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Sample records for air temperature daily

  1. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  2. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  3. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  4. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  5. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  6. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  7. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  8. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  9. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  10. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  11. Estimating daily air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau by dynamically integrating MODIS LST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Ming; Che, Tao; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) data have been used to estimate air temperatures because of the sparseness of station measurements in remote mountainous areas. Due to the availability and accuracy of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data, the use of a single term or a fixed combination of terms (e.g., Terra/Aqua night and Terra/Aqua day), as used in previous estimation methods, provides only limited practical application. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy may be affected by different combinations and variable data quality among the MODIS LST terms and models. This study presents a method that dynamically integrates the available LST terms to estimate the daily mean air temperature and simultaneously considers model selection, data quality, and estimation accuracy. The results indicate that the differences in model performance are related to the combinations of LST terms and their data quality. The spatially averaged cloud cover of 14% for the developed product between 2003 and 2010 is much lower than the 35-54% for single LST terms. The average cross-validation root-mean-square difference values are approximately 2°C. This study identifies the best LST combinations and statistical models and provides an efficient method for daily air temperature estimation with low cloud blockage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The developed data set and the method proposed in this study can help alleviate the problem of sparse air temperature data over the TP.

  12. Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the Daily Air Temperature in the Casablanca City, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Air temperature is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a daily monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface temperatures from MODIS data and the daily measurements of air temperature acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air temperature from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.

  13. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Krähenmann, Stefan; Bissolli, Peter

    2016-10-01

    New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D data set (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0.044° (≈ 5km) on a rotated grid with virtual North Pole at 39.25° N, 162° W are derived. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al.(2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Variance explained by the regression ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 K and 1-1.5 ms-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters

  14. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  15. Spatiotemporal variations in the difference between satellite-observed daily maximum land surface temperature and station-based daily maximum near-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xu; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Kaicun; Piao, Shilong

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing demand to integrate land surface temperature (LST) into climate research due to its global coverage, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of its distinctive characteristics compared to near-surface air temperature (Tair). Using satellite observations and in situ station-based data sets, we conducted a global-scale assessment of the spatial and seasonal variations in the difference between daily maximum LST and daily maximum Tair (δT, LST - Tair) during 2003-2014. Spatially, LST is generally higher than Tair over arid and sparsely vegetated regions in the middle-low latitudes, but LST is lower than Tair in tropical rainforests due to strong evaporative cooling, and in the high-latitude regions due to snow-induced radiative cooling. Seasonally, δT is negative in tropical regions throughout the year, while it displays a pronounced seasonality in both the midlatitudes and boreal regions. The seasonality in the midlatitudes is a result of the asynchronous responses of LST and Tair to the seasonal cycle of radiation and vegetation abundance, whereas in the boreal regions, seasonality is mainly caused by the change in snow cover. Our study identified substantial spatial heterogeneity and seasonality in δT, as well as its determinant environmental drivers, and thus provides a useful reference for monitoring near-surface air temperature changes using remote sensing, particularly in remote regions.

  16. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  17. Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for interpolating daily minimum and maximum air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on temperature and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential temperature equations to convert measured temperatures and elevations to sea-level potential temperatures. The potential temperatures were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential temperature equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar temperature surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.

  18. Estimation of daily minimum land surface air temperature using MODIS data in southern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    Land surface air temperature (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial daily minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface temperature (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric temperature and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference (RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons (RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.

  19. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662

  20. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  1. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  2. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  3. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  4. Estimating daily air temperature across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: a statistical modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air temperature (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface temperature (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air temperature. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1 km × 1 km) daily Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts to Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R2 of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The daily Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R2 of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376 °C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. PMID:26717080

  5. Estimating daily air temperature across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air temperature (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface temperature (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air temperature. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) daily Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The daily Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably.

  6. Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Marie S.; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel

    2005-11-01

    We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent temperature (AT) and daily mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0 14 years) and the elderly (ages ≥65 years). Predictors included mean daily AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme temperatures [cold (10 11°C) for both cities and heat (35 36°C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean temperature in each city (15°C in Mexico City, 25°C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.

  7. Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel

    2005-11-01

    We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent temperature (AT) and daily mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean daily AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme temperatures [cold (10-11 degrees C) for both cities and heat (35-36 degrees C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean temperature in each city (15 degrees C in Mexico City, 25 degrees C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.

  8. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  9. Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for daily air temperature on a glaciated mountain (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    It is well known from previous research that significant differences exist amongst reanalysis products from different institutions. Here, we compare the skill of NCEP-R (reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP), ERA-int (the European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasts Interim), JCDAS (the Japanese Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System reanalyses), MERRA (the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis by the NCEP), and ensembles thereof as predictors for daily air temperature on a high-altitude glaciated mountain site in Peru. We employ a skill estimation method especially suited for short-term, high-resolution time series. First, the predictors are preprocessed using simple linear regression models calibrated individually for each calendar month. Then, cross-validation under consideration of persistence in the time series is performed. This way, the skill of the reanalyses with focus on intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability is quantified. The most important findings are: (1) ERA-int, CFSR, and MERRA show considerably higher skill than NCEP-R and JCDAS; (2) differences in skill appear especially during dry and intermediate seasons in the Cordillera Blanca; (3) the optimum horizontal scales largely vary between the different reanalyses, and horizontal grid resolutions of the reanalyses are poor indicators of this optimum scale; and (4) using reanalysis ensembles efficiently improves the performance of individual reanalyses.

  10. A model to approximate lake temperature from gridded daily air temperature records and its application in risk assessment for the establishment of fish diseases in the UK.

    PubMed

    Thrush, M A; Peeler, E J

    2013-10-01

    Ambient water temperature is a key factor controlling the distribution and impact of disease in fish populations, and optimum temperature ranges have been characterised for the establishment of a number important aquatic diseases exotic to the UK. This study presents a simple regression method to approximate daily average surface water temperature in lakes of 0.5-15 ha in size across the UK using 5 km(2) gridded daily average air temperatures provided by the UK Meteorological Office. A Geographic information system (GIS) is used to present thematic maps of relative risk scores established for each grid cell based on the mean number of days per year that water temperature satisfied optimal criteria for the establishment of two economically important pathogens of cyprinid fish (koi herpesvirus (KHV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)) and the distribution and density of fish populations susceptible to these viruses. High-density susceptible populations broadly overlap the areas where the temperature profiles are optimal for KHV (central and south-east England); however, few fish populations occur in areas where temperature profiles are most likely to result in the establishment of spring viremia of carp (SVC) (namely northern England and Scotland). The highest grid-cell risk scores for KHV and SVC were 7 and 6, respectively, out of a maximum score of 14. The proportion of grid cells containing susceptible populations with risk scores of 5 or more was 37% and 5% for KHV and SVC, respectively. This work demonstrates a risk-based approach to inform surveillance for exotic pathogens in aquatic animal health management, allowing efficient use of resources directed towards higher risk animals and geographic areas for early disease detection. The methodology could be used to examine the change in distribution of high-risk areas for both exotic and endemic fish diseases under different climate change scenarios.

  11. A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

  12. Predicting Snow-To-Rain Transitions Across The Western U.S.: When Is Daily Air Temperature Sufficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, S.

    2015-12-01

    The phase of precipitation at the land surface is critical for determining the timing and amount of water available for hydrological and ecological systems. Natural variability in precipitation phase due to elevation, micro-climate, and storm characteristics make it a challenge to predict phase. In addition, regional warming is expected to move the snow-rain elevation higher in the future, which has the potential to alter water availability. Despite this, there are few techniques for direct observation of precipitation phase and many predictive techniques apply simple temperature thresholds (i.e. 0 degree Celsius) to determine spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we asked two questions: 1) what is the optimum daily temperature for predicting snow-rain transitions in the mountains of the Western U.S.? and 2) what errors in precipitation phase estimation are associated with common temperature thresholds? We use 502 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations with data from 2004 to 2014 to determine rain versus snow using a combination of precipitation, snow depth, and SWE observations. From the observations, we determined that daily maximum temperature is a better predictor of rain and snow events than average temperature. The optimum temperature varied from -2.0 to 3 C, with an average of 0.3 C across ecoregions. The Northern Basin and Northern Cascades with lower average elevations had higher temperature thresholds and the Southern Rockies with highest elevations had the lowest thresholds. Developing a relationship based on station elevation improved the RMSE by 12%, whereas using an optimum temperature developed for each station improved the RMSE by 34% on average. While using optimum temperature thresholds reduce error in prediction, they do not eliminate misclassification of rain-show transitions. These results highlight a current weakness in our ability to predict the effects of regional warming that could have uneven impacts on water and ecological resource management

  13. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  14. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  15. Relation of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction to Daily Ambient Temperature and Air Pollutant Levels in a Japanese Nationwide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Kyohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujii, Kenshi; Amano, Tetsuya; Uemura, Shiro; Akasaka, Takashi; Kadota, Kazushige; Nakamura, Masato; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-03-15

    Effects of daily fluctuation of ambient temperature and concentrations of air pollutants on acute cardiovascular events have not been well studied. From January 2011 to December 2012, a total of 56,863 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were registered from 929 institutes with median interinstitutional distance of 2.6 km. We constructed generalized linear mixed models in which the presence or absence of patients with STEMI per day per institute was included as a binomial response variable, with daily meteorologic and environmental data obtained from their respective observatories nearest to the institutes (median distance of 9.7 and 5.6 km) as the explanatory variables. Both lower mean temperature and increase in maximum temperature from the previous day were independently associated with the STEMI occurrence throughout the year (odds ratio [OR] 0.925, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.915 to 0.935, per 10°C, p <0.001; and OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.009 to 1.015, per °C, p <0.001, respectively). Decrement in minimum temperature from -4 days to -3 days before the event date was marginally associated with the STEMI occurrence, only during the wintertime (OR 0.991, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.999, per °C, p = 0.03). As for the air pollutants, nitrogen oxides and suspended particle matter were not correlated with the occurrence of STEMI after adjusting for the meteorologic and livelihood variables. Both the absolute value and relative change in the ambient temperature were associated with the occurrence of STEMI; the associations with the air pollutant levels were less clear after adjustment for these meteorologic variables in Japan.

  16. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  17. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  18. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  19. The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth A.

    For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was…

  20. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2017-02-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  1. Statistical Modeling of Daily Stream Temperature for Mitigating Fish Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocations in the Central Valley Project (CVP) of California require the consideration of short- and long-term needs of many socioeconomic factors including, but not limited to, agriculture, urban use, flood mitigation/control, and environmental concerns. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley. Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources. We will present a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework of maximum daily stream temperatures and related attributes, such as: daily stream temperature range, exceedance/non-exceedance of critical threshold temperatures, and the number of hours of exceedance. A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature, and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria. The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other

  2. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  3. Observations of Daily Temperature Patterns in the Southern Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, R.W.; Jenter, H.L.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting key hydrological and ecological processes within the subtropical wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Comprehensive measurements are being made to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of the water-temperature regime. Data collected in 2000 at a location near the central flow pathway of the ecosystem showed both daily repetitive cycles and dynamic fluctuations in response to meteorological forces. Time-series data collected at spatial intervals throughout the water column, in the air, and in the underlying plant-litter layer revealed the dynamic nature of the temperature structure, e.g., uniformly well-mixed periods, stratified conditions, inversions, changing vertical gradients, and other characteristics important to understanding ecosystem processes.

  4. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Hill, R W; Villegas, G M

    1999-01-01

    Reviews of daily time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that daily mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10379003

  5. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas.

  6. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  7. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  8. [Body temperature measurement in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Sermet-Gaudelus, I; Chadelat, I; Lenoir, G

    2005-08-01

    The use of rectal mercury thermometer has long been the standard method for measurement of body temperature. The restriction of mercury use since 1996 has led to development of other devices. The liquid crystal strip thermometer held against the forehead has a low sensitivity. The single-use chemical thermometer measures oral temperature. Its accuracy must be evaluated. Infrared ear thermometers are routinely used because it is convenient and fast to use. However, numerous studies have shown that it does not show sufficient correlation with rectal temperature, leading to the risk to miss cases of true fever. Rectal temperature remains the gold standard in case of fever. Rectal temperature measurement with an electronic device is well correlated with the glass mercury standard. Galistan thermometer accuracy must be evaluated because of sterilization of the whole device, which is not the case for the electronic thermometer. A pediatric study is necessary to evaluate the performance of this device in comparison with the electronic thermometer.

  9. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  10. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained.

  11. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  12. Air pollution and daily mortality in Seoul and Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J T; Shin, D; Chung, Y

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and daily mortality for the period 1991-1995 was examined in two Korean cities, Seoul and Ulsan. The observed concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2; mean = 28.7 ppb), ozone (O3; mean = 29.2 ppb), and total suspended particulates (TSP; mean = 82.3 microg/m3) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Daily death counts were regressed separately in the two cities, using Poisson regression on SO2, O3, and/or TSP controlling for variability in the weather and seasons. When considered singly in Poisson regression models controlling for seasonal variations and weather conditions, the nonaccidental mortality associated with a 50-ppb increment in a 3-day moving average of SO2 concentrations, including the concurrent day and the preceding 2 days, was 1.078 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.057-1.099] for Seoul and 1.051 (CI, 0.991-1.115) for Ulsan. The rate ratio was 1.051 (CI, 1.031-1.072) in Seoul and 0.999 (CI, 0. 961-1.039) in Ulsan per 100 microg/m3 for TSP, and 1.015 (CI, 1. 005-1.025) in Seoul and 1.020 (0.889-1.170) in Ulsan per 50 ppb for 1-hr maximum O3. When TSP was considered simultaneously with other pollutants, the TSP association was no longer significant. We observed independent pollution effects on daily mortality even after using various approaches to control for either weather or seasonal variables in the regression model. This study demonstrated increased mortality associated with air pollution at both SO2 and O3 levels below the current World Health Organization recommendations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924011

  13. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950-2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  14. Effects of temperature seasonality on tundra vegetation productivity using a daily vegetation dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Erler, A.; Frazier, J.; Bhatt, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the seasonality of air temperature will elicit interacting effects on the dynamics of snow cover, nutrient availability, vegetation growth, and other ecosystem properties and processes in arctic tundra. Simulation models often do not have the fine temporal resolution necessary to develop theory and propose hypotheses for the effects of daily and weekly timescale changes on ecosystem dynamics. We therefore developed a daily version of an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model (ArcVeg) to simulate how changes in the seasonality of air temperatures influences the dynamics of vegetation growth and carbon sequestration across regions of arctic tundra. High temporal-resolution air and soil temperature data collected from field sites across the five arctic tundra bioclimate subzones were used to develop a daily weather generator operable for sites throughout the arctic tundra. Empirical relationships between temperature and soil nitrogen were used to generate daily dynamics of soil nitrogen availability, which drive the daily uptake of nitrogen and growth among twelve tundra plant functional types. Seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and remotely sensed land surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) GIMMS 3g dataset were used to investigate constraints on the start of the growing season, although there was no indication of any spatially consistent temperature or day-length controls on greening onset. Because of the exponential nature of the relationship between soil temperature and nitrogen mineralization, temperature changes during the peak of the growing season had greater effects on vegetation productivity than changes earlier in the growing season. However, early season changes in temperature had a greater effect on the relative productivities of different plant functional types, with potential influences on species composition.

  15. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  16. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    1992-03-01

    Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, temperature, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest daily mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest daily mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 & 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased daily mortality at current levels in the United States.

  17. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  18. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  19. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  20. A temperature-based model for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China.

  1. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  2. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  3. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Bangkok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajanapoom, Nitaya

    1999-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in daily mortality were associated with fluctuations in daily PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum temperature, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.

  4. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  5. Statistical modeling of daily and subdaily stream temperatures: Application to the Methow River Basin, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Bountry, J.; Lai, Y.; Elsner, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    Management of water temperatures in the Columbia River Basin (Washington) is critical because water projects have substantially altered the habitat of Endangered Species Act listed species, such as salmon, throughout the basin. This is most important in tributaries to the Columbia, such as the Methow River, where the spawning and rearing life stages of these cold water fishes occurs. Climate change projections generally predict increasing air temperatures across the western United States, with less confidence regarding shifts in precipitation. As air temperatures rise, we anticipate a corresponding increase in water temperatures, which may alter the timing and availability of habitat for fish reproduction and growth. To assess the impact of future climate change in the Methow River, we couple historical climate and future climate projections with a statistical modeling framework to predict daily mean stream temperatures. A K-nearest neighbor algorithm is also employed to: (i) adjust the climate projections for biases compared to the observed record and (ii) provide a reference for performing spatiotemporal disaggregation in future hydraulic modeling of stream habitat. The statistical models indicate the primary drivers of stream temperature are maximum and minimum air temperature and stream flow and show reasonable skill in predictability. When compared to the historical reference time period of 1916-2006, we conclude that increases in stream temperature are expected to occur at each subsequent time horizon representative of the year 2020, 2040, and 2080, with an increase of 0.8 ± 1.9°C by the year 2080.

  6. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many time-series studies have established associations of daily pollution variations with daily deaths, there are fewer at low concentrations, or focused on locally generated pollution, which is becoming more important as regulations reduce regional transport. Causal modeling approaches are also lacking. Objective: We used causal modeling to estimate the impact of local air pollution on mortality at low concentrations. Methods: Using an instrumental variable approach, we developed an instrument for variations in local pollution concentrations that is unlikely to be correlated with other causes of death, and examined its association with daily deaths in the Boston, Massachusetts, area. We combined height of the planetary boundary layer and wind speed, which affect concentrations of local emissions, to develop the instrument for particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) variations that were independent of year, month, and temperature. We also used Granger causality to assess whether omitted variable confounding existed. Results: We estimated that an interquartile range increase in the instrument for local PM2.5 was associated with a 0.90% increase in daily deaths (95% CI: 0.25, 1.56). A similar result was found for BC, and a weaker association with NO2. The Granger test found no evidence of omitted variable confounding for the instrument. A separate test confirmed the instrument was not associated with mortality independent of pollution. Furthermore, the association remained when all days with PM2.5 concentrations > 30 μg/m3 were excluded from the analysis (0.84% increase in daily deaths; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.50). Conclusions: We conclude that there is a causal association of local air pollution with daily deaths at concentrations below U.S. EPA standards. The estimated attributable risk in Boston exceeded 1,800 deaths during the study period, indicating that important public health benefits can follow from

  7. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  8. Trends in Observed Summer Daily Temperature Maximum Across Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Arvidson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing are expected to increase the tendency for longer and stronger heat waves in summer. We examine if there is a trend in the observed daytime extreme temperature (Tmax) during summer between 1900-2014 at select high quality stations (n=9) across Colorado. We compile daily observations of Tmax and other variables during summer (JJA), and derive and analyze trends in five different extreme metrics from this data that include the maximum five-day Tmax average, warm spell duration index, and the number of days when Tmax exceeds the 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentile conditions. We find that the 1930s and 2000s in Colorado had some outstandingly hot years, when we also find exceptionally high count of summer Tmax extremes. Five out of the nine stations show increases in extreme temperature indicators in the more recent decades. The variability in trends in the daily summer Tmax extremes across the nine stations correspond with the mean annual warming trends at those stations. We also find that wetter summers have much smaller instances of Tmax extremes as compared to drier summers.

  9. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-06-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003-2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007-2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  10. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  11. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Short term effects of criteria air pollutants on daily mortality in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Sanjoy; Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Siddiqui, Weqar Ahmad; Ghosh, Santu

    2017-02-01

    Various epidemiological studies conducted in different parts of the world have conclusively established that the adverse health effects are associated with common urban air pollutants. Although several recent studies revealed the poor air quality status in Delhi, but limited evidence of the impact of criterion air pollutants on human health remains a big limitation for relevant policy changes. So we conducted a time series to estimate the short term effects of ambient air pollution on all-natural-cause mortality in Delhi for the period 2008 to 2010. The study examined the impact of criteria air pollutants [particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), sulphur di-oxide (SO2), Nitrogen di-oxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Ozone (O3)] on daily all-cause-mortality rate. A semi-parametric regression model was developed to estimate the short term effects of air pollutants on daily all-natural-cause-mortality adjusting nonlinear confounding of time, temperature and relative humidity. A significant association of all-natural-cause mortality in association with short-term exposure to particulate as well as the gaseous pollutants were observed. The study estimated 0.14% (95% CI 0.02%-0.26%) increase in all-cause-mortality for every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10 concentration. Among the gaseous pollutants, NO2 has been found to show most significant positive association of 1.00% (95% CI 0.07%-1.93%) increase in all-cause-mortality with every 10 μg/m3 increase in daily NO2 concentration. The effect of O3 and CO has been observed to be significant after controlling the effects of NO2. Analysis by different age groups reveals that particulate matter has maximum effect estimate in the age group ≥65 years (RR 1.002, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.004) whereas gaseous pollutants have been found to exhibit maximum effect estimate (RR 1.016, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.030) in the age group 5-44 years. The results of the present effect estimates appeared consistent with previous findings and

  13. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  14. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  15. Soil temperature prediction from air temperature for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, D.; Kundu, D. K.; Pal, Soumen; Pal, Susanto; Chakraborty, A. K.; Jha, A. K.; Mazumdar, S. P.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil temperature is an important factor in biogeochemical processes. On-site monitoring of soil temperature is limited in spatiotemporal scale as compared to air temperature data inventories due to various management difficulties. Therefore, empirical models were developed by taking 30-year long-term (1985-2014) air and soil temperature data for prediction of soil temperatures at three depths (5, 15, 30 cm) in morning (0636 Indian standard time) and afternoon (1336 Indian standard time) for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain. At 5 cm depth, power and exponential regression models were best fitted for daily data in morning and afternoon, respectively, but it was reverse at 15 cm. However, at 30 cm, exponential models were best fitted for both the times. Regression analysis revealed that in morning for all three depths and in afternoon for 30 cm depth, soil temperatures (daily, weekly, and monthly) could be predicted more efficiently with the help of corresponding mean air temperature than that of maximum and minimum. However, in afternoon, prediction of soil temperature at 5 and 15 cm depths were more precised for all the time intervals when maximum air temperature was used, except for weekly soil temperature at 15 cm, where the use of mean air temperature gave better prediction.

  16. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  17. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-02-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  18. The Relationship Between Air Temperature and Stream Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the relationship, both linear and non-linear, between air temperature and stream temperature in order to determine if air temperature can be used as an accurate predictor of stream temperature, if general relationships could be developed that apply to a large number of streams, and how changes in stream temperature associated with climate variability or climate warming might affect the dissolved oxygen level, and thus the quality of life, in some of these streams. Understanding the relationship between air temperature and water temperature is important if we want to predict how stream temperatures are likely to respond to the increase in surface air temperature that is occurring. Data from over 50 streams in 13 countries, mostly gathered by K-12 students in the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment), are examined. Only a few streams display a linear 1:1 air/water temperature trend. The majority of streams instead show an increase in water temperature of about 0.6 to 0.8 degrees for every 1-degree increase in air temperature. At some of these sites, where dissolved oxygen content is already low, an increase in summer stream temperatures of 2-3 degrees could cause the dissolved oxygen levels to fall into a critically low range. At some locations, such as near the source of a stream, water temperature does not change much despite wide ranges in air temperatures. The temperatures at these sites are likely to be least affected by surface warming. More data are needed in warmer climates, where the water temperature already gets above 25oC, in order to better examine the air/water temperature relationship under warmer conditions. Global average surface air temperature is expected to increase by 3-5oC by the middle of this century. Surface water temperature in streams, lakes and wetlands will likely increase as air temperature increases, although the change in water temperature may not be as large as the change in

  19. On the association between daily mortality and air mass types in Athens, Greece during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Gryparis, Alexandros; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we examined the short-term effects of air mass types on mortality in Athens, Greece. An objective air mass types classification was used, based on meteorological parameters measured at the surface. Mortality data were treated with generalized additive models (GAM) and extending Poisson regression, using a LOESS smoother to control for the confounding effects of seasonal patterns, adjusting also for temperature, long-term trends, day of the week, and ambient particle concentrations. The introduced air mass classification explains the daily variation of mortality to a statistically significant degree. The highest daily mortality was observed on days characterized by southerly flow conditions for both the cold (increase in relative risk for mortality 9%; with a 95% confidence interval: 3-14%), and the warm period (7%; with a 95% confidence interval: 2-13%) of the year. The northeasterly flow is associated with the lowest mortality. Effects on mortality, independent of temperature, are observed mainly for lag 0 during the cold period, but persist longer during the warm period. Not adjusting for temperature and/or ambient particle levels slightly alters the results, which then reflect the known temperature and particle effects, already reported in the literature. In conclusion, we find that air mass types have independent effects on mortality for both the cold and warm season and may be used to predict weather-related adverse health effects.

  20. [Interpolation of daily mean temperature by using geographically weighted regression-Kriging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-feng; Yang, Li-rong; Qu, Ming-kai; Chen, Hui-lin

    2015-05-01

    Air temperature is the input variable of numerous models in agriculture, hydrology, climate, and ecology. Currently, in study areas where the terrain is complex, methods taking into account correlation between temperature and environment variables and autocorrelation of regression residual (e.g., regression Kriging, RK) are mainly adopted to interpolate the temperature. However, such methods are based on the global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique, without taking into account the spatial nonstationary relationship of environment variables. Geographically weighted regression-Kriging (GWRK) is a kind of method that takes into account spatial nonstationarity relationship of environment variables and spatial autocorrelation of regression residuals of environment variables. In this study, according to the results of correlation and stepwise regression analysis, RK1 (covariates only included altitude), GWRK1 (covariates only included altitude), RK2 (covariates included latitude, altitude and closest distance to the seaside) and GWRK2 (co-variates included altitude and closest distance to the seaside) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean daily air temperature on Hainan Island on December 18, 2013. The prediction accuracy was assessed using the maximum positive error, maximum negative error, mean absolute error and root mean squared error based on the 80 validation sites. The results showed that GWRK1's four assessment indices were all closest to 0. The fact that RK2 and GWRK2 were worse than RK1 and GWRK1 implied that correlation among covariates reduced model performance.

  1. Meteorology (Temperature)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Air Temperature (° C)   Daily Temperature Range (° C) Difference between the average daily maximum ... The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is above 18° C.   Heating Degree Days below 18° C ...

  2. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-01-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007–2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. PMID:21776219

  3. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  4. Development of daily temperature scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.

    2016-02-01

    Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of temperature scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected temperatures on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air temperature predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future temperatures of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum temperatures over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.

  5. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  6. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  7. Climate change and river temperature sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the July river temperature response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased air temperature during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily air temperatures - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of air temperature increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water temperatures relative to current conditions. In all cases, river temperatures in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water temperature increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the delta case increased the water temperature by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer daytime case increased water temperature by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer nighttime case increased the water temperature by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of temperature was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case

  8. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  9. Knowledge and Practice of Asthmatic Children's Parents About Daily Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Salehpour, Sousan; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Baghaie, Nooshin; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge and practice about air pollution are essential subjects in special groups such as cardio-pulmonary patients. For children with air pollution-related diseases, knowledge and attitude of parents play a determining role in this respect. Since providing a coherent curriculum needs evidence-based information, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of asthmatic children's parents about daily air quality since asthmatic children are among the most vulnerable at-risk groups when it comes to air pollution. Materials and Methods All parents of asthmatic children referred to the Pediatric Clinic of Masih Daneshvari Hospital during one year period (250 people) completed knowledge and practice questionnaire on air pollution. Knowledge questions consisted of familiarity with pollution standard index (PSI), ways to find out about it, respiratory effects of air pollution and etc. Practice questions consisted of reducing outdoor presence and activity of children and actions taken to reduce air pollution in polluted days. Results In general, 3.2% of parents were familiar with PSI, 12.5% were aware of ways to find out about daily air quality, 65.2% were aware of air pollution respiratory effects, 65.6% were aware of air pollution effects on asthmatic children and 4.4% were aware of ineffectiveness of surgical masks in prevention of air pollution health effects. The obtained practice score ranged from 4 to 16, and the participants’ mean score was equal to 11.79. Conclusion This study revealed that parents of asthmatic children were aware of air pollution hazards for their children and wanted to prevent them but they did not know how. Therefore, asthmatic children in Tehran are still exposed to risks of air pollution. PMID:25191470

  10. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  11. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  12. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie

    2013-04-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  13. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  14. Air temperature "singularities" as a tool for the comprehension of the climate diversity in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzyna, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Air temperature "singularities" were used to study climate diversity in Europe. The basis of analysis were data of mean daily air temperature for 50-years period (1951-2000) from 66 European meteorological stations. Multiyear mean air temperature values were counted for the each day of the year at first (29th February was omitted). Next a theoretical sine curve of annual air temperature course was created with help of the Fourier's analysis for the each station. Differences between theoretical and observed mean vales of daily air temperatures were counted in the next step. The biggest of these differences (below the lower quartile and above the upper quartile) lasting at least 3 days can be treated as thermal "singularities". A cluster analysis was used to find similarities of the singularities occurrence in analyzed stations. As a result 8 clusters were distinguished representing regions with different thermal "singularities" occurrence pattern.

  15. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  16. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The AIRS temperature profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of AIRS temperature profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of AIRS data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature soundings performs better than assimilation of AIRS observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of AIRS temperature profile performs best

  17. Temperature Tunable Air-Gap Etalon Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experimental measurements of a temperature tuned air-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits temperature dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.

  18. Correlation of air temperature above water-air sections with the forecasted low level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with air temperature transformational variations on the sections "water-air" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of air temperature mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of temperature. DT is the differences of initial temperature on section water-air in started area, from contrast temperature of water surface along a trajectory of movement of air masses and from the temperature above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of air temperature at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water temperature in forecasting point and air temperature in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm air masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of air temperature above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of air temperature in

  19. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  20. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  1. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  2. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  3. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  4. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Part 1. A time-series study of ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng; Zhao, Naiqing; London, Stephanie J; Song, Guixiang; Chen, Guohai; Zhang, Yunhui; Jiang, Lili

    2010-11-01

    pollutants. For mortality due to all natural causes, we also examined the associations stratified by sex and age. Stratified analyses by education level, used as a measure of socioeconomic status, were conducted as well. In addition to an analysis of the entire study period, the effects of air pollution in just the warm season (from April to September) and cool season (from October to March) were analyzed. We also examined the effects of alternative model specifications--such as lag effects of pollutants and temperature, degrees of freedom for time trend and weather conditions, statistical approaches, and averaging methods for pollutant concentrations-on the estimated effects of air pollution. We found significant associations between the air pollutants--particulate matter 10 pm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) -and daily mortality from all natural causes and from cardiopulmonary diseases. The increased mortality risks found in the data from Shanghai were generally similar in magnitude, per concentration of pollutant, to the risks found in research from other parts of the world. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in 2-day moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 corresponded to 0.26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.37), 0.95% (95% CI, 0.62-1.28), 0.97% (95% CI, 0.66-1.27), and 0.31% (95% CI, 0.04-0.58) increases, respectively, in mortality due to all natural causes. Sensitivity analyses suggested that our findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. We found significant effects of the gaseous pollutants SO2 and NO2 on daily mortality after adjustment for PM10. Our analysis also provided preliminary, but not conclusive, evidence that women, older people, and people with a low level of education might be more vulnerable to air pollution than men, younger people, and people with a high level of education. In addition, the associations between air pollution and daily

  6. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  7. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. Short-term effects of air temperature on mortality and effect modification by air pollution in three cities of Bavaria, Germany: A time-series analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Air temperature has been shown to be associated with mortality; however, only very few studies have been conducted in Germany. This study examined the association between daily air temperature and cause-specific mortality in Bavaria, Southern Germany. Moreover, we inv...

  10. Ice surface temperatures: seasonal cycle and daily variability from in-situ and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.

    2016-04-01

    Surface temperature is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ temperature measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface temperature may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and daily variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air temperature observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface temperatures form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface temperatures for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA GlobTemperature project which aims at applying surface temperatures in models in order to

  11. The concentration-response relation between air pollution and daily deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J; Ballester, F; Saez, M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Bellido, J; Cambra, K; Arribas, F; Cañada, A; Pérez-Boillos, M J; Sunyer, J

    2001-01-01

    Studies on three continents have reported associations between various measures of airborne particles and daily deaths. Sulfur dioxide has also been associated with daily deaths, particularly in Europe. Questions remain about the shape of those associations, particularly whether there are thresholds at low levels. We examined the association of daily concentrations of black smoke and SO(2) with daily deaths in eight Spanish cities (Barcelona, Bilbao, Castellón, Gijón, Oviedo, Valencia, Vitoria, and Zaragoza) with different climates and different environmental and social characteristics. We used nonparametric smoothing to estimate the shape of the concentration-response curve in each city and combined those results using a metasmoothing technique developed by Schwartz and Zanobetti. We extended their method to incorporate random variance components. Black smoke had a nearly linear association with daily deaths, with no evidence of a threshold. A 10 microg/m(3) increase in black smoke was associated with a 0.88% increase in daily deaths (95% confidence interval, 0.56%-1.20%). SO(2) had a less plausible association: Daily deaths increased at very low concentrations, but leveled off and then decreased at higher concentrations. These findings held in both one- and two-pollutant models and held whether we optimized our weather and seasonal model in each city or used the same smoothing parameters in each city. We conclude that the association with particle levels is more convincing than for SO(2), and without a threshold. Linear models provide an adequate estimation of the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality at low to moderate concentrations. PMID:11675264

  12. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  13. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-01

    The Markov chain's first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  14. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  15. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  16. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  17. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Daily Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    MODAS with latitudinal extent limited to ±80. Note that only the RTG product includes SST in the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST...Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean A. B. Kara1 and C. N. Barron1 Received 18 November 2006; revised...13 February 2007; accepted 27 February 2007; published 22 May 2007. [1] The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface

  18. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  19. Estimation of Daily Reference Evapotranspiration using Temperature Based Models and Remotely Sensed Data over Indian River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, Shwetha H.; D, Nagesh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is the most significant component of the hydrological budget. Accurate quantification of ETo is vital for proper water management, efficient agricultural activities, irrigation planning and irrigation scheduling. FAO Penman Montieth (FAO-PM) is the widely accepted and used method for the ETo estimation under all climatic conditions, but needs numerous inputs which are difficult to acquire in developing countries. In such conditions, temperature based models such as Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation and Penman Montieth temperature (PMT) can be used, where only maximum and minimum temperatures are required. Spatial interpolation of meteorological parameters to calculate spatial variation of ETo results in inaccurate estimations at lowly densed weather stations. Hence, there is a necessity of simple and easy method to estimate spatial distribution of ETo. In this regard, remotely sensed data provides viable alternative approach to obtain continuous spatio-temporal ETo. In this study, we used temperature based ETo models with remotely sensed LST data to estimate spatio-temporal variation of ETo. Day and night LST (MYD11A1) data of the year 2010 for the Cauvery basin on a daily basis were obtained from MODIS sensor of Aqua satellite. Firstly, day and night land surface temperatures (LST) with HS and PMT methods were applied to estimate ETo. Secondly, maximum and minimum air temperatures were estimated from day and night LST respectively using simple linear regression and these air temperature data were used to estimate ETo. Estimated results were validated with the ETo calculated using meteorological data obtained from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by applying standard FAO-PM. The preliminary results revealed that, HS method with LST overestimated ETo in the study region. Statistical analysis showed PMT method with both LST and air temperatures performed better than the HS method. These two temperature based methods are often used for

  20. Attribution of precipitation changes on ground-air temperature offset: Granger causality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise

    2016-06-01

    This work examines the causal relationship between the value of the ground-air temperature offset and the precipitation changes for monitored 5-min data series together with their hourly and daily averages obtained at the Sporilov Geophysical Observatory (Prague). Shallow subsurface soil temperatures were monitored under four different land cover types (bare soil, sand, short-cut grass and asphalt). The ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) offset, ΔT(GST-SAT), is defined as the difference between the temperature measured at the depth of 2 cm below the surface and the air temperature measured at 5 cm above the surface. The results of the Granger causality test did not reveal any evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to ground-air temperature offsets on the daily scale of aggregation except for the asphalt pavement. On the contrary, a strong evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to the ground-air temperature offsets was found on the hourly scale of aggregation for all land cover types except for the sand surface cover. All results are sensitive to the lag choice of the autoregressive model. On the whole, obtained results contain valuable information on the delay time of ΔT(GST-SAT) caused by the rainfall events and confirmed the importance of using autoregressive models to understand the ground-air temperature relationship.

  1. Statistical downscaling of sub-daily (6-hour) temperature in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia

    2016-04-01

    The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-daily temperature data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air temperature data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air temperature for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air temperature data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).

  2. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  3. Report: landfill alternative daily cover: conserving air space and reducing landfill operating cost.

    PubMed

    Haughey, R D

    2001-02-01

    Title 40, Part 258 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria, commonly referred to as Subtitle D, became effective on October 9, 1993. It establishes minimum criteria for solid waste disposal facility siting, design, operations, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, and closure and postclosure maintenance, while providing EPA-approved state solid waste regulatory programs flexibility in implementing the criteria. Section 258.21(a) [40 CFR 258.21(a)] requires owners or operators of municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) units to cover disposed solid waste with 30cm of earthen material at the end of the operating day, or at more frequent intervals, if necessary, to control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging. This requirement is consistent with already existing solid waste facility regulations in many states. For many MSWLFs, applying daily cover requires the importation of soil which increases landfill operating costs. Daily cover also uses valuable landfill air space, reducing potential operating revenue and the landfill's operating life. 40 CFR 258.21 (b) allows the director of an approved state to approve alternative materials of an alternative thickness if the owner or operator demonstrates that the alternative material and thickness will control disease vectors, fires, odours, blowing litter, and scavenging without presenting a threat to human health and the environment. Many different types of alternative daily cover (ADC) are currently being used, including geosynthetic tarps, foams, garden waste, and auto shredder fluff. These materials use less air space than soil and can reduce operating costs. This paper discusses the variety of ADCs currently being used around the country and their applicability to different climates and operating conditions, highlighting the more unusual types of ADC, the types of demonstrations necessary to obtain approval of ADC, and the impact on landfill air space

  4. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Lithium Reactions with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated temperatures due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated temperatures (298-373 K) when exposed to natural air. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in air, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated temperatures followed a markedly different behavior to that at room temperature. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. temperature and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  6. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  7. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  8. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for global climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a daily basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, daily fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare daily temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional

  9. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  10. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  12. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  13. Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily mortality in 12 Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S; Kalkstein, L S; Yagouti, Abderrahmane

    It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter <2.5 μm). We assess both single- and two-pollutant interactions to determine dependent and independent pollutant effects using the relatively new time series technique of distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM). Results display dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical plus (MT+) weathers to result in a fourfold and twofold increased likelihood, respectively, of an extreme pollution event (top 5 % of pollution concentrations throughout the 28 years) occurring. We also demonstrate statistically significant effects of single-pollutant exposure on mortality (p < 0.05) to be dependent on summer weather type, where stronger results occur in dry moderate (fair weather) and DT or MT+ weather types. The overall average single-effect RR increases due to pollutant exposure within DT and MT+ weather types are 14.9 and 11.9 %, respectively. Adjusted exposures (two-way pollutant effect estimates) generally results in decreased RR estimates, indicating that the pollutants are not independent. Adjusting for ozone significantly lowers 67 % of the single-pollutant RR estimates and reduces model variability, which demonstrates that ozone significantly controls a portion of the mortality signal from the model. Our findings demonstrate the mortality risks of air pollution exposure to differ by weather type, with

  14. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  15. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharis, R. P.; Hellmers, H.; Schuurmans, E.

    1967-01-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23° day, and 19° night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3°, 7° or 11° day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3°. Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11° day and pines kept at a 7° day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO2 level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3° day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered. PMID:16656533

  16. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  17. Short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and daily mortality in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Richard W; Analitis, Antonis; Samoli, Evangelia; Fuller, Gary W; Green, David C; Mudway, Ian S; Anderson, Hugh R; Kelly, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked daily concentrations of urban air pollution to mortality, but few have investigated specific traffic sources that can inform abatement policies. We assembled a database of >100 daily, measured and modelled pollutant concentrations characterizing air pollution in London between 2011 and 2012. Based on the analyses of temporal patterns and correlations between the metrics, knowledge of local emission sources and reference to the existing literature, we selected, a priori, markers of traffic pollution: oxides of nitrogen (general traffic); elemental and black carbon (EC/BC) (diesel exhaust); carbon monoxide (petrol exhaust); copper (tyre), zinc (brake) and aluminium (mineral dust). Poisson regression accounting for seasonality and meteorology was used to estimate the percentage change in risk of death associated with an interquartile increment of each pollutant. Associations were generally small with confidence intervals that spanned 0% and tended to be negative for cardiovascular mortality and positive for respiratory mortality. The strongest positive associations were for EC and BC adjusted for particle mass and respiratory mortality, 2.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 5.28) and 2.72% (0.09, 5.42) per 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m(3), respectively. These associations were robust to adjustment for other traffic metrics and regional pollutants, suggesting a degree of specificity with respiratory mortality and diesel exhaust containing EC/BC.

  18. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R2=0.946 and R2=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. PMID:22721687

  19. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  2. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  3. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  5. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  7. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  8. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  9. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  10. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  11. CPLFD-GDPT5: high-resolution gridded daily precipitation and temperature dataset for two largest Polish river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezowski, T.; Szcześniak, M.; Kardel, I.; Michałowski, R.; Okruszko, T.; Mezghani, A.; Piniewski, M.

    2015-12-01

    The CHASE-PL Forcing Data-Gridded Daily Precipitation and Temperature Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 daily minimum and maximum air temperatures and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on daily meteorological observations from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), ECAD and NOAA-NCDC (Slovak, Ukrainian and Belarus stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and temperature data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of Vistula and Odra basin and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and temperature varies in time from about 100 for temperature and 300 for precipitation in 1950 up to about 180 for temperature and 700 for precipitation in 1990. The precipitation dataset was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were: kriging with elevation as external drift for temperatures and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross-validation revealed low root mean squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum temperature, respectively and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum temperatures, 0.88 for maximum temperatures and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Vistula and Odra basins. Link to the dataset: http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07

  12. CPLFD-GDPT5: High-resolution gridded daily precipitation and temperature data set for two largest Polish river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezowski, Tomasz; Szcześniak, Mateusz; Kardel, Ignacy; Michałowski, Robert; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Piniewski, Mikołaj

    2016-03-01

    The CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland) Forcing Data-Gridded Daily Precipitation & Temperature Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 daily minimum and maximum air temperatures and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on daily meteorological observations from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), and European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECAD) and National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration-National Climatic Data Center (NOAA-NCDC) (Slovak, Ukrainian, and Belarusian stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and temperature data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of the Vistula and Oder basins and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and temperature varies in time from about 100 for temperature and 300 for precipitation in the 1950s up to about 180 for temperature and 700 for precipitation in the 1990s. The precipitation data set was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were kriging with elevation as external drift for temperatures and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross validation revealed low root-mean-squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum temperature, respectively, and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum temperatures, 0.88 for maximum temperatures, and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in

  13. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  14. Nicotine-induced perturbations on heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity daily rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, A L; Gantenbein, M; Bruguerolle, B

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nicotine on the daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in unrestrained rats by use of implanted radiotelemetry transmitters. The study was divided into three seven-day periods: a control period, a treatment period and a recovery period. The control period was used for baseline measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. During the treatment period three rats received nicotine (1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) at 0900 h. Three rats received saline under the same experimental conditions. Heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored and plotted every 10 min. During the three periods a power spectrum analysis was used to determine the dominant period of rhythmicity. If daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were detected, the characteristics of these rhythms, i.e. the mesors, amplitudes and acrophases, were determined by cosinor analysis, expressed as means +/- s.e.m. and compared by analysis of variance. Nicotine did not suppress daily rhythmicity but induced decreases of amplitudes and phase-advances of acrophases for heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. These perturbations might result from the effects of nicotine on the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the hypothalamic clock that co-ordinates biological rhythms.

  15. Associations of daily mortality and air pollution in Los Angeles County

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, P.L.; Ozkaynak, H. )

    1991-04-01

    We report results of a multiple regression analysis examining associations between aggregate daily mortality counts and environmental variables in Los Angeles County, California for the period 1970 to 1979. Mortality variable included total deaths not due to accidents and violence (M), deaths due to cardiovascular causes (CV), and deaths due to respiratory causes (Resp). The environmental variables included five pollutants averaged over Los Angeles County--total oxidants (Ox), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and KM (a measure of particulate optical reflectance). Also included were three metereological variables measured at the Los Angeles International Airport--temperature (Temp), relative humidity (RH), and extinction coefficient (Bext), the latter estimated from noontime visual range. To reduce the possibility of spurious correlations arising from the shared seasonal cycles of mortality and environmental variables, seasonal cycles were removed from the data by applying a high-pass filter. Cross-correlation functions were examined to determine the lag structure of the data prior to specifying and fitting the multiple regression models relating mortality and the environmental variables. The results demonstrated significant associations of M (or CV) with Ox at lag 1, temperature, and NO{sub 2}, CO, or KM. Each of the latter three variables were strongly associated with daily mortality but also were highly correlated with one another in the high-frequency band, making it impossible to uniquely estimate their separate relationships to mortality. The results of this study show that small but significant associations exist in Los Angeles County between daily mortality and three separate environmental factors: temperature, primary motor vehicle-related pollutants (e.g., CO, KM, NO{sub 2}), and photochemical oxidants.

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    PubMed Central

    Cober, Elroy R.; Curtis, Daniel F.; Stewart, Douglas W.; Morrison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  17. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle.

  18. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  19. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species.

  20. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming.

  1. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  2. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  3. A stage structured mosquito model incorporating effects of precipitation and daily temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-12-21

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong province in 2014 was the most serious outbreak ever recorded in China. Given the known positive correlation between the abundance of mosquitoes and the number of dengue fever cases, a stage structured mosquito model was developed to investigate the cause of the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 and its implications for outbreaks of the disease. Data on the Breteau index (number of containers positive for larvae per 100 premises investigated), temperature and precipitation were used for model fitting. The egg laying rate, the development rate and the mortality rates of immatures and adults were obtained from the estimated parameters. Moreover, effects of daily fluctuations of temperature on these parameters were obtained and the effects of temperature and precipitation were analyzed by simulations. Our results indicated that the abundance of mosquitoes depended not only on the total annual precipitation but also on the distribution of the precipitation. The daily mean temperature had a nonlinear relationship with the abundance of mosquitoes, and large diurnal temperature differences can reduce the abundance of mosquitoes. In addition, effects of increasing precipitation and temperature were interdependent. Our findings suggest that the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 was mainly caused by the distribution of the precipitation. In the perspective of mosquito control, our results reveal that it is better to clear water early and spray insecticide between April and August in case of limited resources.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  14. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  15. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  16. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  17. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.

  18. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  19. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26225833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26225833"><span>Radon as a tracer of <span class="hlt">daily</span>, seasonal and spatial <span class="hlt">air</span> movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with <span class="hlt">air</span> movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid <span class="hlt">air</span> movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation of outside <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432"><span>Effect of constant and fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin production by eyecups from Rana perezi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenciano, A I; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Alonso-Bedate, M; Delgado, M J</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>We analysed the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in relation to constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on day/night melatonin synthesis in frog eyecups in culture. Eyecups were cultured for 24 h under 12L:12D photoperiod and two thermal regimes, constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25, 15 and 5 degrees C) and thermoperiod (WL/CD, thermophase coinciding with photophase and cryophase coinciding with scotophase; and CL/WD, cryophase coinciding with photophase and thermophase coinciding with scotophase). A negative correlation between ocular serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for both diurnal and nocturnal activities has been observed. This effect of increased ocular activity at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more pronounced than the well-known stimulatory effect of darkness, and it does not depend on the photoperiod phase. The lack of interactions between the phase of photoperiod and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates that the effects of both factors are independent. Night-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the key factor in determining the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the Rana perezi retina. However, daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can not counteract the inhibitory effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485867"><span>Entrainment of the circadian clock by <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Allali, Khalid; Achaâban, Mohamed R; Bothorel, Béatrice; Piro, Mohamed; Bouâouda, Hanan; El Allouchi, Morad; Ouassat, Mohammed; Malan, André; Pévet, Paul</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In mammals the light-dark (LD) cycle is known to be the major cue to synchronize the circadian clock. In arid and desert areas, the camel (Camelus dromedarius) is exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Since wide oscillations of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are a major factor in this environment, we wondered whether cyclic Ta fluctuations might contribute to synchronization of circadian rhythms. The rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) was selected as output of the circadian clock. After having verified that Tb is synchronized by the LD and free runs in continuous darkness (DD), we submitted the animals to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles of Ta in LL and in DD. In both cases, the Tb rhythm was entrained to the cycle of Ta. On a 12-h phase shift of the Ta cycle, the mean phase shift of the Tb cycle ranged from a few hours in LD (1 h by cosinor, 4 h from curve peaks) to 7-8 h in LL and 12 h in DD. These results may reflect either true synchronization of the central clock by Ta <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles or possibly a passive effect of Ta on Tb. To resolve the ambiguity, melatonin rhythmicity was used as another output of the clock. In DD melatonin rhythms were also entrained by the Ta cycle, proving that the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta cycle is able to entrain the circadian clock of the camel similar to photoperiod. By contrast, in the presence of a LD cycle the rhythm of melatonin was modified by the Ta cycle in only 2 (or 3) of 7 camels: in these specific conditions a systematic effect of Ta on the clock could not be evidenced. In conclusion, depending on the experimental conditions (DD vs. LD), the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta cycle can either act as a zeitgeber or not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F"><span>Trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitations extremes in Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate extreme trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241459"><span>Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient exposures to toxic and criteria <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries <span class="hlt">daily</span> for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that <span class="hlt">air</span> toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod on <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V"><span>Observed trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, L. A.; Aguilar, E.; Saindou, M.; Hassane, A. F.; Jumaux, G.; Roy, D.; Booneeady, P.; Virasami, R.; Randriamarolaza, L. Y. A.; Faniriantsoa, F. R.; Amelie, V.; Seeward, H.; Montfraix, B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A workshop on climate change indices was held at the Mauritius Meteorological Services in October 2009 to produce the first analysis of climate trends for the countries of the western Indian Ocean. Scientists brought their long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for a careful assessment of data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices. This paper reports on the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices for 1961-2008. The results indicate a definitive warming of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Annual means of the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased at a similar rate, leading to no discernible change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant increasing trends were found in the frequency of warm days and warm nights, while decreasing trends were observed in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. Moreover, it seems that the warm extremes have changed more than the cold extremes in the western Indian Ocean region. Trends in precipitation indices are generally weak and show less spatial coherence. Regionally, a significant decrease was found in the annual total rainfall for the past 48 years. The results also show some increase in consecutive dry days, no change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity and consecutive wet days, and a decrease in extreme precipitation events. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> indices are highly correlated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the region, whereas weak correlations are found with the precipitation indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851"><span>Climate change uncertainty for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: a model inter-comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P</p> <p>2006-11-09</p> <p>Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than <span class="hlt">daily</span> averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15517080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15517080"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharovsky, R; César, L A M; Ramires, J A F</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>An increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on <span class="hlt">daily</span> counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (<span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity and barometric pressure), <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate), and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We found a significant association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), with the lowest mortality being observed at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 21.6 and 22.6 degrees C. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05) for each 10 microg/m(3) increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767315"><span>Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excess falling sharply over the same <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. As <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is supported for honeybees in voluntary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53F1591O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53F1591O"><span>Geographical and Geomorphological Effects on <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Columbia Basin's Signature Vineyards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olson, L.; Pogue, K. R.; Bader, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon is one of the most productive grape-growing areas in the United States. Wines produced in this region are influenced by their terroir - the amalgamation of physical and cultural elements that influence grapes grown at a particular vineyard site. Of the physical factors, climate, and in particular <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, has been recognized as a primary influence on viticulture. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> directly affects ripening in the grapes. Proper fruit ripening, which requires precise and balanced levels of acid and sugar, and the accumulation of pigment in the grape skin, directly correlates with the quality of wine produced. Many features control <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within a particular vineyard. Elevation, latitude, slope, and aspect all converge to form complex relationships with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; however, the relative degree to which these attributes affect <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> varies between regions and is not well understood. This study examines the influence of geography and geomorphology on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) of the Columbia Basin in eastern Washington and Oregon. The premier vineyards within each AVA, which have been recognized for producing high-quality wine, were equipped with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring stations that collected hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. A variety of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> statistics were calculated, including <span class="hlt">daily</span> average, maximum, and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. From these values, average diurnal variation and growing degree-days (10°C) were calculated. A variety of other statistics were computed, including date of first and last frost and time spent below a minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold. These parameters were compared to the vineyard's elevation, latitude, slope, aspect, and local topography using GPS, ArcCatalog, and GIS in an attempt to determine their relative influences on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. From these statistics, it was possible to delineate two trends of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6760N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6760N"><span>Effects of animal activity and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied <span class="hlt">daily</span> at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the <span class="hlt">daily</span> indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while <span class="hlt">daily</span> NH 3 emissions increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L"><span>Spatial modeling of the highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Korea via max-stable processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Youngsaeng; Yoon, Sanghoo; Murshed, Md. Sharwar; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, ChunHo; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jeong-Soo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the annual highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DMT) in Korea by using data from 56 weather stations and employing spatial extreme modeling. Our approach is based on max-stable processes (MSP) with Schlather’s characterization. We divide the country into four regions for a better model fit and identify the best model for each region. We show that regional MSP modeling is more suitable than MSP modeling for the entire region and the pointwise generalized extreme value distribution approach. The advantage of spatial extreme modeling is that more precise and robust return levels and some indices of the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained for observation stations and for locations with no observed data, and so help to determine the effects and assessment of vulnerability as well as to downscale extreme events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W"><span>The influence of topographic setting and weather type on the correlation between elevation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures in mountainous terrain in the Canadian Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Wendy; Marshall, Shawn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates for hydrological and ecological studies in mountainous regions are often based on lapse rate adjustments using sparse low elevation measurements. These measurements may not be representative of the area where estimates are required. This study examines the effects varying topographic settings under different weather types have on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship. The Foothills Climate Array study recorded hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 2004 and 2010 at ˜230 weather stations over an area of approximately 24 000 km2 in the Canadian Rocky mountains, extending to the Canadian prairies. 132 sites are considered mountain sites, comprising a range of elevation values, surface types and varied terrain morphology. Correlations are calculated between all station pairs for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, grouped by weather type for the 2006 data. Topographic and surface type characteristics - horizontal and vertical separation, height above valley bottom, slope aspect and angle and land surface type - for the 10 highest correlated neighbours for each site are examined as a means of determining which of these measures drives a similar behavior in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results indicate a weak <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation correlation coefficient is -0.31 for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, varying from weaker than -0.2 for weather types where cold <span class="hlt">air</span> pooling is a common occurrence to stronger than -0.6 for cool wet weather days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have an average correlation coefficient of -0.78, but the correlation weakens to -0.4 for cold weather events. There is a nonlinear maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship, with weak correlations below 2000 m and stronger correlations at higher elevations. Choosing sites with similar topographic settings does strengthen the correlation coefficient, but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship remains weak due to large day to day</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553537"><span>Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M</p> <p>2007-11-23</p> <p>The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or their large size. No difference was found between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..575K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..575K"><span>Local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerance: a sensible basis for estimating climate variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kärner, Olavi; Post, Piia</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The customary representation of climate using sample moments is generally biased due to the noticeably nonstationary behaviour of many climate series. In this study, we introduce a moment-free climate representation based on a statistical model fitted to a long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly series. This model allows us to separate the climate and weather scale variability in the series. As a result, the climate scale can be characterized using the mean annual cycle of series and local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerance, where the latter is computed using the fitted model. The representation of weather scale variability is specified using the frequency and the range of outliers based on the tolerance. The scheme is illustrated using five long-term <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records observed by different European meteorological stations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204048"><span>Short-term effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and years of life lost in Nanjing, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Feng; Zhou, Lian; Xu, Yan; Zheng, Tongzhang; Guo, Yuming; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bassig, Bryan A; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Haochen; Zheng, Xiaoying</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The deteriorating <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in Chinese cities is attracting growing public concern. We conducted analyses to quantify the associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes in ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality in Nanjing, China. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, and meteorological data from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 were collected. Over-dispersed Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the risk of <span class="hlt">daily</span> non-accidental mortality and years of life lost (YLL) from exposure to respirable particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2). Stratified analysis was conducted to indentify the modifying effect of individual-level factors on the association between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants and mortality. We found that interquartile range (IQR) increases in the two-day average of PM10, NO2 and SO2 were significantly associated with 1.6% [95% confidence interval (CI):0.7%-2.6%], 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%-4.2%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.6%) higher rates of non-accidental mortality; and related to YLL increases of 20.5 (95% CI: 6.3-34.8), 34.9 (95% CI: 16.9-52.9) and 30.3 (95% CI: 12.2-48.4) years, respectively; Associations between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality were more pronounced in the warm season than in the cool season. We conclude that the risks of mortality and YLL were elevated corresponding to an increase in current ambient concentrations of the <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants, and season may modify the effects of outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in Nanjing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810839L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810839L"><span>Simulation and projection of summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices used in this study included tmx (<span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), t2m (<span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and tmn (<span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), and extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (warm days) and WSDI (warm spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; Extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events; Regional climate model; Climate change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.120..360T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.120..360T"><span>Association between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and hospital admission due to ischaemic heart diseases in Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, Wilson Wai San; Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H. S.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution on IHD mortalities have been widely reported. Fewer studies focus on IHD morbidities and PM2.5, especially in Asia. To explore the associations between short-term exposure to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and morbidities and mortalities from IHD, we conducted a time series study using a generalized additive model that regressed the <span class="hlt">daily</span> numbers of IHD mortalities and hospital admissions on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations of the following <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The relative risks (RR) of IHD deaths and hospital admissions per 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of each <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant were derived in single pollutant models. Multipollutant models were also constructed to estimate their RRs controlling for other pollutants. Significant RRs were observed for all five <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants, ranging from 1.008 to 1.032 per 10 μg/m3 increase in <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant concentrations for IHD mortality and from 1.006 to 1.021 per 10 μg/m3 for hospital admissions for IHD. In the multipollutant model, only NO2 remained significant for IHD mortality while SO2 and PM2.5 was significantly associated with hospital admissions. This study provides additional evidence that mortalities and hospital admissions for IHD are significantly associated with <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. However, we cannot attribute these health effects to a specific <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant, owing to high collinearity between some <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753947"><span>The circadian body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm in the elderly: effect of single <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin dosing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gubin, D G; Gubin, G D; Waterhouse, J; Weinert, D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The present study is part of a more extensive investigation dedicated to the study and treatment of age-dependent changes/disturbances in the circadian system in humans. It was performed in the Tyumen Elderly Veteran House and included 97 subjects of both genders, ranging from 63 to 91 yrs of age. They lived a self-chosen sleep-wake regimen to suit their personal convenience. The experiment lasted 3 wks. After 1 control week, part of the group (n=63) received 1.5 mg melatonin (Melaxen) <span class="hlt">daily</span> at 22:30 h for 2 wks. The other 34 subjects were given placebo. Axillary <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using calibrated mercury thermometers at 03:00, 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, and 23:00 h each of the first and third week. Specially trained personnel took the measurements, avoiding disturbing the sleep of the subjects. To evaluate age-dependent changes, data obtained under similar conditions on 58 young adults (both genders, 17 to 39 yrs of age) were used. Rhythm characteristics were estimated by means of cosinor analyses, and intra- and inter-individual variability by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both age groups, the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> underwent <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes. The MESOR (36.38+/-0.19 degrees C vs. 36.17+/-0.21 degrees C) and circadian amplitude (0.33+/-0.01 degrees C vs. 0.26+/-0.01 degrees C) were slightly decreased in the elderly compared to the young adult subjects (p<0.001). The mean circadian acrophase was similar in both age groups (17.19+/-1.66 vs. 16.93+/-3.08 h). However, the inter-individual differences were higher in the older group, with individual values varying between 10:00 and 23:00 h. It was mainly this phase variability that caused a decrease in the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm stability and lower group amplitude. With melatonin treatment, the MESOR was lower by 0.1 degrees C and the amplitude increased to 0.34+/-0.01 degrees C, a similar value to that found in young adults. This was probably due to the increase of the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm stability. The mean acrophase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B"><span>Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Few sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Acomys russatus: the response to chemical signals released by Acomys cahirinus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fluxman, S; Haim, A</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Two species of spiny mice of the genus Acomys--the golden spiny A. russatus and the common spiny A. cahirinus--are sympatric in the arid and hot parts of the Rift Valley in Israel. The coexistence of these two species is due to exclusion of A. russatus mice by A. cahirinus mice from nocturnal activity. The aim of this research was to study if odor signals released by A. cahirinus mice can play a role in the exclusion of A. russatus mice. A. russatus mice with an implanted transmitter recording body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) were kept alone in a metabolic chamber under constant conditions of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (27 degrees C) and photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). After 5 days of recording, chemical signals from an A. cahirinus mouse were added through the <span class="hlt">air</span> tube going into the metabolic chamber of the A. russatus mice. This treatment caused a shift of approximately 2 h in Tb <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of the naive tested A. russatus mice, whereas no shift was observed in A. russatus mice that had been kept in the same room with the A. cahirinus mouse before measurements. These results strongly support the idea that chemical signals released by A. cahirinus mice can entrain the Tb rhythms of A. russatus mice. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exclusion of A. russatus mice from nocturnal activity by A. cahirinus mice could be achieved through the odor released by the latter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z"><span>On the use of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to calculate the extended spring indices phenological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zurita-Milla, Raul; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Batarseh, Sana; Ault, Toby; Schwartz, Mark D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Models that predict the timing of recurrent biological events play an important role in supporting the systematic study of phenological changes at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. One set of such models are the extended Spring indices (SI-x). These models predicts a suite of phenological metrics ("first leaf" and "first bloom," "last freeze" and the "damage index") from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data and geographic location (to model the duration of the day). The SI-x models were calibrated using historical phenological and weather observations from the continental US. In particular, the models relied on first leaf and first bloom observations for lilac and honeysuckle and on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values from a number of weather stations located near to the sites where phenological observations were made. In this work, we study the use of DAYMET (http://daymet.ornl.gov/) to calculate the SI-x models over the continental USA. DAYMET offers <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values for the period 1980 to 2012. Using an automatic downloader, we downloaded complete DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series for the over 1100 geographic locations where historical lilac observations were made. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values were parsed and, using the recently available MATLAB code, the SI-x indices were calculated. Subsequently, the predicted first leaf and first bloom dates were compared with historical lilac observations. The RMSE between predicted and observed lilac leaf/bloom dates was calculated after identifying data from the same geographic location and year. Results were satisfactory for the lilac observations in the Eastern US (e.g. the RMSE for the blooming date was of about 5 days). However, the correspondence between the observed and predicted lilac values in the West was rather week (e.g. RMSE for the blooming date of about 22 days). This might indicate that DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in this region of the US might contain larger uncertainties due to a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357"><span>Influence of repeated <span class="hlt">daily</span> menthol exposure on human <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation and perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (P<0.05) cooler TS at the beginning of the week (Ex1, R1) compared to the end (Ex2, R5), indicating habituation of TS; this was not observed in M(0.05%). No other perceptual or physiological responses habituated. 0.2% Menthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5269718','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5269718"><span>Physiological performance of the intertidal Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) to long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yin, Xuwang; Chen, Peng; Chen, Hai; Jin, Wen; Yan, Xiwu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Intertidal organisms, especially the sessile species, often experience long-term periodic <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure during their lives. Learning the biochemical and physiological responses of intertidal organisms to long-term periodic <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure and the relationship to duration of <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure provides insight into adaptation to this variably stressful environment. We studied the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, an important species in world aquaculture, as a model to evaluate survival, growth, lipid composition, oxygen consumption, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity in relation to the duration of <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure in a long-term (60 days) laboratory study of varying durations of periodic emersion and re-immersion. Our results show: (1) clams undergoing a longer period of <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure had lower survival and growth compared to those given a shorter exposure, (2) levels of oxidative damage and activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in all <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure treatments, but did not increase with duration of <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure, and (3) the content of docosahexaenoic acid increased with duration of <span class="hlt">air</span> exposure. Our results can largely be interpreted in the context of the energy expenditure by the clams caused by aerobic metabolism during the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle of emersion and re-immersion and the roles of docosahexaenoic acid against oxidative stress. PMID:28128354</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875162"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, Jinping; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Yang, Changyuan; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with <span class="hlt">daily</span> OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0-21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0-3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may increase the risk of OHCDs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L"><span>Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L"><span>Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S"><span>Transient 21st Century Changes in <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale hot and cold extreme indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot extremes will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot extremes norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th <span class="hlt">daily-maximum-temperature</span> percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold extremes, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324"><span>Seasonal patterns of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W; Bennett, Nigel C; Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E; Waterman, Jane M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(a)). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(a) provided the greatest explanatory power for mean T(b) whereas sunrise had greatest power for T(b) acrophase. There were significant changes in mean T(b) and T(b) acrophase over time with mean T(b) increasing and T(b) acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in T(b), sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which T(b) remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to 'offload' heat. In addition, greater T(b) amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their T(a)-T(b) gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on T(b) with a lower and less variable T(b) in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile T(b) which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..441P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..441P"><span>Spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Toruń (Central Poland) and its causes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przybylak, Rajmund; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna; Araźny, Andrzej; Kejna, Marek; Kunz, Mieczysław; Maszewski, Rafał</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the results of an investigation into the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pattern and development (including the urban heat island (UHI)) in Toruń (central Poland) are presented. For the analysis, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ti) as well as <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for 2012 gathered for 20 sites, evenly distributed in the area of city, have been taken as source data. Additionally, in order to provide more extensive characteristics of the diversity of the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the study area, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) and the number of the so-called characteristic days were calculated as well. The impact of weather conditions (cloudiness and wind speed), atmospheric circulation, urban morphological parameters and land cover on the UHI in the study area was investigated. In Toruń, according to the present study, the average UHI intensity in 2012 was equal to 1.0 °C. The rise of cloudiness and wind speed led to a decrease of the magnitude of the UHI. Generally, in most cases, anticyclonic situations favour increased thermal contrast between rural and city areas, particularly in summer. Warm western circulation types significantly reduced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences in the western side of the city and enlarged them in the eastern side of the city. Eastern cold types also have a similar influence on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. Positive and statistically significant correlations have been found between the percentage of built-up areas (sealing factor) and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Conversely, sky view factor (SVF) reveals negative correlations which are statistically significant only for Tmin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19526921','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19526921"><span>[Effects of sudden <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure changes on mortality in the Czech Republic].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plavcová, E; Kyselý, J</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>We have developed an algorithm for identifying sudden changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Czech Republic. Such events were retrieved from the data covering in 1986-2005 and were matched with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> numbers of all-cause deaths and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases from the national database, separately for the whole population and that aged 70 years and over. Excess <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality was determined by calculating deviations of the observed number of deaths from the expected number of deaths for each day in the respective groups. The relative deviation of the mortality the mean was calculated as the ratio of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths. We used 3-hour <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure data from 10 meteorological stations and hourly <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 9 stations representative of the Czech Republic. Pressure changes were evaluated on time scales of 3, 6 and 12 hours, separately for summer and winter time. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> changes were evaluated on a 24-hour time scale, separately for summer and winter season. Events characterized by pressure or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes above the critical threshold and recorded within 24 hours at more than 50% of meteorological stations were retrieved. The critical thresholds were defined separately for each station using quantiles of distributions of <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. Relative mortality deviations for days D-2 (2 days before the change) to D+7 (7 days after the change) were averaged over the retrieved events. Statistical significance of the mean relative deviation was tested using the Monte Carlo method. Increased mortality followed large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and large pressure drops both in summer and winter months. Decreased mortality was observed after large pressure increases and large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops in summer. Mortality variations are usually more pronounced in the population aged 70 years and over, and cardiovascular diseases account for most deaths after sudden <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=shelter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dshelter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=shelter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dshelter"><span>Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Decreases in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The observations indicated near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687677"><span>Monitored summer peak attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Florida residences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has analyzed measured summer attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data taken for some 21 houses (three with two different roof configurations) over the last several years. The analysis is in support of the calculation within ASHRAE Special Project 152P, which will be used to estimate duct system conductance gains that are exposed to the attic space. Knowledge of prevailing attic thermal conditions are critical to the duct heat transfer calculations for estimation of impacts on residential cooling system sizing. The field data were from a variety of residential monitoring projects that were classified according to intrinsic differences in roofing configurations and characteristics. The sites were occupied homes spread around the state of Florida. There were a variety of different roofing construction types, roof colors, and ventilation configurations. Data at each site were obtained from June 1 to September 30 according to the ASHRAE definition of summer. The attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were used for the data analysis. The attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured with a shielded type-T thermocouple at mid-attic height, halfway between the decking and insulation surface. The ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was obtained at each site by thermocouples located inside a shielded exterior enclosure at a 3 to 4 m (10--12 ft) height. The summer 15-minute data from each site were sorted by the average ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> into the top 2.5% of the observations of the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Within this limited group of observations, the average outside <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and coincident difference were reported.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3208S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3208S"><span>Solar activity influence on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes in caves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey</p> <p></p> <p>Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave <span class="hlt">air</span> is connected with the most general circulation of the <span class="hlt">air</span> in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the <span class="hlt">air</span> of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> of the <span class="hlt">air</span> in the zone of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (ZCT) are compared with surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in caves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613"><span>Strong impacts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects <span class="hlt">air</span> mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin ) than with maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P < 0.05) and in summer enhanced greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P < 0.01). In contrast, increases in preseason Tmax did not advance green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P < 0.05). The stimulating effects of increasing Tmin were likely caused by reduced low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints, and the apparent negative effects of higher Tmax on greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=ultrasound&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78120188&CFTOKEN=21109967','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=ultrasound&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78120188&CFTOKEN=21109967"><span>Associations of endothelial function and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in diabetic subjects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... must be made within 100 cm of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... must be made within 100 cm of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... location must be within 10 cm of the engine intake system (i.e., the <span class="hlt">air</span> cleaner, for most engines.) (b... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..462..783J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..462..783J"><span>Multi-fractal scaling comparison of the <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and the Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jiping; Liu, Xinwei; Li, Fei</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The spatial and temporal multi-scaling behaviors between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (AT) and the Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (ST) over China are compared in about 60-yr observations by Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) method. The different fractal phenomena and diversity features in the geographic distribution are found for the AT and ST series using MF-DFA. There are more multi-fractal features for the AT records but less for ST. The respective geographic sites show important scaling differences when compared to the multi-fractal signatures of AT with ST. An interval threshold for 95% confidence level is obtained by shuffling the AT records and the ST records. For the AT records, 93% of all observed stations shows the strong multi-fractal behaviors. In addition, the multi-fractal characteristics decrease with increasing latitude in South China and are obviously strong along the coast. The multi-fractal behaviors of the AT records between the Yangtze River and Yellow River basin and in most regions of Northwest China seem to be weak and not significant, even single mono-fractal features. However, for the ST records, the geographical distributions of multi-fractal phenomenon seem to be in disorder which account for 81% of the stations. The weak multi-fractal behaviors of the ST records are concentrated in North China, most regions of Northeast China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282799"><span>Association between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hajat, S; Haines, A; Atkinson, R W; Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Emberlin, J</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Few published studies have looked at the health effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in the primary care setting, and most have concentrated on lower rather than upper respiratory diseases. The authors investigated the association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis with <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in London, United Kingdom. Generalized additive models were used to regress time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> numbers of patients consulting for allergic rhinitis against 1992--1994 measures of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, after control for possible confounders and adjustment for overdispersion and serial correlation. In children, a 10th--90th percentile increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) levels 4 days prior to consultation (13-31 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 24.5% increase in consultations (95% confidence interval: 14.6, 35.2; p < 0.00001); a 10th--90th percentile increase in averaged ozone (O(3)) concentrations on the day of consultation and the preceding 3 days (6--29 parts per billion) was associated with a 37.6% rise (95% confidence interval: 23.3, 53.5; p < 0.00001). For adults, smaller effect sizes were observed for SO(2) and O(3). The association with SO(2) remained highly significant in the presence of other pollutants. This study suggests that <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution worsens allergic rhinitis symptoms, leading to substantial increases in consultations. SO(2) and O(3) seem particularly responsible, and both seem to contribute independently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S"><span>Transient twenty-first century changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L"><span>An empirical method for estimating probability density functions of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lussana, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by the China Meteorological Administ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023751&hterms=fishbein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfishbein','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023751&hterms=fishbein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfishbein"><span>High Lapse Rates in <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Retrieved <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Cold <span class="hlt">Air</span> Outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, large sea-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The bias in near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is seen to be independent of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, however. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is therefore sensitive to <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> near-surface retrieved <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7741B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7741B"><span>The EUSTACE break-detection algorithm for a global <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brugnara, Yuri; Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>EUSTACE (EU Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for All Corners of Earth) is an EU-funded project that has started in 2015; its goal is to produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> since 1850 across the globe for the first time by combining surface and satellite data using novel statistical techniques. For land surface data (LSAT), we assembled a global dataset of ca. 35000 stations where <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations are available, taking advantage of the most recent data rescue initiatives. Beside quantity, data quality also plays an important role for the success of the project; in particular, the assessment of the homogeneity of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series is crucial in order to obtain a product suitable for the study of climate change. This poster describes a fully automatic state-of-the-art break-detection algorithm that we developed for the global LSAT dataset. We evaluate the performance of the method using artificial benchmarks and present various statistics related to frequency and amplitude of the inhomogeneities detected in the real data. We show in particular that long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends calculated from raw data are more often underestimated than overestimated and that this behaviour is mostly related to inhomogeneities affecting maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674418"><span>Association Between <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, John</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory - that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Further study is indicated to verify these findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457717.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457717.pdf"><span>Modeling Comparative <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Enrollment Indicators To Aid Intelligent College Decisions. <span class="hlt">AIR</span> 2001 Annual Forum Paper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lajubutu, Oyebanjo A.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper shows how three critical enrollment indicators drawn from a relationship database were used to guide planning and management decisions. The paper discusses the guidelines for the development of the model, attributes needed, variables to be calculated, and other issues that may improve the effectiveness and efficiency of <span class="hlt">daily</span> enrollment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465896"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of sewage sludge composting process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the influence was more significant when composting was in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising process: composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> falling process: composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span>'s responses to ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107"><span>Effect of Initial Mixture <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Flame Speed of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-<span class="hlt">air</span> and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC34A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC34A..02B"><span>Observations of Cooling Summer Daytime <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (1948-2005) in Growing Urban Coastal California <span class="hlt">Air</span> Basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bornstein, R.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in California (CA) during summer (June- August). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The spatial distributions of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area <span class="hlt">air</span> basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pattern arises from a 'reverse-reaction' to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. The coastal cooling thus resulted as urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would be even stronger. The cooling or warming trends at several pairs of nearby urban and non- urban sites were compared in an effort to separate out the urban heat island (UHI) and global warming components of the trend. Average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from global circulation models show warming that decreases from inland areas of California to its coastal areas. Such large scale models, however, cannot resolve these smaller scale topographic and coastal effects. Meso-scale modeling on a 4 km grid is thus being carried out to evaluate the contributions from GHG global-warming and land-use changes, including UHI development, to the observed trends. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed reverse-reaction to GHG- warming; possible beneficial effects include decreased maximum: O3 levels, human thermal-stress, and per- capita energy requirements for cooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made either... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21908017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21908017"><span>Ambient carbon monoxide and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in three Chinese cities: the China <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Renjie; Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Qun; Zeng, Guang; Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is an <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant primarily generated by traffic. CO has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in developed countries, but few studies have been conducted in Asian developing countries. In the China <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), the short-term associations between ambient CO and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality were examined in three Chinese cities: Shanghai, Anshan and Taiyuan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant associations of CO with both total non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed. In the combined analysis, a 1 mg/m(3) increase of 2-day moving average concentrations of CO corresponded to 2.89% (95%CI: 1.68, 4.11) and 4.17% (95%CI: 2.66, 5.68) increase of total and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. CO was not significantly associated with respiratory mortality. Sensitivity analyses showed that our findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. In conclusion, ambient CO was associated with increased risk of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in these three cities. Our findings suggest that the role of exposure to CO and other traffic-related <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants should be further investigated in China.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571526"><span>Comparison of different exposure settings in a case--crossover study on <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality: counterintuitive results.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Hänninen, Otto; Marchesi, Stefano; Lauriola, Paolo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Because of practical problems associated with measurement of personal exposures to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants in larger populations, almost all epidemiological studies assign exposures based on fixed-site ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> monitoring stations. In the presence of multiple monitoring stations at different locations, the selection of them may affect the observed epidemiological concentration--response (C-R) relationships. In this paper, we quantify these impacts in an observational ecologic case--crossover study of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality. The associations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations of PM(10), O(3), and NO(2) with <span class="hlt">daily</span> all-cause non-violent mortality were investigated using conditional logistic regression to estimate percent increase in the risk of dying for an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the previous day <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant concentrations (lag 1). The study area covers the six main cities in the central-western part of Emilia-Romagna region (population of 1.1 million). We used four approaches to assign exposure to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants for each individual considered in the study: nearest background station; city average of all stations available; average of all stations in a macro-area covering three cities and average of all six cities in the study area (50 × 150 km(2)). Odds ratios generally increased enlarging the spatial dimension of the exposure definition and were highest for six city-average exposure definition. The effect is especially evident for PM(10), and similar for NO(2), whereas for ozone, we did not find any change in the C-R estimates. Within a geographically homogeneous region, the spatial aggregation of monitoring station data leads to higher and more robust risk estimates for PM(10) and NO(2), even if monitor-to-monitor correlations showed a light decrease with distance. We suggest that the larger aggregation improves the representativity of the exposure estimates by decreasing exposure misclassification, which is more profound when using individual stations vs regional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3343W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.3343W"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in baseline ozone on urban <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in the United States Pacific Northwest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wigder, Nicole L.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Herron-Thorpe, Farren L.; Vaughan, Joseph K.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We examine the influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in baseline ozone (O3) on urban <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) during 2004 to 2010 through two analyses: (1) transport of free tropospheric (FT) O3 from Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO) to Boise, Idaho; and (2) transport of marine boundary layer (MBL) O3 from Cheeka Peak (CP) to Enumclaw, Washington. Both Boise and Enumclaw experience days with maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> 8 hour averages of O3 (MDA8) exceeding U.S. standards. Backward trajectory cluster analyses identify days when FT and MBL O3 strongly influence MDA8 in Boise and Enumclaw. On these days, MBO and CP O3 observations explain 40% and 69% of the variations in Boise and Enumclaw MDA8, respectively. Bivariate regressions for Boise/MBO and Enumclaw/CP have slopes of 0.52 ± 0.16 and 1.04 ± 0.08, respectively, representing the differing interplay of O3 dilution, production, and loss during FT to boundary layer transport (Boise/MBO) and fast boundary layer transport (Enumclaw/CP). AIRPACT-3/CMAQ (<span class="hlt">Air</span> Indicator Report for Public Access and Community Tracking version 3/Community Multi-scale <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality model) high-resolution <span class="hlt">air</span>-quality simulation results demonstrate how transport of O3 from the FT above MBO contributes to elevated O3 at Boise. Average MDA8 O3 in Boise is higher than in Enumclaw due to site elevation and greater entrainment of FT <span class="hlt">air</span> masses, a finding likely applicable to other PNW sites. Days with high baseline influence at Boise and Enumclaw have lower average MDA8 O3 than other days; however, some of these days would still exceed the U.S. standard if it is substantially tightened in 2013, highlighting the increasing importance of FT O3 influence on urban MDA8.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809488"><span>Modeling and forecasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> mean PM₂.₅ concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zong-chang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Nowadays, the issue of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing <span class="hlt">air</span> quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as <span class="hlt">daily</span> particle pollution in the <span class="hlt">air</span> is largely influenced by human <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements of mean PM₂.₅ concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction <span class="hlt">daily</span> movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration in a concise and intuitive way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T"><span>Merging <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495"><span>R-vine models for spatial time series with an application to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erhardt, Tobias Michael; Czado, Claudia; Schepsmeier, Ulf</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We introduce an extension of R-vine copula models to allow for spatial dependencies and model based prediction at unobserved locations. The proposed spatial R-vine model combines the flexibility of vine copulas with the classical geostatistical idea of modeling spatial dependencies using the distances between the variable locations. In particular, the model is able to capture non-Gaussian spatial dependencies. To develop and illustrate our approach, we consider <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data observed at 54 monitoring stations in Germany. We identify relationships between the vine copula parameters and the station distances and exploit these in order to reduce the huge number of parameters needed to parametrize a 54-dimensional R-vine model fitted to the data. The new distance based model parametrization results in a distinct reduction in the number of parameters and makes parameter estimation and prediction at unobserved locations feasible. The prediction capabilities are validated using adequate scoring techniques, showing a better performance of the spatial R-vine copula model compared to a Gaussian spatial model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3630Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3630Z"><span>Study on <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Estimation and Snowmelt Modeling over the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Hongbo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accumulation and melting of snow are important hydrological processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Accurate and reasonable simulation of snowmelt is useful for water resources management and planning. This study firstly developed a product of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the TP by comprehensively integrating satellite data and field observations. Accumulation and melting of snow over TP was then simulated and analyzed using a distributed degree-day model based on the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. The proposed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation method can reduce the cloud blockage dramatically by integrating all the available MODIS land surface data (LST) at four pass times dynamically and in the meantime keep relatively high estimating accuracies. Through zonal calibration and validation for snow cover modeling, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> processes of snow accumulation and melting over TP can be successfully simulated. The results indicate that (1) during 2005-2010, annual precipitation over TP was ~442 mm/yr among which ~88 mm/yr was snow fall with approximately 56 mm/yr melted; (2) snow melt mostly happened in spring over TP, with spring snow melt dominating and accounting for about 53% of the full-year snow melts; and (3) the locations with higher snow melt were mainly in south and east TP and the spatial pattern of snow melts is basically in accordance with that of precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A"><span>A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, R.; BröNnimann, S.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A new physics-based technique for correcting inhomogeneities present in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records is proposed. The approach accounts for changes in the sensor-shield characteristics that affect the energy balance dependent on ambient weather conditions (radiation, wind). An empirical model is formulated that reflects the main atmospheric processes and can be used in the correction step of a homogenization procedure. The model accounts for short- and long-wave radiation fluxes (including a snow cover component for albedo calculation) of a measurement system, such as a radiation shield. One part of the flux is further modulated by ventilation. The model requires only cloud cover and wind speed for each day, but detailed site-specific information is necessary. The final model has three free parameters, one of which is a constant offset. The three parameters can be determined, e.g., using the mean offsets for three observation times. The model is developed using the example of the change from the Wild screen to the Stevenson screen in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of Basel, Switzerland, in 1966. It is evaluated based on parallel measurements of both systems during a sub-period at this location, which were discovered during the writing of this paper. The model can be used in the correction step of homogenization to distribute a known mean step-size to every single measurement, thus providing a reasonable alternative correction procedure for high-resolution historical climate series. It also constitutes an error model, which may be applied, e.g., in data assimilation approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2084H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2084H"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump barn with different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is <span class="hlt">air</span> rising, the other is <span class="hlt">air</span> falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump tobacco barn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047087','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047087"><span>The variability of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at coastal airports, and observed values of <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and warmer nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Summer daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> associations that occur at <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707326"><span>Metabolism and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus) in Madagascar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, J; Ruf, T; Heldmaier, G</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Thermoregulation, energetics and patterns of torpor in the pygmy mouse lemur, Microcebus myoxinus, were investigated under natural conditions of photoperiod and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Kirindy/CFPF Forest in western Madagascar. M. myoxinus entered torpor spontaneously during the cool dry season. Torpor only occurred on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis and torpor bout duration was on average 9.6 h, and ranged from 4.6 h to 19.2 h. Metabolic rates during torpor were reduced to about 86% of the normothermic value. Minimum body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was 6.8 degrees C at an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 6.3 degrees C. Entry into torpor occurred randomly between 2000 and 0620 hours, whereas arousals from torpor were clustered around 1300 hours within a narrow time window of less than 4 h. Arousal from torpor was a two-step process with a first passive climb of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to a mean of 27 degrees C, carried by the <span class="hlt">daily</span> increase of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when oxygen consumption remained more or less constant, followed by a second active increase of oxygen consumption to further raise the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to normothermic values. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythms in M. myoxinus further reduce the energetic costs of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor seen in other species: they extend to unusually low body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and consequently low metabolic rates in torpor, and they employ passive warming to reduce the energetic costs of arousal. Thus, these energy-conserving adaptations may represent an important energetic aid to the pygmy mouse lemur and help to promote their individual fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6104C"><span>Rapid fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">air</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the city of Bucharest (Romania)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> scale caused by cold or warm <span class="hlt">air</span> advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+flow+AND+measurement&id=ED415666','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+flow+AND+measurement&id=ED415666"><span>Equipment for Measuring <span class="hlt">Air</span> Flow, <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Bruce W.</p> <p></p> <p>Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50g5105C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50g5105C"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effect on titanium nitride nanometer thin film in <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cen, Z. H.; Xu, B. X.; Hu, J. F.; Ji, R.; Toh, Y. T.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, Y. F.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Titanium nitride (TiN) is a promising alternative plasmonic material to conventional novel metals. For practical plasmonic applications under the influence of <span class="hlt">air</span>, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent optical properties of TiN thin films in <span class="hlt">air</span> and its volume variation are essential. Ellipsometric characterizations on a TiN thin film at different increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> were conducted, and optical constants along with film thickness were retrieved. Below 200 °C, the optical properties varied linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in good agreement with other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent studies of TiN films in vacuum. The thermal expansion coefficient of the TiN thin film was determined to be 10.27  ×  10‑6 °C‑1. At higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the TiN thin film gradually loses its metallic characteristics and has weaker optical absorption, impairing its plasmonic performance. In addition, a sharp increase in film thickness was observed at the same time. Changes in the optical properties and film thickness with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 200 °C were revealed to result from TiN oxidation in <span class="hlt">air</span>. For the stability of TiN-based plasmonic devices, operation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of lower than 200 °C, or measures to prevent oxidation, are required. The present study is important to fundamental physics and technological applications of TiN thin films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590741','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590741"><span>Using Satellite-Based Spatiotemporal Resolved <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Exposure to Study the Association between Ambient <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Birth Outcomes in Massachusetts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Melly, Steven J.; Coull, Brent A.; Nordio, Francesco; Schwartz, Joel D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Studies looking at <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) and birth outcomes are rare. Objectives We investigated the association between birth outcomes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta during various prenatal exposure periods in Massachusetts (USA) using both traditional Ta stations and modeled addresses. Methods We evaluated birth outcomes and average <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta during various prenatal exposure periods in Massachusetts (USA) using both traditional Ta stations and modeled address Ta. We used linear and logistic mixed models and accelerated failure time models to estimate associations between Ta and the following outcomes among live births > 22 weeks: term birth weight (≥ 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW; < 2,500 g at term), gestational age, and preterm delivery (PT; < 37 weeks). Models were adjusted for individual-level socioeconomic status, traffic density, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), random intercept for census tract, and mother’s health. Results Predicted Ta during multiple time windows before birth was negatively associated with birth weight: Average birth weight was 16.7 g lower (95% CI: –29.7, –3.7) in association with an interquartile range increase (8.4°C) in Ta during the last trimester. Ta over the entire pregnancy was positively associated with PT [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05] and LBW (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.13). Conclusions Ta during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestational age in our study population. Citation Kloog I, Melly SJ, Coull BA, Nordio F, Schwartz JD. 2015. Using satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure to study the association between ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and birth outcomes in Massachusetts. Environ Health Perspect 123:1053–1058; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308075 PMID:25850104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859"><span>High-frequency <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in China and its relationship to large-scale circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Ting; Fu, Congbin; Qian, Yun; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shu-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Two measures of intra-seasonal variability, indicated respectively by standard deviations (SD) and day-to-day (DTD) fluctuations denoted by absolute differences between adjacent 2-day periods, as well as their relationships with large-scale circulation patterns were investigated in China during 1962–2008 on the basis of homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 549 local stations and reanalysis data. Our results show that both the SD and DTD of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin) in summer as well as the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter have been decreasing, while the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) variability in summer is fluctuating more, especially over southern China. In summer, an attribution analysis indicates that the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and high-level East Asian Subtropical Jet stream (EASJ) are positively correlated with both SD and DTD, but the correlation coefficients are generally greater with the SD than with the DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax. In contrast, the location of the EASJ shows the opposite correlation pattern, with intensity regarding the correlation with both SD and DTD. In winter, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negatively correlated with both the SD and DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but its intra-seasonal variability exhibits good agreement with the SD of the Tmin. The Siberian High acts differently with respect to the SD and DTD of the Tmin, demonstrating a regionally consistent positive correlation with the SD. Overall, the large-scale circulation can well explain the intra-seasonal SD, but DTD fluctuations may be more local and impacted by local conditions, such as changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> itself, the land surface, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188371&keyword=Frequency+AND+grid&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88108218&CFTOKEN=62892538','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188371&keyword=Frequency+AND+grid&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=88108218&CFTOKEN=62892538"><span>A Procedure for Inter-Comparing the Skill of Regional-Scale <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality Model Simulations of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum 8-Hour Ozone Concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An operational model evaluation procedure is described to quantitatively assess the relative skill among several regionalscale <span class="hlt">air</span> quality models simulating various percentiles of the cumulative frequency distribution of observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum 8-h ozone concentrations. Bootstrap ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81952&keyword=Myocardial+AND+infarction&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78763651&CFTOKEN=62038564','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81952&keyword=Myocardial+AND+infarction&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78763651&CFTOKEN=62038564"><span><span class="hlt">DAILY</span> VARIATION OF PARTICULATE <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION AND POOR CARDIAC AUTONOMIC CONTROL IN THE ELDERLY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Particulate matter <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution (PM) has been related to cardiovascular disease mortality in a number of recent studies. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for this association are under study. Low heart rate variability, a marker of poor cardiac autonomic control, is associated wi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R"><span>Use of Sharpened Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration Estimation over Irrigated Crops in Arid Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosas Aguilar, J.; McCabe, M. F.; Houborg, R.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U"><span>Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina</p> <p></p> <p>Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 45 (°) СC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1280C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1280C"><span><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pacific Decadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H21A1001Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H21A1001Y"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Difference on the Snow Melting Simulation of SWAT Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>YAN, Y.; Onishi, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-index models are commonly used to simulate the snowmelt process in mountain areas because of its good performance, low data requirements, and computational simplicity. Widely used distributed hydrological model: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is also using a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-index module. However, the lack of monitoring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data still involves uncertainties and errors in its simulation performance especially in data sparse area. Thus, to evaluate the different <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data influence on the snow melt of the SWAT model, five different <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are applied in two different Russia basins (Birobidjan basin and Malinovka basin). The data include the monitoring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (TM), NCEP reanalysis data (TNCEP), the dataset created by inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW) method (TIDW), the dataset created by improved IDW method considering the elevation influence (TIDWEle), and the dataset created by using linear regression and MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LST) data (TLST). Among these data, the TLST , the TIDW and TIDWEle data have the higher spatial density, while the TNCEP and TM DATA have the most valid monitoring value for <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> simulation results during the snow melting seasons (March, April and May) showed reasonable results in both test basins for all <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. While R2 and NSE in Birobidjan basin are around 0.6, these values in Malinovka basin are over 0.75. Two methods: Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) and Sequential Uncertainty Fitting, version. 2 (SUFI-2) were used for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The evolution index is p-factor which means the percentage of measured data bracketed by the 95% Prediction Uncertainty (95PPU). The TLST dataset always obtained the best results in both basins compared with other datasets. On the other hand, the two IDW based method get the worst results among all the scenarios. Totally, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031039"><span>[Hazard assessment of the impact of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution on public health in Moscow].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Revich, B A; Shaposhnikov, D A; Avaliani, S L; Rubinshtein, K G; Emelina, S V; Shiriaev, M V; Semutnikova, E G; Zakharova, P V; Kislova, O Iu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the article there are considered the main problems of assessing public health risks of the combined effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution with the account taken of the consequences of abnormally hot weather observed in summer 2010 in Moscow and without equals in the history of meteorological measurements in the city. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> average concentrations of fine suspended particles matter (PM10) in the city during peatland fires from 4 to 9 August are emphasized to be within the range of 431-906 μ/m3, being 7.2-15.1 times the Russian maximum permissible concentration (MPCs) (60 μ/m3). The anomalous heat and high levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in this period were shown to cause a significant increase in excess mortality among the population of Moscow. There was established the relative gain in mortality from all natural causes per 10 μg/m3 increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> average concentrations of PM10 and ozone, which was respectively: 0.47% (95%; CI: 0.31-0.63) and 0.41% (95%; CI: 0.31-1.13). On the base of the statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality rates, meteorological indices, the concentrations of PM10 and ozone there was developed marking scale for the risk assessment of these indices accordingly to 4 gradings--low (permissible), warning, alert, and a hazard level. There has been substantiated the importance of the introduction of the system for the early alert for hazard weather events and the unified rating scale for the hazard of high <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and high levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution with PM10 and ozone, which allows to take timely measures for the protection of the public health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501"><span>Passive radiative cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. <span class="hlt">Air</span> conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below that of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span>. At night, passive cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011"><span>Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average <span class="hlt">daily</span> gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gain (ADG) and Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120013409&hterms=2011-11-01&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D2011-11-01','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120013409&hterms=2011-11-01&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D2011-11-01"><span>Estimation of Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8452141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8452141"><span>Outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality in The Netherlands: a time-series analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kunst, A E; Looman, C W; Mackenbach, J P</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>Death rates become progressively higher when outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rises above or falls below 20-25 degrees C. This study addresses the question of whether this relation is largely attributable to the direct effects of exposure to heat and cold on the human body in general, and on the circulatory system in particular. The association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Netherlands in the period 1979-1987 was examined by controlling for influenza incidence, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, and "season"; distinguishing lag periods; examining effect modification by wind speed and relative humidity; and distinguishing causes of death. Important direct effects of exposure to cold and heat on mortality were suggested by the following findings: 1) control for influenza incidence reduced cold-related mortality by only 34% and reduced heat-related mortality by 23% (the role of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and "season" was negligible); 2) 62% of the "unexplained" cold-related mortality, and all heat-related mortality, occurred within 1 week; and 3) effect modification by wind speed was in the expected direction. The finding that 57% of "unexplained" cold-related mortality and 26% of the "unexplained" heat-related mortality was attributable to cardiovascular diseases suggests that direct effects are only in part the result of increased stress on the circulatory system. For heat-related mortality, direct effects on the respiratory system are probably more important. For cold-related mortality, the analysis yielded evidence of an important indirect effect involving increased incidence of influenza and other respiratory infections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.1411M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.1411M"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese <span class="hlt">air</span> quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; de la Rosa, J.; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Chiari, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hourly Streaker with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) samples collected continuously for six weeks reveal the chemistry of successive waves of natural mineral desert dust ("Kosa") and metalliferous sulphatic pollutants arriving in western Japan during spring 2011. The main aerosol sources recognised by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of Streaker data are mineral dust and fresh sea salt (both mostly in the coarser fraction PM2.5-10), As-bearing sulphatic aerosol (PM0.1-2.5), metalliferous sodic particulate matter (PM) interpreted as aged, industrially contaminated marine aerosol, and ZnCu-bearing aerosols. Whereas mineral dust arrivals are typically highly transient, peaking over a few hours, sulphatic intrusions build up and decline more slowly, and are accompanied by notable rises in ambient concentrations of metallic trace elements such as Pb, As, Zn, Sn and Cd. The magnitude of the loss in regional <span class="hlt">air</span> quality due to the spread and persistence of pollution from mainland Asia is especially clear when cleansing oceanic <span class="hlt">air</span> advects westward across Japan, removing the continental influence and reducing concentrations of the undesirable metalliferous pollutants by over 90%. Our new chemical database, especially the Streaker data, demonstrates the rapidly changing complexity of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> inhaled during these transboundary events, and implicates Chinese coal combustion as the main source of the anthropogenic aerosol component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C"><span>The creation of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded datasets of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a spatial weather generator, Cyprus 2020-2050</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Pashiardis, Stelios; Lange, Manfred</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are essential for natural resource management and the analysis of climate changes and their effects. This study aimed to create gridded datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the future (2020-2050). The horizontal resolution of the developed datasets is 1 x 1 km2, covering the area under control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study is divided into two parts. The first consists of the evaluation of the performance of different interpolation techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1980-2010) for the creation of the gridded datasets. Rainfall data recorded at 145 stations and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 34 stations were used. For precipitation, inverse distance weighting (IDW) performs best for local events, while a combination of step-wise geographically weighted regression and IDW proves to be the best method for large scale events. For minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a combination of step-wise linear multiple regression and thin plate splines is recognized as the best method. Six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the A1B SRES emission scenario from the EU ENSEMBLE project database were selected as sources for future climate projections. The RCMs were evaluated for their capacity to simulate Cyprus climatology for the period 1980-2010. Data for the period 2020-2050 from the three best performing RCMs were downscaled, using the change factors approach, at the location of observational stations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> time series were created with a stochastic rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator. The RainSim V3 software (Burton et al., 2008) was used to generate spatial-temporal coherent rainfall fields. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator was developed in R and modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a weakly stationary process with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and standard deviation conditioned on the wet and dry state of the day (Richardson, 1981). Finally gridded datasets depicting projected future climate conditions were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020060765','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020060765"><span>Variability of Winter <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Mid-Latitude Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-<span class="hlt">air</span> advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cloud</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA173765','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA173765"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Magnetograms for 1983 from the AFGL (<span class="hlt">Air</span> Force Geophysics Laboratory) Network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-03-21</p> <p>1 11 N AL L~k " ) O f M A N D R D S 9 6 1 I / p Z AFGL-TR-85-0032 ’ .’ SPECIAL REPORTS. NO. 248 In I~i--- (a ’.- <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Magnetograms for 1983 0 ..4...PIIG 6, ADDRESS ICII, SlOIP -1d /ll’ I.d1I 7b ADDRESS IC~ty. . 0 -pad IP Cod-, Mlassachusetts 0173 1 Is NAME OF FUNOING/SPONSORING 18b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9...ii r, i -17 6 t h rouh 10143, the)( A ItI \\1SL’re Iomnite r \\rtaotk made on -% r .ritr 11-nt7 0 the -,r’e niaiznvi itie) I at seven sitations spannrinj</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4007O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4007O"><span>Pulsed positive streamer discharges in <span class="hlt">air</span> at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">air</span> pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the streamer discharges is studied. When the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased, the product of applied voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809040','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809040"><span>The spatial and temporal behavior of brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Tel-Aviv and its application to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pelta, Ran; Chudnovsky, A. Alexandra; Schwarts, Joel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study applies remote sensing technology to assess and examine the spatial and temporal Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (BT) profile in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel over the last 30 years using Landsat imagery. The location of warmest and coldest zones are constant over the studied period. Distinct diurnal and temporal BT behavior divide the city into four different segments. As an example of future application, we applied mixed regression models with <span class="hlt">daily</span> random slopes to correlate Landsat BT data with monitored <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tair) measurements using 14 images for 1989–2014. Our preliminary results show a good model performance with R2 = 0.81. Furthermore, based on the model’s results, we analyzed the spatial profile of Tair within the study domain for representative days. PMID:26499933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions on composting process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate <span class="hlt">air</span> flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..17...67K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..17...67K"><span>An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Planning an <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi</p> <p></p> <p>In planning an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system, supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution system, and that the influence of supply <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is larger than that of supply water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the long-term economics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span>Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, <span class="hlt">air</span> and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.360B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.360B"><span>Arctic <span class="hlt">air</span> may become cleaner as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">air</span> in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the <span class="hlt">air</span> during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the <span class="hlt">air</span> most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the <span class="hlt">air</span> and snow might also become cleaner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455"><span>Flame Speeds of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures at Low Initial <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds were determined for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, propane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -73 C and for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> previously established for the range from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B"><span>Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fast-response accurate <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=meteor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmeteor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=meteor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmeteor"><span>The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpESc.......30.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpESc.......30."><span>Discovery about <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in turbulent <span class="hlt">air</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The law of spatial fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a turbulent flow in the atmosphere was studied. The turbulent movement of <span class="hlt">air</span> in the atmosphere manifests itself in random changes in wind velocity and in the dispersal of smoke. If a miniature thermometer with sufficient sensitivity and speed of response were placed in a <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, its readings would fluctuate chaotically against the background of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This is Characteristic of practically every point of the flow. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field forms as a result of the mixing of the <span class="hlt">air</span>. A method using the relation of the mean square of the difference in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of two points to the distance between these points as the structural characteristic of this field was proposed. It was found that the dissipation of energy in a flow and the equalization of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are connected with the breaking up of eddies in a turbulent flow into smaller ones. Their energy in turn is converted into heat due to the viscosity of the medium. The law that has been discovered makes for a much broader field of application of physical methods of analyzing atmospheric phenomena.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057559&hterms=kinetics+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkinetics%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057559&hterms=kinetics+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkinetics%2Bmodel"><span>Assessment of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> kinetic model for ionizing <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Chul</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> chemical-kinetic model for <span class="hlt">air</span> is assessed by comparing theoretical results with existing experimental data obtained in shock-tubes, ballistic ranges, and flight experiments. In the model, named the TTv model, one <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) is assumed to characterize the heavy-particle translational and molecular rotational energies, and another <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tv) to characterize the molecular vibrational, electron translational, and electronic excitation energies. The theoretical results for nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> flow in shock tubes are obtained using the computer code STRAP (Shock-Tube Radiation Program), and for flow along the stagnation streamline in the shock layer over spherical bodies using the newly developed code STRAP (Stagnation-Point Radiation Program). Substantial agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental results for relaxation times and radiative heat fluxes. At very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the spectral calculations need further improvement. The present agreement provides strong evidence that the two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> model characterizes principal features of nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> flow. New theoretical results using the model are presented for the radiative heat fluxes at the stagnation point of a 6-m-radius sphere, representing an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle, over a range of free-stream conditions. Assumptions, approximations, and limitations of the model are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15104905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15104905"><span>The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722"><span>Can <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> be used to project influences of climate change on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide, lack of data on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on more widely available data on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, based on <span class="hlt">air</span> temperature–stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of <span class="hlt">air</span> and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiler for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> prediction using measured potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and determining the vertical gradient of potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092"><span>CARS <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Species Measurements For <span class="hlt">Air</span> Vehicle Propulsion Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for <span class="hlt">air</span> vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson <span class="hlt">Air</span> Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28076196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28076196"><span>Impacts of Lowered Urban <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Precursor Emission and Ozone <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts of decreased <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast <span class="hlt">Air</span> Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone <span class="hlt">air</span> quality can be substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878829"><span>The Effects of <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on COPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oscillation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oscillating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tanks, respectively. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> fluctuation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averaged 7.5????C in the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups and less than 1????C for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > <span class="hlt">temperature</span> = sediment > (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051327"><span>Effect of atmospheric mixing layer depth variations on urban <span class="hlt">air</span> quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pandolfi, M; Tobias, A; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Lorente, J; Pey, J; Querol, X</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Several epidemiological studies have shown that the outbreaks of Saharan dust over southern European countries can cause negative health effects. The reasons for the increased toxicity of airborne particles during dust storms remain to be understood although the presence of biogenic factors carried by dust particles and the interaction between dust and man-made <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution have been hypothesized as possible causes. Intriguingly, recent findings have also demonstrated that during Saharan dust outbreaks the local man-made particulates can have stronger effects on health than during days without outbreaks. We show that the thinning of the mixing layer (ML) during Saharan dust outbreaks, systematically described here for the first time, can trigger the observed higher toxicity of ambient local <span class="hlt">air</span>. The mixing layer height (MLH) progressively reduced with increasing intensity of dust outbreaks thus causing a progressive accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants and favouring the formation of new fine particles or specific relevant species likely from condensation of accumulated gaseous precursors on dust particles surface. Overall, statistically significant associations of MLH with all-cause <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality were observed. Moreover, as the MLH reduced, the risk of mortality associated with the same concentration of particulate matter increased due to the observed pollutant accumulation. The association of MLH with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and the effect of ML thinning on particle toxicity exacerbated when Saharan dust outbreaks occurred suggesting a synergic effect of atmospheric pollutants on health which was amplified during dust outbreaks. Moreover, the results may reflect higher toxicity of primary particles which predominate on low MLH days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..467..453S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..467..453S"><span>A comparison of principal components using TPCA and nonstationary principal component analysis on <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-pollutant concentration series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Chenhua</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We applied traditional principal component analysis (TPCA) and nonstationary principal component analysis (NSPCA) to determine principal components in the six <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-pollutant concentration series (SO2, NO2, CO, O3, PM2.5 and PM10) in Nanjing from January 2013 to March 2016. The results show that using TPCA, two principal components can reflect the variance of these series: primary pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, PM2.5 and PM10) and secondary pollutants (e.g., O3). However, using NSPCA, three principal components can be determined to reflect the detrended variance of these series: 1) a mixture of primary and secondary pollutants, 2) primary pollutants and 3) secondary pollutants. Various approaches can obtain different principal components. This phenomenon is closely related to methods for calculating the cross-correlation between each of the <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants. NSPCA is a more applicable, reliable method for analyzing the principal components of a series in the presence of nonstationarity and for a long-range correlation than can TPCA. Moreover, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), the cross-correlation between O3 and NO2 is negative at a short timescale and positive at a long timescale. In hourly timescales, O3 is negatively correlated with NO2 due to a photochemical interaction, and in <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescales, O3 is positively correlated with NO2 because of the decomposition of O3. In monthly timescales, the cross-correlation between O3 with NO2 has similar performance to those of O3 with meteorological elements. DCCA is again shown to be more appropriate for disclosing the cross-correlation between series in the presence of nonstationarity than is Pearson's method. DCCA can improve our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794744"><span>Effect of atmospheric mixing layer depth variations on urban <span class="hlt">air</span> quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality during Saharan dust outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pandolfi, M.; Tobias, A.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Schwartz, J.; Lorente, J.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Several epidemiological studies have shown that the outbreaks of Saharan dust over southern European countries can cause negative health effects. The reasons for the increased toxicity of airborne particles during dust storms remain to be understood although the presence of biogenic factors carried by dust particles or the interaction between dust and man-made <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution have been hypothesized as possible causes. Intriguingly, recent findings have also demonstrated that during Saharan dust outbreaks the local man-made particulates can have stronger effects on health than during days without outbreaks. We show that the thinning of the mixing layer (ML) during Saharan dust outbreaks, systematically described here for the first time, can trigger the observed higher toxicity of ambient local <span class="hlt">air</span>. The mixing layer height (MLH) progressively reduced with increasing intensity of dust outbreaks thus causing a progressive accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants and favouring the formation of new fine particles or specific relevant species likely from condensation of accumulated gaseous precursors on dust particles surface. Overall, statistically significant associations of MLH with all-cause <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality were observed. Moreover, as the MLH reduced, the risk of mortality associated with the same concentration of particulate matter increased due to the observed pollutants accumulation. The association of MLH with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and the effect of ML thinning on particle toxicity exacerbated when Saharan dust outbreaks occurred suggesting a synergic effect of atmospheric pollutants on health which was amplified during dust outbreaks. Moreover, the results may reflect higher toxicity of primary particles which predominate on low MLH days. PMID:25051327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920070"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> modifies the association between particulate <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modification effect on acute mortality due to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) on mortality were modified by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The effect of PM10 on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality was first quantified within different ranges of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on extremely hot days (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: >99th percentile) in individuals aged <65 years. In those aged ≥65 years, the highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on very hot days and not on extremely hot days (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: 95-99th percentile). There were strong harmful effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8430534W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8430534W"><span>Requirements for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled central receivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, J. D.; Copeland, R. J.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 540 to 1000(0)C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on <span class="hlt">air</span> cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost effective thermal transport and thermal storage for <span class="hlt">air</span> cooled receivers is a critical problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1162Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1162Y"><span>Trends in extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and humidex index in the United Arab Emirates over 1948-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, H. W.; Ouarda, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in the Middle East, using NCEP reanalysis gridded data, for the summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) seasons. Trends in the occurrences of three types of heat spells during 1948-2014 are studied by both Linear Regression (LR) and Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Changes in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) are also investigated. To better understand the effects of heat spells on public health, the Humidex, a combination index of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity, is also used. Using percentile threshold, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex) Type-A and Type-B heat spells are defined respectively by <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex). Type-C heat spells are defined as the joint occurrence of Type-A and Type-B heat spells at the same time. In the Middle East, it is found that no coherent trend in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Type-A heat spells is observed. However, the occurrences of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Type-B and C heat spells have consistently increased since 1948. For Humidex heat spells, coherently increased activities of all three types of heat spells are observed in the area. During the summer, the magnitude of the positive trends in Humidex heat spells are generally stronger than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat spells. More than half of the locations in the area show significantly negative DTR trends in the summer, but the trends vary according to the region in the winter. Annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has increased an average by 0.5°C, but it is mainly associated with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which has warmed up by 0.84°C.<span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed no significant trends. The warming is hence stronger in minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than in maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> resulting in a decrease in DTR by 0.16 °C per decade. This study indicates hence that the UAE has not become hotter, but it has become less cold during 1948 to 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..114T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..114T"><span>Evaluating CMIP5 models using <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian H.; Teixeira, Joao; Manning, Evan; Hearty, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper documents the climatological mean features of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) monthly mean tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPs project and compares them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for validation and 16 models from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for CMIP5 model evaluation. MERRA is warmer than <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the free troposphere but colder in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. MERRA is also drier (~10%) than <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the tropical boundary layer but wetter (~30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large MERRA-<span class="hlt">AIRS</span> specific humidity differences are mainly located in the deep convective cloudy regions indicating that the low sampling of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the cloudy regions may be the main reason for these differences. In comparison to <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and MERRA, the sixteen CMIP5 models can generally reproduce the climatological features of tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity well, but several noticeable biases exist. The models have a tropospheric cold bias (around 2 K), especially in the extratropical upper troposphere, and a double-ITCZ problem in the troposphere from 1000 hPa to 300 hPa, especially in the tropical Pacific. The upper-tropospheric cold bias exists in the most (13 of 16) models, and the double-ITCZ bias is found in all 16 CMIP5 models. Both biases are independent of the reference dataset used (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span> or MERRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..327R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..327R"><span>Variations of karst underground <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induced by various factors (Cave of Županova jama, Central Slovenia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravbar, Natasa; Kosutnik, Jure</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>On the basis of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ( T) monitoring, basic statistical and time series analysis was employed to evaluate thermal states of cave atmosphere variations. Long-term, seasonal and event comparative analysis as well as spectral and cross-correlation analysis was conducted. The results show the relative stability of <span class="hlt">air</span> T in the isolated part of the cave, whereas variable <span class="hlt">air</span> T was observed in the parts close to entrances and the surface. The distinctive seasonality in this part of the cave demonstrates that <span class="hlt">air</span> convection is a driving force for the heat exchange between the cave and the surrounding environment. External <span class="hlt">air</span> T and heat conducted through the rock walls are also an important factor influencing the cave climate, while heat released by the ice deposit and by water infiltrating through the cave ceiling has a negligible effect. Occasional irregular variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns are caused by human impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K"><span>Evaluation of Downscaled CMIP5 Model Skill in Simulating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over the Southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keellings, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Downscaled CMIP5 climate projections of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections archive are examined regionally over the southeastern U.S. Three measures of model skill (means-based, distribution-based, extreme-based) are utilized to assess the ability of 15 downscaled models to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. A new test is proposed to determine statistical significance of the probability density function based skill measures. Skill scores are found to be generally high for all three measures throughout the study region, but lower scores are present in coastal and mountainous areas. Application of the significance test shows that while the skill scores may be high they are not significantly higher than could be expected at random in some areas. The distribution-based skill scores are not significant in much of Florida and the Appalachians. The extreme-based skill scores are not significant in more than 90% of the region for all models investigated. The findings suggest that although the downscaled models have simulated observed means well and are a good match to the entire distribution of observations, they are not simulating the occurrence of extreme (above 90th percentile) maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523651"><span>Clarifying the role of fire heat and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations as germination cues for Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Blanes, M. Carmen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims This study aims to determine the role that both direct effects of fire and subsequent <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations play in the seed bank dynamics of obligate seeders from the Mediterranean Basin. The short yet high soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced due to passage of fire are conflated with the lower, but longer, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced by <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations which occur after removing vegetation. These germination cues are able to break seed dormancy, but it is difficult to assess their specific level of influence because they occur consecutively after summer fires, just before the flush of germination in the wet season (autumn). Methods By applying experimental fires, seed treatments were imposed that combined fire exposure/non-fire exposure with exposure to microhabitats under a gradient of disturbance (i.e. gaps opened by fire, mechanical brushing and intact vegetation). The seeds used were representative of the main families of obligate seeders (Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus and Rosmarinus officinalis). Specifically, an assessment was made of (1) the proportion of seeds killed by fire, (2) seedling emergence under field conditions and (3) seeds which remained ungerminated in soil. Key Results For the three species studied, the factors that most influenced seedling emergence and seeds remaining ungerminated were microhabitats with higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations after fire (gaps opened by fire and brushing treatments). The direct effect of fire decreased the seedling emergence of U. parviflorus and reduced the proportion of seeds of R. officinalis remaining ungerminated. Conclusions The relevance of depleting vegetation (and subsequent <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation in summer) suggests that studies focusing on lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds for breaking seed dormancy are required. This fact also supports the hypothesis that the seeding capacity in Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders may have evolved as a response to a wide range of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396587"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Transpiration Resistances of Xanthium Leaves as Affected by <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Humidity, and Wind Speed 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drake, B. G.; Raschke, K.; Salisbury, F. B.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Transpiration and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of single, attached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were measured in high intensity white light (1.2 calories per square centimeter per minute on a surface normal to the radiation), with abundant water supply, at wind speeds of 90, 225, and 450 centimeters per second, and during exposure to moist and dry <span class="hlt">air</span>. Partitioning of absorbed radiation between transpiration and convection was determined, and transpiration resistances were computed. Leaf resistances decreased with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (down to a minimum of 0.36 seconds per centimeter). Silicone rubber replicas of leaf surfaces proved that the decrease was due to increased stomatal apertures. At constant <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, leaf resistances were higher in dry than in moist <span class="hlt">air</span> with the result that transpiration varied less than would have been predicted on the basis of the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and <span class="hlt">air</span>. The dependence of stomatal conductance on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture content of the <span class="hlt">air</span> caused the following effects. At <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 35 C, average leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were above <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by an amount dependent on wind velocity; increasing wind diminished transpiration. At <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 35 C, leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were below <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and increasing wind markedly increased transpiration. Leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> equaled <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near 35 C at all wind speeds and in moist as well as in dry <span class="hlt">air</span>. PMID:16657458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> Cooling for High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Power Electronics (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Current emphasis on developing high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-<span class="hlt">air</span> heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and <span class="hlt">air</span> supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652616','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652616"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Variations Recorded During Interinstitutional <span class="hlt">Air</span> Shipments of Laboratory Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during <span class="hlt">air</span> shipments, we recorded <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (greater than 29.4 °C), 14.6% to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (less than 7.2 °C), and 61% to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations of 11 °C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and large variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes or variations. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that are suitable for rodents, could reduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during airport stopovers. PMID:18210996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034"><span>Global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: 1851-1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Many attempts have been made to combine station surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470"><span>Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurs near full moon and lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087"><span>Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with ice leading the winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The implication is that summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059739','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059739"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> pollution, lagged effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and mortality: The Netherlands 1979-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mackenbach, J P; Looman, C W; Kunst, A E</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE--To explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution could be the result of confounding. DESIGN--The associations between mortality and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were analysed taking into account potential confounding factors. SETTING--The Netherlands, 1979-87. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The number of deaths listed by the day on which the death occurred and by the cause of death were obtained from the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. Mortality from all causes and mortality from four large groups of causes (neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and external causes) were related to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> levels of SO2 <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and potential confounders (available from various sources) using log-linear regression analysis. Variables considered as potential confounders were: average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; difference between maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; amount of precipitation; <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity; wind speed; influenza incidence; and calendar year, month, and weekday. Both lagged and unlagged effects of the meteorological and influenza variables were considered. Average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was represented by two variables--'cold', <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 16.5 degrees C, and 'warm', those above 16.5 degrees C--to allow for the V shaped relation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality. The positive regression coefficient for the univariate effect of SO2 density on mortality from all causes dwindles to close to zero when all potential confounding variables are taken into account. The most important of these represents the lagged (one to five days) effect of low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have strong lagged effects on mortality, and often precede relatively high SO2 densities in the Netherlands. Results were similar for separate causes of death. While univariate associations suggest an effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution on mortality in all four cause of death groups, multivariate analyses show these effects, including that on mortality from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074145"><span>Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A long-term local cooling trend in surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N"><span>Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira</p> <p></p> <p>This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL). Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) of 0.25 (SD 0.61) °C in the morning and 0.24 (SD 0.50) °C in the afternoon. Differences between oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer and winter tended to be greater in subjects with low ADL scores, even when their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was well-controlled. In conclusion, the oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950032432&hterms=regional+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dregional%2Bclimate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950032432&hterms=regional+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dregional%2Bclimate"><span>Regional climates in the GISS general circulation model: Surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hewitson, Bruce</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>One of the more viable research techniques into global climate change for the purpose of understanding the consequent environmental impacts is based on the use of general circulation models (GCMs). However, GCMs are currently unable to reliably predict the regional climate change resulting from global warming, and it is at the regional scale that predictions are required for understanding human and environmental responses. Regional climates in the extratropics are in large part governed by the synoptic-scale circulation and the feasibility of using this interscale relationship is explored to provide a way of moving to grid cell and sub-grid cell scales in the model. The relationships between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> circulation systems and surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for points across the continental United States are first developed in a quantitative form using a multivariate index based on principal components analysis (PCA) of the surface circulation. These relationships are then validated by predicting <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using observed circulation and comparing the predicted values with the observed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The relationships predict surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accurately over the major portion of the country in winter, and for half the country in summer. These relationships are then applied to the surface synoptic circulation of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM control run, and a set of surface grid cell <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are generated. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, based on the larger-scale validated circulation, may now be used with greater confidence at the regional scale. The generated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are compared to those of the model and show that the model has regional errors of up to 10 C in individual grid cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23532094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23532094"><span>Development of temporally refined land-use regression models predicting <span class="hlt">daily</span> household-level <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in a panel study of lung function among asthmatic children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Markey; Macneill, Morgan; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Nethery, Elizabeth; Xu, Xiaohong; Dales, Robert; Rasmussen, Pat; Wheeler, Amanda</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Regulatory monitoring data and land-use regression (LUR) models have been widely used for estimating individual exposure to ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in epidemiologic studies. However, LUR models lack fine-scale temporal resolution for predicting acute exposure and regulatory monitoring provides <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations, but fails to capture spatial variability within urban areas. This study coupled LUR models with continuous regulatory monitoring to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at 50 homes in Windsor, Ontario. We compared predicted versus measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> outdoor concentrations for 5 days in winter and 5 days in summer at each home. We also examined the implications of using modeled versus measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> pollutant concentrations to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> lung function among asthmatic children living in those homes. Mixed effect analysis suggested that temporally refined LUR models explained a greater proportion of the spatial and temporal variance in <span class="hlt">daily</span> household-level outdoor NO(2) measurements compared with <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentrations based on regulatory monitoring. Temporally refined LUR models captured 40% (summer) and 10% (winter) more of the spatial variance compared with regulatory monitoring data. Ambient PM(2.5) showed little spatial variation; therefore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM(2.5) models were similar to regulatory monitoring data in the proportion of variance explained. Furthermore, effect estimates for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) based on modeled pollutant concentrations were consistent with effects based on household-level measurements for NO(2) and PM(2.5). These results suggest that LUR modeling can be combined with continuous regulatory monitoring data to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> household-level exposure to ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Temporally refined LUR models provided a modest improvement in estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> household-level NO(2) compared with regulatory monitoring data alone, suggesting that this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858"><span>Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity patterns. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610696C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610696C"><span>Two decades of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-time monitoring experiment: <span class="hlt">air</span> - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Long-term observations (1994-2013) of <span class="hlt">air</span> and shallow ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, <span class="hlt">air</span> & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T W; Bennett, S M; Cao, W</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526"><span>Control of Continuous Irradiation Injury on Potatoes with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Cao, Weixing</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18°C and fluctuating 22°C/14°C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18°C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11537703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050"><span>Water quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A"><span>Multisite multivariate modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics ranging from seasonal means to characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8128M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8128M"><span>On extreme rainfall intensity increases with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The water vapour holding capacity of <span class="hlt">air</span> increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713720P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713720P"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span>-sea interactions in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> frontal region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Representation of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrES...10..644W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrES...10..644W"><span>An assessment of precipitation and surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China by regional climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xueyuan; Tang, Jianping; Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>An analysis of a 20-year summer time simulation of present-day climate (1989-2008) over China using four regional climate models coupled with different land surface models is carried out. The climatic means, interannual variability, linear trends, and extremes are examined, with focus on precipitation and near surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The models are able to reproduce the basic features of the observed summer mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China and the regional detail due to topographic forcing. Overall, the model performance is better for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than that of precipitation. The models reasonably grasp the major anomalies and standard deviations over China and the five subregions studied. The models generally reproduce the spatial pattern of high interannual variability over wet regions, and low variability over the dry regions. The models also capture well the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient increase to the north by latitude. Both the observed and simulated linear trend of precipitation shows a drying tendency over the Yangtze River Basin and wetting over South China. The models capture well the relatively small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in large areas of China. The models reasonably simulate the characteristics of extreme precipitation indices of heavy rain days and heavy precipitation fraction. Most of the models also performed well in capturing both the sign and magnitude of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in <span class="hlt">air</span>) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in <span class="hlt">air</span> better capture indoor exposure than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in <span class="hlt">air</span>) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in <span class="hlt">air</span> better capture indoor conditions than outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N"><span>Bias correction of global and regional simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia using quantile mapping method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A trend preserving quantile mapping (QM) method was applied to adjust the biases of the global and regional climate models (GCM and RCMs) simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia regions based on APHRODITE dataset. Output from four different RCMs as well as their driving GCM in CORDEX-EA archive were corrected to examine the added value of RCMs dynamical downscaling in the context of bias adjustment. The result shows that the RCM biases are comparable to that of the GCM biases. In some instances, RCMs amplified the GCM biases. Generally, QM method substantially improves the biases for both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, the bias adjustment method works better for surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less so for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. The large inter-models variability is reduced remarkably after bias adjustment. Overall, study indicates no strong evident that RCMs downscaling as an immediate step before bias correction provides additional improvement to the sub-regional climate compared to the correction directly carried out on their forcing GCM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996"><span>The effect of physical exercise on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values <0.05. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S"><span>Generation of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma for food processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in <span class="hlt">air</span> and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lubricant&pg=6&id=ED227215','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lubricant&pg=6&id=ED227215"><span>Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Care [and] Servicing <span class="hlt">Air</span> Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.</p> <p></p> <p>Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the <span class="hlt">air</span> cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020106"><span>Pd-modified Reactive <span class="hlt">Air</span> Braze for Increased Melting <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Darsell, Jens T.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Complex high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> devices such as planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks often require a two-step sealing process. For example, in pSOFC stacks the oxide ceramic fuel cell plates might be sealed into metallic support frames in one step. Then the frames with the fuel plates sealed to them would be joined together in a separate sealing step to form the fuel cell stack. In this case, the initial seal should have a sufficiently high solidus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that it will not begin to remelt at the sealing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the material used for the subsequent sealing step. Previous experience has indicated that, when heated at a rate of 10°C/min, Ag-CuO reactive <span class="hlt">air</span> braze (RAB) compositions have solidus and liquidus <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the approximate range of 925 to 955°C. Therefore, compositionally modifying the original Ag-CuO braze with Pd-additions such that the solidus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the new braze is between 1025 and 1050°C would provide two RAB compositions with a difference in melting points large enough to allow reactive <span class="hlt">air</span> brazing of both sets of seals in the fuel cell stack. This study determines the appropriate ratio of Pd to Ag in RAB required to achieve a solidus in the desired range and discusses the wettability of the resulting Pd-Ag-CuO brazes on YSZ substrates. The interfacial microstructures and flexural strengths of Pd-Ag-CuO joints in YSZ will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C"><span>Trends and periodicity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, and the nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases faster than the daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9775B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9775B"><span>Model-based estimation of changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seasonality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the 20th century. The analysed data are global <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmRe..97..303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmRe..97..303S"><span>Impact of aerosol on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Kuwait</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sabbah, I.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>This work uses MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data observed over Kuwait during the 7-year interval 2000-2007. The values of AOT and the Ångström wavelength exponent ( α) show a clear annual cycle. These data are categorized into two catalogues in terms of the values of the AOT of the 870 nm channel ( τ870). One catalogue (71 days) includes days with high values of AOT ( τ870 ≥ 0.75). The most probable "modal" value of α for these days is 0.52. The other catalogue (1162 days) consists of the background days with a modal value ~ 1.1 for the exponent α. This analysis is extended to include water vapor content (WVC), surface wind speed (V), visibility (Vis) and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR). Chree's method of superposed-epoch analysis is applied to these parameters in order to compare the variation in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> averages during days with high AOT values with respect to background days. The high values of AOT during the 71 days are positively correlated with aerosol size, near-surface winds and poor visibility. This concludes that the aerosol particles during these days were mostly dust. The mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> value of the DTR (Δ T) and visibility reduced significantly during these days. This reduction on DTR is a direct result of increasing the atmospheric opacity due to the presence of dust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23D..09P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23D..09P"><span>Long-term dynamics of atmospheric circulation over Siberia and its relationship with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podnebesnykh, N. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is the investigation of cyclone characteristics variability in the region bounded by the coordinates 50°-70° N, 60°-110° W which includes Western Siberia and the part of Eastern Siberia for the time interval 1976-2006, as well as the establishment of statistical relationships between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions and the atmospheric circulation. For the dynamics of the climatic characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones over Siberia surface synoptic maps were used, and to study the trends of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> data from 169 ground-based meteorological stations and posts located in the study area were analyzed. During the period of the modern warming the territory of Siberia was characterized by rapidly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase: average annual value was 0.36°C/10 years, and average monthly value was 0.83°C/10 years. The positive trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing is shown for all months except November. The total number of cyclones over the territory of under study for the period of 1976-2006 has decreased at a rate of 1.4 cyclone/10 years. For further analysis all cyclones were divided into three groups, according to their directions: north, west and south. It was found the number of south and west cyclones decreased, whole the number of cyclone from north directions increased. Such multidirectional dynamics of cyclones from different directions can be associated with the processes of strengthening and weakening of the Polar and Arctic fronts in the Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. Among characteristics of vortex activity the pressure in the centers of cyclones and anticyclones has the greatest influence on the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the total number of cyclones has the smallest. Multiple regression models have shown that in different months of a year the circulation can describe from 54% to 82% of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..891M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..891M"><span>Complexity analysis of the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the precipitation time series in Serbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mimić, G.; Mihailović, D. T.; Kapor, D.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we have analyzed the time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values for three meteorological elements, two continuous and a discontinuous one, i.e., the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the precipitation. The analysis was done based on the observations from seven stations in Serbia from the period 1951-2010. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the complexity of the annual values for the mentioned time series and to calculate the rate of its change. For that purpose, we have used the sample entropy and the Kolmogorov complexity as the measures which can indicate the variability and irregularity of a given time series. Results obtained show that the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has increasing trends in the given period which points out a warming, ranged in the interval 1-2 °C. The increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates the higher internal energy of the atmosphere, changing the weather patterns, manifested in the time series. The Kolmogorov complexity of the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series has statistically significant increasing trends, while the sample entropy has increasing but statistically insignificant trend. The trends of complexity measures for the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depend on the location. Both complexity measures for the precipitation time series have decreasing trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044219"><span>Effect of Ambient Design <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Cooled Binary Plant Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dan Wendt; Greg Mines</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span>-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Nominally this <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the annual mean or average <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has on power generation for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fluctuating ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality among the elderly: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiological evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ye, Xiaofang; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the health of vulnerable groups such as the elderly has been of increasing concern. However, to date there has been no meta-analysis of current literature relating to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations upon mortality amongst the elderly. We synthesised risk estimates of the overall impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on elderly mortality across different continents. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed to identify papers published up to December 2010. Selection criteria including suitable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicators, endpoints, study-designs and identification of threshold were used. A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was performed to summarise the percent increase in mortality with a 1°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase (or decrease) with 95% confidence intervals in hot (or cold) days, with lagged effects also measured. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and almost 13 million elderly deaths were included in this meta-analysis. In total, there was a 2-5% increase for a 1°C increment during hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals, and a 1-2 % increase in all-cause mortality for a 1°C decrease during cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals. Lags of up to 9 days in exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals were substantially associated with all-cause mortality, but no substantial lagged effects were observed for hot intervals. Thus, both hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> substantially increased mortality among the elderly, but the magnitude of heat-related effects seemed to be larger than that of cold effects within a global context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ShWav..14..167C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ShWav..14..167C"><span>DDT in fuel <span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Card, J.; Rival, D.; Ciccarelli, G.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>An experimental study was carried out to investigate flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in fuel <span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 573 K and pressures up to 2 atm. The fuels investigated include hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene and JP-10 aviation fuel. The experiments were performed in a 3.1-m long, 10-cm inner-diameter heated detonation tube equipped with equally spaced orifice plates. Ionization probes were used to measure the flame time-of-arrival from which the average flame velocity versus propagation distance could be obtained. The DDT composition limits and the distance required for the flame to transition to detonation were obtained from this flame velocity data. The correlation developed by Veser et al. (run-up distance to supersonic flames in obstacle-laden tubes. In the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, France (2002)) for the flame choking distance proved to work very well for correlating the detonation run-up distance measured in the present study. The only exception was for the hydrogen <span class="hlt">air</span> data at elevated initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which tended to fall outside the scatter of the hydrocarbon mixture data. The DDT limits obtained at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were found to follow the classical d/λ = 1 correlation, where d is the orifice plate diameter and λ is the detonation cell size. Deviations found for the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data could be attributed to the one-dimensional ZND detonation structure model used to predict the detonation cell size for the DDT limit mixtures. This simple model was used in place of actual experimental data not currently available.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.5103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.5103L"><span>Impact of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the warmest global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Riyu</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The year 1998 is the warmest year in the record of instrumental measurements. In this study, an atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the role of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in this warmth, with a focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean. The model forced with the observed global SSTs captures the main features of land surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in 1998. A sensitivity experiment shows that in comparison with the global SST anomalies, the Atlantic SST anomalies can explain 35% of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GMAT) anomaly, and 57% of the land surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly in 1998. The mechanisms through which the Atlantic Ocean influences the GMAT are likely different from season to season. Possible detailed mechanisms involve the impact of SST anomalies on local convection in the tropical Atlantic region, the consequent excitation of a Rossby wave response that propagates into the North Atlantic and the Eurasian continent in winter and spring, and the consequent changes in tropical Walker circulation in summer and autumn that induce changes in convection over the tropical Pacific. This in turn affects climate in Asia and Australia. The important role of the Atlantic Ocean suggests that attention should be paid not only to the tropical Pacific Ocean, but also to the tropical Atlantic Ocean in understanding the GMAT variability and its predictability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..147a2145S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..147a2145S"><span>Comfort <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence on heating and cooling loads of a residential building</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanciu, C.; Șoriga, I.; Gheorghian, A. T.; Stanciu, D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The paper presents the thermal behavior and energy loads of a two-level residential building designed for a family of four, two adults and two students, for different inside comfort levels reflected by the interior <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results are intended to emphasize the different thermal behavior of building elements and their contribution to the building's external load. The most important contributors to the building thermal loss are determined. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> heating and cooling loads are computed for 12 months simulation in Bucharest (44.25°N latitude) in clear sky conditions. The most important aspects regarding sizing of thermal energy systems are emphasized, such as the reference months for maximum cooling and heating loads and these loads’ values. Annual maximum loads are encountered in February and August, respectively, so these months should be taken as reference for sizing thermal building systems, in Bucharest, under clear sky conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0765T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0765T"><span>Assessing surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability using quantile regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured variables. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example extreme values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values, including evolution of extremes.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3827786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3827786"><span>Effectiveness of an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled vest using selected <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity combinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pimental, N A; Cosimini, H M; Sawka, M N; Wenger, C B</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>We evaluated the effectiveness of an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled vest in reducing thermal strain of subjects exercising in the heat (49 degrees C dry bulb (db), 20 degrees C dew point (dp] in chemical protective clothing. Four male subjects attempted 300-min heat exposures at two metabolic rates (175 and 315 W) with six cooling combinations--control (no vest) and five different db and dp combinations. <span class="hlt">Air</span> supplied to the vest at 15 scfm ranged from 20-27 degrees C db, 7-18 degrees C dp; theoretical cooling capacities were 498-687 W. Without the vest, endurance times were 118 min (175 W) and 73 min (315 W). Endurance times with the vest were 300 min (175 W) and 242-300 min (315 W). The five cooling combinations were similarly effective in reducing thermal strain and extending endurance time, although there was a trend for the vest to be more effective when supplied with <span class="hlt">air</span> at the lower dry bulb <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. At 175 W, subjects maintained a constant body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; at 315 W, the vest's ability to extend endurance is limited to about 5 hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...tmp...12L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...tmp...12L"><span>A note on the correlation between circular and linear variables with an application to wind direction and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in a Mediterranean climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lototzis, M.; Papadopoulos, G. K.; Droulia, F.; Tseliou, A.; Tsiros, I. X.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>There are several cases where a circular variable is associated with a linear one. A typical example is wind direction that is often associated with linear quantities such as <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity. The analysis of a statistical relationship of this kind can be tested by the use of parametric and non-parametric methods, each of which has its own advantages and drawbacks. This work deals with correlation analysis using both the parametric and the non-parametric procedure on a small set of meteorological data of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind direction during a summer period in a Mediterranean climate. Correlations were examined between hourly, <span class="hlt">daily</span> and maximum-prevailing values, under typical and non-typical meteorological conditions. Both tests indicated a strong correlation between mean hourly wind directions and mean hourly <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whereas mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> wind direction and mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> do not seem to be correlated. In some cases, however, the two procedures were found to give quite dissimilar levels of significance on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis of no correlation. The simple statistical analysis presented in this study, appropriately extended in large sets of meteorological data, may be a useful tool for estimating effects of wind on local climate studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174..595S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174..595S"><span>The Role of Auxiliary Variables in Deterministic and Deterministic-Stochastic Spatial Models of <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Poland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szymanowski, Mariusz; Kryza, Maciej</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Our study examines the role of auxiliary variables in the process of spatial modelling and mapping of climatological elements, with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Poland used as an example. The multivariable algorithms are the most frequently applied for spatialization of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and their results in many studies are proved to be better in comparison to those obtained by various one-dimensional techniques. In most of the previous studies, two main strategies were used to perform multidimensional spatial interpolation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. First, it was accepted that all variables significantly correlated with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> should be incorporated into the model. Second, it was assumed that the more spatial variation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was deterministically explained, the better was the quality of spatial interpolation. The main goal of the paper was to examine both above-mentioned assumptions. The analysis was performed using data from 250 meteorological stations and for 69 <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cases aggregated on different levels: from <span class="hlt">daily</span> means to 10-year annual mean. Two cases were considered for detailed analysis. The set of potential auxiliary variables covered 11 environmental predictors of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Another purpose of the study was to compare the results of interpolation given by various multivariable methods using the same set of explanatory variables. Two regression models: multiple linear (MLR) and geographically weighted (GWR) method, as well as their extensions to the regression-kriging form, MLRK and GWRK, respectively, were examined. Stepwise regression was used to select variables for the individual models and the cross-validation method was used to validate the results with a special attention paid to statistically significant improvement of the model using the mean absolute error (MAE) criterion. The main results of this study led to rejection of both assumptions considered. Usually, including more than two or three of the most significantly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1569D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1569D"><span>What matters most: Are summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> more sensitive to changing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We investigated stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to changes in both <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will increase the 7-day Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> relative to current <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, even under future climates when mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased from 2 to 4 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717688"><span>Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over land.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2014-04-10</p> <p>Global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements (Td1). All existing principal global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4637W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4637W"><span>Sampling Biases in Datasets of Historical Mean <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over Land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements (Td1). All existing principal global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean warming rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of warming trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998"><span>Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on grizzly bear habitat selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1993R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1993R"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using <span class="hlt">Airs</span> Data Over Peninsular Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the <span class="hlt">air</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901"><span>Variation in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, a variability in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. We measured body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°C, P = 0.0002) but minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also were lower (36.1 ± 0.3 vs. 36.8 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.04), resulting in a larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.0007), while mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose by only 0.4°C. The maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm reached 7.7°C for two of our oryx during the hot-dry period, the largest amplitude ever recorded for a large mammal. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability was influenced not only by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but also water availability, with oryx displaying larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitudes of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm during warm-dry months compared to warm-wet months (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.005), even though ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were the same. Free-living Arabian oryx therefore employ heterothermy greater than that recorded in any other large mammal, but water limitation, rather than high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, seems to be the primary driver of this heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2067G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2067G"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> profile and producer gas composition of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> gasification of oil palm fronds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> were investigated and compared with unheated <span class="hlt">air</span>. By preheating the gasifying <span class="hlt">air</span> at 500°C the process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186586&hterms=wire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwire','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186586&hterms=wire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwire"><span>Cyclic Oxidation of High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Alloy Wires in <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reigel, Marissa M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> alloy wires are proposed for use in seal applications for future re-useable space vehicles. These alloys offer the potential for improved wear resistance of the seals. The wires must withstand the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments the seals are subjected to as well as maintain their oxidation resistance during the heating and cooling cycles of vehicle re-entry. To model this, the wires were subjected to cyclic oxidation in stagnant <span class="hlt">air</span>. of this layer formation is dependent on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Slow growing oxides such as chromia and alumina are desirable. Once the oxide is formed it can prevent the metal from further reacting with its environment. Cyclic oxidation models the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> these wires will undergo in application. Cycling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> introduces thermal stresses which can cause the oxide layer to break off. Re-growth of the oxide layer consumes more metal and therefore reduces the properties and durability of the material. were used for cyclic oxidation testing. The baseline material, Haynes 188, has a Co base and is a chromia former while the other two alloys, Kanthal A1 and PM2000, both have a Fe base and are alumina formers. Haynes 188 and Kanthal A1 wires are 250 pm in diameter and PM2000 wires are 150 pm in diameter. The coiled wire has a total surface area of 3 to 5 sq cm. The wires were oxidized for 11 cycles at 1204 C, each cycle containing a 1 hour heating time and a minimum 20 minute cooling time. Weights were taken between cycles. After 11 cycles, one wire of each composition was removed for analysis. The other wire continued testing for 70 cycles. Post-test analysis includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for phase identification and morphology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F"><span>North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and <span class="hlt">daily</span> frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation/cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930089403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930089403"><span>Study of Ram-<span class="hlt">air</span> Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-<span class="hlt">air</span> weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram <span class="hlt">air</span> was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-<span class="hlt">air</span> weight flows were considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904"><span>Polar microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Nimbus-7 SMMR: Time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly maps from 1978 to 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gridded maps (October 25, 1978 through August 15, 1987) were generated from all ten channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer orbital data. This unique data set can be utilized in a wide range of applications including heat flux, ocean circulation, ice edge productivity, and climate studies. Two sets of data in polar stereographic format are created for the Arctic region: one with a grid size of about 30 km on a 293 by 293 array similar to that previously utilized for the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer, while the other has a grid size of about 25 km on a 448 by 304 array identical to what is now being used for the DMSP Scanning Multichannel Microwave Imager. Data generated for the Antaractic region are mapped using the 293 by 293 grid only. The general technique for mapping, and a quality assessment of the data set are presented. Monthly and yearly averages are also generated from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and sample geophysical ice images and products derived from the data are given. Contour plots of monthly ice concentrations derived from the data for October 1978 through August 1987 are presented to demonstrate spatial and temporal detail which this data set can offer, and to show potential research applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Indices for the Countries of the Western Indian Ocean, 1975-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Enric; Vincent, Lucie A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In the framework of the project "Renforcement des Capacités des Pays de la COI dans le Domaine de l'Adaptation au Changement Climatique (ACCLIMATE)" (Comission de l'Ocean Indien, COI), a workshop on homogenization of climate data and climate change indices analysis was held in Mauritius in October 2009, using the successful format prepared by the CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Scientists from the five countries in Western Indian Ocean brought <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatological data from their region for a meticulous assessment of the data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices which can be used for analyses of changes in climate extremes. Although the period of analysis is very short, it represents a seminal step for the compilation of longer data set and allows us to examine the evolution of climate extremes in the area during the time period identified as the decades where anthropogenic warming es larger than natural forcings. This study first presents some results of the homogeneity assessment using the software package RHtestV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) which has been developed for the detection of changepoints in climatological datasets. Indices based on homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitations were also prepared for the analysis of trends at more than 50 stations across the region. The results show an increase in the percentage of warm days and warm nights over 1975-2008 while changes in extreme precipitations are not as consistent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800016497','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800016497"><span>Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machablishvili, O. G.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The thermal state of women during the effect of high <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, and <span class="hlt">air</span> movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2964241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2964241"><span>Impacts of wind farms on surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms. PMID:20921371</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921371"><span>Impacts of wind farms on surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J</p> <p>2010-10-19</p> <p>Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100014356','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100014356"><span>Use of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Soundings to Improve Forecast Skill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU-A are twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> global fields of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and cloud related parameters including OLR. Also included are the clear column radiances used to derive these products which are representative of the radiances <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> would have seen if there were no clouds in the field of view. All products also have error estimates. The sounding goals of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with an rms error of 1K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 90 percent effective cloud cover. The products are designed for data assimilation purposes for the improvement of numerical weather prediction, as well as for the study of climate and meteorological processes. With regard to data assimilation, one can use either the products themselves or the clear column radiances from which the products were derived. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 retrieval algorithm is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates for retrieved quantities and clear column radiances, and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile error estimates are used to determine a case-by-case characteristic pressure pbest, down to which the profile is considered acceptable for data assimilation purposes. The characteristic pressure p(sub best) is determined by comparing the case dependent error estimate (delta)T(p) to the threshold values (Delta)T(p). The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 data set provides error estimates of T(p) at all levels, and also profile dependent values of pbest based</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L"><span>Comparison of two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/mean/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Cao, Lijuan; Zhu, Yani; Yan, Zhongwei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tm), and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) series in China have recently been developed. One is CHTM3.0, based on the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method, and includes 753 stations for the period 1960-2013. The other is CHHTD1.0, based on the Relative Homogenization test (RHtest), and includes 2419 stations over the period 1951-2011. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tmax/Tm/Tmin series at 751 stations, which are in both datasets, are chosen and compared against the raw dataset, with regard to the number of breakpoints, long-term climate trends, and their geographical patterns. The results indicate that some robust break points associated with relocations can be detected, the inhomogeneities are removed by both the MASH and RHtest method, and the data quality is improved in both homogenized datasets. However, the differences between CHTM3.0 and CHHTD1.0 are notable. By and large, in CHHTD1.0, the break points detected are fewer, but the adjustments for inhomogeneities and the resultant changes of linear trend estimates are larger. In contrast, CHTM3.0 provides more reasonable geographical patterns of long-term climate trends over the region. The reasons for the differences between the datasets include: (1) different algorithms for creating reference series for adjusting the candidate series—more neighboring stations used in MASH and hence larger-scale regional signals retained; (2) different algorithms for calculating the adjustments—larger adjustments in RHtest in general, partly due to the individual local reference information used; and (3) different rules for judging inhomogeneity—all detected break points are adjusted in CHTM3.0, based on MASH, while a number of break points detected via RHtest but without supporting metadata are overlooked in CHHTD1.0. The present results suggest that CHTM3.0 is more suitable for analyses of large-scale climate change in China, while CHHTD1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013551','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013551"><span>Combustion and gasification characteristics of pulverized coal using high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hanaoka, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kiga, T.; Kosaka, H.; Iwahashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Mochida, S.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>In order to confirm performance of high-<span class="hlt">temperature-air</span> combusting of pulverized coal, laboratory-scale combustion and gasification tests of coal were conducted changing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxygen concentration in the <span class="hlt">air</span>. Theses were conducted in a drop tube furnace of 200mm in inside diameter and 2,000mm in length. The furnace was heated by ceramic heater up to 1,300 C. A high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheater utilizing the HRS (High Cycle Regenerative Combustion System) was used to obtain high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> combustion <span class="hlt">air</span>. As the results, NOx emission was reduced when pulverized coal was fired with high-<span class="hlt">temperature-air</span>. On the other hand, by lower oxygen concentration in combustion <span class="hlt">air</span> diluted by nitrogen, NOx emission slightly decreased while became higher under staging condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AvTek...2...75R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AvTek...2...75R"><span>Experimental study of the decrease in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of an <span class="hlt">air</span>/water-cooled turbine blade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.</p> <p></p> <p>Results of the full-scale testing of an <span class="hlt">air</span>/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the cooling <span class="hlt">air</span> and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of <span class="hlt">air</span>/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the cooling <span class="hlt">air</span> and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280557"><span>How the Plant <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Links to the <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as an index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918585"><span>Increasing minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ziska, Lewis H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (lowest 24 h recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705328"><span>Topographic and spatial impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions on <span class="hlt">air</span> quality using mobile <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution surveys.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wallace, Julie; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>We investigated the spatial and topographic effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions on <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, located at the western tip of Lake Ontario, Canada. The city is divided by a 90-m high topographic scarp, the Niagara Escarpment, and dissected by valleys which open towards Lake Ontario. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> inversions occur frequently in the cooler seasons, exacerbating the impact of emissions from industry and traffic. This study used pollution data gathered from mobile monitoring surveys conducted over a 3-year period, to investigate whether the effects of the inversions varied across the city. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> inversions were identified with vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from a meteorological tower located within the study area. We divided the study area into an upper and lower zone separated by the Escarpment and further into six zones, based on location with respect to the Escarpment and industrial and residential areas, to explore variations across the city. The results identified clear differences in the responses of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions, based on the topographic and spatial criteria. We found that pollution levels increased as the inversion strengthened, in the lower city. However, the results also suggested that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversions identified in the lower city were not necessarily experienced in the upper city with the same intensity. Further, pollution levels in the upper city appeared to decrease as the inversion deepened in the lower city, probably because of an associated change in prevailing wind direction and lower wind speeds, leading to decreased long-range transport of pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20019104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20019104"><span>Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoshikawa, Kunio</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> gasification of coal/wastes and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771"><span>Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658"><span>The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winett, R A; Hatcher, J W; Fort, T R; Leckliter, I N; Love, S Q; Riley, A W; Fishback, J F</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62 degrees F when home and about 59 degrees F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75 degrees F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283"><span>The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Winett, Richard A.; Hatcher, Joseph W.; Fort, T. Richard; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Love, Susan Q.; Riley, Anne W.; Fishback, James F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62°F when home and about 59°F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75°F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior change, and energy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1773P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1773P"><span>Do sudden <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure changes affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plavcová, E.; Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Previous studies have shown that sudden changes in weather (usually represented by <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or pressure) are associated with increases in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality. Little is understood about physiological mechanisms responsible for the impacts of weather changes on mortality, and whether similar patterns appear for morbidity as well. Relatively little is known also about differences in the magnitude of the mortality response in provincial regions and in cities, where the impacts may be exacerbated by <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution effects and/or heat island. The present study examines the effects of sudden <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure changes on morbidity (represented by hospital admissions) and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic (approx. 10 million inhabitants) and separately in the city of Prague (1.2 million inhabitants). The events are selected from data covering 1994-2009 using the methodology introduced by Plavcová and Kyselý (2010), and they are compared with the datasets on hospital admissions and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality (both standardized to account for long-term changes and the seasonal and weekly cycles). Relative deviations of morbidity/mortality from the baseline were averaged over the selected events for days D-2 (2 days before a change) up to D+7 (7 days after), and their statistical significance was tested by means of the Monte Carlo method. The study aims at (i) identifying those weather changes associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, separately in summer and winter, (ii) comparing the effects of weather changes on morbidity and mortality, (iii) identifying whether urban population of Prague is more/less vulnerable in comparison to the population of the whole Czech Republic, (iv) comparing the effects for different cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart diseases, ICD-10 codes I20-I25; cerebrovascular diseases, I60-I69; hypertension, I10; atherosclerosis, I70) and individual population groups (by age</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11247916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11247916"><span>Habituation of thermal sensations, skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and norepinephrine in men exposed to cold <span class="hlt">air</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leppäluoto, J; Korhonen, I; Hassi, J</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>We studied habituation processes by exposing six healthy men to cold <span class="hlt">air</span> (2 h in a 10 degrees C room) <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 11 days. During the repeated cold exposures, the general cold sensations and those of hand and foot became habituated so that they were already significantly less intense after the first exposure and remained habituated to the end of the experiment. The decreases in skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and increases in systolic blood pressure became habituated after four to six exposures, but their habituations occurred only at a few time points during the 120-min cold exposure and vanished by the end of the exposures. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine and triiodothyronine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and total proteins were measured before and after the 120-min cold exposure on days 0, 5, and 10. The increase in norepinephrine response became reduced on days 5 and 10 and that of proteins on day 10, suggesting that the sympathetic nervous system became habituated and hemoconcentration became attenuated. Thus repeated cold-<span class="hlt">air</span> exposures lead to habituations of cold sensation and norepinephrine response and to attenuation of hemoconcentration, which provide certain benefits to those humans who have to stay and work in cold environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in <span class="hlt">air</span> (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52gHC05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52gHC05M"><span>Simultaneous Measurement of <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity Based on Sound Velocity and Attenuation Using Ultrasonic Probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Motegi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, an acoustic technique for <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity measurement in moist <span class="hlt">air</span> is described. The previous ultrasonic probe can enable the estimation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from sound velocity in dry <span class="hlt">air</span> by making use of the relationship between sound velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement using the previous ultrasonic probe is not suitable in moist <span class="hlt">air</span> because sound velocity also depends on humidity, and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimated from the sound velocity measured in moist <span class="hlt">air</span> must be adjusted. Moreover, a method of humidity measurement by using only an ultrasonic probe has not been established. Thus, we focus on sound attenuation, which depends on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. Our proposed technique utilizes two parameters, sound velocity and attenuation, and can measure both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity simultaneously. The acoustic technique for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity measurement has the advantages that instantaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity can be measured, and the measurement is not affected by thermal radiation because <span class="hlt">air</span> itself is used as a sensing element. As an experiment, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity are measured in a chamber, and compared with the reference values. The experimental results indicate the achievement of a practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement accuracy of within +/-0.5 K in moist <span class="hlt">air</span>, of which the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is 293-308 K and relative humidity (RH) is 50-90% RH, and the simultaneous measurement of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108"><span>Depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is specific for liver and correlates with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kutschke, Maria; Grimpo, Kirsten; Kastl, Anja; Schneider, Sandra; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation to save energy. Increasing evidence suggests depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster but tissue-specificity and relation to torpor depth is unknown. We first confirmed a previous study by Brown and colleagues reporting on the depressed substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. Next, we show that mitochondrial respiration is not depressed in kidneys, skeletal muscle and heart. In liver mitochondria, we found that state 3 and state 4 respirations correlate with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting inhibition related to torpor depth and to metabolic rate. We conclude that molecular events leading to depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are specific to liver and linked to a decrease in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Different tissue-specificity of mitochondrial depression may assist to compare and identify the molecular nature of mitochondrial alterations during torpor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081405','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081405"><span>Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pressures and <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H</p> <p>1937-01-01</p> <p>Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, inlet <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet <span class="hlt">air</span> density or weight of <span class="hlt">air</span> charge. Engine power increases with inlet <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure and decreases with inlet <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of <span class="hlt">air</span>-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337890"><span>The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>The main objective of present study is to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sunshine hours as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23147442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23147442"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> pollution indicators predict outbreaks of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children: integration of <span class="hlt">daily</span> environmental and school health surveillance systems in Pennsylvania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>YoussefAgha, Ahmed H; Jayawardene, Wasantha P; Lohrmann, David K; El Afandi, Gamal S</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Objectives of this study are to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children in industrialized countries (with climatic seasons) and exposure to <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution with particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and ozone, when controlled for potential confounders; and, if so, to derive a statistical model that predicts variation of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Using an ecological study design, health records of 168,25 students from elementary schools in 49 Pennsylvania counties employing "Health eTools for Schools" were analyzed. Asthma exacerbations were recorded by nurses as treatment given during clinic visits each day. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution measurements were obtained from the EPA's <span class="hlt">air</span> quality monitoring sites. The distribution of asthmatic grouping for pollen and calendar seasons was developed. A Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of asthma exacerbations. The greatest occurrence of asthma exacerbations was in autumn, followed by summer, spring and winter. If the number of asthma exacerbations on a day is N and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean of asthma exacerbations for the three-year period is 48, the probabilities of N > 48 in tree pollen and grass pollen seasons were 56.5% and 40.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). According to the Poisson regression, the week number and prior day CO, SO₂, NO₂, NOx, PM₂.₅, and O₃ had significant effects on asthma exacerbations among students. Monitoring of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants over time could be a reliable new means for predicting asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school nurses implement effective precautionary measures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=324256&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=324256&keyword=Genetics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78779073&CFTOKEN=38758905"><span>Short-term effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on metabol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..923..269C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..923..269C"><span>Rainfall Prediction using Soil and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in a Tropical Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacko, Tessy P.; Renuka, G.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>An attempt is made to establish a linkage between soil and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and south-west monsoon rainfall at Pillicode (12°12'N,75°10'E) a tropical station in north Kerala. The dependence of monsoon rainfall on pre-monsoon soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases as the depth of the soil increases. A regression equation has been developed for the estimation of monsoon rainfall using pre-monsoon soil and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results show that sub soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be used for forecasting the monsoon level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T"><span>A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Water Use in Nine Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> municipal water use to rainfall and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes with no response for <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1065-670.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1065-670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol32-sec1065-670.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol32-sec1065-670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1065-670.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1065-670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1065-670.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1065-670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol34-sec1065-670.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol34-sec1065-670.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-<span class="hlt">air</span> humidity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pressure&pg=2&id=EJ920071','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pressure&pg=2&id=EJ920071"><span>One-Component Pressure-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Phase Diagrams in the Presence of <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Martire, Daniel O.; Donati, Edgardo R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>One-component phase diagrams are good approximations to predict pressure-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ("P-T") behavior of a substance in the presence of <span class="hlt">air</span>, provided <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure is not much higher than the vapor pressure. However, at any <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure, and from the conceptual point of view, the use of a traditional "P-T" phase diagram is not strictly correct. In…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3019178','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3019178"><span>The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution with <span class="hlt">daily</span> respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LUGINAAH, ISAAC; FUNG, KAREN Y.; GOREY, KEVIN M.; KHAN, SHAHEDUL</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the <span class="hlt">air</span> drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO2 and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO2 (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO2 (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing. PMID:21234298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21234298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21234298"><span>The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution with <span class="hlt">daily</span> respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luginaah, Isaac; Fung, Karen Y; Gorey, Kevin M; Khan, Shahedul</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the <span class="hlt">air</span> drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO(2) and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO(2) (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO(2) (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThEng..63..329M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThEng..63..329M"><span>Startup of <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the cooling <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The problems of startup and performance of <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot <span class="hlt">air</span> or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot <span class="hlt">air</span> is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the cooling <span class="hlt">air</span>, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=230120','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=230120"><span>Effects of Outside <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by <span class="hlt">air</span> currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the average outside <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> durin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091720"><span>Correction of <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> of <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr</p> <p>1939-01-01</p> <p>Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated <span class="hlt">air</span> speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling <span class="hlt">air</span>, and constant mass flow of cooling <span class="hlt">air</span>. Seven conventional <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and carburetor-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on cylinder <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The cooling <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=298731','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=298731"><span>Predicting seed cotton moisture content from changes in drying <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> - second year</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A mathematical model was used to predict seed cotton moisture content in the overhead section of a cotton gin. The model took into account the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, mass flow, and specific heat of both the <span class="hlt">air</span> and seed cotton. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mass flows were measured for a second year at a commercial g...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...17D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...17D"><span>Near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span>, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry <span class="hlt">air</span> conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4501096V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EPJWC..4501096V"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volavý, F.; Fišer, J.; Nöske, I.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the prediction of the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF) located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> prediction is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326976','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326976"><span>System and method for <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kelly, Sean M</p> <p>2016-09-27</p> <p>A system and method for <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling <span class="hlt">air</span> or trim <span class="hlt">air</span> in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889"><span>Synergistic effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liefting, Maartje; Cosijn, Jarno; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. The benefit of fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1220W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.1220W"><span>Modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to seasonal snow using <span class="hlt">air</span> and tree trunk <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Zahner, Franziska; Jonas, Tobias</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Data collected at three Swiss alpine forested sites over a combined 11 year period were used to evaluate the role of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface. Simulated subcanopy incoming longwave radiation is traditionally partitioned into that from the sky and that from the canopy, i.e., a two-part model. Initial uncertainties in predicting longwave radiation using the two-part model resulted from vertical differences in measured <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Above-canopy (35 m) <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were higher than those within (10 m) and below (2 m) canopy throughout four snow seasons (December-April), demonstrating how the forest canopy can act as a cold sink for <span class="hlt">air</span>. Lowest model root-mean-square error (RMSE) was using above-canopy <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Further investigation of modeling subcanopy longwave radiation using above-canopy <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed underestimations, particularly during periods of high insolation. In order to explicitly account for canopy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in modeling longwave radiation, the two-part model was improved by incorporating a measured trunk view component and trunk <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Trunk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were up to 25°C higher than locally measured <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This three-part model reduced the RMSE by up to 7.7 W m-2 from the two-part <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model at all sensor positions across the 2014 snowmelt season and performed particularly well during periods of high insolation when errors from the two-part model were up to 40 W m-2. A parameterization predicting tree trunk <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> using measured <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and incoming shortwave radiation demonstrate a simple method that can be applied to provide input to the three-part model across midlatitude coniferous forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC23A0972S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC23A0972S"><span>Impact of Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Snow Cover Depth on the Upper Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Variations in Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sherstyukov, A. B.; Sherstyukov, B. G.; Groisman, P. Y.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A study of the impact of climate changes during for the last four decades on soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at depths up to 3.2 meters has been conducted for the territory of Russia. For the 1965-2004 period, we compiled and analyzed data from all Russian meteorological stations with long-term soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations at depths 80, 160 and 320 cm. Traditionally, these stations also observe a complete set of standard meteorological variables (that include surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and extensive monitoring of snow cover characteristics). This allowed us to investigate the impact of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and snow depth variations on soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the upper soil layer, to quantify it using statistical analyses of multi-dimensional 40-year-long time series at 164 locations throughout the country, and assess the representativeness of the obtained results. Three-dimensional spatial distributions of regression and correlation coefficients were mapped for warm and cold seasons separately as well as for the entire year, and thereafter analyzed. In the permafrost zone we found special features in these fields that distinctively separate the permafrost zone from the remaining territory. In this zone, soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are practically uncorrelated with surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and variations of the snow depth controls soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations (with R2 up to 0.5) Quantitative estimates of the contribution of mid-annual <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow cover depth in the long-term changes of mid-annual soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the Russia territory were received. We found that the prevailing influence on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in the European part was surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the Asian part of Russia was snow cover depth. Furthermore, increase of the winter snow depth in the permafrost zone (by preserving the heat accumulated in the warm season) promotes annual soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase and therefore may foster the further permafrost degradation associated with ongoing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23954622','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23954622"><span>Associations of particulate <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in 16 Chinese cities: an improved effect estimate after accounting for the indoor exposure to particles of outdoor origin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Renjie; Zhou, Bin; Kan, Haidong; Zhao, Bin</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>People typically spend most of their time indoors. We modeled the <span class="hlt">daily</span> indoor PM10 concentrations of outdoor origin using a set of exposure parameters, including the fraction of residences with <span class="hlt">air</span> conditionings (AC), the fraction of time that windows are closed when cooling occurs for buildings with AC, the fractions of time that windows are open or closed for buildings with or without AC, the particle penetration factors, <span class="hlt">air</span> change rates, and surface removal rate constant of PM10. We calculated the time-weighted average of the simulated indoor PM10 concentration of outdoor origin and the original recorded outdoor PM10 concentration. We then evaluated the acute effects of PM10 using traditional and amended exposure metrics in 16 Chinese cities. Compared with the original estimates, the new effect estimates almost doubled, with improved model fit and attenuated between-city heterogeneity. Conclusively, this proposed exposure assessment approach could improve the effect estimates of ambient particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.4451K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.4451K"><span>Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the polar oceans: MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU, and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in the satellite-derived Surface Skin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) of 2003-2014 were investigated and the three datasets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU), and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically up to 1.65 K warmer at the sea ice boundary and up to 2.04 K colder in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only compared to that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm utilized a~less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally-varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three datasets (MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only) showed significant warming rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high latitude regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4025K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4025K"><span>Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the polar oceans: MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU, and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in the satellite-derived surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) 2003-2014 were investigated and the three data sets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU), and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically warmer up to 1.65 K at the sea ice boundary and colder down to -2.04 K in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only compared to that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm utilized a less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three data sets (MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only) showed significant warming rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~ 2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812606V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812606V"><span>Relating trends in land surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference to soil moisture and evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veal, Karen; Taylor, Chris; Gallego-Elvira, Belen; Ghent, Darren; Harris, Phil; Remedios, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil water is central to both physical and biogeochemical processes within the Earth System. Drying of soils leads to evapotranspiration (ET) becoming limited or "water-stressed" and is accompanied by rises in land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST), land surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference (delta T), and sensible heat flux. Climate models predict sizable changes to the global water cycle but there is variation between models in the time scale of ET decay during dry spells. The e-stress project is developing novel satellite-derived diagnostics to assess the ability of Earth System Models (ESMs) to capture behaviour that is due to soil moisture controls on ET. Satellite records of LST now extend 15 years or more. MODIS Terra LST is available from 2000 to the present and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) LST record runs from 1995 to 2012. This paper presents results from an investigation into the variability and trends in delta T during the MODIS Terra mission. We use MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua LST and ESA Glob<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> ATSR LST with 2m <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from reanalyses to calculate trends in delta T and "water-stressed" area. We investigate the variability of delta T in relation to soil moisture (ESA CCI Passive <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Soil Moisture), vegetation (MODIS Monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and precipitation (TRMM Multi-satellite Monthly Precipitation) and compare the temporal and spatial variability of delta T with model evaporation data (GLEAM). Delta T anomalies show significant negative correlations with soil moisture, in different seasons, in several regions across the planet. Global mean delta T anomaly is small (magnitude mostly less than 0.2 K) between July 2002 and July 2008 and decreases to a minimum in early 2010. The reduction in delta T anomaly coincides with an increase in soil moisture anomaly and NDVI anomaly suggesting an increase in evapotranspiration and latent heat flux with reduced sensible heat flux. In conclusion there have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26706765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26706765"><span>A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (also known as land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> revealed that skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was poorly correlated with both <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (R(2)=0.38) and apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was predicted to exceed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040045252&hterms=Adsorption&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAdsorption','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040045252&hterms=Adsorption&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAdsorption"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span>-Cooled Design of a <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop <span class="hlt">Air</span> Revitalization Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">air</span> revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the <span class="hlt">air</span>-loop. We have a developed a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses <span class="hlt">air</span> as the cooling medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081162','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081162"><span>Some Effects of <span class="hlt">Air</span> and Fuel Oil <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Spray Penetration and Dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gelalles, A G</p> <p>1930-01-01</p> <p>Presented here are experimental results obtained from a brief investigation of the appearance, penetration, and dispersion of oil sprays injected into a chamber of highly heated <span class="hlt">air</span> at atmospheric pressure. The development of single sprays injected into a chamber containing <span class="hlt">air</span> at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded by spray photography equipment. A comparison of spray records showed that with the <span class="hlt">air</span> at the higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the spray assumed the appearance of thin, transparent cloud, the greatest part of which rapidly disappeared from view. With the chamber <span class="hlt">air</span> at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a compact spray with an opaque core was obtained. Measurements of the records showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in the dispersion of the spray injected into the heated <span class="hlt">air</span>. No ignition of the fuel injected was observed or recorded until the spray particles came in contact with the much hotter walls of the chamber about 0.3 second after the start of injection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003581','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003581"><span>Validation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> V6 Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Skin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data record. The temporal correlations between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evident in the correlation between <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Ts and GCN <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5178356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5178356"><span>Association between Asian Dust-Borne <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollutants and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Symptoms on Healthy Subjects: A Web-Based Pilot Study in Yonago, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Onishi, Kazunari; Otani, Shinji; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kurozawa, Youichi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During the spring, Asian dust (AD) repeatedly makes its way to Japan, originating from drylands. We evaluated the association between AD-borne <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants and <span class="hlt">daily</span> reported subjective symptoms in healthy subjects. We constructed an Internet questionnaire on <span class="hlt">daily</span> ocular, nasal, respiratory, and skin symptoms. Forty-two healthy volunteers residents of Yonago (mean age, 33.57) were selected from the self-reporting web-based survey and recorded their symptoms between 1 and 31 of March 2013. We also collected information on levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) per hour on each of those days. SPM and PM2.5 were the dominant pollutants recorded throughout the month. A positive correlation was observed between SPM and ocular (r = 0.475, p < 0.01), nasal (r = 0.614, p < 0.001), and skin (r = 0.445, p < 0.05) symptoms. PM2.5 correlations were significant for ocular (r = 0.428, p < 0.05), nasal (r = 0.560, p < 0.01), and skin (r = 0.437, p < 0.05) symptoms. Our findings provide introductory evidence of AD-borne <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants and their association with several bodily symptoms in healthy subjects with the implementation of a self-administrated web-based survey application. PMID:28053609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T"><span>Error Correction of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Simulations in Europe and the Effects on Climate Change Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Heinrich, G.; Regional; Local Climate Modeling; Analysis Research Group</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>State-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) have shown their capability to reproduce mesoscale and even finer climate variability satisfactorily. However, considerable differences between model results and observational data remain, due to scale discrepancies and model errors. This limits the direct utilization of RCM results in climate change impact studies. Besides continuous climate model improvement, empirical-statistical post-processing approaches (model output statistics) offer an immediate pathway to mitigate these model problems and to provide better input data for climate change impact assessments. Among various statistical approaches, quantile mapping (QM) represents one powerful non-parametric technique to post-process RCM outputs. In this study, results from a transient regional climate simulation (period: 1951 to 2050; general circulation model: HadCM3; emission scenario: A1B; RCM: CLM) with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is error corrected for entire Europe based on the E-OBS European <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded observational dataset (http://ensembles-eu.org). Firstly, the performance of QM for correcting <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for long-term simulations is evaluated in a decadal cross-validation framework between 1961 and 2000 and the error characteristics are discussed. In the case of precipitation amount a frequency adaptation tool is presented which deals with rare situations where the probability for non-precipitation days is lower in the observations than in the model. Secondly, the issue of generating new extremes in future scenarios is raised. For this purpose, the ERA-40 reanalysis driven hindcast is used to assure best possible temporal correlation between observations and model output. The hindcast is split such that the independent validation period contains observed extremes outside the range of the calibration period. Two extrapolation schemes at the tails of the calibrated correction functions are tested and compared to the simple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7762W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7762W"><span>Investigation of the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on river water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: case study of the heat episode 2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Water stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of streams is determined by the source and inflow water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, wind and <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is obtained. Using the extensive data set</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010876','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010876"><span>Comparison of Near-Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and MODIS Ice-Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Mefford, Thomas K.; Schnaubelt, Michael J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the stability of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared-derived ice surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IST) data from Terra for use as a climate quality data record. The availability of climate quality <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (TA) from a NOAA Global Monitoring Division observatory at Greenlands Summit station has enabled this high temporal resolution study of MODIS ISTs. During a 5 year period (July 2008 to August 2013), more than 2500 IST values were compared with 3-minute average TA values derived from the 1-minute data from NOAAs primary 2 m <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor. These data enabled an expected small offset between <span class="hlt">air</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at this the ice sheet location to be investigated over multiple annual cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16490124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16490124"><span>Environmental factors on the SARS epidemic: <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, passage of time and multiplicative effect of hospital infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Kun; Yee-Tak Fong, Daniel; Zhu, Biliu; Karlberg, Johan</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>The study sought to identify factors involved in the emergence, prevention and elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong during 11 March to 22 May 2003. A structured multiphase regression analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of weather, time and interaction effect of hospital infection. In days with a lower <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the epidemic, the risk of increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidence of SARS was 18.18-fold (95% confidence interval 5.6-58.8) higher than in days with a higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The total <span class="hlt">daily</span> new cases might naturally decrease by an average of 2.8 patients for every 10 days during the epidemic. The multiplicative effect of infected hospital staff with patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the proportion of SARS patients in ICUs might respectively increase the risk of a larger SARS epidemic in the community. The provision of protective gear in hospitals was also a very important factor for the prevention of SARS infection. SARS transmission appeared to be dependent on seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and the multiplicative effect of hospital infection. SARS also appeared to retreat naturally over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4163474','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4163474"><span>Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity of <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity of <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the <span class="hlt">air</span> mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity of an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system. PMID:25250390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25250390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25250390"><span>Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity of <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity of <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the <span class="hlt">air</span> mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity of an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022361"><span>Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or nasal resistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling <span class="hlt">air</span> from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room <span class="hlt">air</span>, cold <span class="hlt">air</span>, and dry <span class="hlt">air</span>, respectively. In all conditions, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. <span class="hlt">Air</span> humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..250H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..250H"><span>Analysis of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>With the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> always rise faster than rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the CYP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JApMe..43.1635W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JApMe..43.1635W"><span>Comparison of Vertical Soundings and Sidewall <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements in a Small Alpine Basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whiteman, C. David; Eisenbach, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; Steinacker, Reinhold</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Tethered balloon soundings from two sites on the floor of a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole in the eastern Alps are compared with pseudovertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> “soundings” from three lines of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataloggers on the basin's northwest, southwest, and southeast sidewalls. Under stable nighttime conditions with low background winds, the pseudovertical profiles from all three lines were good proxies for free <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soundings over the basin center, with a mean nighttime cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> bias of about 0.4°C and a standard deviation of 0.4°C. Cold biases were highest in the upper basin where relatively warm <span class="hlt">air</span> subsides to replace <span class="hlt">air</span> that spills out of the basin through the lowest-altitude saddle. On a windy night, standard deviations increased to 1° 2°C. After sunrise, the varying exposures of the dataloggers to sunlight made the pseudovertical profiles less useful as proxies for free <span class="hlt">air</span> soundings. The good correspondence between sidewall and free <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during high-static-stability conditions suggests that sidewall soundings can be used to monitor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion evolution in the sinkhole. Sidewall soundings can produce more frequent profiles at lower cost than can tethersondes or rawinsondes, and extension of these findings to other enclosed or semienclosed topographies may enhance future basic meteorological research or support applications studies in agriculture, forestry, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, and land use planning.<HR ALIGN="center" WIDTH="30%"></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010074088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010074088"><span>Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Air</span> in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is determine the effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> preheat <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> combustion <span class="hlt">air</span> under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> combustion <span class="hlt">air</span> at different equivalence ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23I1210G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23I1210G"><span>Thermal Coupling Between <span class="hlt">Air</span> and Ground <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the CMIP5 Historical and Future Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-García, A.; Cuesta-Valero, F. J.; Smerdon, J. E.; Beltrami, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The thermal coupling between <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is investigated herein for General Circulation Models (GCMs) that participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For each simulation, we evaluate the regional relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to study surface energy fluxes and the attenuation of the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal across the <span class="hlt">air</span>-ground interface and into the shallow subsurface for North America. Our results show that the transport of energy across the <span class="hlt">air</span>-ground interface and into the shallow subsurface is different across GCMs and is dependent on the land surface models that each employs. The variability of the difference between <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is high among simulations and is not dependent on the depth of the bottom boundary of the subsurface soil model. The difference between <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> differs significantly from observations. Additionally, while the variability among GCMs can be explained by the physics of the land surface models, the regional variability of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-ground coupling is associated with the model treatment of soil properties as well as snow and vegetation processes within GCMs. The difference between <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high latitudes within the majority of the CMIP5 models is directly proportional to the amount of snow on the ground, due to the insulating effect of snow cover. On the other hand, the difference between <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at low latitudes within some of the CMIP5 models is inversely proportional to the vegetation cover (leaf area index), due to changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. The large variability among GCMs and the marked dependency of the results on the choice of the land-surface model illustrates the need for improving the simulation of <span class="hlt">air</span>-ground coupling in land-surface models towards a robust simulation of near-surface processes, such as permafrost and soil carbon stability within GCMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790066334&hterms=air+amplifier&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bamplifier','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790066334&hterms=air+amplifier&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bamplifier"><span>Multichannel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controller for hot <span class="hlt">air</span> solar house</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Currie, J. R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes an electronic controller that is optimized to operate a hot <span class="hlt">air</span> solar system. Thermal information is obtained from copper constantan thermocouples and a wall-type thermostat. The signals from the thermocouples are processed through a single amplifier using a multiplexing scheme. The multiplexing reduces the component count and automatically calibrates the thermocouple amplifier. The processed signals connect to some simple logic that selects one of the four operating modes. This simple, inexpensive, and reliable scheme is well suited to control hot <span class="hlt">air</span> solar systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18376646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18376646"><span>A new multipollutant, no-threshold <span class="hlt">air</span> quality health index based on short-term associations observed in <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-series analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stieb, David M; Burnett, Richard T; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Brion, Orly; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Economou, Vanita</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span> quality indices currently in use have been criticized because they do not capture additive effects of multiple pollutants, or reflect the apparent no-threshold concentration-response relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and health. We propose a new <span class="hlt">air</span> quality health index (AQHI), constructed as the sum of excess mortality risk associated with individual pollutants from a time-series analysis of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality in Canadian cities, adjusted to a 0-10 scale, and calculated hourly on the basis of trailing 3-hr average pollutant concentrations. Extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative combinations of pollutants from single and multipollutant models. All formulations considered produced frequency distributions of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum AQHI that were right-skewed, with modal values of 3 or 4, and less than 10% of values at 7 or above on the 10-point scale. In the absence of a gold standard and given the uncertainty in how to best reflect the mix of pollutants, we recommend a formulation based on associations of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm with mortality from single-pollutant models. Further sensitivity analyses revealed good agreement of this formulation with others based on alternative sources of coefficients drawn from published studies of mortality and morbidity. These analyses provide evidence that the AQHI represents a valid approach to formulating an index with the objective of allowing people to judge the relative probability of experiencing adverse health effects from day to day. Together with health messages and a graphic display, the AQHI scale appears promising as an <span class="hlt">air</span> quality risk communication tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036764','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036764"><span>High-precision diode-laser-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement for <span class="hlt">air</span> refractive index compensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of <span class="hlt">air</span> over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of <span class="hlt">air</span> with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of <span class="hlt">air</span> is calculated from the properties of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of <span class="hlt">air</span> and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of <span class="hlt">air</span> in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best <span class="hlt">temperature</span> precision reported for a spectroscopic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20026733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20026733"><span>Effect of optimizing supply water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> volume on a VAV system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Ito, Koichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>An optimal planning method is proposed for an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system composed of heat pump chillers and variable <span class="hlt">air</span> volume (VAV) units. Supply water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, supply <span class="hlt">air</span> volume, and thickness of heat insulation material are determined optimally so as to minimize the annual total cost of the system in consideration of equipment capacities and annual operation for the cooling load varying through a year. Through a numerical study on the system planned for an office building, influences of supply water/<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> volume on the system are investigated from the viewpoint of long-term economics. As a result, it is shown that the annual energy charge of the optimal VAV system can be reduced considerably in comparison with that of the optimal constant <span class="hlt">air</span> volume (CAV) system, and that the effect of the energy conservation of the former system is large enough.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4659929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4659929"><span>Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> agricultural region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. Understanding these emissions may improve <span class="hlt">air</span> quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional <span class="hlt">air</span> quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. We find that a regional <span class="hlt">air</span> chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving <span class="hlt">air</span> quality. PMID:26556236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26556236"><span>Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> agricultural region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D</p> <p>2015-11-10</p> <p>Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. Understanding these emissions may improve <span class="hlt">air</span> quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional <span class="hlt">air</span> quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. We find that a regional <span class="hlt">air</span> chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving <span class="hlt">air</span> quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23E0370A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23E0370A"><span>Seasonal Prediction of Regional Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and First-flowering Date in South Korea using Dynamical Downscaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The seasonal prediction of both the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea are produced using dynamical downscaling (Hur and Ahn, 2015). Dynamical downscaling is performed using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) v3.0 with the lateral forcing from hourly outputs of Pusan National University (PNU) coupled general circulation model (CGCM) v1.1. Gridded surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data with high spatial (3km) and temporal (<span class="hlt">daily</span>) resolution are obtained using the physically-based dynamical models. To reduce systematic bias, simple statistical correction method is then applied to the model output. The FFDs of cherry, peach and pear in South Korea are predicted for the decade of 1999-2008 by applying the corrected <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictions to the phenological thermal-time model. The WRF v3.0 results reflect the detailed topographical effect, despite having cold and warm biases for warm and cold seasons, respectively. After applying the correction, the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for early spring (February to April) well represents the general pattern of observation, while preserving the advantages of dynamical downscaling. The FFD predictabilities for the three species of trees are evaluated in terms of qualitative, quantitative and categorical estimations. Although FFDs derived from the corrected WRF results well predict the spatial distribution and the variation of observation, the prediction performance has no statistical significance or appropriate predictability. The approach used in the study may be helpful in obtaining detailed and useful information about FFD and regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by accounting for physically-based atmospheric dynamics, although the seasonal predictability of flowering phenology is not high enough. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953 and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868253','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868253"><span>Oxide modified <span class="hlt">air</span> electrode surface for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> electrochemical cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the <span class="hlt">air</span> electrode and electrolyte.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220259','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220259"><span>Measured Performance of a Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Air</span> Source Heat Pump</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>R.K. Johnson</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A 4-ton Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090016195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090016195"><span>Improved <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU Data: The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Only sounding methodology, referred to as <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...129...71Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...129...71Z"><span>Preliminary verification of instantaneous <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation for clear sky conditions based on SEBAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Shanyou; Zhou, Chuxuan; Zhang, Guixin; Zhang, Hailong; Hua, Junwei</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Spatially distributed near surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the height of 2 m is an important input parameter for the land surface models. It is of great significance in both theoretical research and practical applications to retrieve instantaneous <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from remote sensing observations. An approach based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to retrieve <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under clear sky conditions is presented. Taking the meteorological measurement data at one station as the reference and remotely sensed data as the model input, the research estimates the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by using an iterative computation. The method was applied to the area of Jiangsu province for nine scenes by using MODIS data products, as well as part of Fujian province, China based on four scenes of Landsat 8 imagery. Comparing the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimated from the proposed method with that of the meteorological station measurement, results show that the root mean square error is 1.7 and 2.6 °C at 1000 and 30 m spatial resolution respectively. Sensitivity analysis of influencing factors reveals that land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most sensitive to the estimation precision. Research results indicate that the method has great potentiality to be used to estimate instantaneous <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution under clear sky conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930085278','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930085278"><span>A Review of the Thermodynamic, Transport, and Chemical Reaction Rate Properties of High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, C Frederick; Heims, Steve P</p> <p>1958-01-01</p> <p>Thermodynamic and transport properties of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>, and the reaction rates for the important chemical processes which occur in <span class="hlt">air</span>, are reviewed. Semiempirical, analytic expressions are presented for thermodynamic and transport properties of <span class="hlt">air</span>. Examples are given illustrating the use of these properties to evaluate (1) equilibrium conditions following shock waves, (2) stagnation region heat flux to a blunt high-speed body, and (3) some chemical relaxation lengths in stagnation region flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based empirical models for estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean clearness index (KT), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the range of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader range of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26198976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26198976"><span>Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe</p> <p>2015-07-22</p> <p>Global analyses of surface mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ranges and maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges (ADT) and the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower ranges of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H21H1297D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H21H1297D"><span>Assessing the Potential of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Retrieved Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for 6-Hour Average <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Forecast in River Forecast Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, F.; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Esfandiari, A. E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Producing timely and accurate water forecast and information is the mission of National Weather Service River Forecast Centers (NWS RFCs) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The river forecast system in RFCs requires average surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the fixed 6-hour period 000-0600, 0600-1200, 1200-1800, and 1200-0000 UTC. The current logic of RFC <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast relies on ingest of point values of daytime maximum and nighttime minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Meanwhile, the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the 6-hour period is estimated from a weighted average of daytime maximum and nighttime minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) in the first high spectral resolution infrared sounder on board the Aqua satellite which was launched in May 2002 and follows a Sun-synchronous polar orbit. It is aimed to produce high resolution atmospheric profile and surface atmospheric parameters. As Aqua crosses the equator at about 1330 and 0130 local time, the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieved surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may represent daytime maximum and nighttime minimum value. Comparing to point observation from surface weather stations which are often sparse over the less-populated area and are unevenly distributed, satellite may obtain better area averaged observation. This test study assesses the potential of using <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieved surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to forecast 6-hour average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for NWS RFCs. The California Nevada RFC is selected due to the poor coverage of surface observation in the mountainous region and spring snow melting. The study focuses on the March to May spring season when water from snowpack melting often plays important role in flood. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and surface weather station data set will be used to derive statistical weighting coefficient for 6-hour average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast. The resulting forecast biases and errors will be the main indicators of the potential usage. All study results will be presented in the meeting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21532171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21532171"><span>Transport properties of high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> in a magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruno, D.; Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C.; Giordano, D.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Transport properties of equilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311232&keyword=energy+AND+fuels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78753558&CFTOKEN=19431450','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311232&keyword=energy+AND+fuels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78753558&CFTOKEN=19431450"><span>Biodiesel and Cold <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Effects on Speciated Mobile Source <span class="hlt">Air</span> Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source <span class="hlt">air</span> toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled chass...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311338&keyword=energy+AND+fuels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78753558&CFTOKEN=19431450','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=311338&keyword=energy+AND+fuels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78753558&CFTOKEN=19431450"><span>Biodiesel and Cold <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Effect on Speciated Mobile Source <span class="hlt">Air</span> Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source <span class="hlt">air</span> toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled chass...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S"><span>Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data on example of Central European <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6373553','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6373553"><span>High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> stabilization by <span class="hlt">air</span> of a pyrophoric catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krylova, A.V.; Ustimenko, G.A.</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>The reaction of a catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia with <span class="hlt">air</span> at 480 to 520/sup 0/C leads to the formation on the surface of a thin protective oxide structure that eliminates its pyrophoric character. High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> stabilization by <span class="hlt">air</span> is a considerably faster process than passivation and leads to the production of catalysts with increased resistance to oxidation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..214C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016mecs.conf..214C"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.</p> <p></p> <p>Taking green demonstration center building <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh <span class="hlt">air</span> system and ground source heat pump system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040135','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040135"><span>Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..35.8809R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..35.8809R"><span>Improving forecast skill by assimilation of quality-controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals under partially cloudy conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) on board the Aqua satellite is now recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26583295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26583295"><span>Modelling the impact of room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor <span class="hlt">air</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyng, Nadja Lynge; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus; Andersen, Helle Vibeke</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor <span