when [CO2] and temperature are increased together. Photosynthetic acclimation is shown to decrease leaf-level A for all treatments; however, in elevated [CO2] the impact of acclimation does not result in any appreciable loss in photosynthetic potential at the canopy scale. In this analysis, neglecting photosynthetic acclimation in heated treatments, with or without concomitant rise in [CO2], leads to modeled overestimates of

  3. [Uptake 14CO2 from air and accumulation of 14C in hornwort].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Jun

    2011-02-01

    Uptake 14CO2 from air and accumulation of 14C in the hornwort were studied by using the isotope-tracer techniques in order to get a better understanding of the environmental behavior of 14CO2. And the possibility of hornwort used as the indicator plant in the supervisor of 14CO2 air pollution was discussed. The results show that the hornwort could uptake 14CO2 from the air by some way and formed an accumulating trend. The main way was that the hornwort absorbed free 14CO2 and H 14CO3- from the water through photosynthesis. During the introducing 14CO2, the increasing rate of 14C specific activity in dry hornwort and fresh hornwort were between 91.9-95.6 Bq/(g x d) and 6.1-6.3 Bq/(g x d), respectively, which was roughly equal to the increasing rate in the wheat. The results indicate that the hornwort had strong ability of absorbing 14CO2 indirectly through water. The hornwort has an certain concentration of 14CO2. And the concentration factor (CF) values rise with the introduction of 14CO2 and decline slowly after it reached the maximum value. Owing to its accumulation of 14CO2, hornwort can be used as the indicator plant in the supervisor of 14CO2 air pollution. PMID:21528570

  4. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  5. Module for measurement of CO2 concentration in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puton, Jaroslaw; Palko, Tadeusz; Knap, Andrzej; Jasek, Krzysztof; Siodlowski, Boguslaw

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this work consists in working out of a detection module for capnography (carbon dioxide concentration measurement in anaesthesiology and intensive care). The principle of operation of the module consists of the NDIR method. The basic assumption for construction of this model was using of directly modulated thermal IR source in it. A few models of IR sources were worked out. Their heaters were made from thick platinum layers and foil. Limits of modulation frequency for IR sources were greater than 30 Hz. The detection module consists of an optical part, analogue electronics and microprocessor system with a suitable program. The time dependent concentration of CO2, end tidal concentration of CO2, mean concentration of N2O and breath frequency are output values of the detection module. Measurements are executed 30 times per second. The accuracy of CO2 concentration measurement equals to 5%.

  6. Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air

    PubMed Central

    House, Kurt Zenz; Baclig, Antonio C.; Ranjan, Manya; van Nierop, Ernst A.; Wilcox, Jennifer; Herzog, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (“air capture”) in an industrial process has been proposed as an option for stabilizing global CO2 concentrations. Published analyses suggest these air capture systems may cost a few hundred dollars per tonne of CO2, making it cost competitive with mainstream CO2 mitigation options like renewable energy, nuclear power, and carbon dioxide capture and storage from large CO2 emitting point sources. We investigate the thermodynamic efficiencies of commercial separation systems as well as trace gas removal systems to better understand and constrain the energy requirements and costs of these air capture systems. Our empirical analyses of operating commercial processes suggest that the energetic and financial costs of capturing CO2 from the air are likely to have been underestimated. Specifically, our analysis of existing gas separation systems suggests that, unless air capture significantly outperforms these systems, it is likely to require more than 400 kJ of work per mole of CO2, requiring it to be powered by CO2-neutral power sources in order to be CO2 negative. We estimate that total system costs of an air capture system will be on the order of $1,000 per tonne of CO2, based on experience with as-built large-scale trace gas removal systems. PMID:22143760

  7. Economic and energetic analysis of capturing CO2 from ambient air.

    PubMed

    House, Kurt Zenz; Baclig, Antonio C; Ranjan, Manya; van Nierop, Ernst A; Wilcox, Jennifer; Herzog, Howard J

    2011-12-20

    Capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ("air capture") in an industrial process has been proposed as an option for stabilizing global CO(2) concentrations. Published analyses suggest these air capture systems may cost a few hundred dollars per tonne of CO(2), making it cost competitive with mainstream CO(2) mitigation options like renewable energy, nuclear power, and carbon dioxide capture and storage from large CO(2) emitting point sources. We investigate the thermodynamic efficiencies of commercial separation systems as well as trace gas removal systems to better understand and constrain the energy requirements and costs of these air capture systems. Our empirical analyses of operating commercial processes suggest that the energetic and financial costs of capturing CO(2) from the air are likely to have been underestimated. Specifically, our analysis of existing gas separation systems suggests that, unless air capture significantly outperforms these systems, it is likely to require more than 400 kJ of work per mole of CO(2), requiring it to be powered by CO(2)-neutral power sources in order to be CO(2) negative. We estimate that total system costs of an air capture system will be on the order of $1,000 per tonne of CO(2), based on experience with as-built large-scale trace gas removal systems. PMID:22143760

  8. Reduction of CO 2 concentration in a zinc/air battery by absorption in a rotating packed bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsu-Hsiang; Tan, Chung-Sung

    The reduction of CO 2 concentration in a gas stream containing 500 ppm of CO 2 by a technique combining chemical absorption with Higee (high gravity) was investigated in this study. Using a 2.0 L aqueous amine-based solution to treat the feed gas with a flow rate which varied from 12.9 to 20.6 L min -1, piperazine (PZ) was found to be more effective than 2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethanol (AEEA) and monoethanolamine (MEA) for reducing the CO 2 concentration to a level below 20 ppm. The effects of temperature, rotating speed, amine solution flow rate, and gas flow rate on the removal efficiency of CO 2 were systematically examined. The results indicated that the proposed compact device could effectively reduce CO 2 to a level below 20 ppm, as required by a zinc/air battery, for a long period of time using PZ and its mixture with AEEA and MEA as the absorbents.

  9. The OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases methodology for deriving a sea surface climatology of CO2 fugacity in support of air-sea gas flux studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Donlon, C.

    2015-07-01

    Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. As fCO2 is highly sensitive to temperature, the measurements are only valid for the instantaneous sea surface temperature (SST) that is measured concurrently with the in-water CO2 measurement. To create a climatology of fCO2 data suitable for calculating air-sea CO2 fluxes, it is therefore desirable to calculate fCO2 valid for a more consistent and averaged SST. This paper presents the OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases methodology for creating such a climatology. We recomputed SOCAT's fCO2 values for their respective measurement month and year using monthly composite SST data on a 1° × 1° grid from satellite Earth observation and then extrapolated the resulting fCO2 values to reference year 2010. The data were then spatially interpolated onto a 1° × 1° grid of the global oceans to produce 12 monthly fCO2 distributions for 2010, including the prediction errors of fCO2 produced by the spatial interpolation technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is also provided for those who prefer to use pCO2. The CO2 concentration difference between ocean and atmosphere is the thermodynamic driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux, and hence the presented fCO2 distributions can be used in air-sea gas flux calculations together with climatologies of other climate variables.

  10. High temperature phase transformation studies in magnetite nanoparticles doped with Co2+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, S. S.; Gopinath, S.; Panneerselvam, G.; Antony, M. P.; Philip, John

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the effect of Co2+ ion doping in magnetite (Fe3O4) on its crystal structure, magnetic properties, and phase stability during air and vacuum annealing. The nanoparticles are prepared by co-precipitation method and the particles are characterized by XRD, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), themogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and vibrating sample magnetometer. The SAXS analysis on the doped samples show the most probable size, shape, and the polydispersity of particles, synthesized with different fractions (0-0.6) of Co2+ ion doping remains almost the same. On increasing cobalt content ferrimagnetic to the antiferromagnetic hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase transformation temperature is found to increase dramatically. For 0.1 fraction of Co2+ metal ion doping, an enhancement of 100 °C in the γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 phase transition temperature is observed in the air annealed samples, whereas magnetic nature remains stable up to 1000 °C in vacuum annealed samples. On increasing the cobalt fractions beyond 0.2, air annealed samples show no change in the phase transition temperature. The observed enhancement in the phase transition temperature is attributed to the increased activation energy for phase transformation in presence of Co2+. Further, the DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in cobalt fraction (x). The decrease in enthalpy from 89.86 to 17.62 J g-1 with an increase in cobalt content indicates that the degree of conversion of maghemite to hematite decreases with the cobalt content, which is in good agreement with the Rietveld analysis. The decrease in the Ms value in air annealed sample is attributed to the re-distribution of cations in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites, as the Fe3+A-Fe3+B super-exchange interaction is different from the Co2+A-Fe3+B interaction. These results suggest that a very small percentage of Co2+ metal ion doping can

  11. Vibro-acoustic characterization of flexible hose in CO2 car air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, F.; Bergami, A.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2008-06-01

    Following the EU directive 2006/40/EC proscribing from 2011 that refrigerant fluids must have a global warming potential not higher than 150, it will not be allowed anymore to employ the current R134a on car air conditioning systems. Maflow s.p.a (automotive hose maker) is developing products for each possible new refrigerant. This paper is focused on hoses for CO2 refrigerants operating in the worst conditions because of the high pressures and temperatures at which they are working (with R134a the high pressure is 18 bar and low pressure is 3 bar; with CO2 the high pressure is 100 bar and low pressure is 35 bar). Therefore the noise emission control of the CO2 air conditioning systems is very important. The aim of this study is to develop a standard measurement method for the vibro - acoustic characterization of High Pressure (HP - Shark F4) and Low Pressure (LP - ULEV) hoses to reduce noise emission and raise car passenger comfort; in particular deep research on high pressure hose. The method is based on the measurement of the vibration level of the hoses in a standard test bench by means of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and its acoustic emission by a sound intensity probe.

  12. Rice grain yield and quality responses to free-air CO2 enrichment combined with soil and water warming.

    PubMed

    Usui, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Rising air temperatures are projected to reduce rice yield and quality, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) can increase grain yield. For irrigated rice, ponded water is an important temperature environment, but few open-field evaluations are available on the combined effects of temperature and [CO2 ], which limits our ability to predict future rice production. We conducted free-air CO2 enrichment and soil and water warming experiments, for three growing seasons to determine the yield and quality response to elevated [CO2 ] (+200 μmol mol(-1) , E-[CO2 ]) and soil and water temperatures (+2 °C, E-T). E-[CO2 ] significantly increased biomass and grain yield by approximately 14% averaged over 3 years, mainly because of increased panicle and spikelet density. E-T significantly increased biomass but had no significant effect on the grain yield. E-T decreased days from transplanting to heading by approximately 1%, but days to the maximum tiller number (MTN) stage were reduced by approximately 8%, which limited the panicle density and therefore sink capacity. On the other hand, E-[CO2 ] increased days to the MTN stage by approximately 4%, leading to a greater number of tillers. Grain appearance quality was decreased by both treatments, but E-[CO2 ] showed a much larger effect than did E-T. The significant decrease in undamaged grains (UDG) by E-[CO2 ] was mainly the result of an increased percentage of white-base grains (WBSG), which were negatively correlated with grain protein content. A significant decrease in grain protein content by E-[CO2 ] accounted in part for the increased WBSG. The dependence of WBSG on grain protein content, however, was different among years; the slope and intercept of the relationship were positively correlated with a heat dose above 26 °C. Year-to-year variation in the response of grain appearance quality demonstrated that E-[CO2 ] and rising air temperatures synergistically reduce grain appearance quality of

  13. Controlling the temperature of bones using pulsed CO2 lasers: observations and mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Luc; Noël, Jean-Marc; Scott, Calum

    2015-01-01

    Temperature of porcine bone specimens are investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the bone-air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the uses of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature variations with time. The control of temperature using this method is modeled by the heat-conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 9 μm. It is shown that temperature can be maintained at a steady temperature using a CO2 laser and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to be used in tandem with another laser beam. This method to control the temperature is believed to be useful in de-contamination of bone during the implantation treatment, in bone augmentation when using natural or synthetic materials and in low-level laser therapy. PMID:26713192

  14. Controlling the temperature of bones using pulsed CO2 lasers: observations and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Luc; Noël, Jean-Marc; Scott, Calum

    2015-12-01

    Temperature of porcine bone specimens are investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the bone-air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the uses of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature variations with time. The control of temperature using this method is modeled by the heat-conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 9 μm. It is shown that temperature can be maintained at a steady temperature using a CO2 laser and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to be used in tandem with another laser beam. This method to control the temperature is believed to be useful in de-contamination of bone during the implantation treatment, in bone augmentation when using natural or synthetic materials and in low-level laser therapy. PMID:26713192

  15. Experimental and modeling study on effects of N2 and CO2 on ignition characteristics of methane/air mixture

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wen; Ma, Hongan; Liang, Yuntao; Hu, Erjiang

    2014-01-01

    The ignition delay times of methane/air mixture diluted by N2 and CO2 were experimentally measured in a chemical shock tube. The experiments were performed over the temperature range of 1300–2100 K, pressure range of 0.1–1.0 MPa, equivalence ratio range of 0.5–2.0 and for the dilution coefficients of 0%, 20% and 50%. The results suggest that a linear relationship exists between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of the ignition delay times. Meanwhile, with ignition temperature and pressure increasing, the measured ignition delay times of methane/air mixture are decreasing. Furthermore, an increase in the dilution coefficient of N2 or CO2 results in increasing ignition delays and the inhibition effect of CO2 on methane/air mixture ignition is stronger than that of N2. Simulated ignition delays of methane/air mixture using three kinetic models were compared to the experimental data. Results show that GRI_3.0 mechanism gives the best prediction on ignition delays of methane/air mixture and it was selected to identify the effects of N2 and CO2 on ignition delays and the key elementary reactions in the ignition chemistry of methane/air mixture. Comparisons of the calculated ignition delays with the experimental data of methane/air mixture diluted by N2 and CO2 show excellent agreement, and sensitivity coefficients of chain branching reactions which promote mixture ignition decrease with increasing dilution coefficient of N2 or CO2. PMID:25750753

  16. Experimental and modeling study on effects of N2 and CO2 on ignition characteristics of methane/air mixture.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Ma, Hongan; Liang, Yuntao; Hu, Erjiang

    2015-03-01

    The ignition delay times of methane/air mixture diluted by N2 and CO2 were experimentally measured in a chemical shock tube. The experiments were performed over the temperature range of 1300-2100 K, pressure range of 0.1-1.0 MPa, equivalence ratio range of 0.5-2.0 and for the dilution coefficients of 0%, 20% and 50%. The results suggest that a linear relationship exists between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of the ignition delay times. Meanwhile, with ignition temperature and pressure increasing, the measured ignition delay times of methane/air mixture are decreasing. Furthermore, an increase in the dilution coefficient of N2 or CO2 results in increasing ignition delays and the inhibition effect of CO2 on methane/air mixture ignition is stronger than that of N2. Simulated ignition delays of methane/air mixture using three kinetic models were compared to the experimental data. Results show that GRI_3.0 mechanism gives the best prediction on ignition delays of methane/air mixture and it was selected to identify the effects of N2 and CO2 on ignition delays and the key elementary reactions in the ignition chemistry of methane/air mixture. Comparisons of the calculated ignition delays with the experimental data of methane/air mixture diluted by N2 and CO2 show excellent agreement, and sensitivity coefficients of chain branching reactions which promote mixture ignition decrease with increasing dilution coefficient of N2 or CO2. PMID:25750753

  17. Variations in atmospheric CO2 growth rates coupled with tropical temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weile; Ciais, Philippe; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Canadell, Josep G.; Piao, Shilong; Sitch, Stephen; White, Michael A.; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Milesi, Cristina; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the occurrence and intensity of El Niño–Southern Oscillation as important drivers of the interannual variability of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate, but the underlying biogeophysical mechanisms governing such connections remain unclear. Here we show a strong and persistent coupling (r2 ≈ 0.50) between interannual variations of the CO2 growth rate and tropical land–surface air temperature during 1959 to 2011, with a 1 °C tropical temperature anomaly leading to a 3.5 ± 0.6 Petagrams of carbon per year (PgC/y) CO2 growth-rate anomaly on average. Analysis of simulation results from Dynamic Global Vegetation Models suggests that this temperature–CO2 coupling is contributed mainly by the additive responses of heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net primary production (NPP) to temperature variations in tropical ecosystems. However, we find a weaker and less consistent (r2 ≈ 0.25) interannual coupling between CO2 growth rate and tropical land precipitation than diagnosed from the Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, likely resulting from the subtractive responses of tropical Rh and NPP to precipitation anomalies that partly offset each other in the net ecosystem exchange (i.e., net ecosystem exchange ≈ Rh − NPP). Variations in other climate variables (e.g., large-scale cloudiness) and natural disturbances (e.g., volcanic eruptions) may induce transient reductions in the temperature–CO2 coupling, but the relationship is robust during the past 50 y and shows full recovery within a few years after any such major variability event. Therefore, it provides an important diagnostic tool for improved understanding of the contemporary and future global carbon cycle. PMID:23884654

  18. Global and Regional Seasonal Variability of Mid-Tropospheric CO2 as Measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Olsen, Edward T.; Nguyen, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002 into a near polar sun-synchronous orbit. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 ?m to 15.4 ?m and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4. AIRS CO2 climatologies have been shown to be useful for identifying anomalies associated with geophysical events such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation or Madden-Julian oscillation. In this study, monthly representations of mid-tropospheric CO2 are constructed from 10 years of AIRS Version 5 monthly Level 3 data. We compare the AIRS mid-tropospheric CO2 representations to ground-based measurements from the Scripps and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Modeling and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA CMDL) ground networks to better understand the phase lag of the CO2 seasonal cycle between the surface and middle troposphere. Results show only a small phase lag in the tropics that grows to approximately two months in the northern latitudes.

  19. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  20. High-speed Air Temperature Measurements in a Closed-path Cell and Quality of CO2 and H2O Fluxes from a Short-tube Gas Analyzer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Fratini, G.

    2015-12-01

    Gas analyzers traditionally used for eddy covariance method measure gas density. When fluxes are calculated, corrections are applied to account for the changes in gas density due to changing temperature and pressure (Ideal Gas Law) and changing water vapor density (Dalton's Law). The new generation of gas analyzers with fast air temperature and pressure measurements in the sampling cell enables on-the-fly calculation of fast dry mole fraction. This significantly simplifies the flux processing because the WPL density terms are no longer required, and leads to the reduction in uncertainties associated with latent and sensible heat flux inputs into the density terms. Traditional closed-path instruments with long intake tubes often can effectively dampen the fast temperature fluctuations in the tube before reaching the measurement cell, thus reducing or eliminating the need for temperature correction for density-based fluxes. But in instruments with a short-tube design, most - but not all - of the temperature fluctuations are attenuated, so calculating unbiased fluxes using fast dry mole fraction requires high-speed precise temperature measurements of the air stream inside the cell. Fast pressure and water vapor content of the sampled air should also be measured in the cell and carefully aligned in time with gas density and sample temperature measurements.In this study we examine the impact of fast-response air temperature measurements in the cell on the calculations of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes at different time scales from three different ecosystems. The fast cell air temperature data is filtered mathematically to obtain slower response cell temperature time series, which is used in the calculation of fluxes. This exercise is intended to simulate the use of thicker slower response thermocouples instead of fast response fine wire thermocouples for estimating cell temperature. The directly measured block temperature is also utilized to illustrate the

  1. Reducing the cost of Ca-based direct air capture of CO2.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Direct air capture, the chemical removal of CO2 directly from the atmosphere, may play a role in mitigating future climate risk or form the basis of a sustainable transportation infrastructure. The current discussion is centered on the estimated cost of the technology and its link to "overshoot" trajectories, where atmospheric CO2 levels are actively reduced later in the century. The American Physical Society (APS) published a report, later updated, estimating the cost of a one million tonne CO2 per year air capture facility constructed today that highlights several fundamental concepts of chemical air capture. These fundamentals are viewed through the lens of a chemical process that cycles between removing CO2 from the air and releasing the absorbed CO2 in concentrated form. This work builds on the APS report to investigate the effect of modifications to the air capture system based on suggestions in the report and subsequent publications. The work shows that reduced carbon electricity and plastic packing materials (for the contactor) may have significant effects on the overall price, reducing the APS estimate from $610 to $309/tCO2 avoided. Such a reduction does not challenge postcombustion capture from point sources, estimated at $80/tCO2, but does make air capture a feasible alternative for the transportation sector and a potential negative emissions technology. Furthermore, air capture represents atmospheric reductions rather than simply avoided emissions. PMID:25207956

  2. Tree and forest water use under elevated CO2 and temperature in Scandinavian boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg Hasper, Thomas; Wallin, Göran; Lamba, Shubhangi; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Medhurst, Jane L.; Räntfors, Mats; Linder, Sune; Uddling, Johan

    2014-05-01

    According to experimental studies and models, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have the potential to affect stomatal conductance and, consequently, tree and forest transpiration. This effect has in turn the capacity to influence the terrestrial energy and water balance, including affecting of the magnitude of river runoff. Furthermore, forest productivity is currently water-limited in southern Scandinavia and in a near future, under the projected climatic change, this limitation may become a reality in the central and northern parts of Scandinavia. In this study we examine the water-use responses in 12 40-year old native boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 °C in summer / +5.6 °C in winter), as well as of entire boreal forests to temporal variation in [CO2], temperature and precipitation over the past 50 years in central and northern Sweden. The controlled factorial CO2 and temperature whole-tree chamber experiment at Flakaliden study site demonstrated that Norway spruce trees lacked elevated [CO2]-induced water savings at guard cell, shoot, and tree levels in the years of measurements. Experimentally, elevated temperature did not result in increased shoot or tree water use as stomatal closure fully cancelled the effect of higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air environment. Consistent with these results, large scale river runoff data and evapotranspiration estimates from large forested watersheds in central Sweden supported lack of elevated CO2-mediated water savings, and rather suggested that the increasing evapotranspiration trend found in this study was primarily linked to increasing precipitation, rising temperature and more efficient forest management. The results from the whole-tree chamber experiment and boreal forested watersheds have important implications for more accurate

  3. Investigating the major carbon input to cave-air CO2 and speleothem calcite by using the respiratory quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergel, S.; Breecker, D.; Carlson, P.; Larson, T.; Banner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Speleothems (cave mineral deposits) are used to reconstruct changes in rainfall, moisture sources, atmospheric temperatures, and vegetation. Soil respiration is generally considered to be one of the major sources of cave-air CO2, and by extension a major source of carbon in speleothem calcite. However, the δ13C values from speleothem calcite are difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study is to investigate the major source of carbon in cave-air CO2 using a novel tracer, and thereby increase the accuracy of δ13C from speleothem calcite as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Potential sources of CO2 in cave-air include (1) soil respiration (primarily from roots and microbes), (2) animal respiration, (3) in-cave decomposition of organic matter, (4) deep magmatic or metamorphic sources, and (5) atmospheric air. Of these potential sources, soil respiration and atmospheric air are currently considered to be most significant in most caves. We use the respiratory quotient (RQ, which is the number of moles of CO2 produced per mole of O2 consumed, defined here in relation to atmospheric air) to compare cave air and overlying soil gas at two localities in central Texas: Natural Bridge Caverns and Inner Space Cavern. Soil gas samples (RQ = 1.32) follow a trend expected for respiration followed by diffusion whereas cave air samples (RQ = 0.97) follow a trend expected for respiration without subsequent diffusion. We suggest that root and rhizomicrobial respiration below the soil in the epikarst fracture network, where gas transport is dominated by advection rather than diffusion, contributes significantly to cave-air CO2. This is important because 12CO2 preferentially diffuses out of soils, elevating the d13C values of residual soil CO2, whereas no carbon isotope fractionation occurs during advection. Our interpretation of RQ values suggests that the d13C value of cave-air CO2 is not influenced by diffusive loss of CO2. In order to further investigate soil and cave carbon

  4. Micrometeorological survey of air-sea ice CO2 fluxes in arctic coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinesch, Bernard; Tison, Jean-Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Heicken, Hajo; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Goosens, Thomas; Papakyriakou, Tim; Yernaux, Michel; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    We carried out a 6 month study that aimed to robustly track CO2 exchange between land-fast sea-ice and the atmosphere during the winter and spring season. A meteorological mast equipped for eddy-covariance measurements was installed on land-fast sea-ice near Barrow (Alaska), 1 km off the coast, from the end of January 2009 to the beginning of June 2009, before ice break-up. These data were supported by continuous measurements of solar radiation, snow depth, ice thickness and temperature profile in the ice. Biogeochemical data necessary for the understanding of the CO2 dynamics in sea-ice were obtained through discrete ice coring. Two regimes were detected for the CO2 exchanges linked with the status of the sea-ice: a winter regime and a spring summer regime. From 27 of March onwards brine volume at the sea ice-snow interface was above the threshold of permeability for liquid according to Golden et al (1998). During this period, we observed some conspicuous CO2 fluxes events tightly linked to wind speed. The flux was directed from the sea-ice to the atmosphere and reached up to 0.6 umol m-2 s-1 (51.8 mmol m-2 d-1). This flux to the atmosphere is expected as sea-ice at the air interface is permeable during a large part of the period and brines are oversaturated compared to the atmosphere. CO2 may accumulate in the snow layer which thus acts as a buffer that is flushed under occurrence of high wind speeds and associated pressure pumping. During the spring-summer period i.e. from 27 of April onwards, we observed a marked increase in sea ice temperature. Temperature profiles suggest that convective events occurred within the ice cover between April 27 and May 05. Within these convective events, two regimes were observed. First, for a period of 5 days, pCO2 was still above the threshold of saturation and CO2 fluxes were still mainly positive but lower than in the winter period, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 umol m-2 s-1. This flux was only moderately controlled by windspeed

  5. Sea-air CO2 exchange in the western Arctic coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Frey, Karen E.; Else, Brent G. T.; Papkyriakou, Tim N.; DeGrandpre, Mike D.; Islam, Fakhrul; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Baoshan; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo; Carmack, Eddy; Williams, William. J.; Takahashi, Taro

    2015-08-01

    The biogeochemical seascape of the western Arctic coastal ocean is in rapid transition. Changes in sea ice cover will be accompanied by alterations in sea-air carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, of which the latter has been difficult to constrain owing to sparse temporal and spatial data sets. Previous assessments of sea-air CO2 flux have targeted specific subregional areas of the western Arctic coastal ocean. Here a holistic approach is taken to determine the net sea-air CO2 flux over this broad region. We compiled and analyzed an extensive data set of nearly 600,000 surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) measurements spanning 2003 through 2014. Using space-time colocated, reconstructed atmospheric pCO2 values coupled with the seawater pCO2 data set, monthly climatologies of sea-air pCO2 differences (ΔpCO2) were created on a 0.2° latitude × 0.5° longitude grid. Sea-air CO2 fluxes were computed using the ΔpCO2 grid and gas transfer rates calculated from climatology of wind speed second moments. Fluxes were calculated with and without the presence of sea ice, treating sea ice as an imperfect barrier to gas exchange. This allowed for carbon uptake by the western Arctic coastal ocean to be assessed under existing and reduced sea ice cover conditions, in which carbon uptake increased 30% over the current 10.9 ± 5.7 Tg C (1 Tg = 1012 g) yr-1 of sea ice-adjusted exchange in the region. This assessment extends beyond previous subregional estimates in the region in an all-inclusive manner and points to key unresolved aspects that must be targeted by future research.

  6. Modeling CO2 air dispersion from gas driven lake eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Rouwet, Dmitri; Tassi, Franco

    2016-04-01

    The most tragic event of gas driven lake eruption occurred at Lake Nyos (Cameroon) on 21 August 1986, when a dense cloud of CO2 suffocated more than 1700 people and an uncounted number of animals in just one night. The event stimulated a series of researches aimed to understand gas origins, gas release mechanisms and strategies for gas hazard mitigation. Very few studies have been carried out for describing the transport of dense CO2 clouds in the atmosphere. Although from a theoretical point of view, gas dispersion can be fully studied by solving the complete equations system for mass, momentum and energy transport, in actual practice, different simplified models able to describe only specific phases or aspects have to be used. In order to simulate dispersion of a heavy gas and to assess the consequent hazard we used a model based on a shallow layer approach (TWODEE2). This technique which uses depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behavior of dense gas over complex topography represents a good compromise between the complexity of computational fluid dynamic models and the simpler integral models. Recently the model has been applied for simulating CO2 dispersion from natural gas emissions in Central Italy. The results have shown how the dispersion pattern is strongly affected by the intensity of gas release, the topography and the ambient wind speed. Here for the first time we applied TWODEE2 code to simulate the dispersion of the large CO2 clouds released by limnic eruptions. An application concerns the case of the 1986 event at lake Nyos. Some difficulties for the simulations were related to the lack of quantitative information: gas flux estimations are not well constrained, meteorological conditions are only qualitatively known, the digital model of the terrain is of poor quality. Different scenarios were taken into account in order to reproduce the qualitative observations available for such episode. The observations regard mainly the effects of gas on

  7. Energy requirements for CO2 capture from ambient air (DAC) competitive with capture from flue-gas (PCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Capture of CO2, whether from a flue gas source (PCC) or from distributed sources via ambient air (DAC), is a key enabling technology to provide carbon for sustainable synthetic energy carriers such as solar fuels. Based on thermodynamic minimum considerations, DAC is often expected to require about 3 times more energy (per ton CO2 captured) than PCC because CO2 in ambient air is more dilute. Here, we calculate the energy required for a humidity swing-based DAC installation that uses an anionic exchange resin as sorbent. The calculation uses recently measured equilibrium CO2 loadings of the sorbent as function of partial CO2 pressure, temperature, and humidity. We calculate the installation's electricity consumption to be about 45 kJ per mole of pure CO2 at 1 bar (scenario-dependent). Furthermore, we estimate the amount of heat provided by ambient air and thus provide context of the overall energy and entropy balance and thermodynamic minimum views. The electricity consumption is competitive with typical parasitic loads of PCC-equipped coal-fired power plants (40-50 kJ per mole at same pressure) and significantly lower than predicted for other DAC installations such as Na(OH) sorbent-based systems. Our analyses elucidate why DAC is not always more energy-intensive that PCC, thus alleviating often cited concerns of significant cost impediments. Financial support by ABB for research presented herein is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  9. Above-zone temperature variations due to CO2 leakage from the storage aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidouni, M.; Hosseini, S.; Nicot, J.

    2012-12-01

    Above-zone temperature data can be acquired with high resolution and accuracy at low cost from which information on CO2 leakage may be inferred. CO2 injection in saline aquifers induces temperature changes due to processes including JT cooling, buoyancy-driven effects, endothermic water vaporization and exothermic CO2 dissolution, and temperature contrast between the injected CO2 and the native brine. CO2 leaking from the injection zone undergoes similar processes causing temperature changes in the overlying formations. We use numerical simulation tools to evaluate temperature changes associated with CO2 leakage from the storage aquifer to an overlying formation and assess the monitorability of CO2 leakage based on temperature data. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the key operational and reservoir parameters that control the temperature signal.

  10. Cave air ventilation and CO 2 outgassing by radon-222 modeling: How fast do caves breathe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczk, Andrew J.; Froelich, Philip N.

    2010-01-01

    In general, the rate and timing of calcite precipitation is in part affected by variations in cave air CO 2 concentrations. Knowledge of cave ventilation processes is required to quantify the effect variations in CO 2 concentrations have on speleothem deposition rates and thus paleoclimate records. In this study we use radon-222 ( 222Rn) as a proxy of ventilation to estimate CO 2 outgassing from the cave to the atmosphere, which can be used to infer relative speleothem deposition rates. Hollow Ridge Cave, a wild cave preserve in Marianna, Florida, is instrumented inside and out with multiple micro-meteorological sensor stations that record continuous physical and air chemistry time-series data. Our time series datasets indicate diurnal and seasonal variations in cave air 222Rn and CO 2 concentrations, punctuated by events that provide clues to ventilation and drip water degassing mechanisms. Average cave air 222Rn and CO 2 concentrations vary seasonally between winter ( 222Rn = 50 dpm L - 1 , where 1 dpm L - 1 = 60 Bq m - 3 ; CO 2 = 360 ppmv) and summer ( 222Rn = 1400 dpm L - 1 ; CO 2 = 3900 ppmv). Large amplitude diurnal variations are observed during late summer and autumn ( 222Rn = 6 to 581 dpm L - 1 ; CO 2 = 360 to 2500 ppmv). We employ a simple first-order 222Rn mass balance model to estimate cave air exchange rates with the outside atmosphere. Ventilation occurs via density driven flow and by winds across the entrances which create a 'venturi' effect. The most rapid ventilation occurs 25 m inside the cave near the entrance: 45 h - 1 (1.33 min turnover time). Farther inside (175 m) exchange is slower and maximum ventilation rates are 3 h - 1 (22 min turnover time). We estimate net CO 2 flux from the epikarst to the cave atmosphere using a CO 2 mass balance model tuned with the 222Rn model. Net CO 2 flux from the epikarst is highest in summer (72 mmol m - 2 day - 1 ) and lowest in late autumn and winter (12 mmol m - 2 day - 1 ). Modeled ventilation and net CO 2

  11. 3D modelling of the early martian climate under a denser CO2 atmosphere: Temperatures and CO2 ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.; Millour, E.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Kerber, L.; Leconte, J.; Marcq, E.; Haberle, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of geological evidence, it is often stated that the early martian climate was warm enough for liquid water to flow on the surface thanks to the greenhouse effect of a thick atmosphere. We present 3D global climate simulations of the early martian climate performed assuming a faint young Sun and a CO2 atmosphere with surface pressure between 0.1 and 7 bars. The model includes a detailed radiative transfer model using revised CO2 gas collision induced absorption properties, and a parameterisation of the CO2 ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties. A wide range of possible climates is explored using various values of obliquities, orbital parameters, cloud microphysic parameters, atmospheric dust loading, and surface properties. Unlike on present day Mars, for pressures higher than a fraction of a bar, surface temperatures vary with altitude because of the adiabatic cooling and warming of the atmosphere when it moves vertically. In most simulations, CO2 ice clouds cover a major part of the planet. Previous studies had suggested that they could have warmed the planet thanks to their scattering greenhouse effect. However, even assuming parameters that maximize this effect, it does not exceed +15 K. Combined with the revised CO2 spectroscopy and the impact of surface CO2 ice on the planetary albedo, we find that a CO2 atmosphere could not have raised the annual mean temperature above 0 °C anywhere on the planet. The collapse of the atmosphere into permanent CO2 ice caps is predicted for pressures higher than 3 bar, or conversely at pressure lower than 1 bar if the obliquity is low enough. Summertime diurnal mean surface temperatures above 0 °C (a condition which could have allowed rivers and lakes to form) are predicted for obliquity larger than 40° at high latitudes but not in locations where most valley networks or layered sedimentary units are observed. In the absence of other warming mechanisms, our climate model results are thus consistent

  12. An asymmetric tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane for high temperature CO2 separation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xueliang; Ortiz Landeros, José; Lin, Y S

    2013-10-25

    For the first time, a tubular asymmetric ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane was prepared by a centrifugal casting technique and used for high temperature CO2 separation. This membrane shows high CO2 permeation flux and permeance. PMID:24022119

  13. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    2000 m section utilizing two exposures. Analysis of Variance (p < .0001) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (p =.05) indicated significant differences existed among the mean temperature elevations observed. While significant differences in temperature elevation can be observed both by numbers of exposures and by dentin thickness, it would appear that, under the conditions of this study, the temperature changes across CO2 lased dentin are all relatively low. It should be reiterated that the lasing parameters used in this study are far in excess of those necessary for preventive applications and are, in fact, in the range of exposures which will fuse enamel and dental porcelain, or remove dental caries. The modest temperature elevations observed, combined with the relatively severe exposure parameters utilized on thin sections of dentin, demonstrate the effective protective barrier which dentin provides for the dental pulp relative to heat damage from C02 lasing.

  14. Temperature effects on microbial respiration assessed with CO2-exchange and continuous culture techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmeier, C.; Min, K.; Song, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work attempts to incorporate requirements of soil microorganisms for carbon and other resources, and how these requirements may respond to temperature, into theoretical concepts of soil organic matter decomposition and climate change. Because of the difficulties of measuring resource fluxes in natural soils, empirical data to guide these concepts remain scarce. Here, we present an experimental system that combines continuous culture techniques with CO2 measurements to study carbon fluxes through microbes in a reductionist, controlled environment amenable to experimental manipulation. In this pilot study, we quantified mass specific respiration rates (MSR) and δ13C of respired CO2 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a Gram-negative bacterium common to soils, grown at 15°C and 25°C with otherwise identical environmental conditions. The microbes were grown in a 1.9 L bioreactor, in 0.9 L of nutrient medium with C:N:P atomic ratios of 100:10:3, and with 10 mM cellobiose as the carbon source. A peristaltic pump continuously supplied the bioreactor with sterile medium, and removed medium from the bioreactor, at a rate of 63 mL h-1. Both vessels were contained within a temperature incubator, and stir bars provided continuously well mixed volumes. CO2-free air was continuously bubbled through the reactor medium so to provide the microbes with O2; a cavity ring down spectrometer withdrew reactor headspace air and measured concentration and δ13C of the CO2. Air supply was regulated with a pressure/mass flow controller to approx. 27 mL min-1. In both temperature regimes, the pH of the bioreactor as well as concentration and δ13C of the CO2 in the head space air were constant over the course of 1 d, such that any imbalances in the CO2-H2CO3 equilibrium were considered negligible in the assessment of microbial respiration rates and the δ13C of respired CO2. After this time period, reactor medium was passed through a 0.22 μm filter and the filtrate dried for 24 h to obtain

  15. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage <3.7 V. The porous structure, high electro-conductivity, and good wettability of electrolyte to cathode lead to reduced electrochemical polarization of the battery and further result in high performance. Our work provides an alternative approach towards clean recycling and utilization of CO2 . PMID:27089434

  16. Regionalized global budget of the CO2 exchange at the air-water interface in continental shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laruelle, Goulven G.; Lauerwald, Ronny; Pfeil, Benjamin; Regnier, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, estimates of the atmospheric CO2 uptake by continental shelf seas were constrained within the 0.18-0.45 Pg C yr-1 range. However, most of those estimates are based on extrapolations from limited data sets of local flux measurements (n < 100). Here we propose to derive the CO2 air-sea exchange of the shelf seas by extracting 3 · 106 direct surface ocean CO2 measurements from the global database SOCAT (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas), atmospheric CO2 values from GlobalVIEW and calculating gas transfer rates using readily available global temperature, salinity, and wind speed fields. We then aggregate our results using a global segmentation of the shelf in 45 units and 152 subunits to establish a consistent regionalized CO2 exchange budget at the global scale. Within each unit, the data density determines the spatial and temporal resolutions at which the air-sea CO2 fluxes are calculated and range from a 0.5° resolution in the best surveyed regions to a whole unit resolution in areas where data coverage is limited. Our approach also accounts, for the first time, for the partial sea ice cover of polar shelves. Our new regionalized global CO2 sink estimate of 0.19 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 falls in the low end of previous estimates. Reported to an ice-free surface area of 22 · 106 km2, this value yields a flux density of 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1, ~40% more intense than that of the open ocean. Our results also highlight the significant contribution of Arctic shelves to this global CO2 uptake (0.07 Pg C yr-1).

  17. Interactive effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on coral physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grottoli, A. G.; Cai, W.; Warner, M.; Melman, T.; Schoepf, V.; Baumann, J.; Matsui, Y.; Pettay, D. T.; Hoadley, K.; Xu, H.; Wang, Y.; Li, Q.; Hu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in ocean acidification and temperature threaten coral reefs globally. However, the interactive effect of both lower pH and higher temperature on coral physiology and growth are poorly understood. Here, we present preliminary findings from a replicated controlled experiment where four species of corals (Acorpora millepora, Pocillopora damicornis, Montipora monasteriata, Turbinaria reniformis) were reared under the following six treatments for three weeks: 1) 400ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 2) 400ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 3) 650ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 4) 650ppm CO2 and elevated temperature, 5) 800ppm CO2 and ambient temperature, 6) 800ppm CO2 and elevated temperature. Initial findings of photophysiological health (Fv/Fm), calcification rates (as measured by both buoyant weight and the total alkalinity methods), and energy reserves will be presented.

  18. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2]. PMID:24406632

  19. Soil and Water Warming Accelerates Phenology and Down-Regulation of Leaf Photosynthesis of Rice Plants Grown Under Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE)

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-01-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol−1) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]–ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])–NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]–NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]–ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2]. PMID:24406632

  20. Preliminary evaluation of a membrane-based system for removing CO2 from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, Scott B.; Wytcherley, Randi W.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Ray, Rod J.

    1990-01-01

    Processes to remove and/or recover CO2 from air are essential to the long-term success of the U.S. space program. The results of a preliminary investigation of the use of a novel membrane-based system for removal of CO2 from air are presented. Features of this technology that make it attractive include the following: (1) it is lightweight; (2) it requires no consumables or expendables; (3) it is relatively simple; and (4) it does not rely directly on other subsystems. Preliminary designs of systems for removing CO2 from spacecraft cabin atmospheres and from the extravehicular mobility unit are presented.

  1. Nitrogen assimilation and transpiration: key processes conditioning responsiveness of wheat to elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Iván; Aroca, Ricardo; Garnica, María; Zamarreño, Ángel M; García-Mina, José M; Serret, Maria D; Parry, Martin; Irigoyen, Juan J; Aranjuelo, Iker

    2015-11-01

    Although climate scenarios have predicted an increase in [CO(2)] and temperature conditions, to date few experiments have focused on the interaction of [CO(2)] and temperature effects in wheat development. Recent evidence suggests that photosynthetic acclimation is linked to the photorespiration and N assimilation inhibition of plants exposed to elevated CO(2). The main goal of this study was to analyze the effect of interacting [CO(2)] and temperature on leaf photorespiration, C/N metabolism and N transport in wheat plants exposed to elevated [CO(2)] and temperature conditions. For this purpose, wheat plants were exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (400 vs 700 µmol mol(-1)) and temperature (ambient vs ambient + 4°C) in CO(2) gradient greenhouses during the entire life cycle. Although at the agronomic level, elevated temperature had no effect on plant biomass, physiological analyses revealed that combined elevated [CO(2)] and temperature negatively affected photosynthetic performance. The limited energy levels resulting from the reduced respiratory and photorespiration rates of such plants were apparently inadequate to sustain nitrate reductase activity. Inhibited N assimilation was associated with a strong reduction in amino acid content, conditioned leaf soluble protein content and constrained leaf N status. Therefore, the plant response to elevated [CO(2)] and elevated temperature resulted in photosynthetic acclimation. The reduction in transpiration rates induced limitations in nutrient transport in leaves of plants exposed to elevated [CO(2)] and temperature, led to mineral depletion and therefore contributed to the inhibition of photosynthetic activity. PMID:25958969

  2. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on Leaf Optical Properties and Chlorophyll Content in Acer saccharum (Marsh.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Bahadur, Raj; Norby, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 pressure and numerous causes of plant stress often result in decreased leaf chlorophyll contents and thus would be expected to alter leaf optical properties. Hypotheses that elevated carbon dioxide pressure and air temperature would alter leaf optical properties were tested for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the middle of its fourth growing season under treatment. The saplings had been growing since 1994 in open-top chambers at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under the following treatments: 1) Ambient CO2 pressure and air temperature (control); 2) CO2 pressure approximately 30 Pa above ambient; 3) Air temperatures 3 C above ambient; 4) Elevated CO2 and air temperature. Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in the visible spectrum (400-720 nm) did not change significantly (rho = 0.05) in response to any treatment compared with control values. Although reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance at 700 nm correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll content was not altered significantly by the treatments. The lack of treatment effects on pigmentation explained the non-significant change in optical properties in the visible spectrum. Optical properties in the near-infrared (721-850 nm) were similarly unresponsive to treatment with the exception of an increased absorptance in leaves that developed under elevated air temperature alone. This response could not be explained by the data, but might have resulted from effects of air temperature on leaf internal structure. Results indicated no significant potential for detecting leaf optical responses to elevated CO2 or temperature by the remote sensing of reflected radiation in the 400-850 nm spectrum.

  3. Validation of AIRS Retrievals of CO2 via Comparison to In Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Edward T.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Chen, Luke L.; Jiang, Xun; Pagano, Thomas S.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2008-01-01

    Topics include AIRS on Aqua, 2002-present with discussion about continued operation to 2011 and beyond and background, including spectrum, weighting functions, and initialization; comparison with aircraft and FTIR measurements in Masueda (CONTRAIL) JAL flask measurements, Park Falls, WI FTIR, Bremen, GDF, and Spitsbergen, Norway; AIRS retrievals over addition FTIR sites in Darwin, AU and Lauder, NZ; and mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide weather and contribution from major surface sources. Slide titles include typical AIRS infrared spectrum, AIRS sensitivity for retrieving CO2 profiles, independence of CO2 solution with respect to the initial guess, available in situ measurements for validation and comparison, comparison of collocated V1.5x AIRS CO2 (N_coll greater than or equal to 9) with INTEX-NA and SPURT;

  4. Free-air CO2 enrichment (face): model analysis of gaseous dispersion arrays for studying rising atmospheric CO2 effects on vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has risen from about 280 to 380 micromol/mol since the beginning of the industrial revolution due mainly to burning of fossil fuels. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) arrays have been devised with large areas and undisturbed aerial conditions that allow secondary soil o...

  5. Direct measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange over a coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish A.; MacKellar, Mellissa C.; Gray, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere over coral reefs has relied on microscale measurements of pCO2 gradients across the air-sea interfacial boundary; shipboard measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange over adjacent ocean inferred to represent over reef processes or ecosystem productivity modeling. Here we present by way of case study the first direct measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange over a coral reef made using the eddy covariance method. Research was conducted during the summer monsoon over a lagoonal platform reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Results show the reef flat to be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of similar magnitude as coastal lakes, while adjacent shallow and deep lagoons were net sinks as was the surrounding ocean. This heterogeneity in CO2 exchange with the atmosphere confirms need for spatially representative direct measurements of CO2 over coral reefs to accurately quantify their role in atmospheric carbon budgets.

  6. Variability in AIRS CO2 during active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon.

    PubMed

    Revadekar, J V; Ravi Kumar, K; Tiwari, Yogesh K; Valsala, Vinu

    2016-01-15

    Due to human activities, the atmospheric concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has been rising extensively since the Industrial Revolution. Indian summer monsoon (ISM) has a dominant westerly component from ocean to land with a strong tendency to ascend and hence may have role in CO2 distribution in lower and middle troposphere over Indian sub-continent. A substantial component of ISM variability arises from the fluctuations on the intra-seasonal scale between active and break phases which correspond to strong and weak monsoon circulation. In view of the above, an attempt is made in this study to examine the AIRS/AQUA satellite retrieved CO2 distribution in response to atmospheric circulation with focus on active and break phase. Correlation analysis indicates the increase in AIRS CO2 linked with strong monsoon circulation. Study also reveals that anomalous circulation pattern during active and break phase show resemblance with high and low values of AIRS CO2. Homogeneous monsoon regions of India show substantial increase in CO2 levels during active phase. Hilly regions of India show strong contrast in CO2 and vertical velocity during active and break phases. PMID:26476061

  7. Responses of wheat and rice to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and temperature in FACE experiments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuang; Yin, Xinyou; He, Shuaiqi; Jiang, Wenyu; Si, Chuanfei; Struik, Paul C; Luo, Weihong; Li, Gang; Xie, Yingtian; Xiong, Yan; Pan, Genxing

    2016-02-01

    Elevated CO2 and temperature strongly affect crop production, but understanding of the crop response to combined CO2 and temperature increases under field conditions is still limited while data are scarce. We grew wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two levels of CO2 (ambient and enriched up to 500 μmol mol(-1) ) and two levels of canopy temperature (ambient and increased by 1.5-2.0 °C) in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems and carried out a detailed growth and yield component analysis during two growing seasons for both crops. An increase in CO2 resulted in higher grain yield, whereas an increase in temperature reduced grain yield, in both crops. An increase in CO2 was unable to compensate for the negative impact of an increase in temperature on biomass and yield of wheat and rice. Yields of wheat and rice were decreased by 10-12% and 17-35%, respectively, under the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature. The number of filled grains per unit area was the most important yield component accounting for the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature in wheat and rice. Our data showed complex treatment effects on the interplay between preheading duration, nitrogen uptake, tillering, leaf area index, and radiation-use efficiency, and thus on yield components and yield. Nitrogen uptake before heading was crucial in minimizing yield loss due to climate change in both crops. For rice, however, a breeding strategy to increase grain number per m(2) and % filled grains (or to reduce spikelet sterility) at high temperature is also required to prevent yield reduction under conditions of global change. PMID:26279285

  8. High Temperature CO2 Treatments for Inshell Walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental restrictions on those fumigants currently used to disinfest inshell walnuts of field pests require that non-chemical alternatives be considered. Earlier work found that 98% CO2 at 43C for 7.3 hours should be an effective phytosanitary treatment for these insects, as it is the estimated...

  9. 13CO2 recovery fraction in expired air of septic patients under mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Auxiliadora-Martins, M; Martins, M A; Coletto, F A; Martins-Filho, O A; Marchini, J S; Basile-Filho, A

    2008-07-01

    The continuous intravenous administration of isotopic bicarbonate (NaH13CO2) has been used for the determination of the retention of the 13CO2 fraction or the 13CO2 recovered in expired air. This determination is important for the calculation of substrate oxidation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in critically ill patients with sepsis under mechanical ventilation, the 13CO2 recovery fraction in expired air after continuous intravenous infusion of NaH13CO2 (3.8 micromol/kg diluted in 0.9% saline in ddH2O). A prospective study was conducted on 10 patients with septic shock between the second and fifth day of sepsis evolution (APACHE II, 25.9 +/- 7.4). Initially, baseline CO2 was collected and indirect calorimetry was also performed. A primer of 5 mL NaH13CO2 was administered followed by continuous infusion of 5 mL/h for 6 h. Six CO2 production (VCO2) measurements (30 min each) were made with a portable metabolic cart connected to a respirator and hourly samples of expired air were obtained using a 750-mL gas collecting bag attached to the outlet of the respirator. 13CO2 enrichment in expired air was determined with a mass spectrometer. The patients presented a mean value of VCO2 of 182 +/- 52 mL/min during the steady-state phase. The mean recovery fraction was 0.68 +/- 0.06%, which is less than that reported in the literature (0.82 +/- 0.03%). This suggests that the 13CO2 recovery fraction in septic patients following enteral feeding is incomplete, indicating retention of 13CO2 in the organism. The severity of septic shock in terms of the prognostic index APACHE II and the sepsis score was not associated with the 13CO2 recovery fraction in expired air. PMID:18719737

  10. The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Brennan, Sarah; Matter, Jürg M.; Park, A.-H. Alissa; Wright, Allen; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2012-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to develop into an important tool to address climate change. Given society’s present reliance on fossil fuels, widespread adoption of CCS appears indispensable for meeting stringent climate targets. We argue that for conventional CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology—which by necessity has to operate on a large scale—it may need to be complemented with air capture, removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere. Air capture of CO2 could act as insurance against CO2 leaking from storage and furthermore may provide an option for dealing with emissions from mobile dispersed sources such as automobiles and airplanes. PMID:22843674

  11. The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Klaus S; Brennan, Sarah; Matter, Jürg M; Park, A-H Alissa; Wright, Allen; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2012-08-14

    CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to develop into an important tool to address climate change. Given society's present reliance on fossil fuels, widespread adoption of CCS appears indispensable for meeting stringent climate targets. We argue that for conventional CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology--which by necessity has to operate on a large scale--it may need to be complemented with air capture, removing CO(2) directly from the atmosphere. Air capture of CO(2) could act as insurance against CO(2) leaking from storage and furthermore may provide an option for dealing with emissions from mobile dispersed sources such as automobiles and airplanes. PMID:22843674

  12. Conversion of CO2 from Air into Methanol Using a Polyamine and a Homogeneous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya

    2016-01-27

    A highly efficient homogeneous catalyst system for the production of CH3OH from CO2 using pentaethylenehexamine and Ru-Macho-BH (1) at 125-165 °C in an ethereal solvent has been developed (initial turnover frequency = 70 h(-1) at 145 °C). Ease of separation of CH3OH is demonstrated by simple distillation from the reaction mixture. The robustness of the catalytic system was shown by recycling the catalyst over five runs without significant loss of activity (turnover number > 2000). Various sources of CO2 can be used for this reaction including air, despite its low CO2 concentration (400 ppm). For the first time, we have demonstrated that CO2 captured from air can be directly converted to CH3OH in 79% yield using a homogeneous catalytic system. PMID:26713663

  13. Temperature and precipitation controls over leaf- and ecosystem-level CO2 flux along a woody plant encroachment gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of grasslands to woodlands may alter the sensitivity of CO2 exchange of both the dominant plants and the entire ecosystem to variation in air temperature and precipitation. We used a combination of leaf-level gas exchange experimentation and ecosystem-level eddy covariance monitoring tech...

  14. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL C AND N: RESULTS OF A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study on the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated air temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing under controlled exposure conditions in outdoor sun-lit mesocosms. 1+1 seedlings were planted in mesocosms in Corvallis, OR in the spring of 1993 in a reconstr...

  15. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL C AND N IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study on the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated air temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing under controlled climate and exposure conditions in outdoor sun-lit mesocosms. 1+1 seedlings were planted in mesocosms in Corvallis, OR in the spring of 1993 i...

  16. Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 seasonal variability in the coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, R.; Calil, P. H. R.; Bianchi, A. A.; Doney, S. C.; Gruber, N.; Lima, I.; Turi, G.

    2015-10-01

    We use an eddy-resolving, regional ocean biogeochemical model to investigate the main variables and processes responsible for the climatological spatio-temporal variability of pCO2 and the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Overall, the region acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 south of 30° S, and is close to equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 to the north. On the shelves, the ocean acts as a weak source of CO2, except for the mid/outer shelves of Patagonia, which act as sinks. In contrast, the inner shelves and the low latitude open ocean of the southwestern Atlantic represent source regions. Observed nearshore-to-offshore and meridional pCO2 gradients are well represented by our simulation. A sensitivity analysis shows the importance of the counteracting effects of temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in controlling the seasonal variability of pCO2. Biological production and solubility are the main processes regulating pCO2, with biological production being particularly important on the shelves. The role of mixing/stratification in modulating DIC, and therefore surface pCO2, is shown in a vertical profile at the location of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) site in the Argentine Basin (42° S, 42° W).

  17. Jena Reference Air Set (JRAS): a multi-point scale anchor for isotope measurements of CO2 in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendeberg, M.; Richter, J. M.; Rothe, M.; Brand, W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The need for a unifying scale anchor for isotopes of CO2 in air was brought to light at the 11th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide in Tokyo 2001. During discussions about persistent discrepancies in isotope measurements between the worlds leading laboratories, it was concluded that a unifying scale anchor for Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) of CO2 in air was desperately needed. Ten years later, at the 2011 Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide in Wellington, it was recommended that the Jena Reference Air Set (JRAS) become the official scale anchor for isotope measurements of CO2 in air (Brailsford, 2012). The source of CO2 used for JRAS is two calcites. After releasing CO2 by reaction with phosphoric acid, the gases are mixed into CO2-free air. This procedure ensures both isotopic stability and longevity of the CO2. That the reference CO2 is generated from calcites and supplied as an air mixture is unique to JRAS. This is made to ensure that any measurement bias arising from the extraction procedure is eliminated. As every laboratory has its own procedure for extracting the CO2, this is of paramount importance if the local scales are to be unified with a common anchor. For a period of four years, JRAS has been evaluated through the IMECC1 program, which made it possible to distribute sets of JRAS gases to 13 laboratories worldwide. A summary of data from the six laboratories that have reported the full set of results is given here along with a description of the production and maintenance of the JRAS scale anchors. 1 IMECC refers to the EU project "Infrastructure for Measurements of the European Carbon Cycle" (http://imecc.ipsl.jussieu.fr/).

  18. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol–1 or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol–1. The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  19. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  20. Photosynthesis, productivity, and yield of maize are not affected by open-air elevation of CO2 concentration in the absence of drought.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Naidu, Shawna L; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-02-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO2] (550 micromol mol(-1)) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (-34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  1. Development of a Prototype Algal Reactor for Removing CO2 from Cabin Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Vrajen; Monje, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide in spacecraft cabin air may be accomplished using algal photobioreactors (PBRs). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a commercial microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, for measuring key photioreactor variables: dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. The Arduino platform is an opensource physical computing platform composed of a compact microcontroller board and a C++/C computer language (Arduino 1.0.5). The functionality of the Arduino platform can be expanded by the use of numerous add-ons or 'shields'. The Arduino Mega 2560 was equipped with the following shields: datalogger, BNC shield for reading pH sensor, a Mega Moto shield for controlling CO2 addition, as well as multiple sensors. The dissolved oxygen (DO) probe was calibrated using a nitrogen bubbling technique and the pH probe was calibrated via an Omega pH simulator. The PBR was constructed using a 2 L beaker, a 66 L box for addition of CO2, a micro porous membrane, a diaphragm pump, four 25 watt light bulbs, a MasterFiex speed controller, and a fan. The algae (wild type Synechocystis PCC6803) was grown in an aerated flask until the algae was dense enough to used in the main reactor. After the algae was grown, it was transferred to the 2 L beaker where CO2 consumption and O2 production was measured using the microcontroller sensor suite. The data was recorded via the datalogger and transferred to a computer for analysis.

  2. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, retrieved from AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In this decade, understanding the impact of human activities on climate is one of the key issues of discussion globally. The continuous rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere, predominantly due to human activities, is alarming and requires continuous monitoring to understand the dynamics. Radiocarbon is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. Measurement of 14C (or radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 generally requires collection of large air samples (few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined. Currently, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most precise, reliable and widely used technique for atmospheric radiocarbon detection. However, the regular collection of air samples from troposphere and stratosphere, for example using aircraft, is prohibitively expensive. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, developed by NOAA. It comprises of a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ~ 30 km) measurements of CH4and CO2(Karion et al. 2010). In Europe, AirCore measurements are being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of two such AirCore samples collected in July 2014, Finland, for determining the 14C concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore samples were collected on consecutive days. Each stratospheric AirCore sample was divided into six fractions, each containing ~ 35 μg CO2 (~9.5 μg C). Each fraction was separately trapped in 1 /4 inch coiled stainless steel tubing for radiocarbon measurements. The procedure for CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples; the sample preparation, with samples containing < 10

  3. Effects of elevated CO 2 and temperature on monoterpene emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Tommi; Ryyppö, Aija; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term (5 years) effects of elevated CO2 concentration (doubling of ambient CO2 concentration) and temperature (2-6 °C elevation) on the monoterpene emission of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings (ca. 20 years old) grown in closed-top environmental chambers. The chamber treatments included: (1) ambient temperature and CO2, (2) ambient temperature and elevated CO2, (3) elevated temperature and ambient CO2, and (4) elevated temperature and elevated CO2. The variability of emissions during and after tree shoot growth was studied, and additionally the total cumulative emission of monoterpenes through a growing period (May-September) was estimated. When compared to the controls, the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increased normalized monoterpene emission rate for the whole growing period (+23%), whereas elevated CO2 had no significant effect (-4%), and elevated temperature even decreased (-41%) the emission rate. The increasing effect of the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature was strongest during shoot growth (+54%). After shoot growth, no significant differences in emission rate were found among the treatments. Emission modeling showed that the total amount of monoterpenes emitted from May to September was 2.38 mg gdw-1 in ambient conditions. The total emission in elevated CO2 was 5% greater and in elevated temperature 9% lesser than in ambient conditions. The combination of elevated CO2 and temperature increased the amount of emitted monoterpenes over the growing period by 126% compared to the total emission in ambient conditions.

  4. Kinetics of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from champagne glasses in tasting conditions: the role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Cilindre, Clara; Jeandet, Philippe

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of CO(2) fluxes outgassing from a flute poured with a standard Champagne wine initially holding about 11 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2) were presented, in tasting conditions, all along the first 10 min following the pouring process. Experiments were performed at three sets of temperature, namely, 4 degrees C, 12 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively. It was demonstrated that the lower the champagne temperature, the lower CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute. Therefore, the lower the champagne temperature, the lower its progressive loss of dissolved CO(2) concentration with time, which constitutes the first analytical proof that low champagne temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps retains its effervescence. A correlation was also proposed between CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from the flute poured with champagne and its continuously decreasing dissolved CO(2) concentration. Finally, the contribution of effervescence to the global kinetics of CO(2) release was discussed and modeled by the use of results developed over recent years. The temperature dependence of the champagne viscosity was found to play a major role in the kinetics of CO(2) outgassing from a flute. On the basis of this bubbling model, the theoretical influence of champagne temperature on CO(2) volume fluxes outgassing from a flute was discussed and found to be in quite good accordance with our experimental results. PMID:19215133

  5. Effects of temperature and moisture variability on soil CO2 emissions in European land ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsch, Christine; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Hence, small changes in soil respiration rates could have large effects on atmospheric CO2. In order to assess CO2 emissions from diverse European soils under different land use and climate (soil moisture and temperature) we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment. Therefore, we incubated soil cores (Ø 7 cm; height 7 cm) from nine European sites which are spread all over Europe; from the United Kingdom (west) to the Ukraine (east) and Italy (south) to Finland (north). In addition these sites can be clearly distinguished between their land use into forests, arable lands, grasslands and one peat land. Soil cores were incubated in a two-factorial experimental design at 5 different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25° C) and 6 different moisture contents (5, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 % water filled pore space (WFPS)). An automated laboratory incubation measurement system was used to measure CO2 emissions. Results show that highest CO2 emissions occurred with intermediate moisture content (40% to 60%) over all sites. We found that the relationship between CO2 emissions and temperature could be well described by the equation PIC (R2 ranges from 0.98 to 1) over all sites. In general CO2 emissions were strongly related with both variables temperature and moisture. However, temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was strongly declined under very dry and very wet conditions (5 and >80 % WFPS moisture content). Moisture sensitivity of CO2 emissions was positive related to temperature, although at low temperatures (5-10° C) moisture content had almost no effect on CO2 emissions. In summary our results indicate that the variability in soil temperature and moisture decisively controls soil CO2 emissions, while land use had only a minor impact and describe the effect and dependencies of temperature and moisture on the development of CO2 emissions.

  6. Interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature on the growth of dioecious Hydrilla verticillata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, De-Xing; Coughenour, M. B.; Eberts, Debra; Thullen, Joan S.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments of plant growth responses to different CO2 concentrations and temperatures were conducted in growth chambers to explore the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and temperature on the growth and dry matter allocation of dioecious Hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle]. Hydrilla plants were exposed to two atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 ppm) and three temperatures (15, 25 and 32°C) under a 12-hr photoperiod for about 2 months. The plant growth analysis showed that elevated CO2 appeared to enhance the growth of Hydrilla, and that the percentage of the enhancement is strongly temperature-dependent. Maximum biomass production was achieved at 700 ppm CO2 and 32°C. At 15°C, the total dry matter production was increased about 27% by doubling CO2, due to a 26% enhancement of leaf biomass, a 34% enhancement of stem biomass and 16% enhancement of root biomass. At 25°C, the dry matter production was increased about 46% by doubling CO2, due to a 29% enhancement of leaf biomass, a 27% enhancement of stem biomass and 40% enhancement of root biomass. At 32°C, however, the percentage of the enhancement of total dry matter production by doubling CO2 was only about 7%. The dry matter allocation among different plant parts was influenced by temperature but not by elevated CO2 concentration.

  7. Flow properties in expansion tube with helium, argon, air, and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    Test flow velocities from 5 to 7 km/sec were generated in a 6-in. expansion tube using helium, argon, air, and CO2 test gases. Pitot pressure profiles across the flow at the test section are presented for the four test gases, and measured flow quantities are compared to computer predicted values. Comparison of predicted and measured flow quantities suggests the expansion to be near thermochemical equilibrium for all test gases and implies the existence of a totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm. Argon, air, and CO2 flows were observed to attenuate while traversing the acceleration section, whereas no attenuation was observed for helium.

  8. Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming.

    PubMed

    Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies. PMID:23449589

  9. Soil air CO2 concentration as an integrative parameter of soil structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Corinna; Gaertig, Thorsten; Fründ, Heinz-Christian

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of soil structure is an important but difficult issue and normally takes place in the laboratory. Typical parameters are soil bulk density, porosity, water or air conductivity or gas diffusivity. All methods are time-consuming. The integrative parameter soil air CO2 concentration ([CO2]) can be used to assess soil structure in situ and in a short time. Several studies highlighted that independent of soil respiration, [CO2] in the soil air increases with decreasing soil aeration. Therefore, [CO2] is a useful indicator of soil aeration. Embedded in the German research project RÜWOLA, which focus on soil protection at forest sites, we investigated soil compaction and recovery of soil structure after harvesting. Therefore, we measured soil air CO2 concentrations continuously and in single measurements and compared the results with the measurements of bulk density, porosity and gas diffusivity. Two test areas were investigated: At test area 1 with high natural regeneration potential (clay content approx. 25 % and soil-pH between 5 and 7), solid-state CO2-sensors using NDIR technology were installed in the wheel track of different aged skidding tracks in 5 and 10 cm soil depths. At area 2 (acidic silty loam, soil-pH between 3.5 and 4), CO2-sensors and water-tension sensors (WatermarkR) were installed in 6 cm soil depth. The results show a low variance of [CO2] in the undisturbed soil with a long term mean from May to June 2014 between 0.2 and 0.5 % [CO2] in both areas. In the wheel tracks [CO2] was consistently higher. The long term mean [CO2] in the 8-year-old-wheel track in test area 1 is 5 times higher than in the reference soil and shows a high variation (mean=2.0 %). The 18-year-old wheel track shows a long-term mean of 1.2 % [CO2]. Furthermore, there were strong fluctuations of [CO2] in the wheel tracks corresponding to precipitation and humidity. Similar results were yielded with single measurements during the vegetation period using a portable

  10. Air-water CO2 exchange in five hypereutrophic lakes in Bangalore, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Ghosh, P.; Bala, G.; Bastviken, D.

    2014-12-01

    Inland water bodies play a significant role in terrestrial carbon cycling, rather than being just conduits for the transport of terrestrial carbon to the oceans. Recent syntheses estimate that freshwaters emit substantial amounts of CO2 (1.4 Pg C yr-1) (Tranvik et al. 2009) and CH4 (0.65 Pg C yr-1) (Bastviken et al. 2011), which are similar in magnitude to the global terrestrial carbon sink (2.5 ± 1.7 Pg C yr-1) (IPCC 2013). However, eutrophic waters, which constitute the majority of the global freshwater supply (ILEC/UNEP 1994, Liu et al. 2012, Carpenter et al. 1998), are vastly underrepresented in these estimates. These waters, due to high primary productivity leading to CO2 undersaturation, can act as sinks rather than sources of CO2, thus reversing the role of lakes in the carbon cycle (Balmer and Downing 2011, Pacheco et al. 2013). We are investigating the air-water CO2 exchange of five hypereutrophic lakes in urban Bangalore using a novel Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR)-based CO2 sensor installed in flux chambers that can be used to measure CO2 exchange in lakes in situ. This work is a part of a larger study called Bangalore Carbon Mapping Study that aims to track the spatial flows of carbon in an urban area of a developing country. Preliminary observations reveal that these lakes absorb CO2 during the photosynthetic hours, at an average rate of 3.4 mg C m-2 h-1. The ongoing study will characterize the complete diurnal cycle of CO2 exchange, its variation over different seasons, and its relationships with various limnological and catchment characteristics. The flux estimates thus produced will also be compared with those predicted by the current models for air-water gas exchange based on wind speed.

  11. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  12. High-Temperature CO2 Sorption on Hydrotalcite Having a High Mg/Al Molar Ratio.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suji; Jeon, Sang Goo; Lee, Ki Bong

    2016-03-01

    Hydrotalcites having a Mg/Al molar ratio between 3 and 30 have been synthesized as promising high-temperature CO2 sorbents. The existence of NaNO3 in the hydrotalcite structure, which originates from excess magnesium nitrate in the precursor, markedly increases CO2 sorption uptake by hydrotalcite up to the record high value of 9.27 mol kg(-1) at 240 °C and 1 atm CO2. PMID:26927529

  13. Midtropospheric CO2 concentration retrieval from AIRS observations in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevoisier, C.; Heilliette, S.; Chédin, A.; Serrar, S.; Armante, R.; Scott, N. A.

    2004-09-01

    Midtropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is retrieved in the tropics [20S:20N], over sea, at night, for the period April to October 2003 from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The method relies on a non-linear regression inference scheme using neural networks. A rough estimate of the mean precision of the method is about 2.5 ppmv (0.7%). The retrieved seasonal cycle and its latitudinal dependence agree well with aircraft CO2 in situ measurements made at the same altitude range. Maps produced on a monthly basis at a resolution of 15° × 15°, although not yet fully understood, show good agreement with known characteristics of CO2 distribution reflecting both atmospheric transport and surface fluxes (fossil fuel emissions, biomass burning, air-surface gas exchanges).

  14. DOES SOIL CO2 EFFLUX ACCLIMATIZETO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND CO2 DURING LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 efflux (SCE) during the third an fourth years of study. We hypothesized that elevated temperature would stimulate SCE, and elevated CO2 would also stimulate SCE with the stimulation being greater at hig...

  15. Poly(ethylenimine)-Functionalized Monolithic Alumina Honeycomb Adsorbents for CO2 Capture from Air.

    PubMed

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Yoo, Chun-Jae; Tan, Shuai; Rashidi, Fereshteh; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-07-21

    The development of practical and effective gas-solid contactors is an important area in the development of CO2 capture technologies. Target CO2 capture applications, such as postcombustion carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from power plant flue gases or CO2 extraction directly from ambient air (DAC), require high flow rates of gas to be processed at low cost. Extruded monolithic honeycomb structures, such as those employed in the catalytic converters of automobiles, have excellent potential as structured contactors for CO2 adsorption applications because of the low pressure drop imposed on fluid moving through the straight channels of such structures. Here, we report the impregnation of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), an effective aminopolymer reported commonly for CO2 separation, into extruded monolithic alumina to form structured CO2 sorbents. These structured sorbents are first prepared on a small scale, characterized thoroughly, and compared with powder sorbents with a similar composition. Despite consistent differences observed in the filling of mesopores with PEI between the monolithic and powder sorbents, their performance in CO2 adsorption is similar across a range of PEI contents. A larger monolithic cylinder (1 inch diameter, 4 inch length) is evaluated under conditions closer to those that might be used in large-scale applications and shows a similar performance to the smaller monoliths and powders tested initially. This larger structure is evaluated over five cycles of CO2 adsorption and steam desorption and demonstrates a volumetric capacity of 350 molCO2  m-3monolith and an equilibration time of 350 min under a 0.4 m s(-1) linear flow velocity through the monolith channels using 400 ppm CO2 in N2 as the adsorption gas at 30 °C. This volumetric capacity surpasses that of a similar technology considered previously, which suggested that CO2 could be removed from air at an operating cost as low as $100 per ton. PMID:27304708

  16. A new equation to estimate temperature-corrected PaCO2 from PET CO2 during exercise in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    González Henríquez, J J; Losa-Reyna, J; Torres-Peralta, R; Rådegran, G; Koskolou, M; Calbet, J A L

    2016-09-01

    End-tidal PCO2 (PET CO2 ) has been used to estimate arterial pressure CO2 (Pa CO2 ). However, the influence of blood temperature on the Pa CO2 has not been taken into account. Moreover, there is no equation validated to predict Pa CO2 during exercise in severe acute hypoxia. To develop a new equation to predict temperature-corrected Pa CO2 values during exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia, 11 volunteers (21.2 ± 2.1 years) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia (Nox, PI O2 : 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PI O2 : 73 mmHg), while arterial blood gases and temperature (ABT) were simultaneously measured together with end-tidal PCO2 (PET CO2 ). The Jones et al. equation tended to underestimate the temperature corrected (tc) Pa CO2 during exercise in hypoxia, with greater deviation the lower the Pa CO2 tc (r = 0.39, P < 0.05). The new equation has been developed using a random-effects regression analysis model, which allows predicting Pa CO2 tc both in normoxia and hypoxia: Pa CO2 tc = 8.607 + 0.716 × PET CO2 [R(2)  = 0.91; intercept SE = 1.022 (P < 0.001) and slope SE = 0.027 (P < 0.001)]. This equation may prove useful in noninvasive studies of brain hemodynamics, where an accurate estimation of Pa CO2 is needed to calculate the end-tidal-to-arterial PCO2 difference, which can be used as an index of pulmonary gas exchange efficiency. PMID:26314285

  17. An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO2 fluxes, 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; Landschützer, P.; Lefèvre, N.; Manizza, M.; Mathis, J.; Metzl, N.; Olsen, A.; Rios, A. F.; Rödenbeck, C.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Takahashi, T.; Wanninkhof, R.; Watson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea-air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea-air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea-air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is -0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1, and by the Arctic it is -0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr-1, leading to a combined sea-air flux of -0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr-1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  18. Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO2 fluxes, 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; Landschützer, P.; Lefèvre, N.; Manizza, M.; Mathis, J.; Metzl, N.; Olsen, A.; Rios, A. F.; Rödenbeck, C.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Takahashi, T.; Wanninkhof, R.; Watson, A. J.

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic and Arctic oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea-air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales, for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea-air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modelling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our best estimate of the contemporary sea-to-air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is -0.49 ± 0.11 Pg C yr-1 and by the Arctic is -0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr-1, leading to a combined sea-to-air flux of -0.61 ± 0.12 Pg C yr-1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor; and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and South Subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and South Subtropics.

  19. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  20. The doubled CO2 climate - Impact of the sea surface temperature gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1987-01-01

    The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM of Hansen et al. (1983) was run, with 4 deg x 5 deg resolution, with doubled CO2 and two sets of sea surface temperature gradient distributions. One set was derived from the equilibrium doubled CO2 run of the 8 deg x 10 deg GISS GCM, with minimal high latitude amplification. The other set resembled closely the GFDL model results, with greater amplification. Both experiments had the same global mean surface air temperature change. The two experiments were often found to produce substantially different climate characteristics. With reduced high latitude amplification (set one), and thus, more equatorial warming, there was a greater increase in specific humidity and the greenhouse capacity of the atmosphere, resulting in a warmer atmosphere in general. Features such as the low-latitude precipitation, Hadley cell intensity, jet stream magnitude, and atmospheric energy transports all increased in comparison with the control run. In contrast, these features all decreased in the experiment with greater high latitude amplification (set two).

  1. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1867-12 CO2 credits... passenger automobiles and/or light trucks. Credits shall be calculated according to this section for...

  2. AIRS CO2 Retrievals Using the Method of Vanishing Partial Derivatives (VPD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Yung, Yuk; Li, Qinbin; Olsen, Ed; Chen, Luke; Krakauer, Nir

    2006-01-01

    This document consists of presentation slides that review the work being done with observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) using the concept of Vanishing Partial Derivatives. The infrared region is where several minor gases such as CO2, O3, CO, CH4 and SO2 are radiatively active.

  3. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  4. [Effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on desert algal crust photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Su, Yan-gui; Li, Xin-rong; Chen, Ying-wu; Cui, Yan; Lu, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Taking the 26- and 51-year-old artificial vegetation areas and the natural vegetation area in Shapotou region of southeast Tengger Desert as study sites, this paper measured the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of algal crusts, and analyzed its relationships with crust water content (> 100%, 40%-60%, and <20%), atmospheric CO2 concentration (360 and 700 mg x L(-1)), and air temperature (13 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 28 degrees C). The Pn of the crusts in the 26- and 51-year-old artificial vegetation areas and natural vegetation area was 3.4, 4.4, and 3.2 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and the Pn in 51-year-old artificial vegetation area was significantly higher than that in the other two areas. Crust water content had significant effects on the Pn, which was significantly higher at medium water content (40%-60%) than at low (<20%) and high (>100%) water content. When the CO2 concentration doubled (700 mg x L(-1)), the Pn increased by 1.8-3.3 times at medium and high crust water content but had less change at low crust water content, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration (360 mg x L(-1)). At medium and high crust water content, the Pn at 24 degrees C and 28 degrees C was 27%-66% higher than that at 13 degrees C (P < 0.05), but at low crust water content, no significant difference was observed at the three temperatures. PMID:21265140

  5. Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean for the period 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, A.; Tilbrook, B.; Law, R.; Bakker, D.; Doney, S. C.; Gruber, N.; Hoppema, M.; Ishii, M.; Lovenduski, N. S.; Matear, R. J.; McNeil, B. I.; Metzl, N.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Monteiro, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Sweeney, C.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Ocean (44° S-75° S) plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle, yet remains one of the most poorly sampled ocean regions. Different approaches have been used to estimate sea-air CO2 fluxes in this region: synthesis of surface ocean observations, ocean biogeochemical models, and atmospheric and ocean inversions. As part of the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, we combine these different approaches to quantify and assess the magnitude and variability in Southern Ocean sea-air CO2 fluxes between 1990-2009. Using all models and inversions (26), the integrated median annual sea-air CO2 flux of -0.42 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1 for the 44° S-75° S region is consistent with the -0.27 ± 0.13 Pg C yr-1 calculated using surface observations. The circumpolar region south of 58° S has a small net annual flux (model and inversion median: -0.04 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1 and observations: +0.04 ± 0.02 Pg C yr-1), with most of the net annual flux located in the 44° S to 58° S circumpolar band (model and inversion median: -0.36 ± 0.09 Pg C yr-1 and observations: -0.35 ± 0.09 Pg C yr-1). Seasonally, in the 44° S-58° S region, the median of 5 ocean biogeochemical models captures the observed sea-air CO2 flux seasonal cycle, while the median of 11 atmospheric inversions shows little seasonal change in the net flux. South of 58° S, neither atmospheric inversions nor ocean biogeochemical models reproduce the phase and amplitude of the observed seasonal sea-air CO2 flux, particularly in the Austral Winter. Importantly, no individual atmospheric inversion or ocean biogeochemical model is capable of reproducing both the observed annual mean uptake and the observed seasonal cycle. This raises concerns about projecting future changes in Southern Ocean CO2 fluxes. The median interannual variability from atmospheric inversions and ocean biogeochemical models is substantial in the Southern Ocean; up to 25% of the annual mean flux with 25% of this

  6. Seasonal variations of stable, including clumped, isotopologues of CO2 in air: Initial observations from La Jolla, Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, N.; Passey, B. H.; Keeling, R. F.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The budget of atmospheric CO2 is commonly studied using records of CO2 concentrations and isotopic abundances. δ13C and δ18O are the most frequently used isotopic tracers and can be used to constrain marine and terrestrial fluxes. However, the large number of sources and sinks prevents concentrations, d13C and d18O alone from uniquely constraining the budget. Δ17O as well as clumped isotopologues of CO2 can provide independent constraints on CO2 fluxes. Here we present a record covering multiple 1+ year periods between 2003 and 2012 documenting seasonal variations at La Jolla, CA, of δ13C, δ18O and clumped isotopologues of CO2 as well as preliminary results for Δ17O. Samples were collected from the La Jolla pier only on days a seaward breeze was present, therefore local anthropogenic effects should be minimal. We report the clumped isotopologues of CO2 using Δ47 notation in the absolute reference frame. In the years studied, δ13C showed a seasonal cycle that is consistent with previous measurements and can be explained by the seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity of plants as well as a longer term trend of fossil fuel injection into the atmosphere. Similarly δ18O showed a seasonal and interannual cycle that is consistent with previous measurements and can be explained by the interaction of the terrestrial biosphere with the hydrologic cycle. The La Jolla ∆47 record shows a strong seasonal pattern for all years studied, and initial results suggest seasonality is also present in ∆17O. The La Jolla ∆47 pattern is similar to the Pasadena ∆47 record collected for 2003-2004. Both records exhibit amplitudes and phasing of ∆47 variations that are not consistent with the equilibration of CO2 with the local air or sea surface temperatures, nor can they be explained by fossil fuel burning, which can only weakly influence the seasonal cycles. The seasonal cycle may be explained in part by a competition between low ∆47 from respiration sources and

  7. Resistivity Variation due to CO2 Migration in Different Temperature and Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Y.; Onishi, K.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Xue, Z.

    2007-12-01

    CO2 geological sequestration is one of the effective approaches solving the global warming problem. Captured CO2 is injected to the deep aquifers or depleted oil and gas fields. Injected CO2 migrates thorough the reservoir rock, however, the details behavior of injected CO2 under the ground at super critical phase is not yet fully understood. Migration of injected CO2 will change by the condition of the injected reservoir such as the temperature and pressure. Also density and permeability of the rock may be changed due to temperature or pressure variations. These changes control the migration behavior of injected CO2. In this study, experiments of resistivity measurements were conducted to detect the migration difference of CO2 in different temperature and pressure conditions by using sandstone core samples. Core sample was taken from Berea sandstone and processed to 5cm diameter and 12cm length. For the resistivity measurement, impression electrode was set on the both end and the measurement electrode of ring condition was set on the side of the rock sample. We stetted the core sample in the pressure vessel and recreated the condition of underground reservoir which is high pressure and high temperature. We injected supercritical CO2 in different pressure and temperature for each experiment. Pressure was changed in range of 8 to 11MPa and temperature was changed in range of 35° to 45°. This means that all the experiments were conducted in supercritical phase. From the measured resistivity variation, we verified the migration of CO2 and compared the migration behavior of CO2 in different conditions.

  8. Coral Energy Reserves and Calcification in a High-CO2 World at Two Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Warner, Mark E.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, D. Tye; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H.

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0°C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (−53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected. PMID:24146747

  9. Coral energy reserves and calcification in a high-CO2 world at two temperatures.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Melman, Todd F; Hoadley, Kenneth D; Pettay, D Tye; Hu, Xinping; Li, Qian; Xu, Hui; Wang, Yongchen; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations threaten coral reefs globally by causing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. Yet, the combined effects of elevated pCO2 and temperature on coral physiology and resilience remain poorly understood. While coral calcification and energy reserves are important health indicators, no studies to date have measured energy reserve pools (i.e., lipid, protein, and carbohydrate) together with calcification under OA conditions under different temperature scenarios. Four coral species, Acropora millepora, Montipora monasteriata, Pocillopora damicornis, Turbinaria reniformis, were reared under a total of six conditions for 3.5 weeks, representing three pCO2 levels (382, 607, 741 µatm), and two temperature regimes (26.5, 29.0 °C) within each pCO2 level. After one month under experimental conditions, only A. millepora decreased calcification (-53%) in response to seawater pCO2 expected by the end of this century, whereas the other three species maintained calcification rates even when both pCO2 and temperature were elevated. Coral energy reserves showed mixed responses to elevated pCO2 and temperature, and were either unaffected or displayed nonlinear responses with both the lowest and highest concentrations often observed at the mid-pCO2 level of 607 µatm. Biweekly feeding may have helped corals maintain calcification rates and energy reserves under these conditions. Temperature often modulated the response of many aspects of coral physiology to OA, and both mitigated and worsened pCO2 effects. This demonstrates for the first time that coral energy reserves are generally not metabolized to sustain calcification under OA, which has important implications for coral health and bleaching resilience in a high-CO2 world. Overall, these findings suggest that some corals could be more resistant to simultaneously warming and acidifying oceans than previously expected. PMID:24146747

  10. Interdependencies between temperature and moisture sensitivities of CO2 emissions in European land ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsch, C.; Zimmermann, M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2015-10-01

    Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Hence, small changes in soil respiration rates could have large effects on atmospheric CO2. In order to assess CO2 emissions from diverse European soils with different land-use types and climate (soil moisture and temperature), we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment. Emission measurements of CO2 under controlled conditions were conducted using soil monoliths of nine sites from a European flux network (ÉCLAIRE). The sites are located all over Europe - from the United Kingdom in the west to Ukraine in the east, and from Italy in the south to Finland in the north - and can be separated according to four land-use types (forests, grasslands, arable lands and one peatland). Intact soil cores were incubated in the laboratory in a two-way factorial design, with temperature (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) and water-filled pore space (WFPS; 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 %) as the independent variables, while CO2 flux was the response variable. The latter was measured with an automated laboratory incubation measurement system. Land use generally had a substantial influence on carbon dioxide fluxes, with the order of CO2 emission rates of the different land-use types being grassland > peatland > forest/arable land (P < 0.001). CO2 efflux responded strongly to varying temperature and moisture content with optimum moisture contents for CO2 emissions between 40 and 70 % WFPS and a positive relationship between CO2 emissions and temperature. The relationship between temperature and CO2 emissions could be well described by a Gaussian model. Q10 values ranged between 0.86 and 10.85 and were negatively related to temperature for most of the moisture contents and sites investigated. At higher temperatures the effect of water and temperature on Q10 was very low. In addition, under cold temperatures Q10 varied with moisture contents, indicating a stronger prospective effect of rain events in

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Gynostemma pentaphyllum physiology and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Dong; Mantri, Nitin; Sun, Bin; Jiang, Li; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Jialei; Shen, Jiahao; Lu, Hongfei; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an important topic of research has been how climate change is seriously threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. However, there is surprisingly little experimental data regarding how elevated temperature and CO2 will affect the growth of medicinal plants and production of bioactive compounds. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the photosynthetic process, biomass, total sugars, antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and bioactive compounds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two different CO2 concentrations [360 and 720μmolmol(-1)] were imposed on plants grown at two different temperature regimes of 23/18 and 28/23°C (day/night) for 60days. Results show that elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increase the biomass, particularly in proportion to inflorescence total dry weight. The chlorophyll content in leaves increased under the elevated temperature and CO2. Further, electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), instantaneous photosynthetic rate (Photo), transpiration rate (Trmmol) and stomatal conductance (Cond) also increased to different degrees under elevated CO2 and temperature. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the level of total sugars and gypenoside A, but decreased the total antioxidant capacity and main antioxidant compounds in different organs of G. pentaphyllum. Accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids also decreased in leaves, stems, and inflorescences under elevated CO2 and temperature. Overall, our data indicate that the predicted increase in atmospheric temperature and CO2 could improve the biomass of G. pentaphyllum, but they would reduce its health-promoting properties. PMID:27054772

  12. Temperature changes across porcelain during multiple exposure CO2 lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Peacocke, Larry

    1990-06-01

    Research indicates that laser energy may provide a useful method for glazing and fusing porcelain for intraoral prosthetic purposes. However, it is not known whether such lasing will result in the production of heat levels that may be damaging to adjacent vital tissues such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. This research is designed to measure the magnitude of temperature rise across porcelain observed during multiple exposure C02 lasing. Fifteen porcelain examples of 1000 jim (5), 1500 pm (5) and 2000 tm (5) x each received five C02 laser exposures on the same exposure site at 1.0 sec. intervals at 8.0 watts (0.2 sec. per exposure with a 1 mm focal spot). A YSI 144201 thermilinear precision thermistor was placed on the porcelain surface opposite each laser exposure site. Temperature rise above ambient was recorded by an HP3421A data acquisition unit and HP9816 technical microcomputer. Recording continued for sufficient time to allow temperatures to return to ambient. The mean temperature elevations ranged from a low of 2.97 0C (2000 pm) to a high of 7.77 °C (1000 μm). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences in temperature rise by porcelain thickness. It would appear from the results of this research that temperature elevations adjacent to lased porcelain may be sufficiently controllable that safe intraoral porcelain lasing will be possible.

  13. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL CARBON DENSITY FRACTIONS IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year full-factorial study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing in reconstructed native forest soils in mesocosms. The elevated CO2 treatment was ambient CO2 plus 200 ppm CO2. The elevated temperature treatm...

  14. Modeling forest C and N allocation responses to free-air CO2 enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; De Kauwe, Martin; Walker, Anthony; Werner, Christian; Iversen, Colleen; McCarthy, Heather; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard; Oren, Ram; Zak, Donald; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation allocation patterns and soil-vegetation partitioning of C and N are predicted to change in response to rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2. These allocation responses to rising CO2 have been examined at the ecosystem level through through free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, and their global implications for the timing of progressive N limitation (PNL) and C sequestration have been predicted for ~100 years using a variety of ecosystem models. However, recent FACE model-data syntheses studies [1,2,3] have indicated that ecosystem models do not capture the 5-10 year site-level ecosystem allocation responses to elevated CO2. This may be due in part to the missing representation of the rhizosphere interactions between plants and soil biota in models. Ecosystem allocation of C and N is altered by interactions between soil and vegetation through the priming effect: as plant N availability diminishes, plants respond physiologically by altering their tissue allocation strategies so as to increase rates of root growth and rhizodeposition. In response, either soil organic material begins to accumulate, which hastens the onset of PNL, or soil microbes start to decompose C more rapidly, resulting in increased N availability for plant uptake, which delays PNL. In this study, a straightforward approach for representing rhizosphere interactions in ecosystem models was developed through which C and N allocation to roots and rhizodeposition responds dynamically to elevated CO2 conditions, modifying soil decomposition rates without pre-specification of the direction in which soil C and N accumulation should shift in response to elevated CO2. This approach was implemented in a variety of ecosystem models ranging from stand (G'DAY), to land surface (CLM 4.5, O-CN), to dynamic global vegetation (LPJ-GUESS) models. Comparisons against data from three forest FACE sites (Duke, Oak Ridge & Rhinelander) indicated that representing rhizosphere interactions allowed

  15. Factors regulating soil surface CO2 and NOx flux in response to high temperature, pulse water events, and nutrient fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Grantz, D. A.; Chatterjee, A.; Eberwein, J. R.; Allsman, L. A.; Jenerette, D.

    2012-12-01

    Trace gas emissions from the soil surface are often underestimated due to poor understanding of the factors regulating fluxes under extreme conditions when moisture can be highly variable. In particular, dynamics of soil surface trace gas emissions from hot agricultural regions can be difficult to predict due to the sporadic use of flood irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. Soil surface CO2 and NOx fluxes are especially difficult to predict due to nonlinear responses to pulse water and fertilization events. Additionally, models such as Lloyd and Taylor (1994) and Yienger and Levy II (1995) are not well parameterized for soil surface CO2 and NOx flux, respectively, under excessively high temperatures. We measured soil surface CO2 and NOx flux in an agricultural field transitioning from fallow to biofuel crop production (Sorghum bicolor). Soil surface CO2 flux was measured using CO2 probes coupled with the flux-gradient method. NOx measurements were made using chambers coupled with a NOx monitor. Our field site is located at the University of California Desert Research and Extension Center in the Imperial Valley of CA. Air temperatures regularly exceed 42°C in the summer. Flood irrigation is used at the site as well as nitrogen fertilizers. Soil respiration ranged from 0-15 μmoles CO2 m-2 s-1, with strong hysteresis observed both with and without plants. Soil CO2 fluxes measured in the fallow field before the biofuel crop was planted were temperature independent and mainly regulated by soil moisture. When plants were introduced, temperature became an important predictor for soil respiration as well as canopy height. NOx fluxes were highest at intermediate soil moisture and varied significantly across an irrigation cycle. NOx emissions were temperature dependent, ranging from 3-113 ng N cm-2 hr-1. Neither CO2 nor NOx emissions showed inhibition at soil temperatures up to 55°C. Models may underestimate fluxes of CO2 and NOx from hot agricultural regions due to

  16. Quantifying the air quality-CO2 tradeoff potential for airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Akshay; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Aircraft movements on the airport surface are responsible for CO2 emissions that contribute to climate change and other emissions that affect air quality and human health. While the potential for optimizing aircraft surface movements to minimize CO2 emissions has been assessed, the implications of CO2 emissions minimization for air quality have not been quantified. In this paper, we identify conditions in which there is a tradeoff between CO2 emissions and population exposure to O3 and secondary PM2.5 - i.e. where decreasing fuel burn (which is directly proportional to CO2 emissions) results in increased exposure. Fuel burn and emissions are estimated as a function of thrust setting for five common gas turbine engines at 34 US airports. Regional air quality impacts, which are dominated by ozone and secondary PM2.5, are computed as a function of airport location and time using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model. Tradeoffs between CO2 emissions and population exposure to PM2.5 and O3 occur between 2-18% and 5-60% of the year, respectively, depending on airport location, engine type, and thrust setting. The total duration of tradeoff conditions is 5-12 times longer at maximum thrust operations (typical for takeoff) relative to 4% thrust operations (typical for taxiing). Per kilogram of additional fuel burn at constant thrust setting during tradeoff conditions, reductions in population exposure to PM2.5 and O3 are 6-13% and 32-1060% of the annual average (positive) population exposure per kilogram fuel burn, where the ranges encompass the medians over the 34 airports. For fuel burn increases due to thrust increases (i.e. for constant operating time), reductions in both PM2.5 and O3 exposure are 1.5-6.4 times larger in magnitude than those due to increasing fuel burn at constant thrust (i.e. increasing operating time). Airports with relatively high population exposure reduction potentials - which occur due to a combination of high duration and

  17. Has the Impact of Rising CO2 on Plants been Exaggerated by Meta-Analysis of Free Air CO2 Enrichment Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Matthew; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Killi, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis is extensively used to synthesize the results of free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies to produce an average effect size, which is then used to model likely plant response to rising [CO2]. The efficacy of meta-analysis is reliant upon the use of data that characterizes the range of responses to a given factor. Previous meta-analyses of the effect of FACE on plants have not incorporated the potential impact of reporting bias in skewing data. By replicating the methodology of these meta-analytic studies, we demonstrate that meta-analysis of FACE has likely exaggerated the effect size of elevated [CO2] on plants by 20 to 40%; having significant implications for predictions of food security and vegetation response to climate change. Incorporation of the impact of reporting bias did not affect the significance or the direction of the [CO2] effect. PMID:27536310

  18. Glycine uptake in heath plants and soil microbes responds to elevated temperature, CO 2 and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven; Beier, Claus; Ambus, Per

    2009-11-01

    Temperate terrestrial ecosystems are currently exposed to climatic and air quality changes with increased atmospheric CO 2, increased temperature and prolonged droughts. The responses of natural ecosystems to these changes are focus for research, due to the potential feedbacks to the climate. We here present results from a field experiment in which the effects of these three climate change factors are investigated solely and in all combinations at a temperate heath dominated by heather ( Calluna vulgaris) and wavy hair-grass ( Deschampsia flexuosa). Climate induced increases in plant production may increase plant root exudation of dissolved organic compounds such as amino acids, and the release of amino acids during decomposition of organic matter. Such free amino acids in soil serve as substrates for soil microorganisms and are also acquired as nutrients directly by plants. We investigated the magnitude of the response to the potential climate change treatments on uptake of organic nitrogen in an in situ pulse labelling experiment with 15N 13C 2-labelled glycine (amino acid) injected into the soil. In situ root nitrogen acquisition by grasses responded significantly to the climate change treatments, with larger 15N uptake in response to warming and elevated CO 2 but not additively when the treatments were combined. Also, a larger grass leaf biomass in the combined T and CO 2 treatment than in individual treatments suggest that responses to combined climate change factors cannot be predicted from the responses to single factors treatments. The soil microbes were superior to plants in the short-term competition for the added glycine, as indicated by an 18 times larger 15N recovery in the microbial biomass compared to the plant biomass. The soil microbes acquired glycine largely as an intact compound (87%), with no effects of the multi factorial climate change treatment through one year.

  19. Interdependencies between temperature and moisture sensitivities of CO2 emissions in European land ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsch, C.; Zimmermann, M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2015-03-01

    Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Hence, small changes in soil respiration rates could have large effects on atmospheric CO2. In order to assess CO2 emissions from diverse European soils under different land-use and climate (soil moisture and temperature) we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment. Emission measurements of carbon dioxide under controlled conditions were conducted using soil monoliths of nine sites from the ÉCLAIRE flux network. Sites are located all over Europe; from the UK in the west to the Ukraine in the east; Italy in the south to Finland in the north and can be separated according to four land-uses (forests, grasslands, arable lands and one peatland). Intact soil cores were incubated in the laboratory at the temperatures 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C in a two factorial design of five soil moisture levels (5, 20, 40, 60, 80 (100)% water filled pore space, WFPS), before analysed for CO2 fluxes with an automated laboratory incubation measurement system. Land-use generally had a substantial influence on carbon dioxide fluxes, with the order of CO2 emission rates of the different land-uses being grassland > peatland > forest/arable land (P < 0.001). CO2 efflux responded strongly to varying temperature and moisture content with optimum moisture contents for CO2 emissions between 40-70% WFPS and a positive relationship between CO2 emissions and temperature. The relationship between temperature and CO2 emissions could be well described by a Gaussian model. Q10 values ranged between 0.86-10.85 and were negatively related to temperature for most of the moisture contents and sites investigated. At higher temperatures the effect of water and temperature on Q10 was very low. In addition under cold temperatures Q10 varied with moisture contents indicating a stronger prospective effect of rain events in cold areas on temperature sensitivity. We found at both coniferous forest sites a strong

  20. Automated CO2 extraction from air for clumped isotope analysis in the atmo- and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Magdalena; Ziegler, Martin; Pons, Thijs; Lourens, Lucas; Röckmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The conventional stable isotope ratios 13C/12C and 18O/16O in atmospheric CO2 are a powerful tool for unraveling the global carbon cycle. In recent years, it has been suggested that the abundance of the very rare isotopologue 13C18O16O on m/z 47 might be a promising tracer to complement conventional stable isotope analysis of atmospheric CO2 [Affek and Eiler, 2006; Affek et al. 2007; Eiler and Schauble, 2004; Yeung et al., 2009]. Here we present an automated analytical system that is designed for clumped isotope analysis of atmo- and biospheric CO2. The carbon dioxide gas is quantitatively extracted from about 1.5L of air (ATP). The automated stainless steel extraction and purification line consists of three main components: (i) a drying unit (a magnesium perchlorate unit and a cryogenic water trap), (ii) two CO2 traps cooled with liquid nitrogen [Werner et al., 2001] and (iii) a GC column packed with Porapak Q that can be cooled with liquid nitrogen to -30°C during purification and heated up to 230°C in-between two extraction runs. After CO2 extraction and purification, the CO2 is automatically transferred to the mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometric analysis of the 13C18O16O abundance is carried out in dual inlet mode on a MAT 253 mass spectrometer. Each analysis generally consists of 80 change-over-cycles. Three additional Faraday cups were added to the mass spectrometer for simultaneous analysis of the mass-to-charge ratios 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 and 49. The reproducibility for δ13C, δ18O and Δ47 for repeated CO2 extractions from air is in the range of 0.11o (SD), 0.18o (SD) and 0.02 (SD)o respectively. This automated CO2 extraction and purification system will be used to analyse the clumped isotopic signature in atmospheric CO2 (tall tower, Cabauw, Netherlands) and to study the clumped isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis (leaf chamber experiments) and soil respiration. References Affek, H. P., Xu, X. & Eiler, J. M., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 5033

  1. Experimental investigation of the temperature effects on CO2 permeability of fractured coal rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Yang; Wang, Huijie; Pathegama Gamage, Ranjith; Sun, Huafei

    2012-11-01

    Accurate prediction of gas permeability is of great significance for coalbed methane production and CO2 sequestration. The permeability of coal rock plays a key role in determining coalbed methane productivity in the application of simultaneous excavation of coal and gas in deep coal mines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the temperature effects on the permeability of fractured coal rock in deep coal seams. The CO2 permeability of the fractured coal samples obtained from Ping Ding Shan coalfield, China, was measured using high pressure undrained triaxial apparatus. To probe the temperature effects, four levels of temperatures (25-75^o) were tested with the injection pressures ranging from 7 to 11MPa and a confining pressure of 15MPa. It is shown that the CO2 permeability of the fractured coal rock rises apparently with an increasing temperature. The physical mechanism that governs the CO2 permeability of coal rock is discussed in this study.

  2. A MIXED MODEL ANALYSIS OF SOIL CO2 EFFLUX AND NIGHT-TIME RESPIRATION RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 on soil CO2 efflux and system respiration responses. The study was conducted in sun-lit controlled-environment chambers using two-year-old Douglas-fir seedlings grown in reconstructed litter-so...

  3. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Matthew Anderson

    2006-09-29

    Dual-phase membranes consisting of stainless steel supports infiltrated with molten carbonate have been shown to be selective to CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (400-650 C). However, over time at high temperatures, the formation of iron oxides on the surface of the stainless steel supports render the membranes ineffective. This report details synthesis and characteristics of dual-phase carbonate membrane with an oxidation resistant perovskite type ceramic (lanthanum-strontium-cobaltite-iron; LSCF) support. Porous LSCF supports were prepared from its powder synthesized by the citrate method. Both steady state permeation and mercury porosimetry confirmed that the LSCF membrane sintered at 900 C has pores large enough to absorb molten carbonate, yet small enough to retain the molten carbonate under high pressure conditions. Results of XRD analysis have shown that LSCF and the molten carbonate mixture do not react with each other at temperatures below 700 C. Four-point method conductivity tests indicate that the support material has sufficiently high electronic conductivity for this application. Li-Na-K carbonate was coated to the porous LSCF support by a liquid infiltration method. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. Preliminary high temperature permeation experiments indicate that the membrane does separate CO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}, with a maximum flux of 0.623 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min obtained at 850 C.

  4. Assessing model sensitivity and uncertainty across multiple Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. It is necessary that we understand which factors are driving this uncertainty. The Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments have equipped us with a rich data source that can be used to calibrate and validate these model predictions. To identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences we performed model sensitivity and uncertainty analysis across ambient and elevated CO2 treatments using the Data Assimilation Linked Ecosystem Carbon (DALEC) model and the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED2), two process-based models ranging from low to high complexity respectively. These modeled process responses were compared to experimental data from the Kennedy Space Center Open Top Chamber Experiment, the Nevada Desert Free Air CO2 Enrichment Facility, the Rhinelander FACE experiment, the Wyoming Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment Experiment, the Duke Forest Face experiment and the Oak Ridge Experiment on CO2 Enrichment. By leveraging data access proxy and data tilling services provided by the BrownDog data curation project alongside analysis modules available in the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn), we produced automated, repeatable benchmarking workflows that are generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Combining the observed patterns of uncertainty between the two models with results of the recent FACE-model data synthesis project (FACE-MDS) can help identify which processes need further study and additional data constraints. These findings can be used to inform future experimental design and in turn can provide informative starting point for data assimilation.

  5. Characterization of an urban-rural CO 2 /temperature gradient and associated changes in initial plant productivity during secondary succession

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, L. H.; Bunce, J. A.; Goins, E. W.

    2004-05-01

    To examine the impact of climate change on vegetative productivity, we exposed fallow agricultural soil to an in situ temperature and CO2 gradient between urban, suburban and rural areas in 2002. Along the gradient, average daytime CO2 concentration increased by 21% and maximum (daytime) and minimum (nighttime) daily temperatures increased by 1.6 and 3.3°C, respectively in an urban relative to a rural location. Consistent location differences in soil temperature were also ascertained. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented. The urban-induced environmental changes that were observed were consistent with most short-term (~50 year) global change scenarios regarding CO2 concentration and air temperature. Productivity, determined as final above-ground biomass, and maximum plant height were positively affected by daytime and soil temperatures as well as enhanced [CO2], increasing 60 and 115% for the suburban and urban sites, respectively, relative to the rural site. While long-term data are needed, these initial results suggest that urban environments may act as a reasonable surrogate for investigating future climatic change in vegetative communities.

  6. Free-air CO2 enrichment of sorghum: soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Prior, S A; Torbert, H A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Kimball, B A

    2008-01-01

    The positive impact of elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration on crop biomass production suggests more carbon inputs to soil. Further study on the effect of elevated CO(2) on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics is key to understanding the potential for long-term carbon storage in soil. Soil samples (0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 20-cm depths) were collected after 2 yr of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] production under two atmospheric CO(2) levels: (370 [ambient] and 550 muL L(-1) [free-air CO(2) enrichment; FACE]) and two water treatments (ample water and limited water) on a Trix clay loam (fine, loamy, mixed [calcareous], hyperthermic Typic Torrifluvents) at Maricopa, AZ. In addition to assessing treatment effects on soil organic C and total N, potential C and N mineralization and C turnover were determined in a 60-d laboratory incubation study. After 2 yr of FACE, soil C and N were significantly increased at all soil depths. Water regime had no effect on these measures. Increased total N in the soil was associated with reduced N mineralization under FACE. Results indicated that potential C turnover was reduced under water deficit conditions at the top soil depth. Carbon turnover was not affected under FACE, implying that the observed increase in soil C with elevated CO(2) may be stable relative to ambient CO(2) conditions. Results suggest that, over the short-term, a small increase in soil C storage could occur under elevated atmospheric CO(2) conditions in sorghum production systems with differing water regimes. PMID:18453395

  7. Efficient MgO-based mesoporous CO2 trapper and its performance at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Han, Kun Kun; Zhou, Yu; Chun, Yuan; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2012-02-15

    A novel MgO-based porous adsorbent has been synthesized in a facile co-precipitation method for the first time, in order to provide a candidate for trapping CO(2) in flue gas at high temperature. The resulting composite exhibits a mesoporous structure with a wide pore size distribution, due to the even dispersion and distribution of microcrystalline MgO in the framework of alumina to form a concrete-like structure. These sorbents can capture CO(2) at high temperature (150-400°C), possessing high reactivity and stability in cyclic adsorption-desorption processes, providing competitive candidates to control CO(2) emission. PMID:22226721

  8. Influence of precipitation on the CO2 air-sea flux, an eddy covariance field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarsky, Alexander; Steinhoff, Tobias; Marandino, Christa

    2016-04-01

    During the SPACES-OASIS cruise (July-August 2015) from Durban, SA to Male, MV direct fluxes of CO2 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The cruise covered areas of sources and sinks for atmospheric CO2, where the bulk concentration gradient measurements resembled the Takahashi (2009) climatology. Most of the time, bulk CO2 fluxes (F=k* [cwater-cair]), calculated with the parametrization (k) by Nightingale et al. 2000, were in general agreement with direct EC measurements. However, during heavy rain events, the directly measured CO2 fluxes were 4 times higher than predicted. It has been previously described that rain influences the k parametrization of air-sea gas exchange, but this alone cannot explain the measured discrepancy. There is evidence that freshwater input and a change in the carbonate chemistry causes the water side concentration of ?c=cwater-cair to decrease. Unfortunately this cannot be detected by most bulk measurement systems. Using the flux measurements of an additional gas like DMS, this rain influence can be evaluated as DMS does not react to changes in the carbonate system and has a different solubility. A pending question is if the enhanced flux of CO2 in the ocean is sequestered into the ocean mixed layer and below. This question will be tackled using the GOTM model to understand the implications for the global carbon cycle.

  9. Separating the influence of temperature, drought, and fire on interannual variability in atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Wolf, Aaron S; Mu, Mingquan; Doney, Scott C; Morton, Douglas C; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Miller, John B; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Randerson, James T

    2014-01-01

    The response of the carbon cycle in prognostic Earth system models (ESMs) contributes significant uncertainty to projections of global climate change. Quantifying contributions of known drivers of interannual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is important for improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in these ESMs. Several recent studies have identified the temperature dependence of tropical net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as a primary driver of this variability by analyzing a single, globally averaged time series of CO2 anomalies. Here we examined how the temporal evolution of CO2 in different latitude bands may be used to separate contributions from temperature stress, drought stress, and fire emissions to CO2 variability. We developed atmospheric CO2 patterns from each of these mechanisms during 1997–2011 using an atmospheric transport model. NEE responses to temperature, NEE responses to drought, and fire emissions all contributed significantly to CO2 variability in each latitude band, suggesting that no single mechanism was the dominant driver. We found that the sum of drought and fire contributions to CO2 variability exceeded direct NEE responses to temperature in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Additional sensitivity tests revealed that these contributions are masked by temporal and spatial smoothing of CO2 observations. Accounting for fires, the sensitivity of tropical NEE to temperature stress decreased by 25% to 2.9 ± 0.4 Pg C yr−1 K−1. These results underscore the need for accurate attribution of the drivers of CO2 variability prior to using contemporary observations to constrain long-term ESM responses. PMID:26074665

  10. Mid-stratospheric measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO using AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    AirCore, a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for CO2 and CH4 measurements. Previous studies show that vertical profiles from the ground level up to ~ 20 km (~ 40 mbar) can be achieved during a balloon flight. The ceiling of the profile is restricted mainly by the diffusion of air in the AirCore and the resolution of the analyzer used for the analysis. Here air with an extremely high CO mixing ratio (~ 10 ppm) has been employed as the initial fill air in the AirCore. This high CO fill gas is used as a label to track the mixing between sampled air and fill air at the top of the profile thus providing the ability to retrieve full profiles for CO2 and CH4 up to the balloon's ceiling height of ~ 30 km (~ 11 mbar). Stratospheric measurements of CO lack agreement among previous studies, (i.e. cryogenic sampling, in-situ measurements, and remote sensing) due to difficulties that are inherent to the various techniques and possibly due to latitudinal and seasonal variations that could not be represented by the available sparse observations. Efforts to collect an accurate profile of stratospheric CO using the AirCore, are complicated by the reaction of CO and O3 in the coil, which is particular important for stratospheric air with high O3. To remove the influence of O3 on the CO measurements from AirCore, we have investigated three O3 scrubbers: 1) Manganese dioxide (MnO2); 2) Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3); 3) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3). Laboratory tests reveal that Sodium thiosulfate is the best choice as it has sufficient capacity to absorb O3 and does not impact measurements of CO2 and CH4. We will show experimental results from both aircraft and balloon flights. Regular ongoing stratospheric profiles of CO2, CH4, and CO are necessary to improve and validate total column measurements by remote sensing techniques, such as FTS and satellite. Such measurements

  11. Co-location of air capture, subseafloor CO2 sequestration, and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Han, Patrick; Slagle, Angela L; Wang, Tao

    2013-07-01

    Reducing atmospheric CO2 using a combination of air capture and offshore geological storage can address technical and policy concerns with climate mitigation. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture could operate anywhere and in principle reduce CO2 to preindustrial levels. We investigate the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian Ocean, which offers steady wind resources, vast subseafloor storage capacities, and minimal risk of economic damages or human inconvenience and harm. The efficiency of humidity swing driven air capture under humid and windy conditions is tested in the laboratory. Powered by wind, we estimate ∼75 Mt CO2/yr could be collected using air capture and sequestered below seafloor or partially used for synfuel. Our analysis suggests that Kerguelen offers a remote and environmentally secure location for CO2 sequestration using renewable energy. Regional reservoirs could hold over 1500 Gt CO2, sequestering a large fraction of 21st century emissions. PMID:23745611

  12. Seasonal and interannual variability of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the tropical Atlantic affected by the Amazon River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Diverrès, Denis; Araujo, Moacyr; Lefèvre, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    CO2 fugacities obtained from a merchant ship sailing from France to French Guyana were used to explore the seasonal and interannual variability of the sea-air CO2 exchange in the western tropical North Atlantic (TNA; 5-14°N, 41-52°W). Two distinct oceanic water masses were identified in the area associated to the main surface currents, i.e., the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Current (NEC). The NBC was characterized by permanent CO2 oversaturation throughout the studied period, contrasting with the seasonal pattern identified in the NEC. The NBC retroflection was the main contributor to the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), thus spreading into the central TNA, the Amazon River plume, and the CO2-rich waters probably originated from the equatorial upwelling. Strong CO2 undersaturation was associated to the Amazon River plume. Total inorganic carbon drawdown due to biological activity was estimated to be 154 µmol kg-1 within the river plume. As a consequence, the studied area acted as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 (from -72.2 ± 10.2 mmol m-2 month-1 in February to 14.3 ± 4.5 mmol m-2 month-1 in May). This contrasted with the net CO2 efflux estimated by the main global sea-air CO2 flux climatologies. Interannual sea surface temperature changes in the TNA caused by large-scale climatic events could determine the direction and intensity of the sea-air CO2 fluxes in the NEC. Positive temperature anomalies observed in the TNA led to an almost permanent CO2 outgassing in the NEC in 2010.

  13. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2007-06-30

    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support

  14. Ocean Carbon Cycling and CO2 Air-Sea Exchange in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, G.; Gruber, N.; Lachkar, Z.; Frenzel, H.; Loher, D.

    2008-12-01

    Eastern boundary current (EBC) upwelling systems are regions of intense biogeochemical transformations and transports. Strong upwelling of nutrient- and carbon-rich waters tends to lead to CO2 outgassing nearshore and biologically-driven CO2 uptake offshore. Yet, the net air-sea CO2 balance of EBCs remains unknown. High near-shore productivity coupled with filaments and other meso- and submesoscale phenomena cause a substantial lateral export of organic carbon. We investigate these coastal processes in the California Current (CalCS) and the Canary Current Systems (CanCS), on the basis of the eddy-resolving, physical-biogeochemical model ROMS. Our results confirm the onshore-offshore trends in the air-sea fluxes, with substantial spatial and temporal differences due to topography, upwelling strength, and eddy activity. The CalCS is modeled to be, on average, a very small source of CO2 to the atmosphere, consistent with a recent data-based estimate by Chavez and Takahashi, while for the CanCS this is not clear yet. Regarding offshore transport, the CalCS appears to be stronger than the CanCS. Spatio-temporal variability of all carbon fluxes is substantial, particularly nearshore, posing a tremendous challenge for observing systems targeting e.g. air-sea CO2 fluxes in these dynamic regions. Further analyses of the processes that determine the mean carbon fluxes and their spatio-temporal variability will be presented. Characteristic differences and similarities between the two EBC systems will be discussed.

  15. DUAL PHASE MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CO2 SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Seungjoon Chung; Matthew Anderson

    2005-12-01

    This project is intended to expand upon the previous year's research en route to the development of a sustainable dual phase membrane for CO{sub 2} separation. It was found that the pores within the supports had to be less than 9 {micro}m in order to maintain the stability of the dual phase membrane. Pores larger than 9 {micro}m would be unable to hold the molten carbonate phase in place, rendering the membrane ineffective. Calculations show that 80% of the pore volume of the 0.5 media grade metal support was filled with the molten carbonate. Information obtained from EDS and SEM confirmed that the molten carbonate completely infiltrated the pores on both the contact and non-contact size of the metal support. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} at 450-750 C show very low permeance of those two gases through the dual phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased quite rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase. XRD data obtained form the surface of the membrane indicated the formation of lithium iron oxides on the support. This layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture, limiting the formation of the ionic species. These results indicate that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation has created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which can be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Future research efforts will be directed towards preparation of a new ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane. The membrane will based on an

  16. LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY METHODS FOR SUBSURFACE MONITORING OF CO2 IN WATER AND AIR PHASES AT SEQUESTRATION SITES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Romanak, K.; Yang, C.

    2009-12-01

    We report the development of two methods for subsurface monitoring of CO2 in both air and water phases at sequestration sites. The first method is based on line-of-sight (LOS) tunable laser spectroscopy. Funded by DOE, we demonstrated the Phase Insensitive Two Tone Frquency Modulation spectroscopy (PITTFM). FM reduces low frequency noise in the beam path due to scintillations; while the PI design gives the ease of installation. We demonstrated measurement over 1 mile distance with an accuracy of 3ppm of CO2 in normal air. Built-in switches shoot the laser beam into multi-directions, thus forming a cellular monitoring network covering 10 km^2. The system cost is under $100K, and COTS telecom components guarantee the reliability in the field over decades. Software will log the data and translate the 2D CO2 profile. When coupled with other parameters, it will be able to locate the point and rate of leakages. Field tests at SECARB sequestration site are proposed. The system also monitors other green house gases (GHG), e.g. CH4, which is also needed where EOR is pursued along with CO2 sequestration. Figures 1 through 2 give the results of this method. The second method is based on the latest technology advances in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). The current state of the art technology to measure Total/Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TIC/DIC) in water is menometer. Menometer is both time consuming and costly, and could not be used underground, i.e. high pressure and temperature. We propose to use high brightness QC lasers to extend the current Mid-IR optical path from 30 microns to over 500microns, thus providing the possibility to measure CO2 dissoveled (Aqueous phase) with an accuracy of 0.2mg/Liter. Preliminary results will be presented.

  17. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes based on FerryBox measurements and satellite-based prediction of pCO2 in the Western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, Pierre; Thierry, Cariou; Eric, Mace; Pascal, Morin; Marc, Vernet; Yann, Bozec

    2014-05-01

    Since April 2012, we installed an autonomous FerryBox system on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crosses the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff and Plymouth on a daily basis. High-frequency data of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS), fluorescence, dissolved oxygen (DO) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were recorded for two years across the all-year mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC). These contrasting hydrographical provinces strongly influenced the spatio-temporal distributions of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes. During the productive period (from May to September), the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of -5.6 mmolC m-2 d-1 and -4.6 mmolC m-2 d-1, in 2012 and 2013, respectively. During the same period, the sWEC showed significant inter-annual variability degassing CO2 to the atmosphere in 2012 (1.4 mmolC m-2 d-1) and absorbing atmospheric CO2 in 2013 (-1.6 mmolC m-2 d-1). In 2012, high-frequency data revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer phytoplankton bloom in the nWEC contributed to 31% of the total CO2 drawdown during the productive period, highlighting the necessity of pCO2 high-frequency measurements in coastal ecosystems. Based on this multi-annual dataset, we developed pCO2 algorithms using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on SST, SSS, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, time, latitude and mixed layer depth to predict pCO2 in the two hydrographical provinces of the WEC. MLR were performed based on more than 200,000 underway observations spanning the range from 150 to 480 µatm. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the MLR fit to the data were 17.2 µatm and 21.5 µatm for the s WEC and the nWEC with correlation coefficient (r²) of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. We applied these algorithms to satellite SST and Chl-a products and to modeled SSS estimates in the entire WEC. Based on these high-frequency and satellite approaches, we will discuss the main

  18. Formation of Magnesite at Low Temperature in Mineral:Supercritical CO2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qafoku, O.; Hu, J.; Arey, B.; Liu, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Felmy, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most promising options for mitigating the impacts of greenhouse gases on global warming is storage and sequestration of the anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations. Consequently, evaluating mineral-fluid interaction in aqueous systems saturated with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has been the focus for subsurface CO2 storage research. An important factor in assessing mineral-fluid interactions is the potential for the formation of stable divalent metal carbonates, principally Ca and Mg, which can immobilize the disposed CO2 as mineral precipitates. The formation of some of these phases, especially the Mg anhydrous phase magnesite (MgCO3), has been hindered by slow precipitation kinetics owing to the strong affinity of Mg2+ ion for the waters of hydration. Understanding conditions that lead to formation of magnesite at temperatures significant to subsurface disposal of CO2 can be substantial in the development of efficient carbon sequestration techniques. Here we present recently obtained experimental data on the formation of magnesite at low temperature (as low as 350C) and microscopy data that can elucidate factors that might contribute to magnesite formation. The experimental studies were conducted over a range of temperature, pressure, pH, and initial Mg(HCO3)2 concentration to map out the specific solution phase conditions which result in nucleation of magnesite in aqueous solution saturated with scCO2.

  19. Effect of elevated CO2 and high temperature on seed-set and grain quality of rice

    PubMed Central

    Madan, P.; Jagadish, S. V. K.; Craufurd, P. Q.; Fitzgerald, M.; Lafarge, T.; Wheeler, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid vigour may help overcome the negative effects of climate change in rice. A popular rice hybrid (IR75217H), a heat-tolerant check (N22), and a mega-variety (IR64) were tested for tolerance of seed-set and grain quality to high-temperature stress at anthesis at ambient and elevated [CO2]. Under an ambient air temperature of 29 °C (tissue temperature 28.3 °C), elevated [CO2] increased vegetative and reproductive growth, including seed yield in all three genotypes. Seed-set was reduced by high temperature in all three genotypes, with the hybrid and IR64 equally affected and twice as sensitive as the tolerant cultivar N22. No interaction occurred between temperature and [CO2] for seed-set. The hybrid had significantly more anthesed spikelets at all temperatures than IR64 and at 29 °C this resulted in a large yield advantage. At 35 °C (tissue temperature 32.9 °C) the hybrid had a higher seed yield than IR64 due to the higher spikelet number, but at 38 °C (tissue temperature 34–35 °C) there was no yield advantage. Grain gel consistency in the hybrid and IR64 was reduced by high temperatures only at elevated [CO2], while the percentage of broken grains increased from 10% at 29 °C to 35% at 38 °C in the hybrid. It is concluded that seed-set of hybrids is susceptible to short episodes of high temperature during anthesis, but that at intermediate tissue temperatures of 32.9 °C higher spikelet number (yield potential) of the hybrid can compensate to some extent. If the heat tolerance from N22 or other tolerant donors could be transferred into hybrids, yield could be maintained under the higher temperatures predicted with climate change. PMID:22438302

  20. Effect of elevated CO2 and high temperature on seed-set and grain quality of rice.

    PubMed

    Madan, P; Jagadish, S V K; Craufurd, P Q; Fitzgerald, M; Lafarge, T; Wheeler, T R

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid vigour may help overcome the negative effects of climate change in rice. A popular rice hybrid (IR75217H), a heat-tolerant check (N22), and a mega-variety (IR64) were tested for tolerance of seed-set and grain quality to high-temperature stress at anthesis at ambient and elevated [CO(2)]. Under an ambient air temperature of 29 °C (tissue temperature 28.3 °C), elevated [CO(2)] increased vegetative and reproductive growth, including seed yield in all three genotypes. Seed-set was reduced by high temperature in all three genotypes, with the hybrid and IR64 equally affected and twice as sensitive as the tolerant cultivar N22. No interaction occurred between temperature and [CO(2)] for seed-set. The hybrid had significantly more anthesed spikelets at all temperatures than IR64 and at 29 °C this resulted in a large yield advantage. At 35 °C (tissue temperature 32.9 °C) the hybrid had a higher seed yield than IR64 due to the higher spikelet number, but at 38 °C (tissue temperature 34-35 °C) there was no yield advantage. Grain gel consistency in the hybrid and IR64 was reduced by high temperatures only at elevated [CO(2)], while the percentage of broken grains increased from 10% at 29 °C to 35% at 38 °C in the hybrid. It is concluded that seed-set of hybrids is susceptible to short episodes of high temperature during anthesis, but that at intermediate tissue temperatures of 32.9 °C higher spikelet number (yield potential) of the hybrid can compensate to some extent. If the heat tolerance from N22 or other tolerant donors could be transferred into hybrids, yield could be maintained under the higher temperatures predicted with climate change. PMID:22438302

  1. Sea breeze forcing of estuary turbulence and air-water CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Philip M.; McGillis, Wade R.; Zappa, Christopher J.

    2010-07-01

    The sea breeze is often a dominant meteorological feature at the coastline, but little is known about its estuarine impacts. Measurements at an anchored catamaran and meteorological stations along the Hudson River and New York Bay estuarine system are used to illustrate some basic characteristics and impacts of the feature. The sea breeze propagates inland, arriving in phase with peak solar forcing at seaward stations, but several hours later at up-estuary stations. Passage of the sea breeze front raises the water-to-air CO2 flux by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and drives turbulence comparable to spring tide levels in the upper meter of the water column, where most primary productivity occurs in this highly turbid system. Modeling and observational studies often use remotely-measured winds to compute air-water fluxes (e.g., momentum, CO2), and this leads to a factor of two flux error on sea breeze days during the study.

  2. Influence of CO2 and Temperature on Metabolism and Development of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Akbar, S Md; Pavani, T; Nagaraja, T; Sharma, H C

    2016-02-01

    Climate change will have a major bearing on survival and development of insects as a result of increase in CO2 and temperature. Therefore, we studied the direct effects of CO2 and temperature on larval development and metabolism in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The larvae were reared under a range of CO2 (350, 550, and 750 ppm) and temperature (15, 25, 35, and 45°C) regimes on artificial diet. Elevated CO2 negatively affected the larval survival, larval weight, larval period, pupation, and adult emergence, but showed a positive effect on pupal weight, pupal period, and fecundity. Increase in temperature exhibited a negative effect on larval survival, larval period, pupal weights, and pupal period, but a positive effect on larval growth. Pupation and adult emergence were optimum at 25°C. Elevated CO2 and temperature increased food consumption and metabolism of larvae by enhancing the activity of midgut proteases, carbohydrases (amylase and cellulase), and mitochondrial enzymes and therefore may cause more damage to crop production. Elevated CO2 and global warming will affect insect growth and development, which will change the interactions between the insect pests and their crop hosts. Therefore, there is need to gain an understanding of these interactions to develop strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change. PMID:26363173

  3. Microclimatic Performance of a Free-Air Warming and CO2 Enrichment Experiment in Windy Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms-1 average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the

  4. Retrieval of Mid-tropospheric CO2 Directly from AIRS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Edward T.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Chen, Luke L.; Pagano, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    We apply the method of Vanishing Partial Derivatives (VPD) to AIRS spectra to retrieve daily the global distribution of CO2 at a nadir geospatial resolution of 90 km x 90 km without requiring a first-guess input beyond the global average. Our retrievals utilize the 15 (micro)m band radiances, a complex spectral region. This method may be of value in other applications, in which spectral signatures of multiple species are not well isolated spectrally from one another.

  5. Air-Sea CO2 fluxes in the Atlantic as measured during boreal spring and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padin, X. A.; Vázquez-Rodríguez, M.; Castaño, M.; Velo, A.; Alonso-Pérez, F.; Gago, J.; Gilcoto, M.; Álvarez, M.; Pardo, P. C.; de La Paz, M.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2010-05-01

    A total of fourteen hydrographic cruises from 2000 to 2008 were conducted during the spring and autumn seasons between Spain and the Southern Ocean under the framework of the Spanish research project FICARAM. The underway measurements were processed and analysed to describe the meridional air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the covered sector of the Atlantic Ocean. The data has been grouped into different biogeochemical oceanographic provinces based on thermohaline characteristics. The spatial and temporal distributions of FCO2 followed expected distributions and annual trends reproducing the recent climatological ΔfCO2 estimations with a mean difference of -3 ± 18 μatm (Takahashi et al., 2009). The reduction in the CO2 saturation along the meridional FICARAM cruises represented an increase of 0.02 ± 0.14 mol m-2 yr-1 in the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. The subtropical waters in both Hemispheres acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 during the successive spring seasons and as a source in autumn. The coarse reduction of the ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 observed in the North Atlantic Ocean was linked to conditions of negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation that prevailed during the FICARAM period. Surface waters in the North Equatorial Counter Current revealed a significant long-term decrease of sea surface salinity of -0.16 ± 0.01 yr-1 coinciding with a declination of -3.5 ± 0.9 μatm yr-1 in the air-sea disequilibrium of CO2 fugacity and a rise of oceanic CO2 uptake of -0.09 ± 0.03 mol m-2 yr-1. The largest CO2 source was located in the equatorial upwelling system. These tropical waters that reached emissions of 0.7 ± 0.5 and 1.0 ± 0.7 mol m-2 y-1 in spring and autumn, respectively, showed an interannual warming of 0.11 ± 0.03 °C yr-1 and a wind speed decrease of -0.58 ± 0.14 m s-1 yr-1 in spring cruises which suggest the weakening of upwelling events associated with warm El Niño - Southern Oscillation episodes. Contrary the surface waters of the

  6. Dual Phase Membrane for High temperature CO2 Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Matthew Anderson

    2005-12-01

    Research in the previous years in this project found that stainless steel supports are oxidized during high temperature, dual phase membrane separation of carbon dioxide (with oxygen). Consequently, a new material has been sought to alleviate the problems with oxidation. Lanthanum cobaltite oxide is a suitable candidate for the support material in the dual phase membrane due to its oxidation resistance and electronic conductivity. Porous lanthanum cobaltite membranes were prepared via the citrate method, using nitrate metal precursors as the source of La, Sr, Co and Fe. The material was prepared and ground into a powder, which was subsequently pressed into disks for sintering at 900 C. Conductivity measurements were evaluated using the four-probe DC method. Support pore size was determined by helium permeation. Conductivity of the lanthanum cobaltite material was found to be at a maximum of 0.1856 S/cm at 550 C. The helium permeance of the lanthanum cobaltite membranes for this research was on the order of 10{sup -6} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s, proving that the membranes are porous after sintering at 900 C. The average pore size based on steady state helium permeance measurements was found to be between 0.37 and 0.57 {micro}m. The lanthanum cobaltite membranes have shown to have desired porosity, pore size and electric conductivity as the support for the dual-phase membranes. Molten carbonate was infiltrated to the pores of lanthanum cobaltite membranes support. After infiltration with molten carbonate, the helium permeance of the membranes decreased by three orders of magnitude to 10{sup -9} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s. This number, however, is one order of magnitude larger than the room temperate permeance of the stainless steel supports after infiltration with molten carbonate. Optimization of the dip coating process with molten carbonate will be evaluated to determine if lower permeance values can be obtained with the

  7. Sea ice pCO2 dynamics and air-ice CO2 fluxes during the Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) experiment - Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilfus, N.-X.; Tison, J.-L.; Ackley, S. F.; Galley, R. J.; Rysgaard, S.; Miller, L. A.; Delille, B.

    2014-12-01

    Temporal evolution of pCO2 profiles in sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, in October 2007 shows physical and thermodynamic processes controls the CO2 system in the ice. During the survey, cyclical warming and cooling strongly influenced the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties of the ice cover. Two sampling sites with contrasting characteristics of ice and snow thickness were sampled: one had little snow accumulation (from 8 to 25 cm) and larger temperature and salinity variations than the second site, where the snow cover was up to 38 cm thick and therefore better insulated the underlying sea ice. We show that each cooling/warming event was associated with an increase/decrease in the brine salinity, total alkalinity (TA), total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), and in situ brine and bulk ice CO2 partial pressures (pCO2). Thicker snow covers reduced the amplitude of these changes: snow cover influences the sea ice carbonate system by modulating the temperature and therefore the salinity of the sea ice cover. Results indicate that pCO2 was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere both in the in situ bulk ice (from 10 to 193 μatm) and brine (from 65 to 293 μatm), causing the sea ice to act as a sink for atmospheric CO2 (up to 2.9 mmol m-2 d-1), despite supersaturation of the underlying seawater (up to 462 μatm).

  8. Impact of elevated CO2, water table, and temperature changes on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from arctic tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella; Haynes, Katherine; Deutschman, Douglas; Bryant, Emma; McEwing, Katherine; Davidson, Scott; Oechel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Large uncertainties still exist on the response of tundra C emissions to future climate due, in part, to the lack of understanding of the interactive effects of potentially controlling variables on C emissions from Arctic ecosystems. In this study we subjected 48 soil cores (without active vegetation) from dominant arctic wetland vegetation types, to a laboratory manipulation of elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated temperature, and altered water table, representing current and future conditions in the Arctic for two growing seasons. To our knowledge this experiment comprised the most extensively replicated manipulation of intact soil cores in the Arctic. The hydrological status of the soil was the most dominant control on both soil CO2 and CH4 emissions. Despite higher soil CO2 emission occurring in the drier plots, substantial CO2 respiration occurred under flooded conditions, suggesting significant anaerobic respirations in these arctic tundra ecosystems. Importantly, a critical control on soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes was the original vascular plant cover. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was correlated with cumulative CH4 emissions but not with cumulative CO2 suggesting C quality influenced CH4 production but not soil CO2 emissions. An interactive effect between increased temperature and elevated CO2 on soil CO2 emissions suggested a potential shift of the soils microbial community towards more efficient soil organic matter degraders with warming and elevated CO2. Methane emissions did not decrease over the course of the experiment, even with no input from vegetation. This result indicated that CH4 emissions are not carbon limited in these C rich soils. Overall CH4 emissions represented about 49% of the sum of total C (C-CO2 + C-CH4) emission in the wet treatments, and 15% in the dry treatments, representing a dominant component of the overall C balance from arctic soils.

  9. The combined effects of temperature and CO2 lead to altered gene expression in Acropora aspera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, D.; Bobeszko, T.; Ainsworth, T.; Leggat, W.

    2013-12-01

    This study explored the interactive effects of near-term CO2 increases (40-90 ppm above current ambient) during a simulated bleaching event (34 °C for 5 d) of Acropora aspera by linking physiology to expression patterns of genes involved in carbon metabolism. Symbiodinium photosynthetic efficiency ( F v / F m ) was significantly depressed by the bleaching event, while elevated pressure of CO2 (pCO2) slightly mitigated the effects of increased temperature on F v / F m during the final 4 d of the recovery period, however, did not affect the loss of symbionts. Elevated pCO2 alone had no effect on F v / F m or symbiont density. Expression of targeted Symbiodinium genes involved in carbon metabolism and heat stress response was not significantly altered by either increased temperature and/or CO2. Of the selected host genes, two carbonic anhydrase isoforms (coCA2 and coCA3) exhibited the largest changes, most notably in crossed bleaching and elevated pCO2 treatments. CA2 was significantly down-regulated on day 14 in all treatments, with the greatest decrease in the crossed treatment (relative expression compared to control = 0.16; p < 0.05); CA3 showed a similar trend, with expression levels 0.20-fold of controls on day 14 ( p < 0.05) in the elevated temperature/pCO2 treatment. The synergistic effects of ocean acidification and bleaching were evident during this study and demonstrate that increased pCO2 in surface waters will impact corals much sooner than many studies utilising end-of-century pCO2 concentrations would indicate.

  10. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  11. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Data from the Duke Forest FACE Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOEÆs Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The Duke University FACE website actually presents information on several FACE experiments. The Forest-Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) facility is located in the Blackwood Division of the Duke Forest. It consists of four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) plots that provide elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and four plots that provide ambient CO2 control. The system has been in operation since June, 1994 in the prototype plot, and since August, 1996 in the three additional plots. The prototype plot and its reference were halved with a barrier inserted in the soil in 1998 to conduct, together with five additional plot pairs, CO2 X soil nutrient enrichment experiments. The rest of the plots were partitioned in early 2005 and incorporated into the CO2 X nutrient experiment. To increase statistical power, four additional ambient plots were established in January, 2005, halved, and one half of each fertilized. [copied from http://face.env.duke.edu/description.cfm] The Duke FACE home page makes information available from both completed and ongoing projects, provides a searchable database of publications and presentations, and data, images, and links to related websites.

  12. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, C. M.; Sanz-Martín, M.; Mesa, E.; Arrieta, J. M.; Chierici, M.; Hendriks, I. E.; García-Corral, L. S.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; Delgado, A.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.; Agustí, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145-2,099 μatm however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  13. Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Uribelarrea, Martin; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Naidu, Shawna L.; Rogers, Alistair; Ort, Donald R.; Long, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should not be stimulated under elevated [CO2]. Nevertheless, some controlled environment studies have reported direct stimulation of C4 photosynthesis and productivity, as well as physiological acclimation, under elevated [CO2]. To test if these effects occur in the open air and within the Corn Belt, maize (Zea mays) was grown in ambient [CO2] (376 μmol mol−1) and elevated [CO2] (550 μmol mol−1) using Free-Air Concentration Enrichment technology. The 2004 season had ideal growing conditions in which the crop did not experience water stress. In the absence of water stress, growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Nor was there any CO2 effect on the activity of key photosynthetic enzymes, or metabolic markers of carbon and nitrogen status. Stomatal conductance was lower (−34%) and soil moisture was higher (up to 31%), consistent with reduced crop water use. The results provide unique field evidence that photosynthesis and production of maize may be unaffected by rising [CO2] in the absence of drought. This suggests that rising [CO2] may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply. PMID:16407441

  14. Effects of temperature and moisture variability on soil CO2 emissions in European land ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsch, C.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Hence, small changes in soil respiration rates could have large effects on atmospheric CO2. In order to assess CO2 emissions from diverse European soils under different land-use and climate (soil moisture and temperature) we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment. Therefore, we incubated soil cores (Ø 7 cm; height 7 cm) from nine European sites which are spread all over Europe; from the United Kingdom (west) to the Ukraine (east) and Italy (south) to Finland (north). In addition these sites can be clearly distinguished between their land use into forests, arable lands, grasslands and one peat land. Soil cores were incubated in a two-factorial experimental design at 5 different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) and 6 different moisture contents (5, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 % water filled pore space (WFPS)). An automated laboratory incubation measurement system was used to measure CO2 emissions. Results show that highest CO2 emissions occurred with intermediate moisture content (40% to 70%) over all sites. We found that the relationship between CO2 emissions and temperature could be well described by a Gaussian model (R² ranges from 0.87 to 1) over all sites. In general CO2 emissions were strongly related with both variables temperature and moisture. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) was negatively correlated with temperature for all land-uses investigated. Moisture sensitivity was calculated as the slope of a quadratic function and showed highest values at very low and high moisture content for all land-uses investigated. Moisture sensitivity was increasing with temperature for all arable lands investigated. All coniferous forest sites investigated showed a strong increase of the temperature sensitivity at lower temperatures at a moisture range of 20 - 40 % WFPS. In summary our results showed not only the relationship between temperature sensitivity of CO2

  15. Isotopic air sampling in a tallgrass prairie to partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Schauer, Andrew J.; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay M.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2003-09-01

    Stable isotope ratios of various ecosystem components and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) CO2 fluxes were measured in a C3-C4 mixture tallgrass prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. The July 2002 study period was chosen because of contrasting soil moisture contents, which allowed us to address the effects of drought on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and isotopic discrimination. Significantly higher NEE fluxes were observed for both daytime uptake and nighttime respiration during well-watered conditions when compared to a drought period. Given these differences, we investigated two carbon-flux partitioning questions: (1) What proportions of NEE were contributed by C3 versus C4 species? (2) What proportions of NEE fluxes resulted from canopy assimilation versus ecosystem respiration? To evaluate these questions, air samples were collected every 2 hours during daytime for 3 consecutive days at the same height as the eddy covariance system. These air samples were analyzed for both carbon isotope ratios and CO2 concentrations to establish an empirical relationship for isoflux calculations. An automated air sampling system was used to collect nighttime air samples to estimate the carbon isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration (δR) at weekly intervals for the entire growing season. Models of C3 and C4 photosynthesis were employed to estimate bulk canopy intercellular CO2 concentration in order to calculate photosynthetic discrimination against 13C. Our isotope/NEE results showed that for this grassland, C4 vegetation contributed ˜80% of the NEE fluxes during the drought period and later ˜100% of the NEE fluxes in response to an impulse of intense precipitation. For the entire growing season, the C4 contribution ranged from ˜68% early in the spring to nearly 100% in the late summer. Using an isotopic approach, the calculated partitioned respiratory fluxes were slightly greater than chamber-measured estimates during midday under well-watered conditions. In addition, time series

  16. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  17. Ionization controls for biomineralization-inspired CO2 chemical looping at constant room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoming; Hu, Yadong; Zhao, Hongqing; Wang, Yang; Xu, Xurong; Pan, Haihua; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-04-21

    Living organisms such as corals can carry out CO2 looping efficiently via biomineralization under ambient conditions. Inspired by this natural process, we establish a solution system of calcium acetate-ethanol-water (Ca(Ac)2-C2H5OH-H2O) for CO2 chemical looping at constant room temperature. The CO2 capture is achieved by its reaction with Ca(Ac)2 to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mineral and HAc in the binary solvent with a high C2H5OH content. However, an increase in the H2O content in the system triggers acetic acid (HAc)-induced CaCO3 dissolution to release CO2. The system can be recovered for CO2 capture readily by the replenishment of C2H5OH. This biomimetic mineralization-based CO2 capture/release is controlled by the ionization states of the electrolytes, and is precisely regulated in the C2H5OH-H2O binary solvent. Our attempt highlights the fundamental principle of solution chemistry in reaction control and provides a bioinspired strategy for CO2 capture/release with very low cost and easy availability. PMID:25787086

  18. A Fine-Tuned Fluorinated MOF Addresses the Needs for Trace CO2 Removal and Air Capture Using Physisorption.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Prashant M; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cadiau, Amandine; Adil, Karim; Shekhah, Osama; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Barbour, Leonard J; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-07-27

    The development of functional solid-state materials for carbon capture at low carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, namely, from confined spaces (<0.5%) and in particular from air (400 ppm), is of prime importance with respect to energy and environment sustainability. Herein, we report the deliberate construction of a hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework (MOF), NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, with the appropriate pore system (size, shape, and functionality), ideal for the effective and energy-efficient removal of trace carbon dioxide. Markedly, the CO2-selective NbOFFIVE-1-Ni exhibits the highest CO2 gravimetric and volumetric uptake (ca. 1.3 mmol/g and 51.4 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) for a physical adsorbent at 400 ppm of CO2 and 298 K. Practically, NbOFFIVE-1-Ni offers the complete CO2 desorption at 328 K under vacuum with an associated moderate energy input of 54 kJ/mol, typical for the full CO2 desorption in conventional physical adsorbents but considerably lower than chemical sorbents. Noticeably, the contracted square-like channels, affording the close proximity of the fluorine centers, permitted the enhancement of the CO2-framework interactions and subsequently the attainment of an unprecedented CO2 selectivity at very low CO2 concentrations. The precise localization of the adsorbed CO2 at the vicinity of the periodically aligned fluorine centers, promoting the selective adsorption of CO2, is evidenced by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction study on NbOFFIVE-1-Ni hosting CO2 molecules. Cyclic CO2/N2 mixed-gas column breakthrough experiments under dry and humid conditions corroborate the excellent CO2 selectivity under practical carbon capture conditions. Pertinently, the notable hydrolytic stability positions NbOFFIVE-1-Ni as the new benchmark adsorbent for direct air capture and CO2 removal from confined spaces. PMID:27388208

  19. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h−1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m−2 d−1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  20. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h-1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m-2 d-1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  1. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  2. Projected Near-Future Levels of Temperature and pCO2 Reduce Coral Fertilization Success

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Rebecca; Mason, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) are projected to contribute to a 1.1–6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14–0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C) and pCO2 (+400 µatm) projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2) and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential. PMID:23457572

  3. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Albright, Rebecca; Mason, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C) and pCO2 (+400 µatm) projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2) and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential. PMID:23457572

  4. High temperature chemical kinetic study of the H2-CO-CO2-NO reaction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of the kinetics of the H2-CO-CO2-NO reaction system was made behind incident shock waves at temperatures of 2460 and 2950 K. The overall rate of the reaction was measured by monitoring radiation from the CO + O yields CO2 + h upoilon reaction. Correlation of these data with a detailed reaction mechanism showed that the high-temperature rate of the reaction N + OH yields NO + H can be described by the low-temperature (320 K) rate coefficient. Catalytic dissociation of molecular hydrogen was an important reaction under the tests conditions.

  5. One-Dimensional Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Storage Systems - Change in Cap Rock Porosity Triggered by Pressure and Temperature Dependent CO2-Water-Rock Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemme, C.; van Berk, W.

    2015-12-01

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems supercritical CO2 is injected into a reservoir and dissolves in the reservoir brine. Subsequently, CO2(aq) diffuses into the cap rock to regions of lower total pressure and temperature and triggers CO2-water-rock interactions that are coupled with mass transport and result in precipitation and/or dissolution of minerals along the CO2 migration path. Such hydrogeochemical interactions change porosities and are responsible for the improvement or deterioration of the long term integrity of the system. This study presents a semi-generic hydrogeochemical model based on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics, data from several CO2 storage systems, and plausible assumptions regarding non-available data. One-dimensional reactive transport modeling is performed by using the U.S.G.S. PHREEQC code (3.1.4-8929; phreeqc.dat database) to identify and quantify the loss or gain of total porosity affected by hydrogeochemical reactions driven by diffusive mass transport exposed to pressure and temperature gradients. A fine spatial and temporal discretization, the use of non-reactive tracers, and a broad variety of modeling scenarios enable the calculation of the relevant timescale for simulations of long-term storage of CO2 and the consideration of the pressure dependent mass action law constants along the CO2 migration path. Modeling results show that the relevant timescale for simulations of long-term storage of CO2 is in the range of 106 years, and that pressure/temperature conditions, heterogeneities (veins and fractures) and the mineralogical composition of the cap rock have the strongest influence on the increase in cap rock porosity (maximum increase from initial 5 % to 7.5 %). Critical parameter combinations - total pressure effects are crucial - could put long-term integrity at risks. Nevertheless, a wide range of conditions and parameter combinations for safe CO2 storage is identified by other modeling scenarios.

  6. LEAF AND WHOLE CANOPY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MAIZE GROWN UNDER ELEVATED CO2 AND VARIOUS TEMPERATURE REGIMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize plants (Zea mays L.) were grown in closed sunlit growth chambers at 370 or 750 ppm CO2 with 19/13, 25/19, 31/25, 35/29, or 38.5/32.5 C day/night temperatures. Both leaf and whole canopy photosynthetic rates and quantum yield were influenced by temperature, whereas no clear effect was observed ...

  7. Elevated CO2 and temperature increase soil C losses from a soy-maize ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warming temperatures and increasing CO2 are likely to have large effects on the amount of carbon stored in soil, but predictions of these effects are poorly constrained. We elevated temperature (canopy: +2.8 °C; soil growing season: +1.8 °C; soil fallow: +2.3 °C) for three years within the 9th-11th ...

  8. Subambient temperature CO(2) and light gas permeation through segmented block copolymers with tailored soft phase.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, Sander R; Ijzer, Anne Corine; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Arun, Araichimani; Gaymans, Reinoud J; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-02-01

    The permeation properties of a series of block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide)-ran-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-ran-PPO) soft segments and monodisperse tetra-amide (T6T6T) hard segments have been studied. The polyether soft segment used in the current study differs from the commonly used pure poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) soft segment by the fact that it contains 25 wt % randomly distributed poly(propylene oxide) (PPO). The presence of the methyl group of PPO suppresses crystallization of the soft segment and strongly improves the permeability of these materials, especially at subambient temperatures. In addition, the unique monodisperse character of the hard segment ensures a very well phase-separated morphology, resulting in a very pure soft phase. The soft segment length of these block copolymers was varied between 1000 and 10000 g/mol (62-89 wt %). High soft segment concentrations and flexibility were obtained resulting in high CO(2) permeabilities (up to 570 Barrer at 50 degrees C). Due to the random distribution of PPO in the predominantly PEO based soft segment crystallization of PEO was not observed at temperatures as low as -10 degrees C. CO(2) permeabilities exceeding 200 Barrer could be obtained at this low temperature. The CO(2)/light gas selectivity in these materials is governed by the solubility selectivity and consequently only slightly lowered because of the introduction of PPO in the soft segment. Comparison with literature revealed that this block copolymer system has exceptionally high CO(2) permeabilities combined with reasonable CO(2)/light gas selectivities. It is very interesting in CO(2) separation processes where subambient conditions are present (e.g., separation of CO(2) from natural gas), as at these low temperatures, one can take maximum advantage of the increased separation ability of the polymer materials while maintaining excellent transport characteristics. PMID:20356204

  9. Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean for the period 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, A.; Tilbrook, B.; Law, R. M.; Bakker, D.; Doney, S. C.; Gruber, N.; Ishii, M.; Hoppema, M.; Lovenduski, N. S.; Matear, R. J.; McNeil, B. I.; Metzl, N.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Rödenbeck, C.; Sweeney, C.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Southern Ocean (44-75° S) plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle, yet remains one of the most poorly sampled ocean regions. Different approaches have been used to estimate sea-air CO2 fluxes in this region: synthesis of surface ocean observations, ocean biogeochemical models, and atmospheric and ocean inversions. As part of the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes) project, we combine these different approaches to quantify and assess the magnitude and variability in Southern Ocean sea-air CO2 fluxes between 1990-2009. Using all models and inversions (26), the integrated median annual sea-air CO2 flux of -0.42 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1 for the 44-75° S region, is consistent with the -0.27 ± 0.13 Pg C yr-1 calculated using surface observations. The circumpolar region south of 58° S has a small net annual flux (model and inversion median: -0.04 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1 and observations: +0.04 ± 0.02 Pg C yr-1), with most of the net annual flux located in the 44 to 58° S circumpolar band (model and inversion median: -0.36 ± 0.09 Pg C yr-1 and observations: -0.35 ± 0.09 Pg C yr-1). Seasonally, in the 44-58° S region, the median of 5 ocean biogeochemical models captures the observed sea-air CO2 flux seasonal cycle, while the median of 11 atmospheric inversions shows little seasonal change in the net flux. South of 58° S, neither atmospheric inversions nor ocean biogeochemical models reproduce the phase and amplitude of the observed seasonal sea-air CO2 flux, particularly in the Austral Winter. Importantly, no individual atmospheric inversion or ocean biogeochemical model is capable of reproducing both the observed annual mean uptake and the observed seasonal cycle. This raises concerns about projecting future changes in Southern Ocean CO2 fluxes. The median interannual variability from atmospheric inversions and ocean biogeochemical models is substantial in the Southern Ocean; up to 25% of the annual mean flux, with 25% of this interannual

  10. Decreases in stomatal conductance of soybean (Glycine max) under open-air elevation of CO2 is closely coupled with decreases in ecosystem evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacchi, C.; Kimball, B. A.; Quarles, D. R.; Long, S. P.; Ort, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Stomatal responses to atmospheric change have been documented through a range of enclosure-based experiments. Increases in atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) has been shown to decrease stomatal conductance (gs) for a many species under numerous conditions. Less well understood, however, is the extent to which leaf level responses translate to changes in ecosystem evapotranspiration, ET. Since many changes at the soil, plant and canopy microclimate level may feed back on ET, it is not certain that decrease in gs will decrease ET in rainfed crops. To examine the scaling of the effect of elevated [CO2] on gs at the leaf to ecosystem ET, soybean (Glycine max) was grown in field conditions under control (ca 375 μmol CO2 mol-1 air) and elevated [CO2] (ca. 550 μmol mol^{- 1}) using Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE). ET was measured from the time of canopy closure to crop senescence using a residual energy balance approach over four growing seasons. Elevated [CO2] caused ET to decrease between 9 and 16% depending on year and despite large increases in photosynthesis and seed yield. Although elevated [CO2] increased leaf area and canopy temperature (Tc), ET was closely coupled (0.78) to gs of the upper canopy leaves; this relationship was not altered by growth at elevated [CO2]. The findings are consistent with model and historical analyses which suggest that, despite system feedbacks, decreased gs at elevated [CO2] results in decreased transfer of water vapor to the atmosphere.

  11. The influence of photosynthetic acclimation to rising CO2 and warmer temperatures on leaf and canopy photosynthesis models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increasing necessity to understand how climate change factors, particularly increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 ([CO2]) and rising temperature, will influence photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A). Based on theory, an increased [CO2] concomitant with a rise in temperature will ...

  12. Effects of incubation in an atmosphere of 20% CO2 in air on the Syrian hamster embryo clonal transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Przygoda, R T; Takayama, K; Traul, K A; Tummey, A

    1985-01-01

    An atmosphere containing 10% CO2 has been generally accepted as optimal for the growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells in a clonal transformation assay. Data presented in this paper show that 10% CO2 may not be the optimum environment for this assay. Using 10 or 20% (analytically measured) CO2 in air (1 atm pressure), hamster embryo cell pools were examined for clonal growth characteristics and transformability using five known carcinogens and a single noncarcinogenic compound. At 10% CO2, only 2 of 11 pools were transformed by the five carcinogens but not by the noncarcinogen. At 20% CO2, six of seven pools were transformed by the five carcinogens and not by the noncarcinogen. Further, the transformation frequencies were found to be greater in cultures incubated in an atmosphere consisting of 20% CO2 in air. The data also show that 20% CO2 increased the cloning efficiency of these cells. A comparison of the 10 and 20% CO2 data to results reported from other laboratories suggests that conflicting interlaboratory results with this assay system may be due, in part, to variations of CO2 concentrations. In some instances, the CO2 levels indicated by incubator flow meters vary considerably from analytically determined CO2 values. To prevent these CO2 discrepancies and their resultant effects on transformation and cloning efficiency, methods for monitoring the CO2 environment other than flow meters are recommended. The observation of increased cloning efficiencies and transformation rates strongly suggests that culture incubation at 20% CO2 is a preferred environment for the conduct of this assay. PMID:3936836

  13. Roles of biological and physical processes in driving seasonal air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean: New insights from CARIOCA pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; Antoine, D.

    2015-07-01

    On a mean annual basis, the Southern Ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2. However the seasonality of the air-sea CO2 flux in this region is poorly documented. We investigate processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in a large area of the Southern Ocean (38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E) that represents nearly one third of the subantarctic zone. A seasonal budget of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2 and of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC in the mixed layer is assessed by quantifying the impacts of biology, physics and thermodynamical effect on seawater pCO2. A focus is made on the quantification at a monthly scale of the biological consumption as it is the dominant process removing carbon from surface waters. In situ biological carbon production rates are estimated from high frequency estimates of DIC along the trajectories of CARIOCA drifters in the Atlantic and Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during four spring-summer seasons over the 2006-2009 period. Net community production (NCP) integrated over the mixed layer is derived from the daily change of DIC, and mixed layer depth estimated from Argo profiles. Eleven values of NCP are estimated and range from 30 to 130 mmol C m- 2 d- 1. They are used as a constraint for validating satellite net primary production (NPP). A satellite data-based global model is used to compute depth integrated net primary production, NPP, for the same periods along the trajectories of the buoys. Realistic NCP/NPP ratios are obtained under the condition that the SeaWiFS chlorophyll are corrected by a factor of ≈ 2-3, which is an underestimation previously reported for the Southern Ocean. Monthly satellite based NPP are computed over the 38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E area. pCO2 derived from these NPP combined with an export ratio, and taking into account the impact of physics and thermodynamics is in good agreement with the pCO2 seasonal climatology of Takahashi (2009). On an annual timescale, mean NCP values, 4.4 to 4.9 mol C m- 2 yr- 1 are ≈ 4-5 times

  14. Development of a Low-Power CO2 Removal and Compression System for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization in Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Moate, Joe R.

    2005-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the design and prototype development of a two-stage CO2 removal and compression system that will utilize much less power than NASA s current CO2 removal technology. This integrated system contains a Nafion membrane followed by a residual water adsorber that performs the function of the desiccant beds in the four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) system of the International Space Station (ISS). The membrane and the water adsorber are followed by a two-stage CO2 removal and compression subsystem that satisfies the operations of the CO2 adsorbent beds of the 4BMS aid the interface compressor for the Sabatier reactor connection. The two-stage compressor will utilize the principles of temperature-swing adsorption (TSA) compression technology for CO2 removal and compression. The similarities in operation and cycle times of the CO2 removal (first stage) and compression (second stage) operations will allow thermal coupling of the processes to maximize the efficiency of the system. In addition to the low-power advantage, this processor will maintain a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of membrane gas dryer and CO2 separator and compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  15. Response of leaf litter decomposition to rises in atmospheric CO2 and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammrich, A.; Flury, S.; Gessner, M. O.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have considerably increased in the last century and are expected to rise further. Elevated CO2 concentrations not only increase global temperature but also have potential to change plant litter quality, for example by increasing lignin content, changing C:N ratios and altering tannin contents. These chemical changes may interact with increased temperature to alter litter decomposition. To test whether changes in litter quality and warming affect decomposition, we conducted a field experiment with leaf litter collected from six species of mature deciduous trees exposed to either ambient or elevated CO2 levels. We used a set of 16 enclosures installed in four blocks in a freshwater marsh in a prealpine lake to test for the effects of CO2-mediated litter quality and temperature and the interaction of both factors. We measured leaf mass loss of the twelve litter types in control and heated enclosures (4 °C above ambient) and also in the open marsh. In contrast to expectations, species decomposing at low (oak and beech) and medium (hornbeam and maple) rates showed faster mass loss when leaves were grown under elevated CO2 conditions, whereas fast-decomposing species (cherry and basswood) showed no clear response. The accelerated decomposition of CO2-enriched litter could be due to higher amounts of nonstructural carbohydrates, which may have been either leached or readily degraded. Warming had a surprisingly small influence on mass loss of the tested litter species, and interactive effects were weak. These results suggest that direct and indirect effects of elevated CO2 levels on litter decomposition may not be readily predictable from first principles.

  16. Impacts of potential CO2-reduction policies on air quality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Trail, Marcus A; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P; Liu, Peng; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Hu, Yongtao; Rudokas, Jason R; Miller, Paul J; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-04-21

    Impacts of emissions changes from four potential U.S. CO2 emission reduction policies on 2050 air quality are analyzed using the community multiscale air quality model (CMAQ). Future meteorology was downscaled from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM) to the regional scale using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. We use emissions growth factors from the EPAUS9r MARKAL model to project emissions inventories for two climate tax scenarios, a combined transportation and energy scenario, a biomass energy scenario and a reference case. Implementation of a relatively aggressive carbon tax leads to improved PM2.5 air quality compared to the reference case as incentives increase for facilities to install flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. However, less capital is available to install NOX reduction technologies, resulting in an O3 increase. A policy aimed at reducing CO2 from the transportation sector and electricity production sectors leads to reduced emissions of mobile source NOX, thus reducing O3. Over most of the U.S., this scenario leads to reduced PM2.5 concentrations. However, increased primary PM2.5 emissions associated with fuel switching in the residential and industrial sectors leads to increased organic matter (OM) and PM2.5 in some cities. PMID:25811418

  17. Syngas production by high temperature steam/CO2 coelectrolysis using solid oxide electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinbing; Guan, Chengzhi; Xiao, Guoping; Du, Xianlong; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    High temperature (HT) steam/CO2 coelectrolysis with solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) using the electricity and heat generated from clean energies is an important alternative for syngas production without fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Herein, reaction characteristics and the outlet syngas composition of HT steam/CO2 coelectrolysis under different operating conditions, including distinct inlet gas compositions and electrolysis current densities, are systematically studied at 800 °C using commercially available SOECs. The HT coelectrolysis process, which has comparable performance to HT steam electrolysis, is more active than the HT CO2 electrolysis process, indicating the important contribution of the reverse water-gas shift reaction in the formation of CO. The outlet syngas composition from HT steam/CO2 coelectrolysis is very sensitive to the operating conditions, indicating the feasibility of controlling the syngas composition by varying these conditions. Maximum steam and CO2 utilizations of 77% and 76% are achieved at 1.0 A cm(-2) with an inlet gas composition of 20% H2/40% steam/40% CO2. PMID:26204849

  18. Mechanisms of low temperature capture and regeneration of CO2 using diamino protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Simons, Tristan J; Verheyen, Thomas; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I; Vijayaraghavan, R; Young, Scott; Pearson, Andrew K; Pas, Steven J; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2016-01-14

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) chemical absorption and regeneration was investigated in two diamino carboxylate protic ionic liquids (PILs), dimethylethylenediamine formate (DMEDAH formate) and dimethylpropylenediamine acetate (DMPDAH acetate), using novel calorimetric techniques. The PILs under study have previously been shown to possess a CO2 absorption capacity similar to the industrial standard, 30% aqueous MEA, while requiring much lower temperatures to release the captured CO2. We show that this is in part due to the fact that the PILs exhibit enthalpies of CO2 desorption as low as 40 kJ mol(-1), significantly lower than the 85 kJ mol(-1) required for 30% aqueous MEA. Computational and spectroscopic analyses were used to probe the mechanism of CO2 capture, which was found to proceed via the formation of carbamate moieties on the primary amine of both DMEDAH and DMPDAH. Evidence was also found that weakly acidic counter-ions such as formate and acetate provide, unexpectedly, an additional proton acceptor site in the traditional carbamate mechanism, revealing opportunities to increase CO2 uptake capacity in the future through careful design of the anion and cation used in the PIL capture agent. PMID:26660453

  19. CO2 laser cleaning of black deposits formed during the excimer laser etching of polyimide in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, G.; Donelon, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 laser cleaning of black debris formed during the excimer laser ablation of polyimide in air is demonstrated. The 10.6 μm CO2 laser radiation is strongly absorbed in the debris but only weakly absorbed in polyimide thus enabling the clean removal of the debris without damaging the polyimide.

  20. Direct mineral carbonation of steelmaking slag for CO2 sequestration at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Rushendra Revathy, T D; Palanivelu, K; Ramachandran, A

    2016-04-01

    Rapid increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has forced the international community towards adopting actions to restrain from the impacts of climate change. Moreover, in India, the dependence on fossil fuels is projected to increase in the future, implying the necessity of capturing CO2 in a safe manner. Alkaline solid wastes can be utilized for CO2 sequestration by which its disposal issues in the country could also be met. The present work focuses to study direct mineral carbonation of steelmaking slag (SS) at room temperature and low-pressure conditions (<10 bar). Direct mineral carbonation of SS was carried out in a batch reactor with pure CO2 gas. The process parameters that may influence the carbonation of SS, namely, CO2 gas pressure, liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and reaction time were also studied. The results showed that maximum sequestration of SS was attained in the aqueous route with a capacity of 82 g of CO2/kg (6 bar, L/S ratio of 10 and 3 h). In the gas-solid route, maximum sequestration capacity of about 11.1 g of CO2/kg of SS (3 bar and 3 h) was achieved indicating that aqueous route is the better one under the conditions studied. These findings demonstrate that SS is a promising resource and this approach could be further developed and used for CO2 sequestration in the country. The carbonation process was evidenced using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TG analysis. PMID:26681331

  1. Pyropia yezoensis can utilize CO2 in the air during moderate dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; He, Linwen; Yang, Fang; Lin, Apeng; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-03-01

    Pyropia yezoensis, an intertidal seaweed, experiences regular dehydration and rehydration with the tides. In this study, the responses of P. yezoensis to dehydration and rehydration under high and low CO2 concentrations ((600-700)×10-6 and (40-80)×10-6, named Group I and Group II respectively) were investigated. The thalli of Group I had a significantly higher effective photosystem II quantum yield than the thalli of Group II at 71% absolute water content (AWC). There was little difference between thalli morphology, total Rubisco activity and total protein content at 100% and 71% AWC, which might be the basis for the normal performance of photosynthesis during moderate dehydration. A higher effective photosystem I quantum yield was observed in the thalli subjected to a low CO2 concentration during moderate dehydration, which might be caused by the enhancement of cyclic electron flow. These results suggested that P. yezoensis can directly utilize CO2 in ambient air during moderate dehydration.

  2. Effects of impregnated metal ions on air/CO2-gasification of woody biomass.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Scott; Li, Hanning; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2010-12-01

    Several impregnated metal ions (Fe (III), Co (II), Ni (II), and Ru (IV)) and a raw iron ore (natural limonite) were examined as catalysts for gasification of pine sawdust in air/CO(2) at 700 and 800 degrees C. The yields of char and tar both increased with increasing CO(2) content in the feed gas. All the impregnated metal ions, in particular Ni (II), Co (II) and Ru (IV), were very effective for promoting biomass gasification in CO(2), leading to greatly reduced yields of tar and char accompanied by significantly enhanced formation of CO and H(2). At 800 degrees C, the impregnation of Fe (III), Ni (II), Co (II) or Ru (IV) led to almost complete conversion of the solid biomass into gas/liquid products, producing an extremely low char yield (<1-4 wt.%), and a very high yield of combustible gas (from 51.7 wt.% for Fe to 84 wt.% for Ru). The tar yield reduced from 32.1 wt.% without catalyst to 19-27 wt.% with the impregnated metal ions. PMID:20667716

  3. The electrical conductivity of CO2-bearing pore waters at elevated pressure and temperature: a laboratory study and its implications in CO2 storage monitoring and leakage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Jana H.; Herdegen, Volker; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Spitzer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    The electrical rock conductivity is a sensitive indicator for carbon dioxide (CO2) injection and migration processes. For a reliable balancing of the free CO2 in pore space with petrophysical models such as Archie's law or for the detection of migrating CO2, detailed knowledge of the pore water conductivity during interaction with CO2 is essential but not available yet. Contrary to common assumptions, pore water conductivity cannot be assumed constant since CO2 is a reactive gas that dissolves into the pore water in large amounts and provides additional charge carriers due to the dissociation of carbonic acid. We consequently carried out systematic laboratory experiments to quantify and analyse the changes in saline pore water conductivity caused by CO2 at thermodynamic equilibrium. Electrical conductivity is measured on pore water samples for pressures up to 30 MPa and temperatures up to 80 °C. The parameter range covers the gaseous, liquid and supercritical state of the CO2 involved. Pore water salinities from 0.006 up to 57.27 g L-1 sodium chloride were investigated as well as selective other ion species. At the same time, the CO2 concentration in the salt solution was determined by a wet-chemical procedure. A two-regime behaviour appears: for small salinities, we observe an increase of up to more than factor 3 in the electrical pore water conductivity, which strongly depends on the solution salinity (low-salinity regime). This is an expected behaviour, since the additional ions originating from the dissociation of carbonic acid positively contribute to the solution conductivity. However, when increasing salinities are considered this effect is completely diminished. For highly saline solutions, the increased mutual impeding causes the mobility of all ions to decrease, which may result in a significant reduction of conductivity by up to 15 per cent despite the added CO2 (high-salinity regime). We present the data set covering the pressure, temperature, salinity

  4. Dolomite-magnesian calcite relations at elevated temperatures and CO2 pressures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, D.L.; Goldsmith, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    The equilibrium thermal decomposition curve of dolomite has been determined up to a CO2 pressure of 20,000 lb/in.2, at which pressure dolomite decomposes at 857??C. Equilibrium was approached from both directions, by the breakdown and by the solid-state synthesis of dolomite. At elevated temperatures and pressures, calcites in equilibrium with periclase as well as those in equilibrium with dolomite contain Mg in solid solution. In the former, the Mg content increases with increasing CO2 pressure, and decreases with increasing temperature. In the latter, it is a function of temperature only. The exsolution curve of dolomite and magnesian calcite has been determined between 500?? and 800??C; at 500?? dolomite is in equilibrium with a magnesian calcite containing ~6 mol per cent MgCO2; at 800??, ~22 mol per cent. There appears to be a small but real deviation from the ideal 1 : 1 Ca : Mg ratio of dolomite, in the direction of excess Ca, for material in equilibrium with magnesian calcite at high temperature. The experimental findings indicate that very little Mg is stable in the calcites of sedimentary environments, but that an appreciable amount is stable under higher-temperature metamorphic conditions, if sufficient CO2 pressure is maintained. ?? 1955.

  5. Self-potential, soil CO2 flux, and temperature on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Connor, C.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO2 flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO2 fluxes (<1 to 5.0 × 104 g m-2 d-1), and temperatures (26 to 80°C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are <=100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO2 (δ13C = -3.3 to -1.1‰) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO2 flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  6. Forsterite dissolution in saline water at elevated temperature and high CO2 pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Giammar, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    The rates and mechanisms of magnesium silicate dissolution can control the aqueous chemistry in ways that influence carbonate mineral precipitation during geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A series of batch experiments was performed with forsterite (Mg(1.81)Fe(0.19)SiO(4)) powder to determine the effects of pressure (10-100 bar CO(2)), temperature (25-100 °C), and salinity (0-50,000 mg/L NaCl) on its dissolution rate at conditions relevant to GCS. Dissolution rates and products were determined by analysis of the aqueous phase, equilibrium and reaction path modeling, and solid phase characterization by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After an initially rapid dissolution period, the dissolution rate declined significantly, an effect that is attributed to the formation of a silica-rich layer at the forsterite surface. The initial dissolution rate increased with increasing temperature and increasing CO(2) pressure; the effect of CO(2) was through its influence on the pH. The dissolution rate was enhanced by NaCl, which may have been due to its inhibition of the formation of a silica-rich surface layer. The experimental results provide information about magnesium silicate dissolution at conditions that will be encountered during GCS that can be used to predict the fate of CO(2) and the evolution of subsurface geochemistry following CO(2) injection. PMID:22650147

  7. Dynamics of Magnesite Formation at Low Temperature and High pCO2 in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Qafoku, Odeta; Dixon, David A; Rosso, Kevin M; Schaef, Herbert T; Bowden, Mark E; Arey, Bruce W; Felmy, Andrew R

    2015-09-01

    Magnesite precipitation from aqueous solution, despite conditions of supersaturation, is kinetically hindered at low temperatures for reasons that remain poorly understood. The present study examines the products of Mg(OH)2 reaction in solutions saturated with supercritical CO2 at high pressures (90 and 110 atm) and low temperatures (35 and 50 °C). Solids characterization combined with in situ solution analysis reveal that the first reaction products are the hydrated carbonates hydromagnesite and nesquehonite, appearing simultaneously with brucite dissolution. Magnesite is not observed until it comprises a minor product at 7 days reaction at 50 °C. Complete transition to magnesite as the sole product at 35 °C (135 days) and at a faster rate at 50 °C (56 days) occurs as the hydrated carbonates slowly dissolve under the slightly acidic conditions generated at high pCO2. Such a reaction progression at high pCO2 suggests that over long term the hydrated Mg-carbonates functioned as intermediates in magnesite formation. These findings highlight the importance of developing a better understanding of the processes expected to occur during CO2 storage. They also support the importance of integrating magnesite as an equilibrium phase in reactive transport calculations of the effects of CO2 sequestration on geological formations at long time scale. PMID:26200317

  8. High temperature CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Dou, Binlin; Song, Yongchen; Liu, Yingguang; Feng, Cong

    2010-11-15

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curve of CO(2) capture using calcium oxide sorbent at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the characterization and prediction of these a difficult problem. In this study, the operating parameters on reaction between solid sorbent and CO(2) gas at high temperature were investigated. The results of the breakthrough curves showed that calcium oxide sorbent in the fixed-bed reactor was capable of reducing the CO(2) level to near zero level with the steam of 10 vol%, and the sorbent in CaO mixed with MgO of 40 wt% had extremely low capacity for CO(2) capture at 550°C. Calcium oxide sorbent after reaction can be easily regenerated at 900°C by pure N(2) flow. The experimental data were analyzed by shrinking core model, and the results showed reaction rates of both fresh and regeneration sorbents with CO(2) were controlled by a combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layer. PMID:20724072

  9. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01

    3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James O’Brien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas – hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World

  10. A statistical analysis of three ensembles of crop model responses to temperature and CO2 concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensembles of process-based crop models are now commonly used to simulate crop growth and development for climate scenarios of temperature and/or precipitation changes corresponding to different projections of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This approach generates large datasets with thousands of de...

  11. Vulnerability of lodging risk to elevated CO2 and increased soil temperature differs between rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], and subsequent increases in surface temperatures, are likely to impact the growth and yield of cereal crops. One means for yield reduction is for climate parameters to increase the occurrence of lodging. Using an in situ f...

  12. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  13. BIOMASS ACCUMULATION AND PARTITIONING OF EASTERN GAMMAGRASS GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND CO2 LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass has been reported to have one of the highest photosynthetic rates of any C4 species but data on temperature x CO2 interactions are lacking. This study was conducted to determine the potential effects of future increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide on growth, biomass accumulation...

  14. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER NITROGEN ALLOCATION IN DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on principal carbon constituents (PCC) and C and N allocation between needle, woody (stem and branches) and root tissue of Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco seedlings were determined. The seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled-envi...

  15. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  16. Temporal variations in air-sea CO2 exchange near large kelp beds near San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Hiroki; Oechel, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    study presents nearly continuous air-sea CO2 flux for 7 years using the eddy covariance method for nearshore water near San Diego, California, as well as identifying environmental processes that appear to control temporal variations in air-sea CO2 flux at different time scales using time series decomposition. Monthly variations in CO2 uptake are shown to be positively influenced by photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) and negatively related to wind speeds. In contrast to the monthly scale, wind speeds often influenced CO2 uptake positively on an hourly scale. Interannual variations in CO2 flux were not correlated with any independent variables, but did reflect surface area of the adjacent kelp bed in the following year. Different environmental influences on CO2 flux at different temporal scales suggest the importance of long-term flux monitoring for accurately identifying important environmental processes for the coastal carbon cycle. Overall, the study area was a strong CO2 sink into the sea (CO2 flux of ca. -260 g C m-2 yr-1). If all coastal areas inhabited by macrophytes had a similar CO2 uptake rate, the net CO2 uptake from these areas alone would roughly equal the net CO2 sink estimated for the entire global coastal ocean to date. A similar-strength CO2 flux, ranging between -0.09 and -0.01 g C m-2 h-1, was also observed over another kelp bed from a pilot study of boat-based eddy covariance measurements.

  17. Exploring the Phase Diagram SiO2-CO2 at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is an important volatile system relevant for planetary sciences and fundamental chemistry. Molecular CO2 has doubly bonded O=C=O units but high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) studies have recently shown its transformation into a three-dimensional network of corner-linked [CO4] units analogous to the silica mineral polymorphs, through intermediate non-molecular phases. Here, we report P-V-T data on CO2-IV ice from time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments, which allow determining the compressibility and thermal expansivity of this intermediate molecular-to-non-molecular phase.1 Aditionally, we have explored the SiO2-CO2 phase diagram and the potential formation of silicon carbonate compounds. New data obtained by laser-heating diamond-anvil experiments in CO2-filled microporous silica polymorphs will be shown. In particular, these HP-HT experiments explore the existence of potential CO2/SiO2 compounds with tetrahedrally-coordinated C/Si atoms by oxygens, which are predicted to be stable (or metastable) by state-of-the-art ab initio simulations.2,3 These theoretical predictions were supported by a recent study that reports the formation of a cristobalite-type Si0.4C0.6O2 solid solution at high-pressures and temperatures, which can be retained as a metastable solid down to ambient conditions.4 Entirely new families of structures could exist based on [CO4]4- units in various degrees of polymerisation, giving rise to a range of chain, sheet and framework solids like those found in silicate chemistry. References[1] S. Palaich et al., Am. Mineral. Submitted (2015) [2] A. Morales-Garcia et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 132, 1308 (2013) [3] R. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. X, 4, 011030 (2014) [4] M. Santoro et al. Nature Commun. 5, 3761 (2014)

  18. The growth of soybean under free air [CO(2)] enrichment (FACE) stimulates photosynthesis while decreasing in vivo Rubisco capacity.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Morgan, Patrick B; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2005-01-01

    Down-regulation of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(sat)) at elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration, [CO(2)], has been demonstrated for many C(3) species and is often associated with inability to utilize additional photosynthate and/or nitrogen limitation. In soybean, a nitrogen-fixing species, both limitations are less likely than in crops lacking an N-fixing symbiont. Prior studies have used controlled environment or field enclosures where the artificial environment can modify responses to [CO(2)]. A soybean free air [CO(2)] enrichment (FACE) facility has provided the first opportunity to analyze the effects of elevated [CO(2)] on photosynthesis under fully open-air conditions. Potential ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation (V(c,max)) and electron transport through photosystem II (J(max)) were determined from the responses of A(sat) to intercellular [CO(2)] (C(i)) throughout two growing seasons. Mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)) was determined from the responses of A(sat) and whole chain electron transport (J) to light. Elevated [CO(2)] increased A(sat) by 15-20% even though there was a small, statistically significant, decrease in V(c,max). This differs from previous studies in that V(c,max)/J(max) decreased, inferring a shift in resource investment away from Rubisco. This raised the C(i) at which the transition from Rubisco-limited to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration-limited photosynthesis occurred. The decrease in V(c,max) was not the result of a change in g(m), which was unchanged by elevated [CO(2)]. This first analysis of limitations to soybean photosynthesis under fully open-air conditions reveals important differences to prior studies that have used enclosures to elevate [CO(2)], most significantly a smaller response of A(sat) and an apparent shift in resources away from Rubisco relative to capacity for electron transport. PMID:15252734

  19. Gas temperature in transient CO2 plasma measured by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehmer, F.; Welzel, S.; Klarenaar, B. L. M.; van der Meiden, H. J.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Engeln, R.

    2015-04-01

    Rotational Raman scattering on the vibrational ground state of CO2 was performed to determine the gas temperature in narrow-gap dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The Raman spectrometer was equipped with a straightforward spectral filtering to mask ca. 30 cm-1 (0.85 nm) centered around the excitation wavelength of 532 nm. Linearisation of the observed transitions (J = 18-42) was applied to retrieve gas temperatures in discharge gaps of 1 mm. The DBD was operated in pure CO2 at atmospheric pressure and non-negligible gas heating of about 160 K was observed at 33 W injected power. Based on a simplified energy balance the gas temperature measurements were extrapolated to a broad range of injected plasma power values (0-60 W).

  20. Mars south polar spring and summer temperatures - A residual CO2 frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) energy measurements over the Mars south polar cap throughout the Martian spring and summer revealed complex spatial, spectral, and temporal variations. High albedos did not directly correspond with low temperatures, and as the cap shrank to its residual position, it maintained large differences in brightness temperature between the four IRTM surface-sensing bands at 7, 9, 11, and 20 microns. The late summer infrared spectral pattern can be matched by a surface consisting of CO2 frost with 20 micron emissivity of 0.8 and about 6% dark, warm soil under a dusty atmosphere of moderate infrared opacity and spectral properties similar to those measured for the Martian global dust storms. Low temperature, the absence of appreciable water vapor in the south polar atmosphere, and the absence of surface warming expected if H2O were to become exposed, all imply that the residual south polar cap was covered by solid CO2.

  1. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    PubMed

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given. PMID:19219897

  2. Data fusion of CO2 retrieved from GOSAT and AIRS using regression analysis and fixed rank kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cong; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes an improved statistical method for fusing carbon dioxide (CO2) data retrieved from two major instruments, the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). These two datasets were fused to obtain CO2 concentrations near the surface, which is a region that is especially important for studies on carbon sources and sinks. Overall, the CO2 monthly average values from GOSAT are all lower than those from AIRS from 2010 to 2012. The datasets show the similar seasonal cycles of carbon dioxide and show an increasing trend with a determination coefficient of 0.45. A strong correlation was determined by adding the climatic factors as independent variables for regression analysis. The correlation coefficients between the CO2 values from AIRS and GOSAT significantly increased in response. The true CO2 data processes were then predicted using the fixed rank kriging method. This showed that the data-fusion CO2 product provides more reasonable information and that the corresponding mean squared prediction errors are smaller than those from the single GOSAT CO2 dataset.

  3. Escherichia coli inactivation by pressurized CO2 treatment methods at room temperature: Critical issues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongji; Huang, Doudou; Zhou, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to increase the inactivation efficiency of CO2 against Escherichia coli under mild conditions to facilitate the application of pressurized CO2 technology in water disinfection. Based on an aerating-cycling apparatus, three different treatment methods (continuous aeration, continuous reflux, and simultaneous aeration and reflux) were compared for the same temperature, pressure (0.3-0.7MPa), initial concentration, and exposure time (25min). The simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment (combined method) was shown to be the best method under optimum conditions, which were determined to be 0.7MPa, room temperature, and an exposure time of 10min. This treatment achieved 5.1-log reduction after 25min of treatment at the pressure of 0.3MPa and 5.73-log reduction after 10min at 0.7MPa. Log reductions of 4.4 and 5.0 occurred at the end of continuous aeration and continuous reflux treatments at 0.7MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggested that cells were ruptured after the simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment and the continuous reflux treatment. The increase of the solubilization rate of CO2 due to intense hydraulic conditions led to a rapid inactivation effect. It was found that the reduction of intracellular pH caused by CO2 led to a more lethal bactericidal effect. PMID:27155435

  4. The effects of CO2 and nutrient fertilisation on the growth and temperature response of the mangrove Avicennia germinans.

    PubMed

    Reef, Ruth; Slot, Martijn; Motro, Uzi; Motro, Michal; Motro, Yoav; Adame, Maria F; Garcia, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Lovelock, Catherine E; Winter, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    In order to understand plant responses to both the widespread phenomenon of increased nutrient inputs to coastal zones and the concurrent rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, CO2-nutrient interactions need to be considered. In addition to its potential stimulating effect on photosynthesis and growth, elevated CO2 affects the temperature response of photosynthesis. The scarcity of experiments testing how elevated CO2 affects the temperature response of tropical trees hinders our ability to model future primary productivity. In a glasshouse study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 (800 ppm) and nutrient availability on seedlings of the widespread mangrove Avicennia germinans. We assessed photosynthetic performance, the temperature response of photosynthesis, seedling growth and biomass allocation. We found large synergistic gains in both growth (42 %) and photosynthesis (115 %) when seedlings grown under elevated CO2 were supplied with elevated nutrient concentrations relative to their ambient growing conditions. Growth was significantly enhanced under elevated CO2 only under high-nutrient conditions, mainly in above-ground tissues. Under low-nutrient conditions and elevated CO2, root volume was more than double that of seedlings grown under ambient CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 significantly increased the temperature optimum for photosynthesis by ca. 4 °C. Rising CO2 concentrations are likely to have a significant positive effect on the growth rate of A. germinans over the next century, especially in areas where nutrient availability is high. PMID:27259536

  5. Inference of super-resolution ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes from non-linear and multiscale processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Sudre, Joel; Garçon, Veronique; Yahia, Hussein; Dewitte, Boris; Garbe, Christoph; Illig, Séréna; Montes, Ivonne; Dadou, Isabelle; Paulmier, Aurélien; Butz, André

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the role of submesoscale activity is emerging as being more and more important to understand global ocean properties, for instance, for accurately estimating the sources and sinks of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) at the air-sea interface. The scarcity of oceanographic cruises and the lack of available satellite products for GHG concentrations at high resolution prevent from obtaining a global assessment of their spatial variability at small scales. In this work we develop a novel method to reconstruct maps of CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4km) using SST and ocean colour data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). The responsible process for propagating the information between scales is related to cascading properties and multiscale organization, typical of fully developed turbulence. The methodology, based on the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism, makes use, from the knowledge of singularity exponents, of the optimal wavelet for the determination of the energy injection mechanism between scales. We perform a validation analysis of the results of our algorithm using pCO2 ocean data from in-situ measurements in the upwelling region off Namibia.

  6. High temperature oxidation behaviour of nanostructured cermet coatings in a mixed CO2 - O2 environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured ceramic-metallic (cermet) coatings composed of nanosized ceramic particles (α-Al2O3 and TiO2) dispersed in a nickel matrix were co-electrodeposited and then oxidized at 500°C, 600°C and 700°C in a mixed gas using a Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) apparatus. The mixed gas was composed of 15% CO2, 10% O2 and 75% N2. This research investigates the effects of CO2 and O2 partial pressures on time-depended oxidation rates for coatings and compared them to the results from atmospheric oxidation under similar temperatures. The increase in partial pressure of oxygen due to the presence of CO2 at each tested temperature was calculated and correlated to the oxidation rate of the coatings. The results showed that the presence of CO2 in the system increased the oxidation rate of cermet coatings when compared to atmospheric oxidation at the same temperature. It was also shown that the increase in the oxidation rate is not the result of CO2 acting as the primary oxidant but as a secondary oxidant which results in an increase of the total partial pressure of oxygen and consequently higher oxidation rates. The WDS and XRD analyses results showed that the presence of nanosized TiO2 particles in a nickel matrix can improve oxidation behaviour of the coatings by formation of Ni-Ti compounds on oxidizing surface of the coating which was found beneficiary in reducing the oxidation rates for cermet coatings.

  7. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, Conor; Hutyra, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  8. Effects of winter temperature and summer drought on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a temperate peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Campbell, Claire; Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Coyle, Mhairi; Anderson, Margaret; Skiba, Ute; Nemitz, Eiko; Billett, Michael; Sutton, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the most important global sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); their ability to sequester C is a natural feedback mechanism controlled by climatic variables such as precipitation, temperature, length of growing season and period of snow cover. In the UK it has been predicted that peatlands could become a net source of carbon in response to climate change with climate models predicting a rise in global temperature of ca. 3oC between 1961-1990 and 2100. Land-atmosphere exchange of CO2in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variations, which have significant short- and long-term effects on carbon sink strength. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) at Auchencorth Moss (55° 47'32 N, 3° 14'35 W, 267 m a.s.l.), a temperate peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Auchencorth Moss is a low-lying, ombrotrophic peatland situated ca. 20 km south-west of Edinburgh. Peat depth ranges from 5 m and the site has a mean annual precipitation of 1155 mm. The vegetation present within the flux measurement footprint comprises mixed grass species, heather and substantial areas of moss species (Sphagnum spp. and Polytrichum spp.). The EC system consists of a LiCOR 7000 closed-path infrared gas analyser for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and water vapour and of a Gill Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer. Over the 10 year period, the site was a consistent yet variable sink of CO2 ranging from -34.1 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -69.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing seasons and mean winter air temperature explained 93% of the variability in summertime sink strength, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant development and productivity were stunted by colder winters causing a net reduction in the annual carbon sink strength of this peatland where autotrophic processes are thought to be

  9. Elevated CO2 Reduced Floret Death in Wheat Under Warmer Average Temperatures and Terminal Drought

    PubMed Central

    Dias de Oliveira, Eduardo; Palta, Jairo A.; Bramley, Helen; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs. free-tillering). The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3°C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3°C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables. PMID:26635837

  10. Physiographic position modulates the influence of temperature and precipitation as controls over leaf and ecosystem level CO2 flux in shrubland ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of semiarid grasslands to shrublands may alter the sensitivity of CO2 exchange of both the dominant plants and the entire ecosystem to variation in air temperature and precipitation. We used a combination of leaf-level gas exchange experimentation and ecosystem-level eddy covariance monit...

  11. ELEVATED CO2 AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE HAVE NO EFFECT ON DOUGLAS-FIR FINE-ROOT DYNAMICS IN NITROGEN-POOR SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here, we investigate fine-root production, mortality and standing crop of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and elevated air temperature. We hypothesized that these treatments would increase fine-root production, but that mortality ...

  12. Spatio-temporal visualization of air-sea CO2 flux and carbon budget using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhenhong; Fang, Lei; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Renyi

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a novel visualization method to show the spatio-temporal dynamics of carbon sinks and sources, and carbon fluxes in the ocean carbon cycle. The air-sea carbon budget and its process of accumulation are demonstrated in the spatial dimension, while the distribution pattern and variation of CO2 flux are expressed by color changes. In this way, we unite spatial and temporal characteristics of satellite data through visualization. A GPU-based direct volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing is adopted to dynamically visualize the released or absorbed CO2 gas with shadow effects. A data model is designed to generate four-dimensional (4D) data from satellite-derived air-sea CO2 flux products, and an out-of-core scheduling strategy is also proposed for on-the-fly rendering of time series of satellite data. The presented 4D visualization method is implemented on graphics cards with vertex, geometry and fragment shaders. It provides a visually realistic simulation and user interaction for real-time rendering. This approach has been integrated into the Information System of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Air-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2) for the research and assessment of air-sea CO2 flux in the China Seas.

  13. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture.

  14. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. “Ion and acid-base regulation” related genes and “amino acid metabolism” pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, “anti-oxidation”-related genes and “Toll-like receptor signaling”, “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “lysosome” and “other glycan degradation” pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture. PMID:26732540

  15. Transcriptome and biomineralization responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 and temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Liu, Yangjia; Zhang, Shuwen; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming have been shown to significantly affect the physiological performances of marine calcifiers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome and biomineralization responses of Pinctada fucata to elevated CO2 (pH 7.8 and pH 7.5) and temperature (25 °C and 31 °C) are investigated. Increases in CO2 and temperature induced significant changes in gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, net calcification rates and relative calcium content, whereas no changes are observed in the shell ultrastructure. "Ion and acid-base regulation" related genes and "amino acid metabolism" pathway respond to the elevated CO2 (pH 7.8), suggesting that P. fucata implements a compensatory acid-base mechanism to mitigate the effects of low pH. Additionally, "anti-oxidation"-related genes and "Toll-like receptor signaling", "arachidonic acid metabolism", "lysosome" and "other glycan degradation" pathways exhibited responses to elevated temperature (25 °C and 31 °C), suggesting that P. fucata utilizes anti-oxidative and lysosome strategies to alleviate the effects of temperature stress. These responses are energy-consuming processes, which can lead to a decrease in biomineralization capacity. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms by which pearl oysters respond to changing environments and predicting the effects of global climate change on pearl aquaculture. PMID:26732540

  16. High temperature thermoelectric properties of Bi2-xNaxSr2Co2Oy ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. L.; Li, S. Y.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Z.; Hu, X.; Song, H. Z.

    2015-09-01

    The Na doping effects on the high temperature thermoelectric properties of Bi2-xNaxSr2Co2Oy (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.30) ceramics were investigated from 343 K to 973 K. When x ≤ 0.15, the electrical resistivity of Bi2-xNaxSr2Co2Oy decreases with increasing Na doping amount due to the hole-doping effect, which exhibits metallic electrical conductivity behavior. While, at the temperature range of 480-830 K, the samples with x > 0.20 exhibit semiconductor electrical conductivity behavior instead. The Seebeck coefficients are improved by Na doping at lower temperature, but they decrease slightly at higher temperature except for x = 0.2. Roughly, the thermal conductivity is depressed by the doping defects. As an overall result, the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of Bi1.8Na0.2Sr2Co2Oy reaches the maximum value of 0.3 K at 973 K, which is nearly twice the value of the undoped sample LBFSx.

  17. The covariation of Northern Hemisphere summertime CO2 with surface temperature in boreal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Messerschmidt, J.; Parazoo, N. C.; Toon, G. C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Roehl, C. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.

    2013-09-01

    We observe significant interannual variability in the strength of the seasonal cycle drawdown in northern midlatitudes from measurements of CO2 made by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). This variability correlates with surface temperature in the boreal regions. Using TCCON measurements, we find that the slope of the relationship between the XCO2 seasonal cycle minima and boreal surface temperature is 1.2 ± 0.7 ppm K-1. Assimilations from CarbonTracker 2011 and CO2 simulations using the Simple Biosphere exchange Model (SiB) transported by GEOS-Chem underestimate this covariation. Both atmospheric transport and biospheric activity contribute to the observed covariation.

  18. The covariation of Northern Hemisphere summertime CO2 with surface temperature at boreal latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Messerschmidt, J.; Parazoo, N.; Toon, G. C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Roehl, C. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.

    2013-04-01

    We observe significant interannual variability in the strength of the seasonal cycle drawdown in northern midlatitudes from measurements of CO2 made by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). This variability correlates with surface temperature in the boreal latitudes. The TCCON measurements give an average covariation between the XCO2 seasonal cycle minima and boreal surface temperature of 1.3 ± 0.7 ppm K-1. Assimilations from CarbonTracker 2011 and CO2 simulations using the Simple Biosphere exchange Model (SiB) transported by GEOS-Chem underestimate this covariation. Both atmospheric transport and biospheric activity contribute to the observed covariation.

  19. Experimental and numerical results for CO2 concentration and temperature profiles in an occupied room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotel, Aline; Junghans, Lars; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, a recognition of the scope of the negative environmental impact of existing buildings has spurred academic and industrial interest in transforming existing building design practices and disciplinary knowledge. For example, buildings alone consume 72% of the electricity produced annually in the United States; this share is expected to rise to 75% by 2025 (EPA, 2009). Significant reductions in overall building energy consumption can be achieved using green building methods such as natural ventilation. An office was instrumented on campus to acquire CO2 concentrations and temperature profiles at multiple locations while a single occupant was present. Using openFOAM, numerical calculations were performed to allow for comparisons of the CO2 concentration and temperature profiles for different ventilation strategies. Ultimately, these results will be the inputs into a real time feedback control system that can adjust actuators for indoor ventilation and utilize green design strategies. Funded by UM Office of Vice President for Research.

  20. Temperature- and pressure-dependent absorption coefficients for CO2 and O2 at 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, K. T.; Nord, S.; Monkhouse, P. B.

    Absorption of laser radiation at 193 nm by CO2 and O2 was studied at a series of different temperatures up to 1273 K and pressures up to 1 bar. The spectrum for CO2 was found to be broadband, so that absorption could be fitted to a Beer-Lambert law. On the other hand, the corresponding O2 spectrum is strongly structured and parameterisation requires a more complex relation, depending on both temperature and the product (pressure × absorption path length). In this context, the influence of spectral structure on the resulting spectrally integrated absorption coefficients is discussed. Using the fitting parameters obtained, effective transmissions at 193 nm can be calculated for a wide range of experimental conditions. As an illustration of the practical application of these data, the calculation of effective transmission for a typical industrial flue gas is described.

  1. Measurement of rate constant for quenching CO2(0110) by atomic oxygen at low temperatures: reassessment of the population of CO2(0110) and the CO2 15-μm emission cooling in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shved, Gustav M.; Khvorostovskaya, Lyudmila E.; Potekhin, Igor Y.; Ogibalov, Vladimir P.; Uzyukova, Tatyana V.

    2003-04-01

    The paper presents the first laboratory measurement of the rate constant for quenching the CO2(0110) state during collisions of CO2 molecules with O atoms at temperatures realized near the Earth's mesopause. The measurement was carried out with a hollow-cathode glow discharge in the temperature range 206-358 K. The measured values are significantly smaller than those commonly used in solving the non-LTE CO2 problem for the vibrational states of the mode ν2 in the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars. The measured temperature dependence of the rate constant is approximated by a simple relation, which is recommended for solving the above problem. The value of this rate constant is absolutely critical to remotely sense temperature, and hence also constituent densities, in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere of the Earth. The use of the new values of the rate constant significantly decreased the rate of cooling by the CO2 15-μm emission in the terrestrial lower thermosphere as compared to the previous estimates obtained for this rate. Over the most area of the Earth's surface, the maximum cooling rate occurs at an altitude of about 110 km and amounts to about 20 K/day.

  2. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments.

    PubMed

    Norby, Richard J; De Kauwe, Martin G; Domingues, Tomas F; Duursma, Remko A; Ellsworth, David S; Goll, Daniel S; Lapola, David M; Luus, Kristina A; MacKenzie, A Rob; Medlyn, Belinda E; Pavlick, Ryan; Rammig, Anja; Smith, Benjamin; Thomas, Rick; Thonicke, Kirsten; Walker, Anthony P; Yang, Xiaojuan; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model-data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity. PMID:26249015

  3. Rapid, broadband spectroscopic temperature measurement of hbox {CO}_2 using VIPA spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Andrew; Ycas, Gabriel; Cruz, Flavio C.; Maser, Daniel L.; Diddams, Scott A.

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopic temperature measurements of a sealed carbon dioxide sample cell were realized with an optical frequency comb combined with a two-dimensional dispersive spectrometer. A supercontinuum laser source based on an erbium fiber mode-locked laser was employed to generate coherent light around 2000 nm (5000hbox { cm}^{-1}). The laser was passed through a 12-cm-long cell containing hbox {CO}_2, and the transmitted light was analyzed in a virtually imaged phased array-based spectrometer. Broadband spectra spanning more than 100hbox { cm}^{-1 } with a spectral resolution of roughly 0.075hbox { cm}^{-1} (2.2 GHz) were acquired with an integration period of 2 ms. The temperature of the hbox {CO}_2 sample was deduced from fitting a modeled spectrum to the line intensities of the experimentally acquired spectrum. Temperature dynamics on the timescale of milliseconds were observed with a temperature resolution of 2.6 K. The spectroscopically deduced temperatures agreed with temperatures of the sample cell measured with a thermistor. Potential applications of this technique include quantitative measurement of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature dynamics in gas-phase chemical reactions (e.g., combustion) and plasma diagnostics.

  4. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Clode, P. L.

    2015-08-01

    Aragonite, which is the polymorph of CaCO3 precipitated by modern corals during skeletal formation, has a higher solubility than the more stable polymorph calcite. This higher solubility leaves animals that produce aragonitic skeletons more vulnerable to anthropogenic ocean acidification. It is therefore, important to determine whether scleractinian corals have the plasticity to adapt and produce calcite in their skeletons in response to changing environmental conditions. Both high pCO2 and lower Mg / Ca ratios in seawater are thought to have driven changes in the skeletal mineralogy of major marine calcifiers in the past ∼540 myr. Experimentally reduced Mg / Ca ratios in ambient seawater have been shown to induce some calcite precipitation in both adult and newly settled modern corals, however, the impact of high pCO2 on the mineralogy of recruits is unknown. Here we determined the skeletal mineralogy of one-month old Acropora spicifera coral recruits grown under high temperature (+3 °C) and pCO2 (∼900 μatm) conditions, using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. We found that newly settled coral recruits produced entirely aragonitic skeletons regardless of the treatment. Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be to investigate the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg / Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  5. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Clode, P. L.

    2016-03-01

    Aragonite, which is the polymorph of CaCO3 precipitated by modern corals during skeletal formation, has a higher solubility than the more stable polymorph calcite. This higher solubility may leave animals that produce aragonitic skeletons more vulnerable to anthropogenic ocean acidification. It is therefore important to determine whether scleractinian corals have the plasticity to adapt and produce calcite in their skeletons in response to changing environmental conditions. Both high pCO2 and lower Mg / Ca ratios in seawater are thought to have driven changes in the skeletal mineralogy of major marine calcifiers in the past ˜ 540 Ma. Experimentally reduced Mg / Ca ratios in ambient seawater have been shown to induce some calcite precipitation in both adult and newly settled modern corals; however, the impact of high pCO2 on the mineralogy of recruits is unknown. Here we determined the skeletal mineralogy of 1-month-old Acropora spicifera coral recruits grown under high temperature (+3 °C) and pCO2 (˜ 900 µatm) conditions, using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. We found that newly settled coral recruits produced entirely aragonitic skeletons regardless of the treatment. Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be the investigation of the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg / Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  6. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-01

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions. PMID:23758262

  7. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Greg H.; Carroll, Susan A.; Bourcier, William L.; Singleton, Michael J.; Smith, Megan M.; Aines, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 105-fold increase in OH− concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH− initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  8. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production.

    PubMed

    Rau, Greg H; Carroll, Susan A; Bourcier, William L; Singleton, Michael J; Smith, Megan M; Aines, Roger D

    2013-06-18

    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 10(5)-fold increase in OH(-) concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH(-) initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (<300 kJ/mol of CO2 captured), and inexpensive (<$100 per tonne of CO2 mitigated) removal of excess air CO2 with production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  9. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER THE ECOSYSTEM C EXCHANGE IN A YOUNG DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (EC) [ambient CO2 (AC) + 190 ppm] and elevated temperature (ET) [ambient temperature (AT) + 3.6 °C] on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of seedling Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mesocosms. As the study utilized seedlings in reconstruc...

  10. Bubble nucleation in H2O-CO2 bearing basaltic melts: results of high temperature decompression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, N.; Pichavant, M.; Burgisser, A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous experiments have shown that mechanisms of basalt degassing are strongly contrasted when gas bubbles are present or when they are absent. Thus, experimental information on the kinetics of bubble nucleation in basaltic melts is needed, and high temperature decompression experiments have been investigated. All experiments used PST-9 basaltic pumice from Stromboli as starting material. The sample was fused in air at 1400°C for 3h and then cylinders (l up to 10mm, d 2.5 and 5mm) were cored. Synthesis experiments were performed to produce the volatile-bearing melts to be used in the decompression experiments. Glass cores, distilled H2O and Ag2C2O4 were loaded in AuPd capsules. Three different H2O/CO2 were introduced, corresponding to XH2Oin=1 (#1: only H2O dissolved in glass), 0.55 (#2: high dissolved H2O/CO2), 0 (#3: low dissolved H2O/CO2). The synthesis experiments were ran at 1200°C during about 40h in an internally heated vessel pressurized with Ar-H2. The synthesized crystal- and bubble-free glasses were cut in 2 parts: one for the decompression experiments and the other for the analysis. Decompression experiments were conducted at a fast rate of 39kPa/s, exceptionally of 77.8kPa/s, at 1200°C from an initial pressure (Pin) of 200MPa and to final pressures (Pf) of 200, 150, 100 and 50MPa. Experiments to 25MPa are in progress. Each run included 3 capsules, corresponding to the 3 XH2Oin conditions of glass synthesis, allowing results for the 3 H2O/CO2 to be directly compared. Charges were rapid-quenched immediately after attainment of Pf. Textures were analyzed by X-ray microtomography, and volatile concentrations and spatial distributions in pre- and post-decompression glasses were determined by FTIR. Pre-decompression glasses have homogeneous volatile contents and distributions. They divide into 3 compositional groups consistent with their XH2Oin conditions of synthesis: group #1 (average H2O content=4.82wt%, average CO2 content=0ppm), group #2 (2.15wt

  11. Temperature Dependence of the Vibrational Relaxation of OH(υ = 1 and 2) by CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanescu, C.; Marakov, A.; Timmers, H.; Kalogerakis, K.; Copeland, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical is a key species in the energy budget of the terrestrial atmospheres. The main source of OH, the reaction between H-atoms and ozone, produces OH radicals with up to nine quanta of vibrational energy. The energy of OH(υ ≥ 1) is either transferred to an ambient species via collisional relaxation or is emitted as an infrared or visible photon. The relative intensities of the OH emission bands depend strongly on the planet’s atmospheric composition and temperature. Recently, the Venus Express mission detected IR emissions corresponding to the (1-0) and (2-0) bands of ground state of OH at an altitude of around 95 km.1 In the atmosphere of Venus, the dynamics of the OH vibrational populations are controlled mainly by collisions with CO2 molecules. Therefore, the key input parameters to the OH kinetic models are the vibrational quenching rate constants by CO2 and the fractions of single- and multi-quantum relaxation steps at temperatures relevant to the altitudes where these emissions occur. Currently, there are no available data for the vibrational relaxation of OH(υ = 1, 2) by CO2 below 300 K. Given the importance of these rate constants for the understanding the OH radical emissions on Venus, we applied a two-laser approach to extract the rate constants for the vibrational relaxation of OH(υ = 1, 2) by CO2. The pathways for relaxation of OH((υ = 2) were also examined. Ozone is photolysed at 248 nm and a small fraction of resulting O(1D) reacts with H2O and form OH(υ ≤ 2). The remaining O(1D) atoms are quenched to O(3P) by collisions with N2 and CO2. The OH(υ = 1, 2) populations are monitored by using LIF. The transients corresponding to the decay of OH(υ) and kinetic simulations are used to extract the rate constants and the relaxation pathways. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 210 - 295 K. The results indicate that the rate constant increases as the temperature decreases. This temperature dependence needs to be

  12. Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Chinnasamy, Senthil; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Das, Keshav C.

    2009-01-01

    The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20%) and temperature (30, 40 and 50°C). The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 μg mL–1) and biomass (210 μg mL–1), which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%), were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30°C under elevated CO2 (6%). Although increases in temperature above 30°C resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30°C, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures. PMID:19333419

  13. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p < 0.001). The model simulations of superficial temperature correlated with the measured skin surface temperature (r > 0.90, p < 0.001). Of the 16 subjects tested; eight subjects reported pricking pain in the hairy skin following a stimulus of 0.6 J/cm2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm) only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin) was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation. PMID:21059226

  14. First continuous measurements of δ18O-CO2 in air with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardag, S. N.; Hammer, S.; Sabasch, M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Levin, I.

    2015-02-01

    The continuous in situ measurement of δ18O in atmospheric CO2 opens a new door to differentiating between CO2 source and sink components with high temporal resolution. Continuous 13C-CO2 measurement systems have already been commercially available for some time, but until now, only few instruments have been able to provide a continuous measurement of the oxygen isotope ratio in CO2. Besides precise 13C/12C observations, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is also able to measure the 18O / 16O ratio in CO2, but the precision and accuracy of the measurements have not yet been evaluated. Here we present a first analysis of δ18O-CO2 (and δ13C-CO2) measurements with the FTIR analyser in Heidelberg. We used Allan deviation to determine the repeatability of δ18O-CO2 measurements and found that it decreases from 0.25‰ for 10 min averages to about 0.1‰ after 2 h and remains at that value up to 24 h. We evaluated the measurement precision over a 10-month period (intermediate measurement precision) using daily working gas measurements and found that our spectrometer measured δ18O-CO2 to better than 0.3‰ at a temporal resolution of less than 10 min. The compatibility of our FTIR-spectrometric measurements to isotope-ratio mass-spectrometric (IRMS) measurements was determined by comparing FTIR measurements of cylinder gases and ambient air with IRMS measurements of flask samples, filled with gases of the same cylinders or collected from the same ambient air intake. Two-sample t tests revealed that, at the 0.01 significance level, the FTIR and the IRMS measurements do not differ significantly from each other and are thus compatible. We describe two weekly episodes of ambient air measurements, one in winter and one in summer, and discuss what potential insights and new challenges combined highly resolved CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 records may provide in terms of better understanding regional scale continental carbon exchange processes.

  15. Spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Western English Channel based on two years of FerryBox deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Latimier, M.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Vernet, M.; Bozec, Y.

    2014-12-01

    From January 2011 to January 2013, a FerryBox system was installed on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crossed the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff (France) and Plymouth (UK) up to 3 times a day. The FerryBox continuously measured sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescence and partial pressure of CO2 (from April 2012) along the ferry track. Sensors were calibrated based on 714 bimonthly surface samplings with precisions of 0.016 for SSS, 3.3 μM for DO, 0.40 μg L- 1 for Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (based on fluorescence measurements) and 5.2 μatm for pCO2. Over the 2 years of deployment (900 crossings), we reported 9% of data lost due to technical issues and quality checked data was obtained to allow investigation of the dynamics of biogeochemical processes related to air-sea CO2 fluxes in the WEC. Based on this unprecedented high-frequency dataset, the physical structure of the WEC was assessed using SST anomalies and the presence of a thermal front was observed around the latitude 49.5°N, which divided the WEC in two main provinces: the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the all-year well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC). These hydrographical properties strongly influenced the spatial and inter-annual distributions of phytoplankton blooms, which were mainly limited by nutrients and light availability in the nWEC and the sWEC, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes were also highly related to hydrographical properties of the WEC between late April and early September 2012, with the sWEC a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1, whereas the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 6.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1. The study of short time-scale dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer bloom in the nWEC contributed to 29% of the CO2 sink during the productive period, highlighting the necessity for high frequency observations in coastal

  16. Relating surface chemistry and oxygen surface exchange in LnBaCo2O(5+δ) air electrodes.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Kilner, John A; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    The surface and near-surface chemical composition of electroceramic materials often shows significant deviations from that of the bulk. In particular, layered materials, such as cation-ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites (Ln = lanthanide), undergo surface and sub-surface restructuring due to the segregation of the divalent alkaline-earth cation. These processes can take place during synthesis and processing steps (e.g. deposition, sintering or annealing), as well as at temperatures relevant for the operation of these materials as air electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysers. Furthermore, the surface segregation in these double perovskites shows fast kinetics, starting at temperatures as low as 400 °C over short periods of time and leading to a decrease in the transition metal surface coverage exposed to the gas phase. In this work, we use a combination of stable isotope tracer labeling and surface-sensitive ion beam techniques to study the oxygen transport properties and their relationship with the surface chemistry in ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites. Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) combined with (18)O isotope exchange was used to determine the oxygen tracer diffusion (D*) and surface exchange (k*) coefficients. Furthermore, Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) was used for the analysis of the surface and near surface chemistry as it provides information from the first mono-atomic layer of the materials. In this way, we could relate the compositional modifications (e.g. cation segregation) taking place at the electrochemically-active surface during the exchange at high temperatures and the oxygen transport properties in double perovskite electrode materials to further our understanding of the mechanism of the surface exchange process. PMID:26212446

  17. SPICAM dayglow measurements: a tool to retrieve CO2 vertical density profile and exospheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiepen, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Bougher, S.; Montmessin, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2012-09-01

    We analyze the behavior of the CO2 + and CO Cameron ultraviolet dayglow in the atmosphere of Mars through a large dataset of dayside grazing limb observations performed by the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express spacecraft. Limb profiles are studied to retrieve the temperature of the Martian exosphere and its variability with season, latitude and solar activity. We use a one-dimensional chemical-diffusive model to retrieve the main features of the emissions and constrain the temperature and density vertical profiles of the main components of the Martian atmosphere.

  18. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on abiotic and biologically-driven basalt weathering and C sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontsova, K.; Juarez, S.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Cros, A.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Corvisier, J.; Troch, P. A. A.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.

    2015-12-01

    Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France. Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff, AZ was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants. Solid samples

  19. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on abiotic and biologically-driven basalt weathering and C sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Sabrina; Dontsova, Katerina; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Chollet, Simon; Llavata, Mathieu; Massol, Florent; Cros, Alexis; Barré, Pierre; Gelabert, Alexandre; Daval, Damien; Corvisier, Jérôme; Troch, Peter; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Van Haren, Joost; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France (France). Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff (AZ, USA) was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants

  20. Leaf conductance decreased under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) for three perennials in the Nevada desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.S.; DeFalco, L.A.; Wilcox, C.S.; Jordan, D.N.; Coleman, J.S.; Seemann, J.R.; Smith, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    A common response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2) is decreased leaf conductance. Consequently, leaf temperature is predicted to increase under elevated CO2. Diurnal patterns of leaf conductance and temperature were measured for three desert perennials, the C3 shrub Larrea tridentata, C3 tussock grass Achnatherum hymenoides and C4 tussock grass Pleuraphis rigida, at the Nevada Desert FACE facility. Measurements were made on ambient and c. 550 ??mol mol-1 CO2 plots through both a wet and dry year. Reductions in conductance were 35%, 20% and 13% for Pleuraphis, Achnatherum and Larrea, respectively. Decreased conductance occurred throughout the day only for Pleuraphis. Both C3 species had smaller CO2 effects during dry periods than wet. Leaf temperature did not differ significantly between elevated and ambient CO2 for any species. Comparisons of blower-control and nonring plots indicated that the FACE apparatus did not confound our results. All three species exhibited decreased leaf conductance under elevated CO2, although reductions were not uniform during the day or among years. Nonetheless, leaf energy balance was only minimally changed for these microphyllous desert perennials.

  1. Variable-temperature IR spectroscopic and theoretical studies on CO2 adsorbed in zeolite K-FER.

    PubMed

    Areán, Carlos Otero; Delgado, Montserrat Rodríguez; Bibiloni, Gabriel Fiol; Bludský, Ota; Nachtigall, Petr

    2011-06-01

    Adsorption of CO(2) in K-FER zeolite is investigated by a combination of variable-temperature IR spectroscopy and periodic DFT calculations augmented for description of dispersion interactions. Calculated adsorption enthalpies for CO(2) adsorption complexes on single extra-framework K(+) sites and on dual-cation sites where CO(2) interacts simultaneously with two extra-framework K(+) cations (-40 and -44 kJ mol(-1), respectively) are in excellent agreement with experimental values. The analysis of effects on the frequency of the asymmetric CO(2) stretching mode ν(3) shows that polarization of CO(2) by the K(+) cation leads to an increase in ν(3), while the interaction of CO(2) with the zeolite framework leads to a decrease in ν(3). In the case of K-FER, the latter effect is slightly larger than the former, and thus a small redshift in ν(3) results (-3 cm(-1) with respect to free CO(2)). For adsorption complexes on dual K(+) sites, where CO(2) interacts with one K(+) cation on each end of the molecule, the polarization of CO(2) molecules on both sides results in a blueshift of ν(3). The origin of the redshift in ν(3) when CO(2) is adsorbed in purely siliceous FER is also investigated computationally. Calculations show that the dispersion interaction does not affect the vibrational frequency of adsorbed CO(2). PMID:21344603

  2. The Influence of Temperature on the Sorption and Permeability of CO2 in poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayur Ostwal; JOshua M. Lau; Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart; J. Douglas Way

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports the transport and sorption properties of poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) (PFAP) membranes for carbon dioxide and nitrogen in both pure and mixed gas experiments. The CO2 permeability decreased from 336 to 142 Barrers with an increase in the CO2/N2 ideal separation factor from 12 to 21 as the membrane temperature was decreased from 303 K to 258 K at feed pressure of 2.9 bars. At lower feed pressure (1.5 bars) the CO2 permeability decreased from 327 to 140 Barrers, while the CO2/N2 ideal separation factor increased from 13 to 22 over the same temperature range. CO2 sorption isotherms were measured using the pressure decay equilibrium method. Solubility of CO2 was determined using the sorption isotherms and the diffusion coefficients were calculated from CO2 permeabilities and solubilities. Sorption isotherms were linear at each temperature for the pressure range studied and the enthalpy of sorption was -5.8 kcal/mol. The solubility coefficient values for CO2 increased from 0.95 to 5.43 cm3 CO2(STP)/cm3 polymer.atm whereas the diffusion coefficient decreased from 2.71 X 10-6 to 0.19 X 10-6 cm2/sec as the temperature decreased from 303 K to 258 K.

  3. Effect of temperature of CO2 injection on the pH and freezing point of milks and creams.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of CO2 injection temperature (0 degree C and 40 degrees C) on the pH and freezing point (FP) of (a) milks with different fat contents (i.e., 0, 15, 30%) and (b) creams with 15% fat but different fat characteristics. Skim milk and unhomogenized creams containing 15 and 30% fat were prepared from the same batch of whole milk and were carbonated at 0 and 40 degrees C in a continuous flow CO2 injection unit (230 ml/min). At 0 degree C, milk fat was mostly solid; at 40 degrees C, milk fat was liquid. At the same total CO2 concentration with CO2 injection at 0 degree C, milk with a higher fat content had a lower pH and FP, while with CO2 injection at 40 degrees C, milks with 0%, 15%, and 30% fat had the same pH. This indicated that less CO2 was dissolved in the fat portion of the milk when the CO2 was injected at 0 degree C than when it was injected at 40 degrees C. Three creams, 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% butter oil emulsion in skim milk, and 15% vegetable oil emulsion in skim milk were also carbonated and analyzed as described above. Vegetable oil was liquid at both 0 and 40 degrees C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C, the 15% vegetable oil emulsion had a slightly higher pH than the 15% butter oil emulsion and the 15% unhomogenized cream, indicating that the liquid vegetable oil dissolved more CO2 than the mostly solid milk fat and butter oil. No difference in the pH or FP of the 15% unhomogenized cream and 15% butter oil emulsion was observed when CO2 was injected at 0 degree C, suggesting that homogenization or physical dispersion of milk fat globules did not influence the amount of CO2 dissolved in milk fat at a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 40 degrees C and at the same total CO2 concentration, the 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% vegetable oil emulsion, and 15% butter oil emulsion had similar pH. At the same total concentration of CO2 in cream, injection

  4. Temperature and pressure dependence of dichloro-difluoromethane (CF2C12) absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harward, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were performed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of CFM-12 absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation. The absorption coefficients of CFM-12 for CO2 waveguide laser radiation were found to have no spectral structure within small spectral bandwidths around the CO2 waveguide laser lines in the CO2 spectral band for pressures above 20 torr. All of the absorption coefficients for the CO2 laser lines studied are independent of pressure above 100 torr, except for the P(36) laser CO2 spectral band. The absorption coefficients associated with the P(42) line in the same band showed the greatest change with temperature, and it also has the largest value of all the lines studied.

  5. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana S.; Knudsen, Kristian B.; Mýrdal, Jon S. G.; Younesi, Reza; Højberg, Jonathan; Hjelm, Johan; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped ({1bar 100}) Li2O2 surface were determined and even a low concentration of CO2 effectively blocks the step nucleation site and alters the Li2O2 shape due to Li2CO3 formation. Nudged elastic band calculations show that once CO2 is adsorbed on a step valley site, it is effectively unable to diffuse and impacts the Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally already at 1% CO2. Large capacity losses and overvoltages are seen at higher CO2 concentrations.

  6. An Approach to Minimizing Artifacts Caused by Cross-Sensitivity in the Determination of Air-Sea CO2 Flux Using the Eddy-Covariance Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ziqiang; Gao, Huiwang; Gao, Zengxiang; Wang, Renlei; Xue, Yuhuan; Yao, Xiaohong

    2013-07-01

    The air-sea CO2 flux was measured from a research vessel in the North Yellow Sea in October 2007 using an open-path eddy-covariance technique. In 11 out of 64 samples, the normalized spectra of scalars (C}2, water vapour, and temperature) showed similarities. However, in the remaining samples, the normalized CO2 spectra were observed to be greater than those of water vapour and temperature at low frequencies. In this paper, the noise due to cross-sensitivity was identified through a combination of intercomparisons among the normalized spectra of three scalars and additional analyses. Upon examination, the cross-sensitivity noise appeared to be mainly present at frequencies {<}0.8 Hz. Our analysis also suggested that the high-frequency fluctuations of CO2 concentration (frequency {>}0.8 Hz) was probably less affected by the cross-sensitivity. To circumvent the cross-sensitivity issue, the cospectrum in the high-frequency range 0.8-1.5 Hz, instead of the whole range, was used to estimate the CO2 flux by taking the contribution of the high frequency to the CO2 flux to be the same as the contribution to the water vapour flux. The estimated air-sea CO2 flux in the North Yellow Sea was -0.039 ± 0.048 mg m^{-2} s^{-1}, a value comparable to the estimates using the inertial dissipation method and Edson's method (Edson et al., J Geophys Res 116:C00F10, 2011).

  7. HIGH-TEMPERATURE CO-ELECTROLYSIS OF H2O AND CO2 FOR SYNGAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.

    2006-11-01

    Worldwide, the demand for light hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline and diesel oil is increasing. To satisfy this demand, oil companies have begun to utilize oil deposits of lower hydrogen content (an example is the Athabasca Oil Sands). Additionally, the higher contents of sulfur and nitrogen of these resources requires processes such as hydrotreating to meet environmental requirements. In the mean time, with the price of oil currently over $50 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas – hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. South Africa has used synfuels to power a significant number of their buses, trucks, and taxicabs. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to investigate the feasibility of producing syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. The syngas can then be used for synthetic fuel production. This program is a combination of experimental and computational activities. Since the solid oxide electrolyte material is a conductor of oxygen ions, CO can be produced by electrolyzing CO2 sequestered from some greenhouse gas-emitting process. Under certain conditions, however, CO can further electrolyze to produce carbon, which can then deposit on cell surfaces and reduce cell performance. The understanding of the co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is also complicated by the competing water-gas shift reaction. Results of experiments and calculations to date of CO2 and CO2/H2O electrolysis will be presented and discussed. These will include

  8. Energyless CO2 Absorption, Generation, and Fixation Using Atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Okada, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Yamada, Masayuki; Nakazawa, Kenta; Mukai, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    From an economic and ecological perspective, the efficient utilization of atmospheric CO2 as a carbon resource should be a much more important goal than reducing CO2 emissions. However, no strategy to harvest CO2 using atmospheric CO2 at room temperature currently exists, which is presumably due to the extremely low concentration of CO2 in ambient air (approximately 400 ppm=0.04 vol%). We discovered that monoethanolamine (MEA) and its derivatives efficiently absorbed atmospheric CO2 without requiring an energy source. We also found that the absorbed CO2 could be easily liberated with acid. Furthermore, a novel CO2 generator enabled us to synthesize a high value-added material (i.e., 2-oxazolidinone derivatives based on the metal catalyzed CO2-fixation at room temperature) from atmospheric CO2. PMID:26596773

  9. Influence of temperature and CO2 on the strontium and magnesium composition of coccolithophore calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. N.; Lebrato, M.; Riebesell, U.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Blanco-Ameijeiras, S.; Sett, S.; Eisenhauer, A.; Stoll, H. M.

    2013-10-01

    Marine calcareous sediments provide a fundamental basis for paleoceanographic studies aiming to reconstruct past oceanic conditions and understand key biogeochemical element cycles. Calcifying unicellular phytoplankton (coccolithophores) are a major contributor to both carbon and calcium cycling by photosynthesis and the production of calcite (coccoliths) in the euphotic zone and the subsequent long-term deposition and burial into marine sediments. Here we present data from controlled laboratory experiments on four coccolithophore species and elucidate the relation between the divalent cation (Sr, Mg and Ca) partitioning in coccoliths and cellular physiology (growth, calcification and photosynthesis). Coccolithophores were cultured under different seawater temperature and carbonate chemistry conditions. The partition coefficient of strontium (DSr) was positively correlated with both carbon dioxide (pCO2) and temperature but displayed no coherent relation to particulate organic and inorganic carbon production rates. Furthermore, DSr correlated positively with cellular growth rates when driven by temperature but no correlation was present when changes in growth rates were pCO2-induced. The results demonstrate the complex interaction between environmental forcing and physiological control on the strontium partitioning in coccolithophore calcite. The partition coefficient of magnesium (DMg) displayed species-specific differences and elevated values under nutrient limitation. No conclusive correlation between coccolith DMg and temperature was observed but pCO2 induced a rising trend in coccolith DMg. Interestingly, the best correlation was found between coccolith DMg and chlorophyll a production suggesting that chlorophyll a and calcite associated Mg originate from the same intracellular pool. These results give an extended insight into the driving factors that lead to variations in the coccolith Mg / Ca ratio and can be used for Sr / Ca and Mg / Ca paleoproxy

  10. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the northwestern European shelf based on voluntary observing ship and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-09-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 data set based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in northwestern European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), wind speed (WND), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 data set (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT and LDEO databases and obtained good agreement between modeled and observed data. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.6 ± 0.3, -0.9 ± 0.3 and -0.5 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northern Celtic Sea, southern Celtic sea and nWEC, respectively, whereas permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the sWEC and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over these provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -1.11 ± 0.32 Tg C yr-1 for this part of the northwestern European continental shelf. Our study showed that combining VOS data with satellite observations can be a powerful tool to

  11. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 μatm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this

  12. An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-08-01

    An energy balance decomposition of temperature changes is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the change. Changes in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, being especially crucial for the muted warming over the northern North Atlantic and for the seasonal cycle of warming over the Arctic Ocean. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence tend to smooth the gradients of temperature change and reduce its land-sea contrast, but they also amplify the seasonal cycle of warming in northern North America and Eurasia. The three most important terms for intermodel differences in warming are the changes in the clear-sky greenhouse effect, clouds, and the net surface energy flux, making the largest contribution to the standard deviation of annual mean temperature change in 34, 29 and 20 % of the world, respectively. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence mostly damp intermodel variations of temperature change especially over the oceans. However, the opposite is true for example in Greenland and Antarctica, where the warming appears to be substantially controlled by heat transport from the surrounding sea areas.

  13. Relative sensitivity of five Hawaiian coral species to high temperature under high-pCO2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Keisha D.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.

    2016-06-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are presently undergoing decline due to anthropogenic climate change. The chief detrimental factors are increased temperature and increased pCO2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these two stressors operating independently and in unison on the biological response of common Hawaiian reef corals. Manipulative experiments were performed using five species ( Porites compressa, Pocillopora damicornis, Fungia scutaria, Montipora capitata, and Leptastrea purpurea) in a continuous-flow mesocosm system under natural sunlight conditions. Corals were grown together as a community under treatments of high temperature (2 °C above normal maximum summer temperature), high pCO2 (twice present-day conditions), and with both factors acting in unison. Control corals were grown under present-day pCO2 and at normal summer temperatures. Leptastrea purpurea proved to be an extremely hardy coral. No change in calcification or mortality occurred under treatments of high temperature, high pCO2, or combined high temperature-high pCO2. The remaining four species showed reduced calcification in the high-temperature treatment. Two species ( L. purpurea and M. capitata) showed no response to increased pCO2. Also, high pCO2 ameliorated the negative effect of high temperature on the calcification rates of P. damicornis. Mortality was driven primarily by high temperature, with a negative synergistic effect in P. compressa only in the high-pCO2-high-temperature treatment. Results support the observation that biological response to temperature and pCO2 elevation is highly species-specific, so generalizations based on response of a single species might not apply to a diverse and complex coral reef community.

  14. Changes in life history parameters of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae) under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhenying; Ni, Xinzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2014-08-01

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated temperature (+4 degrees C). The elevated CO2 (700-750 microl/liter) reduced only the development time of fourth-instar nymph. The overall duration of nymphal stage was reduced in the second generation. Thus, the temperature was the dominant factor to development duration of corn leaf aphid. The fecundity of corn leaf aphid was significantly increased under the elevated temperature and CO2, as well as in the later generation. Elevated temperature and CO2 increased the number of alate production, which may enhance the aphid migration or dispersal and the spread of plant viruses. Corn leaf aphid had the highest intrinsic rate of increase under the elevated temperature and CO2 combination in the second generation. These results indicate that the combined effects of both elevated temperature and CO2 on aphid biology may exacerbate aphid damage on barley under the climate change in accompany with elevated temperature and CO2 level. PMID:25195429

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange of alongshore waters in summer near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Hiroki; Oechel, Walter C.

    2014-03-01

    Alongshore water off Barrow, Alaska is a useful area for studying the carbon cycle of the Arctic coastal sea, because the different coastal characteristics extant in the area likely represent much larger regions of the coastal water of the western Arctic Ocean. Especially noteworthy is the inflow shelf water transferred northward by the Arctic Coastal Current into the Chukchi Sea from the North Pacific and turbid water in the Elson Lagoon where a significant amount of coastal erosion has been reported along the extensive coastal line and where a part of the water from the lagoon drains into the Beaufort Sea adjacent to the Chukchi Sea. To investigate spatial and temporal variations of air-sea CO2 flux (CO2 flux) of the alongshore water, partial pressure of CO2 of surface seawater (pCO2sw) was measured in summer, 2007 and 2008, and CO2 flux was directly measured by eddy covariance at a fixed point for the Beaufort Sea in summer 2008. Measured pCO2sw in the Chukchi Sea side was the lowest in the beginning of the measurement season and increased later in the season both in 2007 and 2008. The average CO2 flux estimated based on pCO2sw in the Chukchi Sea side was -0.10 μmol m-2 s-1 (±0.1 s.d.) using the sign convention of positive fluxes into the atmosphere from the ocean. pCO2sw in the Beaufort Sea and the Elson Lagoon was relatively higher in early summer and decreased in the middle of the summer. The overall average CO2 flux was -0.07 μmol m-2 s-1 (±0.1 s.d.) for the Beaufort Sea side and -0.03 μmol m-2 s-1 (±0.07 s.d.) for the Elson Lagoon respectively, indicating a sink of CO2 despite high carbon inflows from the terrestrial margin into the Elson Lagoon. A strong sink of CO2 was often observed from the Beaufort Sea by eddy covariance in the middle of the summer. This sink activity in the middle summer in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Lagoon was likely due to biological carbon uptake as inferred by low apparent oxygen utilization and high chlorophyll

  16. Air-sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea based on multiple-year underway observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.-H.; Zhai, W.-D.; Dai, M.-H.; Zhang, C.; Bai, Y.; Xu, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, G.-Z.

    2015-09-01

    This study reports the most comprehensive data set thus far of surface seawater pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) and the associated air-sea CO2 fluxes in a major ocean margin, the East China Sea (ECS), based on 24 surveys conducted in 2006 to 2011. We showed highly dynamic spatial variability in sea surface pCO2 in the ECS except in winter, when it ranged across a narrow band of 330 to 360 μatm. We categorized the ECS into five different domains featuring with different physics and biogeochemistry to better characterize the seasonality of the pCO2 dynamics and to better constrain the CO2 flux. The five domains are (I) the outer Changjiang estuary and Changjiang plume, (II) the Zhejiang-Fujian coast, (III) the northern ECS shelf, (IV) the middle ECS shelf, and (V) the southern ECS shelf. In spring and summer, pCO2 off the Changjiang estuary was as low as < 100 μatm, while it was up to > 400 μatm in autumn. pCO2 along the Zhejiang-Fujian coast was low in spring, summer and winter (300 to 350 μatm) but was relatively high in autumn (> 350 μatm). On the northern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer and autumn was > 340 μatm in most areas, higher than in winter and spring. On the middle and southern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer ranged from 380 to 400 μatm, which was higher than in other seasons (< 350 μatm). The area-weighted CO2 flux on the entire ECS shelf was -10.0 ± 2.0 in winter, -11.7 ± 3.6 in spring, -3.5 ± 4.6 in summer and -2.3 ± 3.1 mmol m-2 d-1 in autumn. It is important to note that the standard deviations in these flux ranges mostly reflect the spatial variation in pCO2 rather than the bulk uncertainty. Nevertheless, on an annual basis, the average CO2 influx into the entire ECS shelf was 6.9 ± 4.0 mmol m-2 d-1, about twice the global average in ocean margins.

  17. Air-sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea based on multiple-year underway observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.-H.; Zhai, W.-D.; Dai, M.-H.; Zhang, C.; Bai, Y.; Xu, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, G.-Z.

    2015-04-01

    This study reports thus far a most comprehensive dataset of surface seawater pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) and the associated air-sea CO2 fluxes in a major ocean margin, the East China Sea (ECS) based on 24 surveys conducted in 2006 to 2011. We showed highly dynamic spatial variability of sea surface pCO2 in the ECS except in winter when it ranged in a narrow band of 330 to 360 μatm. In this context, we categorized the ECS into five different domains featured with different physics and biogeochemistry to better characterize the seasonality of the pCO2 dynamics and to better constrain the CO2 flux. The five domains are (I) the outer Changjiang estuary and Changjiang plume, (II) the Zhejiang-Fujian coast, (III) the northern ECS shelf, (IV) the middle ECS shelf, and (V) the southern ECS shelf. In spring and summer, pCO2 off the Changjiang estuary was as low as < 100 μatm, while it was up to > 400 μatm in fall. pCO2 along the Zhejiang-Fujian coast was low in spring, summer and winter (300 to 350 μatm) but was relatively high in fall (> 350 μatm). In the northern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer and fall was > 340 μatm in most areas, higher than in winter and spring. In the middle and southern ECS shelf, pCO2 in summer ranged from 380 to 400 μatm, which was higher than in other seasons (< 350 μatm). The area-weighted CO2 flux in the entire ECS shelf was -10.0 ± 2.0 mmol m-2 d-1 in winter, -11.7 ± 3.6 mmol m-2 d-1 in spring, -3.5 ± 4.6 mmol m-2 d-1 in summer and -2.3 ± 3.1 mmol m-2 d-1 in fall. It is important to note that the standard deviations in these flux ranges mostly reflect the spatial variation of pCO2, which differ from the spatial variance nor the bulk uncertainty. Nevertheless, on an annual basis, the average CO2 influx into the entire ECS shelf was -6.9 ± 4.0 mmol m-2 d-1, about twice the global average in ocean margins.

  18. Temperature, grain size, and CO2-clathrate hydrates maps of Enceladus and Dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffin, C.; Combe, J.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; McCord, T. B.; Bollengier, O.; Oancea, A.; Giraud, M.; Tobie, G.

    2011-12-01

    Reflectance spectra of water ice have absorption bands at 1.30 and 1.50 μm that depend on temperature and grain size. Band shape measurements can be used to characterize the surface properties of icy celestial bodies1,2,3. Moreover, CO2-clathrates have a diagnostic and unique absorption band at 2.7 μm. Mapping of these properties and components of the surface can be used to better constrain the internal activity and surface tectonics. We present an analysis of the 1.30 and 1.50 μm water ice absorption bands and the 2.7-μm CO2-clathrates absorption band in reflectance spectra from VIMS on Cassini in order to understand the geological history of the South Pole of Enceladus and an equatorial area of Dione. We have synthesized samples of pure ice Ih grains and acquired reflectance spectra between 1 and 5 μm with a Nicolet Fourier Transform spectrometer to investigate the characteristics of near-IR spectra using temperature and pressure ranges relevant for the icy satellites of Saturn. Forty-seven spectra of crystalline water ice have been acquired. We have derived two empirical laws to calculate temperature and grain size from pure crystalline water ice spectrum4. We have also synthesized samples of CO2-clathrates and acquired reflectance spectra for the band. These two spectra have been used as end-member. A linear sum is computed using the end-member spectra: [CRF×(clathrate)+(1-CRF)×(pure water ice)], where CRF is the to-be-determined clathrate ratio factor, 'clathrate' and 'pure water ice' are the reference spectra (end-member). Figure 1 shows results on one equatorial area where craters and ridges can be observed. Temperature appears to be higher besides the ridges (Figure 1f), but this may indicate that water ice is amorphous, which results in overestimating the temperature. Along the ridge, grain size is larger (Figure 1e), and CO2-clathrates have higher concentration near the ridges (Figure 1d). All these clues indicate a recent activity that we are

  19. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. NASA GES DISC support of CO2 Data from OCO-2, ACOS, and AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jennifer C; Vollmer, Bruce E.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Hearty, Thomas J; Albayrak, Rustem Arif; Deshong, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Centers (GES DISC) is the data center assigned to archive and distribute current AIRS, ACOS data and data from the upcoming OCO-2 mission. The GES DISC archives and supports data containing information on CO2 as well as other atmospheric composition, atmospheric dynamics, modeling and precipitation. Along with the data stewardship, an important mission of GES DISC is to facilitate access to and enhance the usability of data as well as to broaden the user base. GES DISC strives to promote the awareness of science content and novelty of the data by working with Science Team members and releasing news articles as appropriate. Analysis of events that are of interest to the general public, and that help in understanding the goals of NASA Earth Observing missions, have been among most popular practices.Users have unrestricted access to a user-friendly search interface, Mirador, that allows temporal, spatial, keyword and event searches, as well as an ontology-driven drill down. Variable subsetting, format conversion, quality screening, and quick browse, are among the services available in Mirador. The majority of the GES DISC data are also accessible through OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) and WMS (Web Map Service). These services add more options for specialized subsetting, format conversion, image viewing and contributing to data interoperability.

  1. Interannual variability of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate: roles of precipitation and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zeng, Ning; Wang, Meirong

    2016-04-01

    The interannual variability (IAV) in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR) is closely connected with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. However, sensitivities of CGR to temperature and precipitation remain largely uncertain. This paper analyzed the relationship between Mauna Loa CGR and tropical land climatic elements. We find that Mauna Loa CGR lags precipitation by 4 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.63, leads temperature by 1 month (0.77), and correlates with soil moisture (-0.65) with zero lag. Additionally, precipitation and temperature are highly correlated (-0.66), with precipitation leading by 4-5 months. Regression analysis shows that sensitivities of Mauna Loa CGR to temperature and precipitation are 2.92 ± 0.20 PgC yr-1 K-1 and -0.46 ± 0.07 PgC yr-1 100 mm-1, respectively. Unlike some recent suggestions, these empirical relationships favor neither temperature nor precipitation as the dominant factor of CGR IAV. We further analyzed seven terrestrial carbon cycle models, from the TRENDY project, to study the processes underlying CGR IAV. All models capture well the IAV of tropical land-atmosphere carbon flux (CFTA). Sensitivities of the ensemble mean CFTA to temperature and precipitation are 3.18 ± 0.11 PgC yr-1 K-1 and -0.67 ± 0.04 PgC yr-1 100 mm-1, close to Mauna Loa CGR. Importantly, the models consistently show the variability in net primary productivity (NPP) dominates CGR, rather than heterotrophic respiration. Because previous studies have proved that NPP is largely driven by precipitation in tropics, it suggests a key role of precipitation in CGR IAV despite the higher CGR correlation with temperature. Understanding the relative contribution of CO2 sensitivity to precipitation and temperature has important implications for future carbon-climate feedback using such ''emergent constraint''.

  2. Interannual variability of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate: relative contribution from precipitation and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zeng, N.; Wang, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interannual variability (IAV) in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR) is closely connected with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. However, sensitivities of CGR to temperature and precipitation remain largely uncertain. This paper analyzed the relationship between Mauna Loa CGR and tropical land climatic elements. We find that Mauna Loa CGR lags precipitation by 4 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.63, leads temperature by 1 month (0.77), and correlates with soil moisture (-0.65) with zero lag. Additionally, precipitation and temperature are highly correlated (-0.66), with precipitation leading by 4-5 months. Regression analysis shows that sensitivities of Mauna Loa CGR to temperature and precipitation are 2.92 ± 0.20 Pg C yr-1 K-1 and -0.46 ± 0.07 Pg C yr-1 100 mm-1, respectively. Unlike some recent suggestions, these empirical relationships favor neither temperature nor precipitation as the dominant factor of CGR IAV. We further analyzed seven terrestrial carbon cycle models, from the TRENDY project, to study the processes underlying CGR IAV. All models capture well the IAV of tropical land-atmosphere carbon flux (CFTA). Sensitivities of the ensemble mean CFTA to temperature and precipitation are 3.18 ± 0.11 Pg C yr-1 K-1 and -0.67 ± 0.04 Pg C yr-1 100 mm-1, close to Mauna Loa CGR. Importantly, the models consistently show the variability in net primary productivity (NPP) dominates CGR, rather than soil respiration. Because NPP is largely driven by precipitation, this suggests a key role of precipitation in CGR IAV despite the higher CGR correlation with temperature. Understanding the relative contribution of CO2 sensitivity to precipitation and temperature has important implications for future carbon-climate feedback using such "emergent constraint".

  3. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  4. The effect of CO2 on the speciation of bromine in low-temperature geological solutions: an XANES study.

    PubMed

    Evans, K A; Mavrogenes, J; Newville, M

    2007-03-01

    CO(2)-rich solutions are common in geological environments. An XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) study of Br in CO(2)-bearing synthetic fluid inclusions has revealed that Br exhibits a strong pre-edge feature at temperatures from 298 to 423 K. Br in CO(2)-free solutions does not show such a feature. The feature becomes smaller and disappears as temperature increases, but reappears when temperature is reduced. The size of the feature increases with increasing X(CO(2)) in the fluid inclusion, where X(CO(2)) is the mole fraction of CO(2) in the solution [n(CO(2))/(n(CO(2)) + n(H(2)(O)) + n(RbBr)); n indicates the number of moles]. The pre-edge feature is similar to that shown by covalently bonded Br, but observed and calculated concentrations of plausible Br-bearing covalent compounds (Br(2), CH(3)Br and HBr) are vanishingly small. An alternative possibility is that CO(2) affects the hydration of Br sufficiently that the charge density changes to favour the 1s-p level transitions that are thought to cause the pre-edge peak. The distance between the first two post-edge maxima in the XANES also decreases with increasing X(CO(2)). This is attributed to a CO(2)-related decrease in the polarity of the solvent. The proposed causes of the observed features are not integrated into existing geochemical models; thus CO(2)-bearing solutions could be predicted poorly by such models, with significant consequences for models of geological processes such as ore-formation and metamorphism. PMID:17317924

  5. Radiative Forcing and Temperature Response to Changes in Urban Albedos and Associated CO2 Offsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2009-01-01

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the response of the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation to urban albedo changes. Globally, the total outgoing radiation increased by 0.5 W/square m and temperature decreased by -0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in albedo. For the U.S. the total outgoing total radiation increased by 2.3 W/square meter, and temperature decreased by approximately 0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in albedo. These values are for the boreal summer (Tune-July-August). Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO2 offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be approximately 57 Gt CO2 . A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on climate and the expected CO2 offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of calcite, hydrate and the temperature effect on CO2 transport and adsorption stability in geological formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cuong, Phan; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jensen, Bjørnar

    2012-06-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at several different temperatures were run to investigate the transport, adsorption, and stability of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water phases in contact with a ? calcite surface. All simulated systems showed evidence of CO2 transport and interface stability heavily affected by the presence of calcite and the simulation temperature. The number of CO2 molecules that successfully traversed the water layer and adsorbed on the calcite surface increased with temperature, while the adsorption stability (indicated by the adsorption energy) decreased. It was found that the short-range potential has a significant impact on the preferred CO2 orientation and adsorption selectivity. Carbon dioxide tended to fill partial hydrate cavities at the water-hydrate interface, potentially promoting the formation of new hydrate. These findings indicate the need to consider the implications that CO2 injection will have for reservoirs with pre-existing clathrate hydrates.

  7. Influence of temperature and CO2 on the strontium and magnesium composition of coccolithophore calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. N.; Lebrato, M.; Riebesell, U.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Blanco-Ameijeiras, S.; Sett, S.; Eisenhauer, A.; Stoll, H. M.

    2014-02-01

    Marine calcareous sediments provide a fundamental basis for palaeoceanographic studies aiming to reconstruct past oceanic conditions and understand key biogeochemical element cycles. Calcifying unicellular phytoplankton (coccolithophores) are a major contributor to both carbon and calcium cycling by photosynthesis and the production of calcite (coccoliths) in the euphotic zone, and the subsequent long-term deposition and burial into marine sediments. Here we present data from controlled laboratory experiments on four coccolithophore species and elucidate the relation between the divalent cation (Sr, Mg and Ca) partitioning in coccoliths and cellular physiology (growth, calcification and photosynthesis). Coccolithophores were cultured under different seawater temperature and carbonate chemistry conditions. The partition coefficient of strontium (DSr) was positively correlated with both carbon dioxide (pCO2) and temperature but displayed no coherent relation to particulate organic and inorganic carbon production rates. Furthermore, DSr correlated positively with cellular growth rates when driven by temperature but no correlation was present when changes in growth rates were pCO2-induced. Our results demonstrate the complex interaction between environmental forcing and physiological control on the strontium partitioning in coccolithophore calcite and challenge interpretations of the coccolith Sr / Ca ratio from high-pCO2 environments (e.g. Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum). The partition coefficient of magnesium (DMg) displayed species-specific differences and elevated values under nutrient limitation. No conclusive correlation between coccolith DMg and temperature was observed but pCO2 induced a rising trend in coccolith DMg. Interestingly, the best correlation was found between coccolith DMg and chlorophyll a production, suggesting that chlorophyll a and calcite associated Mg originate from the same intracellular pool. These and previous findings indicate that Mg

  8. High temperature corrosion of welded ferritic stainless steel in flowing CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Nurul Atikah; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Jalar, Azman; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature corrosion of welded structure of Ferritic Stainless Steel (FSS) in flowing Ar-75%CO2 gas at 700°C has been investigated. The welded structure of FSS joint using ER 308L filler metal by GTAW. The soundness of welded joint has been clarified by X-Ray CT Scan. Prior the high temperature exposure, the welded FSS compulsory passed the standard of ASME. The welded structure of FSS was heated in flowing CO2 gas for 50 h at 1 atm. The morphology and microstructure of oxide formation on welded FSS alloy was characterized by using SEM. The result shows that the different oxide morphologies were observed on parent and fusion metal. The formation of different oxide and element properties at the interface were revealed by X-Ray Diffraction. The differences of the physical condition and morphology microstructure of welded and parent metal were observed to respond to different exposure times. This phenomenon perhaps explained due to the differences of the minor alloying elements on both parent and filler metals. The high temperature corrosion behaviour was discussed in details in this paper regarding on the physical properties, morphology and the microstructure.

  9. The impact of enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the responses of maize and soybean to elevated growth temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this review we argue that responses of plant growth and yield to CO2 enrichment and to elevated growth temperatures are principally mediated by changes in photosynthesis. Crop plants such as soybean, which possess the C3 cycle, exhibit increased photosynthetic rates in response to CO2 enrichment...

  10. Effects of elevated pCO2 on the metabolism of a temperate rhodolith Lithothamnion corallioides grown under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Noisette, Fanny; Duong, Gwendoline; Six, Christophe; Davoult, Dominique; Martin, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    Coralline algae are considered among the most sensitive species to near future ocean acidification. We tested the effects of elevated pCO2 on the metabolism of the free-living coralline alga Lithothamnion corallioides ("maerl") and the interactions with changes in temperature. Specimens were collected in North Brittany (France) and grown for 3 months at pCO2 of 380 (ambient pCO2 ), 550, 750, and 1000 μatm (elevated pCO2 ) and at successive temperatures of 10°C (ambient temperature in winter), 16°C (ambient temperature in summer), and 19°C (ambient temperature in summer +3°C). At each temperature, gross primary production, respiration (oxygen flux), and calcification (alkalinity flux) rates were assessed in the light and dark. Pigments were determined by HPLC. Chl a, carotene, and zeaxanthin were the three major pigments found in L. corallioides thalli. Elevated pCO2 did not affect pigment content while temperature slightly decreased zeaxanthin and carotene content at 10°C. Gross production was not affected by temperature but was significantly affected by pCO2 with an increase between 380 and 550 μatm. Light, dark, and diel (24 h) calcification rates strongly decreased with increasing pCO2 regardless of the temperature. Although elevated pCO2 only slightly affected gross production in L. corallioides, diel net calcification was reduced by up to 80% under the 1,000 μatm treatment. Our findings suggested that near future levels of CO2 will have profound consequences for carbon and carbonate budgets in rhodolith beds and for the sustainability of these habitats. PMID:27007207

  11. APO observations in Southern Greenland: evaluation of modelled air-sea O2 and CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Bopp, Laurent; Delmotte, Marc; Cadule, Patricia; Resplandy, Laure; Nevison, Cynthia; Manizza, Manfredi; Valentin Lavric, Jost; Manning, Andrew C.; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    Since September 2007, the atmospheric CO2 mole fraction and O2/N2 ratio (a proxy for O2 concentration) have been monitored continuously at the coastal site of Ivittuut, southern Greenland (61.21° N, 48.17° W). From 2007 to 2013, our measurements show multi-annual trends of +2.0 ppm/year and -20 per meg/year respectively for CO2 and O2/N2, with annual average peak-to-peak seasonal amplitudes of 14+/-1 ppm and 130+/-15 per meg. We investigate the implications of our data set in terms of APO (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen). This tracer, obtained by a linear combination of CO2 and O2/N2 data, is invariant to CO2 and O2 exchanges in the land biota, but sensitive to the oceanic component of the O2 cycle. It is used as a bridge to evaluate air-sea CO2 and O2 fluxes from atmospheric variations of CO2 and O2/N2. Global ocean biogeochemical models produce estimates of CO2 and O2 air-sea fluxes. Atmospheric APO variations can be simulated through transportation of these fluxes in the atmosphere by Eulerian transport models. Thus, model values of atmospheric APO can be extracted at the station location. This study is based on air-sea flux outputs from CMIP5 simulations. After atmospheric transportation, they give access to atmospheric APO climatologies which can be compared, in terms of seasonal cycles and inter-annual variability, to the in situ observations. A preliminary study is based on the CCSM ocean model air-sea fluxes transported in the atmosphere with the MATCH transport model, over the period 1979-2004. The amplitude of the APO seasonal cycle is correctly captured, but year to year variations on this seasonal cycle appears to be underestimated compared to observations. The LMDZ atmospheric transport model is also used to transport the ocean fluxes from five CMIP5 models, over the period 1979-2005, showing different amplitudes and timings of APO seasonal cycles. This methodology is a first step to evaluate the origin of observed APO variations at our site and then

  12. Effects of CO 2 in air on Li deintercalation from LiNi 1- x- yCo xAl yO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Kuzuo, Ryuichi; Takeya, Kaname; Yamanaka, Atsushi

    The reaction of CO 2 and practical high-performance cathode materials LiNi 1- x- yCo xAl yO 2 was examined with XRD at RT and high temperature, TGA, IR, and chemical analysis. Even at room temperature, Li deintercalation took place and formed Li 2CO 3 on the mother surface. The conversion to Li 2CO 3 in air at 55% RH at 25°C was in proportion to the square root of exposure time. It was 8% after being left for 500 h. Using high-temperature XRD at 25-800°C, the Li 2CO 3 phase formation was confirmed from about 500°C, and the conversion exceeded 70% under atmospheric CO 2 at 675°C. The activation energy of the reaction of deintercalated Li and CO 2 was estimated by Ozawa's method. The activation energy obtained using Ozawa's method was 130 kJ/mol for CO 2 diffusing through the Li 2CO 3 layer which formed on the surface during the reaction.

  13. Use of visual CO2 feedback as a retrofit solution for improving classroom air quality.

    PubMed

    Wargocki, P; Da Silva, N A F

    2015-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) sensors that provide a visual indication were installed in classrooms during normal school operation. During 2-week periods, teachers and students were instructed to open the windows in response to the visual CO2 feedback in 1 week and open them, as they would normally do, without visual feedback, in the other week. In the heating season, two pairs of classrooms were monitored, one pair naturally and the other pair mechanically ventilated. In the cooling season, two pairs of naturally ventilated classrooms were monitored, one pair with split cooling in operation and the other pair with no cooling. Classrooms were matched by grade. Providing visual CO2 feedback reduced CO2 levels, as more windows were opened in this condition. This increased energy use for heating and reduced the cooling requirement in summertime. Split cooling reduced the frequency of window opening only when no visual CO2 feedback was present. PMID:24735406

  14. Response of sugarcane sucrose yields to carbon dioxide enrichment and elevated air temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four sugarcane cultivars (CP 72-2086, CP 73-1547, CP 88-1508, and CP 80-1827) were grown in elongated temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGG) at ambient or elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) of 360 or 720 µmol CO2 mol-1 air (ppm, mole fraction basis), respectively. Elevated CO2 was maintained by injection...

  15. Efficient fluoride-catalyzed conversion of CO2 to CO at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lescot, Camille; Nielsen, Dennis U; Makarov, Ilya S; Lindhardt, Anders T; Daasbjerg, Kim; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2014-04-23

    A protocol for the efficient and selective reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide has been developed. Remarkably, this oxygen abstraction step can be performed with only the presence of catalytic cesium fluoride and a stoichiometric amount of a disilane in DMSO at room temperature. Rapid reduction of CO2 to CO could be achieved in only 2 h, which was observed by pressure measurements. To quantify the amount of CO produced, the reduction was coupled to an aminocarbonylation reaction using the two-chamber system, COware. The reduction was not limited to a specific disilane, since (Ph2MeSi)2 as well as (PhMe2Si)2 and (Me3Si)3SiH exhibited similar reactivity. Moreover, at a slightly elevated temperature, other fluoride salts were able to efficiently catalyze the CO2 to CO reduction. Employing a nonhygroscopic fluoride source, KHF2, omitted the need for an inert atmosphere. Substituting the disilane with silylborane, (pinacolato)BSiMe2Ph, maintained the high activity of the system, whereas the structurally related bis(pinacolato)diboron could not be activated with this fluoride methodology. Furthermore, this chemistry could be adapted to (13)C-isotope labeling of six pharmaceutically relevant compounds starting from Ba(13)CO3 in a newly developed three-chamber system. PMID:24702475

  16. Sensitivity of the air-sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters to atmospheric short-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansø, A. S.; Bendtsen, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Chen, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Geels, C.

    2015-05-01

    Minimising the uncertainties in estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange is an important step toward increasing the confidence in assessments of the CO2 cycle. Using an atmospheric transport model makes it possible to investigate the direct impact of atmospheric parameters on the air-sea CO2 flux along with its sensitivity to, for example, short-term temporal variability in wind speed, atmospheric mixing height and atmospheric CO2 concentration. With this study, the importance of high spatiotemporal resolution of atmospheric parameters for the air-sea CO2 flux is assessed for six sub-basins within the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters. A new climatology of surface water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2w) has been developed for this coastal area based on available data from monitoring stations and on-board pCO2w measuring systems. Parameterisations depending on wind speed were applied for the transfer velocity to calculate the air-sea CO2 flux. Two model simulations were conducted - one including short-term variability in atmospheric CO2 (VAT), and one where it was not included (CAT). A seasonal cycle in the air-sea CO2 flux was found for both simulations for all sub-basins with uptake of CO2 in summer and release of CO2 to the atmosphere in winter. During the simulated period 2005-2010, the average annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 for the Baltic Sea, Danish straits and Kattegat was 287 and 471 Gg C yr-1 for the VAT and CAT simulations, respectively. The obtained difference of 184 Gg C yr-1 was found to be significant, and thus ignoring short-term variability in atmospheric CO2 does have a sizeable effect on the air-sea CO2 exchange. The combination of the atmospheric model and the new pCO2w fields has also made it possible to make an estimate of the marine part of the Danish CO2 budget for the first time. A net annual uptake of 2613 Gg C yr-1 was found for the Danish waters. A large uncertainty is connected to the air-sea CO2 flux in particular caused by the transfer

  17. Sensitivity of the air-sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters to atmospheric short term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansø, A. S.; Bendtsen, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Chen, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Geels, C.

    2014-12-01

    Minimising the uncertainties in estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange is an important step toward increasing the confidence in assessments of the CO2 cycle. Using an atmospheric transport model makes it possible to investigate the direct impact of atmospheric parameters on the air-sea CO2 flux along with its sensitivity to e.g. short-term temporal variability in wind speed, atmospheric mixing height and the atmospheric CO2 concentration. With this study the importance of high spatiotemporal resolution of atmospheric parameters for the air-sea CO2 flux is assessed for six sub-basins within the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters. A new climatology of surface water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) has been developed for this coastal area based on available data from monitoring stations and underway pCO2 measuring systems. Parameterisations depending on wind speed were applied for the transfer velocity to calculate the air-sea CO2 flux. Two model simulations were conducted - one including short term variability in atmospheric CO2 (VAT), and one where it was not included (CAT). A seasonal cycle in the air-sea CO2 flux was found for both simulations for all sub-basins with uptake of CO2 in summer and release of CO2 to the atmosphere in winter. During the simulated period 2005-2010 the average annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 for the Baltic Sea, Danish Straits and Kattegat was 287 and 471 Gg C yr-1 for the VAT and CAT simulations, respectively. The obtained difference of 184 Gg C yr-1 was found to be significant, and thus ignoring short term variability in atmospheric CO2 does have a sizeable effect on the air-sea CO2 exchange. The combination of the atmospheric model and the new pCO2 fields has also made it possible to make an estimate of the marine part of the Danish CO2 budget for the first time. A net annual uptake of 2613 Gg C yr-1 was found for the Danish waters. A large uncertainty is connected to the air-sea CO2 flux in particular caused by the transfer velocity

  18. Air-water CO2 outgassing in the Lower Lakes (Alexandrina and Albert, Australia) following a millennium drought.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Bush, Richard T; Ward, Nicholas J; Sullivan, Leigh A; Dong, Fangyong

    2016-01-15

    Lakes are an important source and sink of atmospheric CO2, and thus are a vital component of the global carbon cycle. However, with scarce data on potentially important subtropical and tropical areas for whole continents such as Australia, the magnitude of large-scale lake CO2 emissions is unclear. This study presents spatiotemporal changes of dissolved inorganic carbon and water - to - air interface CO2 flux in the two of Australia's largest connected, yet geomorphically different freshwater lakes (Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert, South Australia), during drought (2007 to September-2010) and post-drought (October 2010 to 2013). Lake levels in the extreme drought were on average approximately 1m lower than long-term average (0.71 m AHD). Drought was associated with an increase in the concentrations of dissolved inorganic species, organic carbon, nitrogen, Chl-a and major ions, as well as water acidification as a consequence of acid sulfate soil (ASS) exposure, and hence, had profound effects on lake pCO2 concentrations. Lakes Alexandrina and Albert were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the drought period, with efflux ranging from 0.3 to 7.0 mmol/m(2)/d. The lake air-water CO2 flux was negative in the post-drought, ranging between -16.4 and 0.9 mmol/m(2)/d. The average annual CO2 emission was estimated at 615.5×10(6) mol CO2/y during the drought period. These calculated emission rates are in the lower range for lakes, despite the potential for drought conditions that shift the lakes from sink to net source for atmospheric CO2. These observations have significant implications in the context of predicted increasing frequency and intensity of drought as a result of climate change. Further information on the spatial and temporal variability in CO2 flux from Australian lakes is urgently warranted to revise the global carbon budget for lakes. PMID:26520269

  19. Effect of Sampling Depth on Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates in River-Stratified Arctic Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. A.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In summer-time Arctic coastal waters that are strongly influenced by river run-off, extreme stratification severely limits wind mixing, making it difficult to effectively sample the surface 'mixed layer', which can be as shallow as 1 m, from a ship. During two expeditions in southwestern Hudson Bay, off the Nelson, Hayes, and Churchill River estuaries, we confirmed that sampling depth has a strong impact on estimates of 'surface' pCO2 and calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes. We determined pCO2 in samples collected from 5 m, using a typical underway system on the ship's seawater supply; from the 'surface' rosette bottle, which was generally between 1 and 3 m; and using a niskin bottle deployed at 1 m and just below the surface from a small boat away from the ship. Our samples confirmed that the error in pCO2 derived from typical ship-board versus small-boat sampling at a single station could be nearly 90 μatm, leading to errors in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux of more than 0.1 mmol/(m2s). Attempting to extrapolate such fluxes over the 6,000,000 km2 area of the Arctic shelves would generate an error approaching a gigamol CO2/s. Averaging the station data over a cruise still resulted in an error of nearly 50% in the total flux estimate. Our results have implications not only for the design and execution of expedition-based sampling, but also for placement of in-situ sensors. Particularly in polar waters, sensors are usually deployed on moorings, well below the surface, to avoid damage and destruction from drifting ice. However, to obtain accurate information on air-sea fluxes in these areas, it is necessary to deploy sensors on ice-capable buoys that can position the sensors in true 'surface' waters.

  20. Indian Monsoon controlling the effect of anthropogenic emission on the seasonal variation of air-CO2 over Bangalore, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, T.; Ghosh, P.

    2012-12-01

    India is one of prime emitting country of green house gases identified by the International Energy Agency and the major contribution comes from energy sectors specifically from coal based power plants. Biomass burning is another source of CO2 for the tropical country and more frequencies of burning are observed during the dry seasons. Indian region experiences seasonal reversal of the wind pattern associated with monsoon circulations. The monsoon rainfall promotes green cover and uptake of CO2 from atmosphere. The study of atmospheric CO2 composition can provide important information on the temporal variability of anthropogenic emission as well as the biosphere response. In this context, urban locations being hot spots of anthropogenic emission are more suitable for air-CO2 monitoring. We are monitoring mixing ratio and carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) of atmospheric CO2 for last three years from Bangalore (BLR), an urban station in Southern India. Region experiences four distinct seasons i.e. dry hot summer (March-May), southwest monsoon (SWM) (June-September), post monsoon (October-November) and winter (December-February). Air samples were collected from the campus of IISc, Bangalore (12° 58‧ N, 77° 38‧ E, masl= 920 m) using an experimental set up calibrated with respect to internationally accepted JRAS Reference material. The external precision for the measurement of mixing ratio and δ13C are ±2μmol.mol-1 and ±0.02‰ respectively based on repeat analysis of JRAS mixture. The seasonal variation of both CO2 mixing ratio and δ13C of air CO2 is observed from BLR station where the amplitude of signal is found to be lower in 2011 which was a La Nina year (compared to 2009, 2010). The δ13C of CO2 is maximum (-8‰) in October and it slowly decreases during dry summer months and reaches its minima (-9‰) in April, May. Subsequently, it increases slowly with the advancement of the SWM months prior to reaching maxima again during the month of October. During

  1. Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Goldenstein, C. S.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-07-01

    A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor was developed for gas temperature and carbon oxide (CO, CO2) concentrations in high-enthalpy, hydrocarbon combustion flows. This diagnostic enables non-intrusive, in situ measurements in harsh environments produced by hypersonic propulsion ground test facilities. The sensing system utilizes tunable quantum cascade lasers capable of probing the fundamental mid-infrared absorption bands of CO and CO2 in the 4-5 µm wavelength domain. A scanned-wavelength direct absorption technique was employed with two lasers, one dedicated to each species, free-space fiber-coupled using a bifurcated hollow-core fiber for remote light delivery on a single line of sight. Scanned-wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection was utilized to extend the dynamic range of the CO measurement. The diagnostic was field-tested on a direct-connect scramjet combustor for ethylene-air combustion. Simultaneous, laser-based measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide provide a basis for evaluating combustion completion or efficiency with temporal and spatial resolution in practical hydrocarbon-fueled engines.

  2. Understanding 13C(CO2) and 18O(CO2 ) data obtained on CARIBIC aircraft air samples from the tropical troposphere, and the upper troposphere/ lowermost stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey S.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Schuck, Tanja J.; Zahn, Andreas; Taylor, Philip

    2010-05-01

    The project CARIBIC (http://caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to study atmospheric chemistry and transport by regularly measuring many compounds in the free troposphere (FT) and the upper troposphere/lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) by using passenger aircraft. CO2 isotope ratios were measured by CARIBIC-1 (November-1999 to April-2002, mostly d13C(CO2)) and CARIBIC-2 (June-2007 to March-2009, highest precision d13C(CO2) and d18O(CO2) data). (The latter effort has been possible due to the contribution of JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium.) This gives a new, unique and fairly extensive data set for the NH free troposphere and the UT/LMS region. In particular, CARIBIC-2 utilizing high-quality and high-resolution sampling gave a detailed distribution of d18O(CO2), with signals not affected by sampling and canister effects. For the first time we can demonstrate how the variability in air mass origin (recognized by using chemical tracers) is recorded by CO2 isotope signals on the inter-continental scale. There are two main mechanisms responsible: (i) UT/LMS mixing and (ii) seasonality of tropospheric CO2 as well as variable degree of mixing background air and air masses affected by CO2 sources/sinks. In the UT/LMS region both d13C(CO2), d18O(CO2) and CO2 are found to correlate well with stratospheric tracers, in particular N2O. The data for the free and upper troposphere show however little latitudinal gradient and are in good agreement with the data of selected NOAA stations in NH tropics. We discuss that CO2 distribution in the NH FT and UT (at CARIBIC flight routes) is regulated by uplift and pole-wards transport of tropical air. Next, d18O(CO2) is thought to be a new, previously not recognized tracer in the UT/LMS region as well as tracer of gross CO2 fluxes, where CO2 exchanges its oxygen with natural water pools.

  3. Growth Kinetics, Carbohydrate, and Leaf Phosphate Content of Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) after Transfer to a High CO2 Atmosphere or to High Light and Ambient Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Francoise; André, Marcel; Betsche, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Intact air-grown (photosynthetic photon flux density, 400 microeinsteins per square meter per second) clover plants (Trifolium subterraneum L.) were transfered to high CO2 (4000 microliters CO2 per liter; photosynthetic photon flux density, 400 microeinsteins per square meter per second) or to high light (340 microliters CO2 per liter; photosynthetic photon flux density, 800 microeinsteins per square meter per second) to similarly stimulate photosynthetic net CO2 uptake. The daily increment of net CO2 uptake declined transiently in high CO2, but not in high light, below the values in air/standard light. After about 3 days in high CO2, the daily increment of net CO2 uptake increased but did not reach the high light values. Nightly CO2 release increased immediately in high light, whereas there was a 3-day lag phase in high CO2. During this time, starch accumulated to a high level, and leaf deterioration was observed only in high CO2. After 12 days, starch was two- to threefold higher in high CO2 than in high light, whereas sucrose was similar. Leaf carbohydrates were determined during the first and fourth day in high CO2. Starch increased rapidly throughout the day. Early in the day, sucrose was low and similar in high CO2 and ambient air (same light). Later, sucrose increased considerably in high CO2. The findings that (a) much more photosynthetic carbon was partitioned into the leaf starch pool in high CO2 than in high light, although net CO2 uptake was similar, and that (b) rapid starch formation occurred in high CO2 even when leaf sucrose was only slightly elevated suggest that low sink capacity was not the main constraint in high CO2. It is proposed that carbon partitioning between starch (chloroplast) and sucrose (cytosol) was perturbed by high CO2 because of the lack of photorespiration. Total phosphate pools were determined in leaves. Concentrations based on fresh weight of orthophosphate, soluble esterified phosphate, and total phosphate markedly declined

  4. Decadal trends in air-sea CO2 exchange in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2016-05-01

    Highly productive Antarctic shelf systems, like the Ross Sea, play important roles in regional carbon budgets, but the drivers of local variations are poorly quantified. We assess the variability in the Ross Sea carbon cycle using a regional physical-biogeochemical model. Regionally, total partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increases are largely controlled by the biological pump and broadly similar to those in the offshore Southern Ocean. However, this masks substantial local variability within the Ross Sea, where interannual fluctuations in total pCO2 are driven by the biological pump and alkalinity, whereas those for anthropogenic pCO2 are related to physical processes. Overall, the high degree of spatial variability in the Ross Sea carbon cycle causes extremes in aragonite saturation that can be as large as long-term trends. Therefore, Antarctic shelf polynya systems like the Ross Sea will be strongly affected by local processes in addition to larger-scale phenomena.

  5. Evidence for divergence of response in Indica, Japonica, and wild rice to high CO2 x temperature interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating variability of rice response to concurrent increases in CO2 and temperature forecasted for future climates is a prerequisite step towards characterizing the genetic architecture underlying this response. Expanding on previous single cultivar studies, we evaluated eleven biogeographically ...

  6. Development of a Next-Generation Membrane-Integrated Adsorption Processor for CO2 Removal and Compression for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila; LeVan, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal nd compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. This processor will use many times less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of gas dryer, CO2 separator, and CO2 compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  7. [Effects of drought stress, high temperature and elevated CO2 concentration on the growth of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Si, Fu-Yan; Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Dong, Bao-Di; Shi, Chang-Hai; Liu, Meng-Yu

    2014-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on the grain yield, photosynthesis, and water conditions of winter wheat were assessed based on an experiment, in which wheat plants were subjected to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, ambient and elevated temperatures, and low and high water conditions independently and in combination. The CO2 enrichment alone had no effect on the photosynthesis of winter wheat, whereas higher temperature and drought significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate. Water conditions in flag leaves were not significantly changed at the elevated CO2 concentration or elevated temperature. However, drought stress decreased the relative water content in flag leaves, and the combination of elevated temperature and drought reduced the water potential in flag leaves. The combination of elevated CO2 concentration, elevated temperature, and drought significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate and water conditions, and led to a 41.4% decrease in grain yield. The elevated CO2 concentration alone increased the grain yield by 21.2%, whereas the elevated temperature decreased the grain yield by 12.3%. The grain yield was not affected by the combination of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, but the grain yield was significantly decreased by the drought stress if combined with any of the climate scenarios applied in this study. These findings suggested that maintaining high soil water content might be a vital means of reducing the potential harm caused by the climate change. PMID:25757312

  8. Flexible and High Performance Supercapacitors Based on NiCo2O4for Wide Temperature Range Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ram K.; Candler, John; Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Ramasamy, Karthik; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Binder free nanostructured NiCo2O4 were grown using a facile hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the phase purity of NiCo2O4. The surface morphology and microstructure of the NiCo2O4 analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed flower-like morphology composed of needle-like structures. The potential application of binder free NiCo2O4 as an electrode for supercapacitor devices was investigated using electrochemical methods. The cyclic voltammograms of NiCo2O4 electrode using alkaline aqueous electrolytes showed the presence of redox peaks suggesting pseudocapacitance behavior. Quasi-solid state supercapacitor device fabricated by sandwiching two NiCo2O4 electrodes and separating them by ion transporting layer. The performance of the device was tested using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The device showed excellent flexibility and cyclic stability. The temperature dependent charge storage capacity was measured for their variable temperature applications. Specific capacitance of the device was enhanced by ~150% on raising the temperature from 20 to 60 °C. Hence, the results suggest that NiCo2O4 grown under these conditions could be a suitable material for high performance supercapacitor devices that can be operated at variable temperatures. PMID:26482921

  9. Flexible and High Performance Supercapacitors Based on NiCo2O4for Wide Temperature Range Applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ram K; Candler, John; Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Ramasamy, Karthik; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Binder free nanostructured NiCo2O4 were grown using a facile hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the phase purity of NiCo2O4. The surface morphology and microstructure of the NiCo2O4 analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed flower-like morphology composed of needle-like structures. The potential application of binder free NiCo2O4 as an electrode for supercapacitor devices was investigated using electrochemical methods. The cyclic voltammograms of NiCo2O4 electrode using alkaline aqueous electrolytes showed the presence of redox peaks suggesting pseudocapacitance behavior. Quasi-solid state supercapacitor device fabricated by sandwiching two NiCo2O4 electrodes and separating them by ion transporting layer. The performance of the device was tested using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The device showed excellent flexibility and cyclic stability. The temperature dependent charge storage capacity was measured for their variable temperature applications. Specific capacitance of the device was enhanced by ~150% on raising the temperature from 20 to 60 °C. Hence, the results suggest that NiCo2O4 grown under these conditions could be a suitable material for high performance supercapacitor devices that can be operated at variable temperatures. PMID:26482921

  10. Experimental study on CO and CO2 emissions from spontaneous heating of coals at varying temperatures and O2 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from spontaneous heating of three U.S. coal samples in an isothermal oven at temperatures between 50 and 110 °C. The oxygen (O2) concentration of an oxygen/nitrogen (N2) mixture flowing through the coal sample was 3, 5, 10, 15, and 21%, respectively. The temperature at the center of the coal sample was continuously monitored, while the CO, CO2, and O2 concentrations of the exit gas were continuously measured. The results indicate that the CO and CO2 concentrations and the CO/CO2 ratio increased when the initial temperature was increased. As the inlet O2 concentration increased, the CO and CO2 concentrations increased, while the CO/CO2 ratios tended to converge to the same value. The ratio of CO/CO2 was found to be independent of coal properties, approaching a constant value of 0.2. The maximum CO production rate correlated well with the maximum coal temperature rise. The apparent order of reaction for coal oxidation was estimated to be between 0.52 and 0.72. The experimental results in this study could be used for early detection and evaluation of a spontaneous heating in underground coal mines. PMID:26203211

  11. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Anna M.; Sack, Lawren; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Ort, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responses to climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) in Glycine max (soybean) to growth at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature compared with the responses of leaf gas exchange and leaf water status. Methods Two controlled-environment growth chamber experiments were conducted with soybean to measure Kleaf, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (A) during growth at elevated [CO2] and temperature relative to ambient levels. These results were validated with field experiments on soybean grown under free-air elevated [CO2] (FACE) and canopy warming. Key results In chamber studies, Kleaf did not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2], even though stomatal conductance decreased and photosynthesis increased. Growth at elevated temperature also did not affect Kleaf, although gs and A showed significant but inconsistent decreases. The lack of response of Kleaf to growth at increased [CO2] and temperature in chamber-grown plants was confirmed with field-grown soybean at a FACE facility. Conclusions Leaf hydraulic and leaf gas exchange responses to these two climate change factors were not strongly linked in soybean, although gs responded to [CO2] and increased temperature as previously reported. This differential behaviour could lead to an imbalance between hydraulic supply and transpiration demand under extreme environmental conditions likely to become more common as global climate continues to change. PMID:23864003

  12. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions. PMID:27600710

  13. Air-sea CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance in a coastal station in Baja California, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, L.; Ocampo-Torres, F. J.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of wave-associated parameters controlling turbulent CO2 fluxes through the air-sea water interface is evaluated in a coastal region. The study area, located within the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México, was found to be a weak sink of CO2 with a mean flux of -1.32 µmol m-2s-1. The low correlation found between flux and wind speed (r = 0.09), suggests that the influence of other forcing mechanisms, besides wind, is important for gas transfer modulation through the sea surface, at least for the conditions found in this study. In addition, the results suggest that for short periods where an intensification of the wave conditions occurs, a CO2 flux response increases the transport of gas to the ocean.

  14. Transport properties of CF3I thermal plasmas mixed with CO2, air or N2 as an alternative to SF6 plasmas in high-voltage circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Y.; Connord, V.; Hingana, H.; Teulet, Ph; Gleizes, A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of equilibrium compositions, thermodynamic properties (mass density, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity) of air/CO2/N2-CF3I mixtures. These data are computed in the temperature range 300 K-50 kK and pressure between 1 and 32 bar. Results obtained for pure gases (CF3I, CO2, air and N2) are systematically compared with SF6. Transport coefficients for N2, CO2, CF3I and mixtures of CO2, N2 or air with CF3I are also confronted with previous published values. Particular attention is paid to the collision integral database by the use of the most accurate and recent cross-sections or interaction potentials available in the literature.

  15. Multipoint Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Challener, William

    2014-12-31

    This report describes the work completed on contract DE-FE0010116. The goal of this two year project was to develop and demonstrate in the laboratory a highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement fiber optic cable based on MEMS pressure sensors suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well. The sensor interrogator was also to be demonstrated in a remote monitoring system and environmental testing was to be completed to indicate its downhole survivability over a lengthy period of time (e.g., 20 years). An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 100+) simultaneous sensor measurements. Two sensors packages were completed and spliced in a cable onto the same fiber and measured. One sensor package was subsequently measured at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2, while the other package was measured prior and after being subjected to high torque stresses to mimic downhole deployment. The environmental and stress tests indicated areas in which the package design should be further improved.

  16. Amphiphilic graft copolymers with ethyl cellulose backbone: Synthesis, self-assembly and tunable temperature-CO2 response.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weizhong; Zou, Hui; Shen, Jin

    2016-01-20

    Amphiphilic ethyl cellulose-graft-poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (EC-g-PDMAEMA) and ethyl cellulose-graft-poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate-co-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (EC-g-P(MEO2MA-co-DMAEMA)) graft copolymers were easily synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The micelles self-assembled from the copolymer presented switchable temperature-CO2 dually responsive properties. The value of lower critical solution temperature (LCST) for the copolymer micelle solutions could be adjusted by CO2/Ar. Moreover, due to the alteration of the ratio of DMAEMA to MEO2MA, the LCST values of the micelle solutions decreased with the increase of MEO2MA in copolymer. The temperature-CO2 dually responsive properties of the copolymer were reversible and could be accomplished through altering the temperature and bubbling CO2/Ar. The hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the copolymer micelles was also influenced by the ratio of DMAEMA to MEO2MA and the stimuli of temperature and CO2/Ar. As a drug release system, the copolymer micelles could achieve the control release of doxorubicin (DOX) by changing the temperature and alternatively bubbling CO2/Ar. PMID:26572349

  17. Carbon isotope fractionation by marine phytoplankton in culture: The effects of CO2 concentration, pH, temperature, and species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinga, Kenneth R.; Arthur, Michael A.; Pilson, Michael E. Q.; Whitaker, Dania

    1994-03-01

    Closed cultures of marine phytoplankton were established under variable conditions of CO2 concentration, temperature, growth rate (by light limitation), and pH (but with nearly identical [CO2aq]) in order to assess the relative influence of these variables on the extent of carbon isotope fractionation relative to dissolved inorganic carbon sources. Culture biomass was not allowed to increase beyond levels that would significantly affect the dissolved carbon system in the closed cultures. In experiments with Skeletonema costatum and Emiliania huxleyi, increasing CO2 concentrations led to increased carbon isotope discrimination (resulting in organic matter progressively depleted in δ13C, i.e., a greater, more negative ɛp). ɛp values for E. huxleyi were 8-10‰ less than for S. costatum under identical conditions. For the S. costatum cultures, there was nearly a 20 ‰ range in [CO2aq]-dependent ɛp. The effect was nonlinear with a leveling off at high [CO2aq]. Over a pH range of 7.5-8.3 but at a constant [CO2aq] there was a variation in carbon isotope fractionation by S. costatum of about 9 ‰ with a minimum at pH 7.8-7.9. There was a temperature effect of ˜8‰ on fractionation even after equilibrium temperature dependency of δ13C of CO2aq was taken into account. No growth rate effect was found for S. costatum over a modest range of growth rates. Culture experiments used to determine the carbon isotope fractionation by phytoplankton species must be conducted under well-defined conditions of temperature, pH, and CO2 concentrations. Hindcasts of ancient atmospheric pCO2 from measurements of δ13C of organic carbon in marine sediments will require careful calibration because of the variety of possible factors that influence δ13Corg.

  18. Culture characteristics of the atmospheric and room temperature plasma-mutated Spirulina platensis mutants in CO2 aeration culture system for biomass production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinyee; Fang, Mingyue; Jin, Lihua; Zhang, Chong; Li, He-Ping; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2015-10-01

    For biomass production of Spirulina platensis as feedstock of fermentation, the culture characteristics of three typical mutants of 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 generated by atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP) mutagenesis were systematically studied by using CO2 aeration culture system and compared with the wild strain. The specific growth rate of wild strain in the pure air aeration culture system exhibited a 76.2% increase compared with static culture, while the specific growth rates of the 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system were increased by 114.4%, 95.9% and 88.2% compared with their static cultures. Compared with static culture, the carbohydrate contents of wild strain, 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system dropped plainly by 51.0%, 79.3%, 85.5% and 26.1%. Increase of CO2 concentration enhanced carbohydrate content and productivity. Based on the carbohydrate productivity, the optimal inlet of CO2 concentration in aeration culture was determined to be 12% (v/v). Under this condition, 3-B2 exhibited the highest carbohydrate content (30.7%), CO2 fixation rate (0.120gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) and higher growth rate (0.093 g L(-1)·d(-1)), while 3-A10 showed the highest growth rate (0.118 g L(-1)·d(-1)) and higher CO2 fixation rate (0.117gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) but low carbohydrate content (24.5%), and 4-B3 showed the highest chlorophyll (Chl) content (3.82 mg·g(-1)). The most outstanding mutant by static culture in terms of growth rate and carbohydrate productivity (3-B2), was also demonstrated by CO2 aeration culture system. This study revealed that the ARTP mutagenesis could generate the S. platensis mutants suitable for CO2 aeration culture aiming at biomass production. PMID:25795571

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of CO2 fluxes at the sediment-air interface in a tidal flat of a temperate lagoon (Arcachon Bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migné, Aline; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Ouisse, Vincent; Boucher, Guy

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the spatial and temporal variability of benthic metabolism in a temperate mesotidal lagoon. This was achieved by measuring fluxes of CO2 in static chambers during emersion, both under light and dark conditions. Three sample sites were selected according to their tidal level (upper or mid), their sediment type (sand or mud) and the presence/absence of the seagrass Zostera noltei. The three sites were investigated at three seasons (end of winter, spring and beginning of autumn). At each site and each season, three benthic chambers were used simultaneously in successive incubations over the emersion period. The sediment chlorophyll-a content varied seasonally in the upper sands (reaching 283 mg.m- 2 in spring) but not in the mid muds (averaging 142 mg m- 2 in bare muds and 186 mg m- 2 in muds covered by seagrass). The maximum sediment CO2-uptake under light was 9.89 mmol m- 2 h- 1 in the mid-bare muds, in early autumn. The maximum sediment CO2-release under darkness was 6.97 mmol m- 2 h- 1 in the mid muds covered by seagrass, in spring. Both CO2-fluxes measured in the light and in the dark increased over periods of emersion. This increase, not related to light nor temperature variations, could be explained by changes in the amount and chemistry of pore water during the air exposure of sediments. The benthic trophic state index, based on the maximum light CO2-flux versus maximum dark CO2-flux ratio, assigned to each site at each season indicated that the sediments were net autotrophic in spring in upper sands and in mid muds covered by seagrass and highly autotrophic in other cases. The most autotrophic sediments were the mid-level bare muds whatever the season. The relevance of this index is discussed compared to carbon annual budget.

  20. High-Pressure Measurements of Temperature and CO2 Concentration Using Tunable Diode Lasers at 2 μm.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tingdong; Gao, Guangzhen; Wang, Minrui; Wang, Guishi; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    A sensor for simultaneous measurements of temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration at elevated pressure is developed using tunable diode lasers at 2 µm. Based on some selection rules, a CO2 line pair at 5006.140 and 5010.725 cm(-1) is selected for the TDL sensor. In order to ensure the accuracy and rapidity of the sensor, a quasi-fixed-wavelength WMS is employed. Normalization of the 2f signal with the 1f signal magnitude is used to remove the need for calibration and correct for transmission variation due to beam steering, mechanical misalignments, soot, and windows fouling. Temperatures are obtained from comparison of the background-subtracted 1f-normalized WMS-2f signals ratio and a 1f-normalized WMS-2f peak values ratio model. CO2 concentration is inferred from the 1f-normalized WMS-2f peak values of the CO2 transition at 5006.140 cm(-1). Measurements of temperature and CO2 concentration are carried out in static cell experiments (P = 1-10 atm, T = 500-1200 K) to validate the accuracy and ability of the sensor. The results show that accuracy of the sensor for temperature and CO2 concentration are 1.66% temperature and 3.1%, respectively. All the measurements show the potential utility of the sensor for combustion diagnose at elevated pressure. PMID:26798080

  1. Net carbon storage in a poplar plantation (POPFACE) after three years of free-air CO2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Gielen, B; Calfapietra, C; Lukac, M; Wittig, V E; De Angelis, P; Janssens, I A; Moscatelli, M C; Grego, S; Cotrufo, M F; Godbold, D L; Hoosbeek, M R; Long, S P; Miglietta, F; Polle, A; Bernacchi, C J; Davey, P A; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G E

    2005-11-01

    A high-density plantation of three genotypes of Populus was exposed to an elevated concentration of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]; 550 micromol mol(-1)) from planting through canopy closure using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) technique. The FACE treatment stimulated gross primary productivity by 22 and 11% in the second and third years, respectively. Partitioning of extra carbon (C) among C pools of different turnover rates is of critical interest; thus, we calculated net ecosystem productivity (NEP) to determine whether elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] will enhance net plantation C storage capacity. Free-air CO(2) enrichment increased net primary productivity (NPP) of all genotypes by 21% in the second year and by 26% in the third year, mainly because of an increase in the size of C pools with relatively slow turnover rates (i.e., wood). In all genotypes in the FACE treatment, more new soil C was added to the total soil C pool compared with the control treatment. However, more old soil C loss was observed in the FACE treatment compared with the control treatment, possibly due to a priming effect from newly incorporated root litter. FACE did not significantly increase NEP, probably as a result of this priming effect. PMID:16105807

  2. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on two phylogeographically distinct clones of common reed (Phragmites australis)

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Franziska; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Achenbach, Luciana; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aboveground growth, physiological and biochemical parameters of two clones of the cosmopolitan wetland grass Phragmites australis, grown at four treatment combinations of temperature and CO2, were investigated to elucidate whether their climate response differed due to inherent differences in their ecological adaptation. The two phylogeographically distinct P. australis clones (DK clone, European genetic background; ALG clone, Mediterranean genetic background) were grown for 151 days in phytotrons at 19/12 °C (day/night temperature) and 390 ppm CO2, and at elevated temperature (+5 °C) and CO2 (700 ppm) with treatment factors alone or in combination. The ALG clone had 2–4 times higher aboveground biomass, higher light-saturated rates of photosynthesis (Pmax), maximum electron transport rates (ETRmax) and Rubisco activity, and higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency than the DK clone. The DK clone, however, produced more shoots, leaves and side-shoots, and had 9–51 % higher specific leaf area and 15–39 % higher leaf nitrogen concentration than the ALG clone. Although elevated atmospheric CO2 alone barely affected the aboveground growth of the two P. australis clones, simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2 stimulated growth and aboveground biomass. Overall, elevated CO2 stimulated photosynthesis, but the clones responded differently to a concomitant increase in CO2 and temperature, depending on the phylogeographic background of the plant. The DK clone showed overall stronger responses, and can be considered the more plastic of the two clones with respect to CO2 and temperature. Thus, the DK clone may be better adapted to climate change than the ALG clone, at least in the short term.

  3. Surface temperature change, cortical evoked potential and pain behavior elicited by CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Yen, C T; Huang, C H; Fu, S E

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a self-designed CO2 laser stimulator, TL#2, was evaluated against a commercial product, model DE20XL of the Direct Energy Inc. (Irvine). The major items evaluated were the temperature change of the irradiated surface and the electrophysiological and behavior changes in the rat elicited by single laser pulse irradiation. Single shots of TL#2 produced a profile of surface temperature change similar to those of the DE20XL, as quantified by their maximal temperature change, rate of rise (half time to maximum) and rate of temperature drop. TL#2 and DE20XL elicited the same pain behaviors and the same pattern of cortical evoked potential in awake, behaving rats. TL#2 differed from the DE20XL in its laser beam shape and focal depth. The cross sectional energy profile of the TL#2 was a Gaussian shape, i.e., most intense at its center point, whereas that of the DE20XL with the FL20XL attachment had a shape of an inverted Gaussian, i.e., most intense in the periphery. Consequently, the peak energy of the center of the TL#2 laser beam grows rapidly with an increase in the pulse intensity. Caution must be taken not to use this machine at high intensity or for long duration less permanent damage should be produced on tested animal or human subject. In summary, TL#2 when used properly, should be a useful tool in the study of pain mechanism. PMID:7796635

  4. Source and meteorological influences on air quality (CO, CH4 & CO2) at a Southern Hemisphere urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, R. R.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kubistin, D.; Caldow, C.; Fisher, J. A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.; Macatangay, R.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Wollongong, Australia is an urban site at the intersection of anthropogenic, biomass burning, biogenic and marine sources of atmospheric trace gases. The location offers a valuable opportunity to study drivers of atmospheric composition in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, a record of surface carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured with an in situ Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser between April 2011 and August 2014. Clean air was found to arrive at Wollongong in approximately 10% of air masses. Biomass burning influence was evident in the average annual cycle of clean air CO during austral spring. A significant negative short-term trend was found in clean air CO (-1.5 nmol mol-1 a-1), driven by a reduction in northern Australian biomass burning. Significant short-term positive trends in clean air CH4 (5.4 nmol mol-1 a-1) and CO2 (1.9 μmol mol-1 a-1) were consistent with the long-term global average trends. Polluted Wollongong air was investigated using wind-direction/wind-speed clustering, which revealed major influence from local urban and industrial sources from the south. High values of CH4, with anthropogenic ΔCH4/ΔCO2 enhancement ratio signatures, originated from the northwest, in the direction of local coal mining. A pollution climatology was developed for the region using back trajectory analysis and ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Ozone production environments in austral spring and summer were associated with anticyclonic meteorology on the east coast of Australia, while ozone depletion environments in autumn and winter were associated with continental transport, or fast moving trajectories from southern latitudes. This implies the need to consider meteorological conditions when developing policies for controlling air quality.

  5. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO2-free Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO2-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening. The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO2-free air. PMID:16656995

  6. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  7. Photodissociation in the atmosphere of Mars - Impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Allen, M.; Nair, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements, reported by Lewis and Carver (1983), on calculations of photodissociation rate coefficients in the Martian atmosphere. We find that the adoption of 50 A intervals for the purpose of computational efficiency results in errors in the calculated values for photodissociation of CO2, H2O, and O2 which are generally not above 10 percent, but as large as 20 percent in some instances. These are acceptably small errors, especially considering the uncertainties introduced by the large temperature dependence of the CO2 cross section. The inclusion of temperature-dependent CO2 cross sections is shown to lead to a decrease in the diurnally averaged rate of CO2 photodissociation as large as 33 percent at some altitudes, and increases of as much as 950 percent and 80 percent in the photodissociation rate coefficients of H2O and O2, respectively. The actual magnitude of the changes depends on the assumptions used to model the CO2 absorption spectrum at temperatures lower than the available measurements, and at wavelengths longward of 1970 A.

  8. High-Permeance Room-Temperature Ionic-Liquid-Based Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, JS; Mok, MM; Cowan, MG; McDanel, WM; Carlisle, TK; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-12-24

    We have developed and fabricated thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with an active layer consisting of a room-temperature ionic liquid/polymerized (room-temperature ionic liquid) [i.e., (RTIL)/poly(RTIL)] composite material. The resulting membrane has a CO2 permeance of 6100 +/- 400 GPU (where 1 GPU = 10(-6) cm(3)/(cm(2) s cmHg)) and an ideal CO2/N-2 selectivity of 22 +/- 2. This represents a new membrane with state-of-the-art CO2 permeance and good CO2/N-2 selectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a TFC gas separation membrane composed of an RTIL-containing active layer.

  9. Synergism between elevated pCO2 and temperature on the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia lecointei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torstensson, A.; Hedblom, M.; Andersson, J.; Andersson, M. X.; Wulff, A.

    2013-04-01

    Polar oceans are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and warming. Diatoms play a significant role in sea ice biogeochemistry and provide an important food source to grazers in ice-covered oceans, especially during early spring. However, the ecophysiology of ice living organisms has received little attention in terms of ocean acidification. In this study, the synergism between temperature and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was investigated in relationship to the optimal growth temperature of the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia lecointei. Diatoms were kept in cultures at controlled levels of pCO2 (∼390 and ∼960 μatm}) and temperature (-1.8 and 2.5 °C) for 14 days. Synergism between temperature and pCO2 was detected in growth rate and acyl lipid fatty acid content. Carbon enrichment only promoted (3%) growth rate closer to the optimal growth, but not at the control temperature (-1.8 °C). Optimal growth rate was observed around 5 °C in a separate experiment. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) comprised up to 98% of the total acyl lipid fatty acid pool at -1.8 °C. However, the total content of fatty acids was reduced by 39% at elevated pCO2, but only at the control temperature. PUFAs were reduced by 30% at high pCO2. Effects of carbon enrichment may be different depending on ocean warming scenario or season, e.g. reduced food quality for higher trophic levels during spring. Synergy between temperature and pCO2 may be particularly important in polar areas since a narrow thermal window generally limits cold-water organisms.

  10. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on Cd and Zn accumulation dynamics in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoheng; Li, Yu; Lu, Hong; Wang, Shigong

    2016-09-01

    A simulated climate warming experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on the bioaccumulation, translocation and subcellular distributions of Cd and Zn in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1.) at Dingxi, Gansu Province, China. The objective was to find evidence that global climate change is affecting the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in T. aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1. The results showed that compared to control A, elevated temperature and CO2 increased Cd bioaccumulation in the shoots by 1.4-2.5 times, and increased that in the roots by 1.2-1.5 times, but decreased Zn levels in wheat shoots by 1.4-2.0 times, while decreased that in the roots by 1.6-1.9 times. Moreover, temperature and CO2 concentration increase also led to increased Cd concentration, and decreased Zn concentration in subcellular compartments of wheat seedlings. The largest Cd concentration increase (174.4%) was observed in the cell wall and debris fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the highest CO2 and temperature treatment (TC3). The largest Zn concentration decrease (53.1%) was observed in the soluble (F3) fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the medium CO2 and temperature treatment (TC2). The temperature and CO2 increase had no significant effect on the proportional distribution of Cd and Zn in the subcellular fractions. The root-to-shoot translocation of Cd increased with the increasing temperature and CO2 concentration. However, the Zn distributions only fluctuated within a small range. PMID:27593278

  11. 77 FR 23178 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Deferral for CO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... authorities and sources (75 FR 31514). EPA accomplished this by tailoring the applicability criteria that... emissions from various greenhouse gases based ] upon their global warming potential (GWP). The CO 2 e for a... approve that SIP revision (76 FR 27898). B. EPA's Biomass Deferral Rule On July 20, 2011, EPA...

  12. 78 FR 13497 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Deferral for CO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...EPA is approving a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the Maryland Department of the Environmental (MDE) on April 4, 2012. This revision defers until July 21, 2014 the application of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting requirements to biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from bioenergy and other biogenic stationary sources in the State......

  13. 77 FR 65627 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Deferral for CO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting requirements to biogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2... this document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. On April 18, 2012, (77 FR... provisions on May 13, 2011 (76 FR 27898). In addition to the incorporation of the Biomass Deferral, the...

  14. Oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation in the system dolomite-water-CO2 to elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, Juske

    2014-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation factors in the system dolomite-water-CO2 at 80-350 and 100-250 °C, respectively, by means of direct precipitation (80 °C) and dolomitization of CaCO3 (100-350 °C). The products are protodolomite with slight Ca-excess (80-100 °C) and well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite (150-350 °C). Several experimental artifacts (inheritance, premature reactions, and kinetic effects) were tested, although attainment of isotope equilibrium cannot be proven. 18O/16O fractionation factors of (proto)dolomite-water at 80-350 °C can be readily expressed with 1σ error: 103lnα=3.140(±0.022)·{106}/{T2}-3.14(±0.11). Our experimental study, which is generally consistent with a majority of experimental and theoretical studies in the literature, provides for the first time an accurate equation over a wide range of temperature. In combination of the calcite-water equation (O’Neil et al., 1969; Friedman and O’Neil, 1977), 18O/16O fractionation factors of (proto)dolomite-calcite at 80-350 °C can also be expressed with 1σ error: 103lnα=0.351(±0.028)·{106}/{T2}-0.25(±0.13). Dolomite is slightly (0.7-2.6‰) enriched in 18O relative to calcite in this temperature range. Given the very good linearity with a 1/T2 term, the above two equations may be extrapolated beyond the temperature range. Our experimental results of 13C/12C fractionation between CO2 and dolomite at 100-250 °C also show a linear function with a 1/T2 term with a cross-over temperature of 200 °C, which differs from results of theoretical calculations.

  15. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently. PMID:26270956

  16. Carbon budgets for three autotrophic Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of the coastal air-water CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

    2012-03-01

    Estuaries are `hot spots' in the global carbon cycle, yet data on carbon dynamics, in particular air-sea CO2 fluxes, from autotrophic systems are rare. Estuarine carbon budgets were constructed for three geomorphically distinct warm temperate Australian estuaries over an annual cycle. All three estuaries were net autotrophic, with annual net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) ranging from 8 ± 13.4 molC m-2 yr-1 to 10 ± 14 molC m-2 yr-1. There was a net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the estuaries of between 0.4 ± 0.6 molC m-2 yr-1 and 2 ± 0.9 molC m-2 yr-1. Loading of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the estuaries varied markedly within and between the estuaries, and was directly related to freshwater inflow. While NEM was similar in all three estuaries, the ratio of benthic versus pelagic contributions to NEM differed, with NEM dominated by pelagic production in the river dominated system, benthic production dominating in the intermediate estuary, and equal contributions of benthic and pelagic production in the marine dominated lagoon. All three estuaries exported more organic carbon than was imported, fueled by additional organic carbon supplied by NEM. The estuaries essentially acted as bioreactors, transforming DIC to organic carbon. Burial of organic carbon ranged from 1.2 ± 0.3 molC m-2 yr-1 to 4.4 ± 1.2 molC m-2 yr-1 and represented up to half of NEM. The annual net uptake of atmospheric CO2 in these systems, along with previous estimates of the global estuarine CO2flux being based predominantly on heterotrophic, large river dominated estuarine systems, indicates that the global estimate of the estuarine air-water CO2flux may be over-estimated due to the lack of studies from autotrophic marine dominated estuaries.

  17. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In preparation for the routine deployment of the Earth Networks greenhouse gas monitoring network, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to below 0.2% mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet was designed for use with a Picarro model G2301 cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer. The analyzer measures water vapor mixing ratio at the same frequency as CO2 and CH4 and then corrects for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. This analyzer is remarkably stable and performs well on water vapor correction tests, but there is potentially an added benefit of reducing the dependence on the H2O correction for long term field measurement programs. Substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample can reduce uncertainties in the applied H2O corrections by an order of magnitude or more, and eliminate the need to determine an instrument-specific H2O correction factor and to verify its stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-95 °C) method for removing H2O and found that it does not significantly alter the CO2 and CH4 dry mixing ratios of the sample gas. Systematic differences between the drying methods were at the level of 0.05 ppm in CO2 and 0.1 ppb in CH4 for the wet-air tests, well within the WMO compatibility guidelines.

  18. The carbon dioxide system on the Mississippi River-dominated continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico: 1. Distribution and air-sea CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Jen; Cai, Wei-Jun; Wang, Yongchen; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Murrell, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    River-dominated continental shelf environments are active sites of air-sea CO2 exchange. We conducted 13 cruises in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region strongly influenced by fresh water and nutrients delivered from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system. The sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was measured, and the air-sea CO2 flux was calculated. Results show that CO2 exchange exhibited a distinct seasonality: the study area was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring and early summer, and it was neutral or a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during midsummer, fall, and winter. Along the salinity gradient, across the shelf, the sea surface shifted from a source of CO2 in low-salinity zones (0≤S<17) to a strong CO2 sink in the middle-to-high-salinity zones (17≤S<33), and finally was a near-neutral state in the high-salinity areas (33≤S<35) and in the open gulf (S≥35). High pCO2 values were only observed in narrow regions near freshwater sources, and the distribution of undersaturated pCO2 generally reflected the influence of freshwater inputs along the shelf. Systematic analyses of pCO2 variation demonstrated the importance of riverine nitrogen export; that is, riverine nitrogen-enhanced biological removal, along with mixing processes, dominated pCO2 variation along the salinity gradient. In addition, extreme or unusual weather events were observed to alter the alongshore pCO2 distribution and to affect regional air-sea CO2 flux estimates. Overall, the study region acted as a net CO2 sink of 0.96 ± 3.7 mol m-2 yr-1 (1.15 ± 4.4 Tg C yr-1).

  19. Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles. PMID:22347390

  20. Monitoring Gaseous CO2 and Ethanol above Champagne Glasses: Flute versus Coupe, and the Role of Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-01-01

    In champagne tasting, gaseous CO2 and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO2 and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO2 was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO2 visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO2 found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO2 escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles. PMID:22347390

  1. Sudden cold temperature regulates the time-lag between plant CO2 uptake and release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, M.; Cieraad, E.; Zakharova, A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2013-11-01

    Since substrates for respiration are supplied mainly by recent photo-assimilates, there is a strong but time-lagged link between short-term above- and belowground carbon (C) cycling. However, regulation of this coupling by environmental variables is poorly understood. Whereas recent studies focussed on the effect of drought and shading on the link between above and belowground short-term C cycling, the effect of temperature remains unclear. We used a 13CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment to investigate the effect of a sudden temperature change from 25 °C to 10 °C on the short-term coupling between assimilatory C uptake and respiratory loss. The study was done in the laboratory using two month old perennial rye-grass plants (temperature (10 °C) reduced the short-term coupling between shoot and roots by delaying belowground transfer of recent assimilates and its subsequent respiratory use, as indicated by the δ13C signal of root respiration (δ13CRR). That is, the time-lag from the actual shoot labelling to the first appearance of the label in 13CRR was about 1.5 times longer under cold temperature (time-lags of 1 h and 1.5 h in the warm and cold treatments, respectively). Moreover, analysis of bulk shoot and root material revealed that plants at cold temperature invest relatively more carbon into respiration compared to growth or storage. These results increase our understanding of environmental controls on the link between short-term above- and belowground C cycling.

  2. Temperature- and CO2-dependent life table parameters of Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) on sunflower and prediction of pest scenarios.

    PubMed

    Manimanjari, D; Srinivasa Rao, M; Swathi, P; Rama Rao, C A; Vanaja, M; Maheswari, M

    2014-01-01

    Predicted increase in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration will influence the growth of crop plants and phytophagous insects. The present study, conducted at the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, aimed at (1) construction of life tables at six constant temperatures viz., 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35 ± 0.5 °C for Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) reared on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2 (eCO2) (550 ppm) concentration in open top chambers and (2) prediction of the pest status in near future (NF) and distant future (DF) climate change scenarios at major sunflower growing locations of India. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon and higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) were observed in sunflower foliage grown under eCO2 over ambient. Feeding trials conducted on sunflower foliage obtained from two CO2 conditions showed that the developmental time of S. litura (Egg to adult) declined with increase in temperature and was more evident at eCO2. Finite (λ) and intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)), net reproductive rate (Ro), mean generation time, (T) and doubling time (DT) of S. litura increased significantly with temperature up to 27-30 °C and declined with further increase in temperature. Reduction of 'T' was observed from maximum value of 58 d at 20 °C to minimum of 24.9 d at 35 °C. The DT of population was higher (5.88 d) at 20 °C and lower (3.05 d) at 30 °C temperature of eCO2. The data on these life table parameters were plotted against temperature and two nonlinear models were developed separately for each of the CO2 conditions for predicting the pest scenarios. The NF and DF scenarios temperature data of four sunflower growing locations in India is based on PRECIS A1B emission scenario. It was predicted that increased 'rm', 'λ', and 'Ro' and reduced 'T' would occur during NF and DF scenario over present period at all

  3. High-temperature measurements of VUV-absorption cross sections of CO2 and their application to exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venot, O.; Fray, N.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Hébrard, E.; Larcher, G.; Schwell, M.; Dobrijevic, M.; Selsis, F.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Aims: Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We also investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of some exoplanets. Methods: We performed these measurements with synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source for the 115-200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195-230 nm range, we used a deuterium lamp and a 1.5 m Jobin-Yvon spectrometer and we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. Results: For λ > 170 nm, the wavelength dependence of ln(σCO2(λ,T) × 1/(Qv(T))) can be parametrized with a linear law. Thus, we can interpolate σCO2(λ,T) at any temperature between 300 and 800 K. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. Conclusions: The absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot

  4. Mean Ages of Stratospheric Air Derived From in Situ Observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Boering, K. A.; Daube, B. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Podolske, J. R.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Scott, D. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Accurate mean ages for stratospheric air have been derived from a spatially and temporally comprehensive set of in situ observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O obtained from 1992 to 1998 from the NASA ER-2 aircraft and balloon flights. Errors associated with the tropospheric CO2 seasonal cycle and interannual variations in the CO2 growth rate are less than 0.5 year throughout the stratosphere and less than 0.3 year for air older than 2 years (N2O less than 275 ppbv), indicating that the age spectra are broad enough to attenuate these influences over the time period covered by these observations. The distribution of mean age with latitude and altitude provides detailed, quantitative information about the general circulation of the stratosphere. At 20 km, sharp meridional gradients in the mean age are observed across the subtropics. Between 20 and 30 km, the average difference in mean age between the tropics and midlatitudes is approximately 2 years, with slightly smaller differences at higher and lower altitudes. The mean age in the midlatitude middle stratosphere (approx. 25-32 km) is relatively constant with respect to altitude at 5 plus or minus 0.5 years. Comparison with earlier balloon observations of CO2 dating back to the 1970s indicates that the mean age of air in this region has remained within 11 year of its current value over the last 25 years. A climatology of mean age is derived from the observed compact relationship between mean age and N2O. These characteristics of the distribution of mean age in the stratosphere will serve as critically needed diagnostics for models of stratospheric transport.

  5. Integrated High Temperature Coal to Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation: Semi-Annual Progress Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, J A; Ku, A; Ramaswamy, V; Wei, W

    2005-12-21

    This is the first semi-annual progress report for the program "Integrated High Temperature Coal to Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation." The objective of the program is to develop a detailed design for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H2 from a coal-based system and to develop the new high-temperature membrane materials at the core of that design. The novel one-box process combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO2-selective membrane to convert CO to CO2, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO2 in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. In the first six months of the program, a conceptual design for the one-box system was developed in Task 1 and the performance targets for the system and the membrane were evaluated. In Task 2.1 processes were developed for creating pore architectures in ceramics that are applicable to membrane structures. In Task 2.2, candidate materials were identified that have the potential for separation of CO2 and H2S at high temperatures.

  6. Paleobotanical Evidence for Coupling of Temperature and pCO2 during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Y.; Greenwood, D. R.; Basinger, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) was the warmest period of the Cenozoic, indicated by multiple proxy mean annual temperature estimates for sea and land surface. However, estimates of pCO2 from geochemical, modeling, and paleontological proxies show a wide range of values, from near modern day levels to an order of magnitude greater. Resolving the pCO2 record for this time period, and correlating it with trends in temperature, is a key task in understanding the interaction of climate and pCO2 in globally warm periods. Here we present a fine scale study of trends in temperature and pCO2 based on paleobotanical data from an early Eocene site from the Okanagan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada. Plant macrofossils were collected using an unbiased census approach from three informal units, allowing for quantitative comparison of trends within the site. Temperature estimates derived from multiple paleobotanical techniques (physiognomic and floristic approaches) suggest microthermal (MAT <13°C) but equable (CMMT >0°C) conditions for this upland site, and show a trend in declining MAT over time reflected in the three units. At the same time, stomatal frequency of Ginkgo suggests that pCO2 was high (>2x modern values), but also declining over time. These results suggest that temperature and pCO2 were coupled during this globally warm period, and that fine scale trends on the order of 103 - 104 years can be tracked within fossil sites to provide a window on climate/pCO2 interactions.

  7. Simultaneous and time-resolved temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements with pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for pressures as great as 5 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, Martin; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2005-09-10

    Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in binary CO2-N2 and ternary CO2-O2-N2 mixtures in a temperature range between 300 and 773 K and pressures from 0.1 to 5 MPa to prove its potential for simultaneous single-shot thermometry and multispecies concentration measurements. In pressurized systems the CO2 component has a strong spectral influence on the pure rotational CARS spectra. Because of this dominance, pure rotational CARS proves to be a sensitive tool to measure in high-pressure combustion systems and the relative CO2-N2 concentration in the lower temperature range simultaneously with the temperature and the relative O2-N2 concentration. The evaluation of the spectra utilized a least-sum-squared differences fit of the spectral shape, weighted either constantly or inversely with respect to the normalized signal intensity. The results of the simultaneous temperature and relative CO2-N2 and O2-CO2-N2 concentration measurements provided a good accuracy and precision both in temperature and in concentrations. Because of the strong increase in the relative spectral contribution of CO2 with rising pressure, the precision of the CO2 concentration determination is in general significantly improved toward higher pressures, thus also clearly enhancing the CO2 detectability. The influence of temperature, O2 and CO2 concentration, pressure, and the evaluation techniques employed on both the accuracy and the precision is explained as well as their cross dependencies. The influence and limitations of the approximations used to model the CO2 molecule are discussed.

  8. Radiative properties at high temperature: recent developments for CO2 and CH4.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marie Yvonne; Riviere, Philippe; Soufiani, Anouar

    2010-05-01

    The modeling of radiative transfer in high temperature gases is required in many industrial applications (combustion chambers, plume signature, atmospheric entries…) or space applications. The base of such modeling relies on the availability of an extensive spectroscopic database, which includes all radiative processes which contribute to emission or absorption. These databases are generally obtained by theoretical calculations. It is thus necessary to validate them experimentally, at least partially. Another difficulty associated with radiative transfer in high temperature media is the huge number of radiative transitions, which are involved. Radiative transfer calculations based on a line-by-line approach are impracticable for complex geometries of non isothermal media. It is thus necessary to develop approximate models such as band models. We will present an overview of the studies devoted to radiative properties of CO2 and CH4 at high temperature (a few thousands Kelvin). For both molecules a spectroscopic database has been developed. Two different theoretical approaches have been used to model the IR contributions: variational calculation or effective Hamiltonian approach. Two experimental setups have been developed to partially validate the database. An isothermal high temperature cell allows recording absorption spectra up to 900 K. A microwave discharge leading to an axisymmetric plume is used to record emission spectra up to a few thousands Kelvin. Both setups are coupled to a high resolution FTIR (Bomen DA8) for infrared characterization. The emission spectra of the microwave discharge can be recorded in the near UV-visible range using a monochromator equipped with a CCD camera. Band models have been developed from the obtained database for local thermodynamic equilibrium applications. The development of band models for non-equilibrium case is presently investigated.

  9. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 with high temperature.

    PubMed

    Rao, Lei; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yongtao; Zhao, Feng; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-07-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 combined with high temperature (HPCD+HT) and to analyze the clumping effect of the spores on their HPCD+HT resistance. The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa and HPCD at 6.5-25 MPa, and 82 °C, 86 °C, and 91 °C for 0-120 min. The spores were effectively inactivated by HPCD+HT, but a protective effect on the spores was also found, which was closely correlated to the pressure, temperature and time. The spores treated by HPCD+HT at 6.5 and 10 MPa exhibited a two-stage inactivation curve of shoulder and log-linear regions whereas the spores at 15-25 MPa exhibited a three-stage inactivation curve of shoulder, log-linear and tailing regions, and these curves were well fitted to the Geeraerd model. Approximately 90% of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA) was released after HPCD+HT and the 90% DPA release time depend on the pressure and temperature. Moreover, the spore clumping in suspensions was examined by dynamic light scattering. The particle size of the spore suspensions increased with the increase of pressure, temperature and time, indicating the spore clumping. 0.1% Tween 80 as a surfactant inhibited the spore clumping and increased the inactivation ratio of the spores by HPCD+HT. These results indicated that the spore clumping enhanced the spores' resistance to HPCD+HT and induced a protective effect. PMID:25889524

  10. CO2 air-sea fluxes across the Portuguese estuaries Tagus and Sado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. P.; Cabeçadas, G.; Nogueira, M.

    2009-04-01

    Generally, estuaries and proximal shelves under the direct influence of river runoff and large inputs of organic matter are mostly heterotrophic and, therefore, act as a carbon source. In this context the CO2 dynamics in Tagus and Sado estuaries (SW Portugal) was studied under two different climate and hydrological situations. These moderately productive mesotidal coastal-plain lagoon-type estuaries, localised in the center of Portugal and distant 30-40 km apart, present quite different freshwater inflows, surface areas and water residence times. A study performed in 2001 revealed that the magnitude of CO2 fluxes in the two estuarine systems varied seasonally. CO2 emissions during the huge rainfall winter were similar in both estuaries, reaching a mean value of ~50 mmol m-2 d-1, while in spring emissions from Sado were ~6 times higher then Tagus ones, attaining a mean value of 62 mmol m-2 d-1. Nevertheless, in both sampling periods, Sado estuary showed, within the upper estuary (salinity

  11. The air-water CO2 exchange of a coastal sea—A sensitivity study on factors that influence the absorption and outgassing of CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Omstedt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the BALTSEM model is used to estimate how air-water CO2 fluxes in the Baltic Sea respond to parameterizations of organic alkalinity (Aorg), gas transfer, and phytoplankton growth, and further to changes in river loads. The forcing data include the most complete compilation of Baltic river loads for dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC) and total alkalinity (TA). In addition, we apply the most recent estimates of internal TA generation in the system. Our results clearly demonstrate how air-water CO2 fluxes of a coastal sea depend on river loads of carbon, TA, and nutrients as well the freshwater import itself. Long-term changes in DIC loads are shown to be compensated by corresponding changes in air-water CO2 exchange. By adding Aorg, a discrepancy in the carbonate system calculations was removed, and the simulated net CO2 absorption of the system decreased by 11%. A new parameterization for cyanobacteria growth significantly improved the seasonal development of pCO2 in the central Baltic Sea, although the net effect on CO2 fluxes was below 5%. By applying either a linear, quadratic, or cubic wind speed dependence for gas transfer, the long-term net CO2 exchange was adjusted by less than 5%. There is no clear indication that any one of these parameterizations provides a more accurate estimate of CO2 fluxes than the other two. Our findings are applicable in other coastal areas that are heavily influenced by river loads of TA, DIC, and DOC.

  12. Does the Response of Leaf Photosynthetic Productivity to Rising Atmospheric Temperature and CO2 Scale Up to the Canopy?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory predicts that interacting increases in temperature and CO2 will synergistically enhance leaf photosynthesis but how this interaction will scale to affect canopy and ecosystem productivity is less clear. Numerous factors contribute to this uncertainty including higher canopy temperatures from ...

  13. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  14. Interactions of CO2, temperature and management practices: simulations with a modified version of CERES-Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubiello, F. N.; Rosenzweig, C.; Volk, T.

    1995-01-01

    A new growth subroutine was developed for CERES-Wheat, a computer model of wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth and development. The new subroutine simulates canopy photosynthetic response to CO2 concentrations and light levels, and includes the effects of temperature on canopy light-use efficiency. Its performance was compared to the original CERES-Wheat V-2 10 in 30 different cases. Biomass and yield predictions of the two models were well correlated (correlation coefficient r > 0.95). As an application, summer growth of spring wheat was simulated at one site. Modeled crop responses to higher mean temperatures, different amounts of minimum and maximum warming, and doubled CO2 concentrations were compared to observations. The importance of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in modulating the wheat crop climatic responses were also analyzed. Specifically, in agreement with observations, rainfed crops were found to be more sensitive to CO2 increases than irrigated ones. On the other hand, low nitrogen applications depressed the ability of the wheat crop to respond positively to CO2 increases. In general, the positive effects of high CO2 on grain yield were found to be almost completely counterbalanced by the negative effects of high temperatures. Depending on how temperature minima and maxima were increased, yield changes averaged across management practices ranged from -4% to 8%.

  15. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment and elevated growth temperatures on metabolites in soybean leaflets; evidence for dynamic changes of TCA cycle intermediates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max [Merr.]L.) was grown in indoor chambers with ambient (38 Pa) and elevated (70 Pa) CO2 and day/night temperature treatments of 28/20, 32/24, and 36/28 °C. Net rates of CO2 assimilation increased with growth temperature and were enhanced an additional 25% on average by CO2 enrich...

  16. High temperatures and high pressures Brillouin scattering studies of liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures.

    PubMed

    Qin, Junfeng; Li, Min; Li, Jun; Chen, Rongyan; Duan, Zhenhao; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Fangfei; Cui, Qiliang

    2010-10-21

    The Brillouin scattering spectroscopy studies have been conducted in a diamond anvil cell for a liquid mixtures composed of 95 mol % H(2)O and 5 mol % CO(2) under high temperatures and pressures. The sound velocity, refractive index, density, and adiabatic bulk modulus of the H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures were determined under pressures up to the freezing point at 293, 453, and 575 K. It is found from the experiment that sound velocities of the liquid mixture are substantially lower than those of pure water at 575 K, but not at lower temperatures. We presented an empirical relation of the density in terms of pressure and temperature. Our results show that liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures are more compressible than water obtained from an existing equation of state of at 453 and 575 K. PMID:20969409

  17. Diversity in neotropical wet forests during the Cenozoic is linked more to atmospheric CO2 than temperature

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Dana L.; Chernoff, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Models generally predict a response in species richness to climate, but strong climate-diversity associations are seldom observed in long-term (more than 106 years) fossil records. Moreover, fossil studies rarely distinguish between the effects of atmospheric CO2 and temperature, which limits their ability to identify the causal controls on biodiversity. Plants are excellent organisms for testing climate-diversity hypotheses owing to their strong sensitivity to CO2, temperature and moisture. We find that pollen morphospecies richness in an angiosperm-dominated record from the Palaeogene and early Neogene (65–20 Ma) of Colombia and Venezuela correlates positively to CO2 much more strongly than to temperature (both tropical sea surface temperatures and estimates of global mean surface temperature). The weaker sensitivity to temperature may be due to reduced variance in long-term climate relative to in higher latitudes, or to the occurrence of lethal or sub-lethal temperatures during the warmest times of the Eocene. Physiological models predict that productivity should be the most sensitive to CO2 within the angiosperms, a prediction supported by our analyses if productivity is linked to species richness; however, evaluations of non-angiosperm assemblages are needed to more completely test this idea. PMID:23760866

  18. Experimental multi-phase H2O-CO2 brine interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuel and other anthropogenic activities have caused a continuous and dramatic 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 150 yr. CO2 sequestration is increasingly being viewed as a tool for managing these anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. CO2-saturated brine-rock experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration in mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were generally consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions were occurring on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  19. Long-Term Growth of Soybean at Elevated [CO2] Does not Cause Acclimation of Stomatal Conductance Under Fully Open-air Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, A. D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Ort, D. R.; Long, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Accurately predicting plant function and global biogeochemical cycles later this century will be complicated if stomatal conductance (gs) acclimates to growth at elevated [CO2], in the sense of a long-term alteration of the response of gs to [CO2], humidity (h) and/or photosynthetic rate (A). If so, photosynthetic and stomatal models will require parameterization at each growth [CO2] of interest. Photosynthetic acclimation to long-term growth at elevated [CO2] occurs frequently. Acclimation of gs has rarely been examined, even though stomatal density commonly changes with growth [CO2]. Soybean was grown under field conditions at ambient [CO2] (378 μmol mol-1) and elevated [CO2] (552 μmol mol-1) using Free-Air [CO2] Enrichment (FACE). This study tested for stomatal acclimation by parameterizing and validating the widely used Ball et al. model (1987, Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Vol IV, 221-224) with measurements of leaf gas exchange. The dependence of gs on A, h and [CO2] at the leaf surface was unaltered by long-term growth at elevated [CO2]. This suggests that the commonly observed decrease in gs under elevated [CO2] is due entirely to the direct instantaneous effect of [CO2] on gs and that there is no longer-term acclimation of stomatal conductance independent of photosynthetic acclimation. The Ball et al. (1987) model accurately predicted gs for soybean growing under ambient and elevated [CO2] in the field. Model parameters under ambient and elevated [CO2] were indistinguishable, demonstrating that stomatal function under ambient and elevated [CO2] could be modeled without the need for parameterization at each growth [CO2].

  20. Long-term growth of soybean at elevated [CO2] does not cause acclimation of stomatal conductance under fully open-air conditions.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Accurately predicting plant function and global biogeochemical cycles later in this century will be complicated if stomatal conductance (g(s)) acclimates to growth at elevated [CO(2)], in the sense of a long-term alteration of the response of g(s) to [CO(2)], humidity (h) and/or photosynthetic rate (A). If so, photosynthetic and stomatal models will require parameterization at each growth [CO(2)] of interest. Photosynthetic acclimation to long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)] occurs frequently. Acclimation of g(s) has rarely been examined, even though stomatal density commonly changes with growth [CO(2)]. Soybean was grown under field conditions at ambient [CO(2)] (378 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated [CO(2)] (552 micromol mol(-1)) using free-air [CO(2)] enrichment (FACE). This study tested for stomatal acclimation by parameterizing and validating the widely used Ball et al. model (1987, Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol IV, 221-224) with measurements of leaf gas exchange. The dependence of g(s) on A, h and [CO(2)] at the leaf surface was unaltered by long-term growth at elevated [CO(2)]. This suggests that the commonly observed decrease in g(s) under elevated [CO(2)] is due entirely to the direct instantaneous effect of [CO(2)] on g(s) and that there is no longer-term acclimation of g(s) independent of photosynthetic acclimation. The model accurately predicted g(s) for soybean growing under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] in the field. Model parameters under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] were indistinguishable, demonstrating that stomatal function under ambient and elevated [CO(2)] could be modelled without the need for parameterization at each growth [CO(2)]. PMID:16913868

  1. Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    PubMed

    Duan, Honglang; O'Grady, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Choat, Brendan; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Jiang, Yanan; Tissue, David T

    2015-07-01

    Future climate regimes characterized by rising [CO2], rising temperatures and associated droughts may differentially affect tree growth and physiology. However, the interactive effects of these three factors are complex because elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature may generate differential physiological responses during drought. To date, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on drought-induced tree mortality remain poorly understood in gymnosperm species that differ in stomatal regulation strategies. Water relations and carbon dynamics were examined in two species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies: Pinus radiata D. Don (relatively isohydric gymnosperm; regulating stomata to maintain leaf water potential above critical thresholds) and Callitris rhomboidea R. Br (relatively anisohydric gymnosperm; allowing leaf water potential to decline as the soil dries), to assess response to drought as a function of [CO2] and temperature. Both species were grown in two [CO2] (C(a) (ambient, 400 μl l(-1)) and C(e) (elevated, 640 μl l(-1))) and two temperature (T(a) (ambient) and T(e) (ambient +4 °C)) treatments in a sun-lit glasshouse under well-watered conditions. Drought plants were then exposed to a progressive drought until mortality. Prior to mortality, extensive xylem cavitation occurred in both species, but significant depletion of non-structural carbohydrates was not observed in either species. Te resulted in faster mortality in P. radiata, but it did not modify the time-to-mortality in C. rhomboidea. C(e) did not delay the time-to-mortality in either species under drought or T(e) treatments. In summary, elevated temperature (+4 °C) had greater influence than elevated [CO2] (+240 μl l(-1)) on drought responses of the two studied gymnosperm species, while stomatal regulation strategies did not generally affect the relative contributions of hydraulic failure and carbohydrate depletion to mortality under severe drought. PMID

  2. Dural reconstruction by fascia using a temperature-controlled CO2 laser soldering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forer, Boaz; Vasilyev, Tamar; Brosh, Tamar; Kariv, Naam; Gil, Ziv; Fliss, Dan M.; Katzir, Abraham

    2005-04-01

    Conventional methods for dura repair are normally based on sutures or stitches. These methods have several disadvantages: (1) The dura is often brittle, and the standard procedures are difficult and time consuming. (2) The seal is leaky. (3) The introduction of a foreign body (e.g. sutures) may cause an inflammatory response. In order to overcome these difficulties we used a temperature controlled fiber optic based CO2 laser soldering system. In a set of in vitro experiments we generated a hole of diameter 10 mm in the dura of a pig corpse, covered the hole with a segment of fascia, and soldered the fascia to the edges of the hole, using 47% bovine albumin as a solder. The soldering was carried out spot by spot, and each spot was heated to 65° C for 3-6 seconds. The soldered dura was removed and the burst pressure of the soldered patch was measured. The average value for microscopic muscular side soldering was 194 mm Hg. This is much higher than the maximal physiological pressure of the CSF fluid in the brain, which is 15 mm Hg. In a set of in vivo experiments, fascia patches were soldered on holes in five farm pigs. The long term results of these experiments were very promising. In conclusion, we have developed an advanced technique for dural reconstruction, which will find important clinical applications.

  3. Are microbial N transformation rates in a permanent grassland soil after 17 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 sensitive to soil temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Gerald; Gorenflo, André; Brenzinger, Kristof; Clough, Tim; Braker, Gesche; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Long-term observations (17 years) within the Giessen Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (Giessen FACE) study on permanent grassland showed that the carbon fertilization caused significant changes in the ecosystem nitrogen cycle. These changes are responsible for a doubling of annual N2O emissions under elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) caused by increased emissions during the plant growing season. The goal of this lab study was to understand how soil temperature influences the long-term effects of eCO2 and plant carbon input on microbial N transformations in the Giessen FACE. Therefore, a pulse labelling study with 15N tracing of 15NH4+ and 15NO3‑ was carried out with incubated soil samples from elevated and ambient CO2 FACE rings in climate chambers at two different temperatures (10°C and 19°C), while water filled pore space of the samples was adjusted to the same level. The various N pools in the soil (NH4+, NO3‑, NO2‑, soil organic matter), N2O emissions and simultaneous gross N transformation rates were quantified. The quantification of the gross N transformations are based on the turnover of 15NH4+, 15NO3‑, 15NO2‑ and shall illuminate the interaction between carbon fertilization, temperature and changes in nitrogen cycle in this grassland soil. While the soil respiration after labelling was significantly increased at 19°C compared to 10°C, N2O emissions showed no significant differences. There were also no significant differences of N2O emissions between soil samples from control and elevated CO2 rings within each temperature level. As the soil temperature (within the range of 10-19°C) had no significant effects on N transformations responsible for the observed doubling of N2O emissions under eCO2, it seems most likely that other factors like direct carbon input by plants and/or soil moisture differences between ambient and elevated rings in the field are responsible for the observed increase in N2O emissions under eCO2.

  4. Growth temperature dependent structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial Co2FeAl Heusler alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shuang; Nie, Shuaihua; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xinhui

    2013-06-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of a series of Co2FeAl Heusler alloy films grown on GaAs(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied. The epitaxial Co2FeAl films with an ordered L21 structure have been successfully obtained at growth temperature of 433 K, with an in-plane cubic magnetic anisotropy superimposed with an unusual uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. With increasing growth temperature, the ordered L21 structure degrades. Meanwhile, the uniaxial anisotropy decreases and eventually disappears above 673 K. The interfacial bonding between As and Co or Fe atom is suggested to be responsible for the additional uniaxial anisotropy.

  5. Temperature versus plant effects on diel dynamics of soil CO2 production and efflux: a controlled environment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinthaler, David; Roy, Jacques; Landais, Damien; Piel, Clement; Resco de Dios, Victor; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is the biggest source of CO2 emitted from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Therefore the understanding of its drivers is of major importance for models of carbon cycling. Next to temperature as a major abiotic factor, photosynthesis has been suggested as an important driver influencing diel patterns in Rs. Under natural conditions it is difficult to disentangle abiotic and biotic effects on soil CO2 production, as fluctuating light intensity affects both photosynthetic activity and soil temperature. To analyse individual and combined effects of soil temperature and light on the dynamics of soil CO2 production and efflux, we performed a controlled environment study at the ECOTRON facility in Montpellier. The study manipulated temperature and photosynthetically active radiation independently and was carried out in large macrocosms, hosting canopies of either a woody (cotton) or a herbaceous (bean) crop. In each macrocosm membrane tubes had been installed across the soil profile for continuous measurement of soil CO2 concentrations. In addition, an automated soil respiration system was installed in each macrocosm, whose data were also used for validating a model of soil CO2 production and transport based on the concentration profiles. Both for cotton and for bean canopies, under conditions of naturally fluctuating temperature and light conditions, soil CO2 production and efflux followed a clear diel pattern. Under constantly dark conditions (excluding immediate effects of photosynthesis) and constant temperature, no significant diel changes in Rs could be observed. Furthermore, soil CO2 production and efflux did not increase significantly upon exposure of previously darkened macrocosms to light. Under constant temperature and fluctuating light conditions, we observed a dampened diel pattern of Rs, which did not match diurnal solar cycles. A detailed residual analysis accounting for temporal trends in soil moisture suggested a significant

  6. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2 and Heat Removal/Rejection in a Martian PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christine; Powers, Aaron; Bower, Chad; Straub-Lopez, Kathrine; Anderson, Grant; MacCallum, Taber; Paul, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the fundamental problems facing the development of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use on Mars, are (i) heat rejection (because traditional technologies use sublimation of water, which wastes a scarce resource and contaminates the premises), and (ii) rejection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in an environment with a CO2 partial pressure (ppCO2) of 0.4-0.9 kPa. Patent-pending Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed to address both these challenges. The technology utilizes an adsorbent that when cooled with liquid CO2 to near sublimation temperatures (195K) removes metabolically-produced CO2 in the ventilation loop. Once fully loaded, the adsorbent is then warmed externally by the ventilation loop (300K), rejecting the captured CO2 to Mars ambient. Two beds are used to provide a continuous cycle of CO2 removal/rejection as well as facilitate heat exchange out of the ventilation loop. Any cryogenic fluid can be used in the application; however, since CO2 is readily available on Mars and can be easily produced and stored on the Martian surface, the solution is rather elegant and less complicated when employing liquid CO2. As some metabolic heat will need to be rejected anyway, finding a practical use for metabolic heat is also an overall benefit to the PLSS. To investigate the feasibility of the technology, a series of experiments were conducted which lead to the selection and partial characterization of an appropriate adsorbent. The Molsiv Adsorbents 13X 8x12 (also known as NaX zeolite) successfully removed CO2 from a simulated ventilation loop at the prescribed temperature swing anticipated during PLSS operating conditions on Mars using a cryogenic fluid. Thermal conductivity of the adsorbent was also measured to eventually aid in a demonstrator design of the technology. These results provide no show stoppers to the development of MTSA technology and allow its development to focus on other design

  7. CO2 Extraction from Ambient Air Using Alkali-Metal Hydroxide Solutions Derived from Concrete Waste and Steel Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolaroff, J. K.; Lowry, G. V.; Keith, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, deep reductions in CO2 emissions are required in the coming decades. Carbon sequestration will play a crucial role in this reduction. Early adoption of carbon sequestration in low-cost niche markets will help develop the technology and experience required for large-scale deployment. One such niche may be the use of alkali metals from industrial waste streams to form carbonate minerals, a safe and stable means of sequestering carbon. In this research, the potential of using two industrial waste streams---concrete and steel slag---for sequestering carbon is assessed. The scheme is outlined as follows: Ca and Mg are leached with water from a finely ground bed of steel slag or concrete. The resulting solution is sprayed through air, capturing CO2 and forming solid carbonates, and collected. The feasibility of this scheme is explored with a combination of experiments, theoretical calculations, cost accounting, and literature review. The dissolution kinetics of steel slag and concrete as a function of particle size and pH is examined. In stirred batch reactors, the majority of Ca which dissolved did so within the first hour, yielding between 50 and 250 (mg; Ca)/(g; slag) and between 10 and 30 (mg; Ca)/(g; concrete). The kinetics of dissolution are thus taken to be sufficiently fast to support the type of scheme described above. As proof-of-concept, further experiments were performed where water was dripped slowly through a stagnant column of slag or concrete and collected at the bottom. Leachate Ca concentrations in the range of 15 mM were achieved --- sufficient to support the scheme. Using basic physical principles and numerical methods, the quantity of CO2 captured by falling droplets is estimated. Proportion of water loss and required pumping energy is similarly estimated. The results indicate that sprays are capable of capturing CO2 from the air and that the water and energy requirements are tractable. An example system for

  8. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2013-05-01

    In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm) mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratios without drying the sample by measuring H2O mixing ratio at the same frequency as the main analytes, and then correcting for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the mixing ratios of the other analytes measured in moist air. However, it is difficult to accurately validate the water vapor correction in the field. By substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample, uncertainties in the applied water vapor corrections can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, thus eliminating the need to determine instrument-specific water vapor correction coefficients and to verify the stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-97 °C) method for removing H2O and found that in wet-air tests, the Nafion reduces the CO2 dry-gas mixing ratios of the sample gas by as much as 0.1 ± 0.01 ppm due to leakage across the membrane. The effect on CH4 was smaller and varied within ± 0.2 ppb, with an approximate uncertainty of 0.1 ppb. The Nafion-induced CO2 bias is partially offset by sending the dry reference gases through the Nafion dryer as well. The residual bias due to the impact of moisture differences between sample and reference gas on the permeation through the Nafion was approximately -0.05 ppm for CO2 and varied within ± 0.2 ppb for CH4. The uncertainty of this

  9. Co-location of air capture, sub-ocean CO2 storage and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D.; Han, P.; Lackner, K.; Wang, T.

    2011-12-01

    How can carbon capture and storage activities be sustained from an energy perspective while keeping the entire activity out