Science.gov

Sample records for air temperature extremes

  1. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  2. Photoionization capable, extreme and vacuum ultraviolet emission in developing low temperature plasmas in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Beeson, S.; Laity, G.; Trienekens, D.; Joshi, R. P.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental observation of photoionization capable extreme ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet emission from nanosecond timescale, developing low temperature plasmas (i.e. streamer discharges) in atmospheric air is presented. Applying short high voltage pulses enabled the observation of the onset of plasma formation exclusively by removing the external excitation before spark development was achieved. Contrary to the common assumption that radiative transitions from the b{{}1}{{\\Pi}u} (Birge-Hopfield I) and b{{}\\prime 1}Σu+ (Birge-Hopfield II) singlet states of N2 are the primary contributors to photoionization events, these results indicate that radiative transitions from the c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ (Carroll-Yoshino) singlet state of N2 are dominant in developing low temperature plasmas in air. In addition to c{}4\\prime transitions, photoionization capable transitions from atomic and singly ionized atomic oxygen were also observed. The inclusion of c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ transitions into a statistical photoionization model coupled with a fluid model enabled streamer growth in the simulation of positive streamers.

  3. Investigation of the impact of extreme air temperature on river water temperature: case study of the heat episode 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water temperature of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. Using the extensive data set

  4. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  5. Hall sensors for extreme temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Jakub; El-Ahmar, Semir; Oszwaldowski, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    We report on the preparation of the first complete extreme temperature Hall sensor. This means that the extreme-temperature magnetic sensitive semiconductor structure is built-in an extreme-temperature package especially designed for that purpose. The working temperature range of the sensor extends from -270 °C to +300 °C. The extreme-temperature Hall-sensor active element is a heavily n-doped InSb layer epitaxially grown on GaAs. The magnetic sensitivity of the sensor is ca. 100 mV/T and its temperature coefficient is less than 0.04 %/K. This sensor may find applications in the car, aircraft, spacecraft, military and oil and gas industries.

  6. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  7. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  8. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  9. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  10. Increasing Temperature Extremes during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Although the recent global warming hiatus has featured a slowdown in the annual, global mean surface air temperature trend, temperature extremes have exhibited contrasting changes, as both wintertime cold and summertime hot extremes have increased over Northern Hemisphere (NH) land from 2002-2014. To investigate the sources of NH temperature extreme variability, we use multiple linear regression analysis that includes as predictors the typical drivers of global-scale climate variability - tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), volcanic aerosols, solar variability, and the linear time trend. This analysis suggests that natural forcings, including tropical SSTs and solar variations, have contributed to the recent increase in NH winter cold extremes. The magnitude of the recent increase in summer hot extremes is only captured after including an additional SST predictor for a pattern that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which suggests the importance of Atlantic Ocean SSTs for recent increases in hot extremes. When the regression models are applied to local, grid point scales, they indicate the promise for substantial skill in seasonal predictions of extreme temperature over some NH regions. Overall, this work reveals important sources of natural variability in extreme temperature trends superimposed upon the long-term increase of hot extremes and decrease of cold extremes.

  11. Air quality and thermal comfort levels under extreme hot weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Melas, D.; Kambezidis, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological (T and RH values) and air pollution data (PM10, NO2 and O3 concentrations) observed in Athens, Thessaloniki and Volos were analyzed to assess the air quality and the thermal comfort conditions and to study their synergy, when extreme hot weather prevailed in Greece during the period 2001-2010. The identification of a heat wave day was based on the suggestion made by the IPCC to define an extreme weather event. According to it, a heat wave day is detected when the daily maximum hourly temperature value exceeds its 90th percentile. This temperature criterion was applied to the data recorded at the cities center. Air quality was assessed at three sites in Athens (city center, near the city center, suburb), at two sites in Thessaloniki (city center, suburb) and at one site in Volos (city center), while thermal comfort conditions were assessed at the cities center. Mean pollution levels during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were calculated in order to examine the impact of the extreme hot weather on air quality. For this purpose, the distributions of the common air quality index and the exceedances of the air quality standards in force during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were also studied. Additionally, the variation of the daily maximum hourly value of Thom's discomfort index was studied in order to investigate the effect of extreme hot weather on people's thermal comfort. Moreover, the values of the common air quality index and Thom's discomfort index were comparatively assessed so as to investigate their synergy under extreme hot weather.

  12. Extreme Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor for Venus Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jerri; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Narine, Roop

    After developed two types of extreme temperature motors (Switched Reluctance Motor and Blushless DC Motor), Honeybee Robotics has successfully developed an Extreme Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor that can be used to commutate motors and provide positional information. This paper presents an insight into the challenges of designing extreme tempera-ture electro-mechanical system and provides results of the experiment performed in the Venus environment. The operational temperature range for existing commutation devices, include Hall Sensors, Resolvers and Encoders is limited to temperatures less than 180C. The Extreme Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor is capable of working continuously at 460C and at 92 atm. The design of this device involves a unique rotor design and an innovative phase pulsing algorithm implemented through a high speed DSP. The shape of the rotor provides a unique flow-path to the lines-of-flux through the poles of the stator. The pulsing algorithm makes it possible to nullify the effects of parametric changes (wire resistance, permeability, air gap, etc.) due to increase in temperature. The algorithm relies on the relative flux density between two stator poles rather than the absolute measurement of the flux density in each pole. Extreme temperature position sensor, along with scalable extreme temperature motor and gearhead allow for creation of robot arms and even mobility systems for future Venus missions to achieve their goals and objectives.

  13. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  14. Detection of extremes with AIRS and CrIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.; Behrangi, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to be detected first as changes in extreme values rather than in mean values. The availability of data of from two instruments in the same orbit, AIRS data for the past eleven years and AIRS and CrIS data from the past year, provides an opportunity to evaluate this using examples of climate relevance: Desertification, seen as changes in hot extremes, severe storm, seen as a change in extremely cold clouds and the warming of the polar zone. We use AIRS to establish trends for the 1%tile, the mean and 99%tile brightness temperatures measured with the 900 cm-1 channel from AIRS for the past 11 years. This channel is in the clearest part of the 11 micron atmospheric window. Substantial trends are seen for land and ocean, which in the case of the 1%tile (cold) extremes are related to the current shift of deep convection from ocean to land. Changes are also seen in the 99%tile for day tropical land, but their interpretation is at present unclear. We also see dramatic changes for the mean and 99%tile of the North Polar area. The trends are an order of magnitude larger than the instrument trend of about 3 mK/year. We use the statistical distribution from the past year derived from AIRS to evaluate the accuracy of continuing the trends established with AIRS with CrIS data. We minimize the concern about differences in the spectral response functions by limiting the analysis to the channel at 900 cm-1.While the two instruments agree within 100 mK for the global day/night land/ocean mean values, there are significant differences when evaluating the1% and 99%tiles. We see a consistent warm bias in the CrIS data relative to AIRS for the 1%tile (extremely cold, cloudy) data in the tropical zone, particularly for tropical land, but the bias is not day/night land/ocean consistent. At this point the difference appears to be due to differences in the radiometric response of AIRS and CrIS to differences in the day/night land/ocean cloud types. Unless the

  15. Detection of Extremes with AIRS and CrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.; Behrangi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be detected first as changes in extreme values rather than in mean values. The availability of data of from two instruments in the same orbit, AIRS data for the past eleven years and AIRS and CrIS data from the past year, provides an opportunity to evaluate this using examples of climate relevance: Desertification, seen as changes in hot extremes, severe storm, seen as a change in extremely cold clouds and the warming of the polar zone. We use AIRS to establish trends for the 1%tile, the mean and 99%tile brightness temperatures measured with the 900 cm(exp -1) channel from AIRS for the past 11 years. This channel is in the clearest part of the 11 micron atmospheric window. Substantial trends are seen for land and ocean, which in the case of the 1%tile (cold) extremes are related to the current shift of deep convection from ocean to land. Changes are also seen in the 99%tile for day tropical land, but their interpretation is at present unclear. We also see dramatic changes for the mean and 99%tile of the North Polar area. The trends are an order of magnitude larger than the instrument trend of about 3 mK/year. We use the statistical distribution from the past year derived from AIRS to evaluate the accuracy of continuing the trends established with AIRS with CrIS data. We minimize the concern about differences in the spectral response functions by limiting the analysis to the channel at 900 cm(exp -1).While the two instruments agree within 100 mK for the global day/night land/ocean mean values, there are significant differences when evaluating the1% and 99%tiles. We see a consistent warm bias in the CrIS data relative to AIRS for the 1%tile (extremely cold, cloudy) data in the tropical zone, particularly for tropical land, but the bias is not day/night land/ocean consistent. At this point the difference appears to be due to differences in the radiometric response of AIRS and CrIS to differences in the day/night land/ocean cloud types

  16. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGES

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  18. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  19. Temperature extremes in Western Europe and associated atmospheric anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, V. A.; Santos, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    This worḱs focal point is the analysis of temperature extremes over Western Europe in the period 1957-2007 and their relationship to large-scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation patterns. The study is based on temperature daily time series recorded at a set of meteorological stations covering the target area. The large-scale anomalies are analyzed using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis project. Firstly, a preliminary statistical analysis was undertaken in order to identify data gaps and erroneous values and to check the homogeneity of the time series, using not only elementary statistical approaches (e.g., chronograms, box-plots, scatter-plots), but also a set of non-parametric statistical tests particularly suitable for the analysis of monthly and seasonal mean temperature time series (e.g., Wald-Wolfowitz serial correlation test, Spearman and Mann-Kendall trend tests). Secondly, based on previous results, a selection of the highest quality time series was carried out. Aiming at identifying temperature extremes, we then proceed to the isolation of months with temperature values above or below pre-selected thresholds based on the empirical distribution of each time series. In particular, thresholds are based on percentiles specifically computed for each individual temperature record (data adaptive) and not on fixed values. As a result, a calendar of extremely high and extremely low monthly mean temperatures is obtained and the large-scale atmospheric conditions during each extreme are analyzed. Several atmospheric fields are considered in this study (e.g., 2-m maximum and minimum air temperature, sea level pressure, geopotential height, zonal and meridional wind components, vorticity, relative humidity) at different isobaric levels. Results show remarkably different synoptic conditions for temperature extremes in different parts of Western Europe, highlighting the different dynamical mechanisms underlying their

  20. Temperature Extremes, Health, and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivin, Joshua Graff; Shrader, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The extreme temperatures expected under climate change may be especially harmful to children. Children are more vulnerable to heat partly because of their physiological features, but, perhaps more important, because they behave and respond differently than adults do. Children are less likely to manage their own heat risk and may have fewer ways to…

  1. On-Going Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Temperature trends (grows up to 0.5 °C per decade), more frequent occurrence of temperature extremes provoked serious natural disasters (2010 heat waves in Russia, 2013 flood in Russia's Far East) led to socio-economical impact (crop damages, infrastructure failures, respectively). To get reliable knowledge on location, frequency and magnitude of observed extremes we have studied daily max/min temperature trends based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data (0,25°×0,25°). This dataset is most accurately reproduces observed temperature behavior in the region. Statistical analysis of daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. Results obtained provide regional decision-makers with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information required for adaptation and mitigation measures development. Calculations presented have been realized using information-computational web-GIS system "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/) which automatically generates the archive of calculated fields ready for multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the RFBR (13-05-12034, 14-05-00502), SB RAS 131 and VIII.80.2.1.) and grant of the President of RF (№ 181).

  2. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  3. Extreme conditions in a dissolving air nanobubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulations of the dissolution of an air nanobubble in water have been performed taking into account the effect of bubble dynamics (inertia of the surrounding liquid). The presence of stable bulk nanobubbles is not assumed in the present study because the bubble radius inevitably passes the nanoscale in the complete dissolution of a bubble. The bubble surface is assumed to be clean because attachment of hydrophobic materials on the bubble surface could considerably change the gas diffusion rate. The speed of the bubble collapse (the bubble wall speed) increases to about 90 m/s or less. The shape of a bubble is kept nearly spherical because the amplitude of the nonspherical component of the bubble shape is negligible compared to the instantaneous bubble radius. In other words, a bubble never disintegrates into daughter bubbles during the dissolution. At the final moment of the dissolution, the temperature inside a bubble increases to about 3000 K due to the quasiadiabatic compression. The bubble temperature is higher than 1000 K only for the final 19 ps. However, the Knudsen number is more than 0.2 for this moment, and the error associated with the continuum model should be considerable. In the final 2.3 ns, only nitrogen molecules are present inside a bubble as the solubility of nitrogen is the lowest among the gas species. The radical formation inside a bubble is negligible because the probability of nitrogen dissociation is only on the order of 10-15. The pressure inside a bubble, as well as the liquid pressure at the bubble wall, increases to about 5 GPa at the final moment of dissolution. The pressure is higher than 1 GPa for the final 0.7 ns inside a bubble and for the final 0.6 ns in the liquid at the bubble wall. The liquid temperature at the bubble wall increases to about 360 K from 293 K at the final stage of the complete dissolution.

  4. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Strimbeck, G. Richard; Schaberg, Paul G.; Fossdal, Carl G.; Schröder, Wolfgang P.; Kjellsen, Trygve D.

    2015-01-01

    Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40°C and minimum temperatures below -60°C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature (ELT). Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at ELT: (1) Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to -30°C), preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. (2) High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. (3) Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane–membrane interactions. PMID:26539202

  5. High Temperature Polyimide Materials in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    At the end of the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) Program, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began a program to screen the high-temperature Polymeric Composite Materials (PMCs) characterized by the HSR Durability Program for possible use in Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) operating under extreme temperature conditions. The HSR Program focused on developing material-related technologies to enable a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) capable of operating temperatures ranging from 54 C (-65 F) to 177 C (350 F). A high-temperature polymeric resin, PETI-5 was used in the HSR Program to satisfy the requirements for performance and durability for a PMC. For RLVs, it was anticipated that this high temperature material would contribute to reducing the overall weight of a vehicle by eliminating or reducing the thermal protection required to protect the internal structural elements of the vehicle and increasing the structural strain limits. The tests were performed to determine temperature-dependent mechanical and physical proper-ties of IM7/PETI-5 composite over a temperature range from cryogenic temperature -253 C (-423F) to the material's maximum use temperature of 230 C (450 F). This paper presents results from the test program for the temperature-dependent mechanical and physical properties of IM7/PETI-5 composite in the temperature range from -253 C (-423 F) to 27 C (80 F).

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of extreme temperature frequency and amplitude in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanjie; Gao, Zhiqiu; Pan, Zaitao; Li, Dan; Huang, Xinhui

    2017-03-01

    Temperature extremes in China are examined based on daily maximum and minimum temperatures from station observations and multiple global climate models. The magnitude and frequency of extremes are expressed in terms of return values and periods, respectively, estimated by the fitted Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of annual extreme temperatures. The observations suggest that changes in temperature extremes considerably exceed changes in the respective climatological means during the past five decades, with greater amplitude of increases in cold extremes than in warm extremes. The frequency of warm (cold) extremes increases (decreases) over most areas, with an increasingly faster rate as the extremity level rises. Changes in warm extremes are more dependent on the varying shape of GEV distribution than the location shift, whereas changes in cold extremes are more closely associated with the location shift. The models simulate the overall pattern of temperature extremes during 1961-1981 reasonably well in China, but they show a smaller asymmetry between changes in warm and cold extremes primarily due to their underestimation of increases in cold extremes especially over southern China. Projections from a high emission scenario show the multi-model median change in warm and cold extremes by 2040 relative to 1971 will be 2.6 °C and 2.8 °C, respectively, with the strongest changes in cold extremes shifting southward. By 2040, warm extremes at the 1971 20-year return values would occur about every three years, while the 1971 cold extremes would occur once in > 500 years.

  7. Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-01-01

    The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate

  8. Mars 2050: Air Vehicles and Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.

    2017-02-01

    Technologies that lead to the development of air vehicles for Mars and deep drilling or rover access to the martian poles will enable pioneering exploration and science of the planet while also benefiting outer planet and ocean world missions.

  9. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  10. Trends in rainy season characteristics and temperature extremes over Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewes, C. F.; Gautier, C.; Jones, C.; Eakin, H.; Carvalho, L. V.

    2009-12-01

    There are significant uncertainties associated with the direction of change in climate patterns over Mexico. Many studies suggest that with global warming the country will experience impacts similar to those suffered during El Niño events, since a similar shift may occur in circulation regimes related to the North American Monsoon and also to sub-regional patterns such as the mid-summer drought. It is expected that the anomalously drier conditions experienced during El Niño events become a norm in the future. Also, in a scenario of higher mean temperatures, the occurrence of extreme temperature events becomes more likely. Heat waves can be devastating by themselves, but if they strike in the middle of a drought period, the effects of both are enhanced. Mexico is particularly vulnerable to climate variability, for its economy and population welfare are highly dependent on agriculture. The onset of the rainy season in spring and the occurrence of frost in fall are natural delimiters to the length of growing season. Intense precipitation mostly results in lixiviation of soil nutrients and high erosion rates, while moisture deficits and extremely high temperatures during crop flowering period can be detrimental to maize kernel development. In this study we will investigate the variability and trends of a set of indices that characterize the rainy season and the occurrence of extreme temperature events (Table 1). We will use daily precipitation (PPT) and maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature fields from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), in a sub-domain limited to Mexico, for the period 1979-2008. Daily Tmax and Tmin will be derived from 3-hourly outputs of air temperature at 2 m. All indices are seasonal and will be computed per grid point. However, the visualization of the temporal variability of these indices on a horizontal plane can be challenging. A regionalization procedure will therefore be tested. Regions delimited by coherent

  11. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will further impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes...

  12. Functional Recovery of Analog Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Neff, Joseph; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new reconfigurable analog array (RAA) architecture and integrated circuit (IC) used to map analog circuits that can adapt to extreme temperatures under programmable control. Algorithm-driven adaptation takes place on the RAA IC. The algorithms are implemented in a separate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) IC, co-located with the RAA in the extreme temperature environment. The experiments demonstrate circuit adaptation over a wide temperature range, from extremely low temperature of -180 C to high 120 C.

  13. Extreme Winter/Early-Spring Temperature Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Brakke, Thomas; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Glantz, Michael; Rogers, Jeff; Sud, Yogesh; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60 deg North Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18 C for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index 1na of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m/s in February 1990, but only 2.6 m/ s in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.

  14. Coaxial Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Harvey, Wayne L.; Valas, Sam; Tsai, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Work was conducted to validate the use of the rover external flexible coaxial cabling for space under the extreme environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The antennas must survive all ground operations plus the nominal 670-Martian-day mission that includes summer and winter seasons of the Mars environment. Successful development of processes established coaxial cable hardware fatigue limits, which were well beyond the expected in-flight exposures. In keeping with traditional qualification philosophy, this was accomplished by subjecting flight-representative coaxial cables to temperature cycling of the same depth as expected in-flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. Insertion loss and return loss tests were performed on the coaxial cables during the thermal chamber breaks. A vector network analyzer was calibrated and operated over the operational frequency range 7.145 to 8.450 GHz. Even though some of the exposed cables function only at UHF frequencies (approximately 400 MHz), the testing was more sensitive, and extending the test range down to 400 MHz would have cost frequency resolution. The Gore flexible coaxial cables, which were the subject of these tests, proved to be robust and displayed no sign of degradation due to the 3X exposure to the punishing Mars surface operations cycles.

  15. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  16. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  17. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  3. Representing Extreme Temperature Events and Resolving Their Implications for Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, P. J.; Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Although it is well recognized that extreme temperatures occurring at particular growth stages are destructive to yield, there appears substantial scope for improved empirical assessment and simulation of the relationship between temperature and yield. Several anecdotes are discussed. First, a statistical analysis of historical U.S. extreme temperatures is provided. It is demonstrated that both reanalysis and model simulations significantly differ from near-surface temperature observations in the frequency and magnitude of extremes. This finding supports empirical assessment using near-surface instrumental records and underscores present difficulties in simulating past and predicting future changes. Second, an analysis of the implications of extreme temperatures on U.S. maize yield is provided where the response is resolved regionally and according to growth stage. Sensitivity to extreme temperatures during silking is found to be uniformly high across the U.S., but the response during grain filling varies spatially, with higher sensitivity in the North. This regional and growth-stage dependent sensitivity implies the importance of representing cultivar, planting times, and development rates, and is also indicative of the potential for future changes according to the combined effects of climate and technology. Finally, interaction between extreme temperatures and agriculture is indicated by analysis showing that historical extreme temperatures in the U.S. Midwest have cooled in relation to changes in regional productivity, possibly because of greater potential for cooling through evapotranspiration. This interpretation is consistent with changes in crop physiology and management, though also noteworthy is that the moderating influence of increased evapotranspiration on extreme temperatures appears to be lost during severe drought. Together, these findings indicate that a more accurate assessment of the historical relationship between extreme temperatures and yield

  4. Transcriptomes of seeds germinating at temperature extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature stress on plants is defined as any drop (cold stress) or rise (heat stress) in temperature that causes reversible or irreversible inactivation of physiological processes or lethal injury in plants. In general each plant has an optimum temperature to grow and develop and any deviation tha...

  5. Extreme weather and air pollution effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N

    2016-01-15

    In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased extreme temperatures, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (air mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate air pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two air mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate air pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Temperature, temperature extremes, and mortality: a study of acclimatisation and effect modification in 50 US cities

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Ramón, M; Schwartz, J

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The authors examined the increase in mortality associated with hot and cold temperature in different locations, the determinants of the variability in effect estimates, and its implications for adaptation. Methods The authors conducted a case-crossover study in 50 US cities. They used daily mortality and weather data for 6 513 330 deaths occurring during 1989–2000. Exposure was assessed using two approaches. First, the authors determined exposure to extreme temperatures using city-specific indicator variables based on the local temperature distribution. Secondly, they used piecewise linear variables to assess exposure to temperature on a continuous scale above/below a threshold. Effects of hot and cold temperature were examined in season-specific models. In a meta-analysis of the city-specific results, the authors examined several city characteristics as effect modifiers. Results Mortality increases associated with both extreme cold (2-day cumulative increase 1.59% (95% CI 0.56 to 2.63)) and extreme heat (5.74% (95% CI 3.38 to 8.15)) were found, the former being especially marked for myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest deaths. The increase in mortality was less marked at less extreme temperatures. The effect of extreme cold (defined as a percentile) was homogeneous across cities with different climates, suggesting that only the unusualness of the cold temperature (and not its absolute value) had a substantial impact on mortality (that is, acclimatisation to cold). Conversely, heat effects were quite heterogeneous, with the largest effects observed in cities with milder summers, less air conditioning and higher population density. Adjustment for ozone led to similar results, but some residual confounding could be present due to other uncontrolled pollutants. Conclusions The authors confirmed in a large sample of cities that both cold and hot temperatures increase mortality risk. These findings suggest that increases in heat-related mortality

  7. [Sports and extreme conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and extreme temperatures (heat, cold)].

    PubMed

    Melin, B; Savourey, G

    2001-06-30

    During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body temperature and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 130 mEq/L) which is also a serious accident. Heat environment increases the thermal constraint and when the air humidity is high, evaporation of sweat is compromise. Thus, thermal stress becomes uncompensable which increases the risk of cardiovascular collapse. Cold exposure induces physiological responses to maintain internal temperature by both limiting thermal losses and increasing metabolic heat production. Cold can induce accidental hypothermia and local frost-bites; moreover, it increases the risk of arrhythmia during exercise. Some guidelines (cardiovascular fitness, water and electrolyte intakes, protective clothing) are given for each extreme condition.

  8. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  9. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  10. Ultrasonic transducer for extreme temperature environments

    DOEpatents

    Light, Glenn M.; Cervantes, Richard A.; Alcazar, David G.

    1993-03-23

    An ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer that is operable in very high and very low temperatures. The transducer has a dual housing structure that isolates the expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element from the expansion and contraction of the housing. Also, the internal components are made from materials having similar coefficients of expansion so that they do not interfere with the motion of the piezoelectric element.

  11. Trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, Abayomi A.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Akande, Samuel O.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Gutowski, William J.

    2017-01-01

    In recent times, Ibadan has been experiencing an increase in mean temperature which appears to be linked to anthropogenic global warming. Previous studies have indicated that the warming may be accompanied by changes in extreme events. This study examined trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan during 1971-2012 at annual and seasonal scales using the high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth-century dataset (ERA-20C) at 15 grid points. Magnitudes of linear trends in mean and extreme temperatures and their statistical significance were calculated using ordinary least squares and Mann-Kendall rank statistic tests. The results show that Ibadan has witnessed an increase in annual and seasonal mean minimum temperatures. The annual mean maximum temperature exhibited a non-significant decline in most parts of Ibadan. While trends in cold extremes at annual scale show warming, trends in coldest night show greater warming than in coldest day. At the seasonal scale, we found that Ibadan experienced a mix of positive and negative trends in absolute extreme temperature indices. However, cold extremes show the largest trend magnitudes, with trends in coldest night showing the greatest warming. The results compare well with those obtained from a limited number of stations. This study should inform decision-makers and urban planners about the ongoing warming in Ibadan.

  12. Estimating the extreme low-temperature event using nonparametric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Silva, Anisha

    This thesis presents a new method of estimating the one-in-N low temperature threshold using a non-parametric statistical method called kernel density estimation applied to daily average wind-adjusted temperatures. We apply our One-in-N Algorithm to local gas distribution companies (LDCs), as they have to forecast the daily natural gas needs of their consumers. In winter, demand for natural gas is high. Extreme low temperature events are not directly related to an LDCs gas demand forecasting, but knowledge of extreme low temperatures is important to ensure that an LDC has enough capacity to meet customer demands when extreme low temperatures are experienced. We present a detailed explanation of our One-in-N Algorithm and compare it to the methods using the generalized extreme value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution. We show that our One-in-N Algorithm estimates the one-in- N low temperature threshold more accurately than the methods using the generalized extreme value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution according to root mean square error (RMSE) measure at a 5% level of significance. The One-in- N Algorithm is tested by counting the number of times the daily average wind-adjusted temperature is less than or equal to the one-in- N low temperature threshold.

  13. Temperature extremes produced orally by hot and cold liquids.

    PubMed

    Palmer, D S; Barco, M T; Billy, E J

    1992-03-01

    Thermocycling in vitro is a common way of testing dental materials to aid in establishing suitability for in vivo use. There is no standard temperature range for dental material thermocycling. This research attempts to establish an appropriate temperature range by measuring extremes of temperature achieved orally in human volunteer subjects. By using an intraoral digital thermometer probe, 13 human subjects were observed as they drank very hot and cold liquids. The temperature extremes produced intraorally were measured and adjusted for possible error. The results of this study suggest that a range of 0 degrees to 67 degrees C may be appropriate for dental material thermocycling.

  14. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2016-03-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  15. The Relationship Between Air Temperature and Stream Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the relationship, both linear and non-linear, between air temperature and stream temperature in order to determine if air temperature can be used as an accurate predictor of stream temperature, if general relationships could be developed that apply to a large number of streams, and how changes in stream temperature associated with climate variability or climate warming might affect the dissolved oxygen level, and thus the quality of life, in some of these streams. Understanding the relationship between air temperature and water temperature is important if we want to predict how stream temperatures are likely to respond to the increase in surface air temperature that is occurring. Data from over 50 streams in 13 countries, mostly gathered by K-12 students in the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment), are examined. Only a few streams display a linear 1:1 air/water temperature trend. The majority of streams instead show an increase in water temperature of about 0.6 to 0.8 degrees for every 1-degree increase in air temperature. At some of these sites, where dissolved oxygen content is already low, an increase in summer stream temperatures of 2-3 degrees could cause the dissolved oxygen levels to fall into a critically low range. At some locations, such as near the source of a stream, water temperature does not change much despite wide ranges in air temperatures. The temperatures at these sites are likely to be least affected by surface warming. More data are needed in warmer climates, where the water temperature already gets above 25oC, in order to better examine the air/water temperature relationship under warmer conditions. Global average surface air temperature is expected to increase by 3-5oC by the middle of this century. Surface water temperature in streams, lakes and wetlands will likely increase as air temperature increases, although the change in water temperature may not be as large as the change in

  16. Extreme atmospheric electron densities created by extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, Casper; Camporeale, Enrico; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia

    2016-04-01

    A sufficient density of free electrons and strong electric fields are the basic requirements to start any electrical discharge. In the context of thunderstorm discharges it has become clear that in addition droplets and or ice particles are required to enhance the electric field to values above breakdown. In our recent study [1] we have shown that these three ingredients have to interplay to allow for lightning inception, triggered by an extensive air shower event. The extensive air showers are a very stochastic natural phenomenon, creating highly coherent bursts of extreme electron density in our atmosphere. Predicting these electron density bursts accurately one has to take the uncertainty of the input variables into account. To this end we use uncertainty quantification methods, like in [2], to post-process our detailed Monte Carlo extensive air shower simulations, done with the CORSIKA [3] software package, which provides an efficient and elegant way to determine the distribution of the atmospheric electron density enhancements. We will present the latest results. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, E., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., and Trinh, G. T. N. "Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive Air Showers." PRL 115 015002 (2015) [2] G.J.A. Loeven, J.A.S. Witteveen, H. Bijl, Probabilistic collocation: an efficient nonintrusive approach for arbitrarily distributed parametric uncertainties, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 2007, AIAA-2007-317 [3] Heck, Dieter, et al. CORSIKA: A Monte Carlo code to simulate extensive air showers. No. FZKA-6019. 1998.

  17. Thermal Evaluation of Fiber Bragg Gratings at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergens, Jeffrey; Adamovsky, Grigory; Bhatt, Ramakrishna; Morscher, Gregory; Floyd, Bertram

    2005-01-01

    The development of integrated fiber optic sensors for use in aerospace health monitoring systems demands that the sensors be able to perform in extreme environments. In order to use fiber optic sensors effectively in an extreme environment one must have a thorough understanding of the sensor's capabilities, limitations, and performance under extreme environmental conditions. This paper reports on our current sensor evaluation examining the performance of freestanding fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) at extreme temperatures. While the ability of FBGs to survive at extreme temperatures has been established, their performance and long term survivability is not well documented. At extreme temperatures the grating structure would be expected to dissipate, degrading the sensors performance and eventually ceasing to return a detectable signal. The fiber jacket will dissipate leaving a brittle, unprotected fiber. For FBGs to be used in aerospace systems their performance and limitations need to be thoroughly understood at extreme temperatures. As the limits of the FBGs performance are pushed the long term survivability and performance of the sensor comes into question. We will not only examine the ability of FBGs to survive extreme temperatures but also look at their performance during many thermal cycles. This paper reports on test results of the performance of thermal cycling commercially available FBGs, at temperatures up to 1000 C, seen in aerospace applications. Additionally this paper will report on the performance of commercially available FBGs held at 1000 C for hundreds of hours. Throughout the evaluation process, various parameters of the FBGs performance were monitored and recorded. Several test samples were subjected to identical test conditions to allow for statistical analysis of the data. Test procedures, calibrations, referencing techniques, performance data, and interpretations and explanations of results are presented in the paper along with directions for

  18. Climate Change and Health Risks from Extreme Heat and Air Pollution in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, V.; Vargo, J.; Harkey, M.; Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Patz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate health risks from exposure to extreme heat and air pollution through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Directly, warmer ambient temperatures promote biogenic emissions of ozone precursors and favor the formation of ground-level ozone, while an anticipated increase in the frequency of stagnant air masses will allow fine particulates to accumulate. Indirectly, warmer summertime temperatures stimulate energy demand and exacerbate polluting emissions from the electricity sector. Thus, while technological adaptations such as air conditioning can reduce risks from exposures to extreme heat, they can trigger downstream damage to air quality and public health. Through an interdisciplinary modeling effort, we quantify the impacts of climate change on ambient temperatures, summer energy demand, air quality, and public health. The first phase of this work explores how climate change will directly impact the burden of heat-related mortality. Climatic patterns, demographic trends, and epidemiologic risk models suggest that populations in the eastern United States are likely to experience an increasing heat stress mortality burden in response to rising summertime air temperatures. We use North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program modeling data to estimate mid-century 2-meter air temperatures and humidity across the eastern US from June-August, and quantify how long-term changes in actual and apparent temperatures from present-day will affect the annual burden of heat-related mortality across this region. With the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, we estimate health risks using concentration-response functions, which relate temperature increases to changes in annual mortality rates. We compare mid-century summertime temperature data, downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, to 2007 baseline temperatures at a 12 km resolution in order to estimate

  19. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  20. Influence of spatial and temporal scales in identifying temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Mulder, Vera L.; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    Extreme heat events are becoming more frequent. Notable are severe heatwaves such as the European heatwave of 2003, the Russian heat wave of 2010 and the Australian heatwave of 2013. Surface temperature is attaining new maxima not only during the summer but also during the winter. The year of 2015 is reported to be a temperature record breaking year for both summer and winter. These extreme temperatures are taking their human and environmental toll, emphasizing the need for an accurate method to define a heat extreme in order to fully understand the spatial and temporal spread of an extreme and its impact. This research aims to explore how the use of different spatial and temporal scales influences the identification of a heat extreme. For this purpose, two near-surface temperature datasets of different temporal scale and spatial scale are being used. First, the daily ERA-Interim dataset of 0.25 degree and a time span of 32 years (1979-2010). Second, the daily Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset of 0.5 degree and a time span of 63 years (1948-2010). A temperature is considered extreme anomalous when it is surpassing the 90th, 95th, or the 99th percentile threshold based on the aforementioned pre-processed datasets. The analysis is conducted on a global scale, dividing the world in IPCC's so-called SREX regions developed for the analysis of extreme climate events. Pre-processing is done by detrending and/or subtracting the monthly climatology based on 32 years of data for both datasets and on 63 years of data for only the Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset. This results in 6 datasets of temperature anomalies from which the location in time and space of the anomalous warm days are identified. Comparison of the differences between these 6 datasets in terms of absolute threshold temperatures for extremes and the temporal and spatial spread of the extreme anomalous warm days show a dependence of the results on the datasets and methodology used. This stresses

  1. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    DOE PAGES

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; ...

    2015-05-22

    This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature extremes. Our specific focus is upon extreme events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic tomore » planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in extreme temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so

  2. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun -Young; Lim, Young -Kwon; Prabhat, -

    2015-05-22

    This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to temperature extremes. Our specific focus is upon extreme events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in extreme temperatures. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so more

  3. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas.

  4. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950-2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  5. Lack of Dependence of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Extremes on Temperature: An Observational Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vittal, H.; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar; Pathak, Amey; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of precipitation extremes in a warming world has been reported on a global scale and is traditionally explained with the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation. The relationship is observed to be valid in mid-latitudes; however, the debate persists in tropical monsoon regions, with the extremes of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) being a prime example. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the dependence of ISMR extremes on both the 2 m surface air temperature over India and on the sea surface temperature over the tropical Indian Ocean. Remarkably, the ISMR extremes exhibit no significant association with temperature at either spatial scale: neither aggregated over the entire India/Tropical Indian Ocean area nor at the grid levels. We find that the theoretical C-C relation overestimates the positive changes in precipitation extremes, which is also reflected in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We emphasize that the changing patterns of extremes over the Indian subcontinent need a scientific re-evaluation, which is possible due to availability of the unique long-term in-situ data. This can aid bias correction of model projections of extremes whose value for climate adaptation can hardly be overemphasized, especially for the developing tropical countries. PMID:27485661

  6. Lack of Dependence of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Extremes on Temperature: An Observational Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittal, H.; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar; Pathak, Amey; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-08-01

    The intensification of precipitation extremes in a warming world has been reported on a global scale and is traditionally explained with the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation. The relationship is observed to be valid in mid-latitudes; however, the debate persists in tropical monsoon regions, with the extremes of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) being a prime example. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the dependence of ISMR extremes on both the 2 m surface air temperature over India and on the sea surface temperature over the tropical Indian Ocean. Remarkably, the ISMR extremes exhibit no significant association with temperature at either spatial scale: neither aggregated over the entire India/Tropical Indian Ocean area nor at the grid levels. We find that the theoretical C-C relation overestimates the positive changes in precipitation extremes, which is also reflected in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We emphasize that the changing patterns of extremes over the Indian subcontinent need a scientific re-evaluation, which is possible due to availability of the unique long-term in-situ data. This can aid bias correction of model projections of extremes whose value for climate adaptation can hardly be overemphasized, especially for the developing tropical countries.

  7. Lack of Dependence of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall Extremes on Temperature: An Observational Evidence.

    PubMed

    Vittal, H; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar; Pathak, Amey; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-08-03

    The intensification of precipitation extremes in a warming world has been reported on a global scale and is traditionally explained with the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation. The relationship is observed to be valid in mid-latitudes; however, the debate persists in tropical monsoon regions, with the extremes of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) being a prime example. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the dependence of ISMR extremes on both the 2 m surface air temperature over India and on the sea surface temperature over the tropical Indian Ocean. Remarkably, the ISMR extremes exhibit no significant association with temperature at either spatial scale: neither aggregated over the entire India/Tropical Indian Ocean area nor at the grid levels. We find that the theoretical C-C relation overestimates the positive changes in precipitation extremes, which is also reflected in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We emphasize that the changing patterns of extremes over the Indian subcontinent need a scientific re-evaluation, which is possible due to availability of the unique long-term in-situ data. This can aid bias correction of model projections of extremes whose value for climate adaptation can hardly be overemphasized, especially for the developing tropical countries.

  8. High temperature extremes in the Czech Republic 1961-2010 and their synoptic variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriánová, A.; Crhová, L.; Holtanová, E.; Kašpar, M.; Müller, M.; Pecho, J.

    2017-01-01

    Our research focuses on the analysis of extreme high maximum air temperature events (EXHTEs) in the Czech Republic in the period 1961-2010, their climatological characteristics, and on the identification of synoptic-scale circulation conditions conductive to them. EXHTEs are detected using the Weather Extremity Index (WEI) combining return periods of daily maximum air temperature, duration of events, and the extent of the affected area. We selected 37 EXHTEs as non-overlapping periods with the highest WEI. Some long EXHTEs were divided into several shorter synoptically homogeneous episodes. Using the two-level divisive clustering of 700 hPa air temperature and wind field anomalies, we obtained four main variants of synoptic-scale circulation conditions. The most frequent variant associated with extreme episodes is characterized by a westerly flow connected with a high pressure ridge extending northeastward from North Africa over Central Europe or with an anticyclone centered over the Central Mediterranean. The most extreme episodes occurred during the variant characterized by an easterly flow between a high pressure area to the northeast and a low pressure area to the southeast.

  9. Temperature Variations Recorded During Interinstitutional Air Shipments of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during air shipments, we recorded temperatures at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high temperatures (greater than 29.4 °C), 14.6% to low temperatures (less than 7.2 °C), and 61% to temperature variations of 11 °C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience temperature extremes and large variations in temperature. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced temperature extremes or variations. Temperature variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight temperature extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low temperatures, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold temperatures that are suitable for rodents, could reduce temperature-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient temperatures during airport stopovers. PMID:18210996

  10. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  11. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  12. Evaluation of dynamically downscaled extreme temperature using a spatially-aggregated generalized extreme value (GEV) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiali; Han, Yuefeng; Stein, Michael L.; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Huang, Whitney K.

    2016-11-01

    The weather research and forecast (WRF) model downscaling skill in extreme maximum daily temperature is evaluated by using the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. While the GEV distribution has been used extensively in climatology and meteorology for estimating probabilities of extreme events, accurately estimating GEV parameters based on data from a single pixel can be difficult, even with fairly long data records. This work proposes a simple method assuming that the shape parameter, the most difficult of the three parameters to estimate, does not vary over a relatively large region. This approach is applied to evaluate 31-year WRF-downscaled extreme maximum temperature through comparison with North American regional reanalysis (NARR) data. Uncertainty in GEV parameter estimates and the statistical significance in the differences of estimates between WRF and NARR are accounted for by conducting a novel bootstrap procedure that makes no assumption of temporal or spatial independence within a year, which is especially important for climate data. Despite certain biases over parts of the United States, overall, WRF shows good agreement with NARR in the spatial pattern and magnitudes of GEV parameter estimates. Both WRF and NARR show a significant increase in extreme maximum temperature over the southern Great Plains and southeastern United States in January and over the western United States in July. The GEV model shows clear benefits from the regionally constant shape parameter assumption, for example, leading to estimates of the location and scale parameters of the model that show coherent spatial patterns.

  13. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  14. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  15. Electronic Components for use in Extreme Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power management and control systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electronics that are capable of efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. Space-based infra-red satellites, all-electric ships, jet engines, electromagnetic launchers, magnetic levitation transport systems, and power facilities are also typical examples where the electronics are expected to be exposed to harsh temperatures and to operate under severe thermal swings. Most commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are not designed to function under such extreme conditions and, therefore, new parts must be developed or the conventional devices need to be modified. For example, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. At the other end, built-in radiators and coolers render the operation of electronics possible under hot conditions. These thermal measures lead to design complexity, affect development costs, and increase size and weight. Electronics capable of operation at extreme temperatures, thus, will not only tolerate the hostile operational environment, but also make the overall system efficient, more reliable, and less expensive. The Extreme Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices, including COTS parts, for potential use under extreme temperatures. These components include semiconductor switching devices, passive devices, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators. An overview of the program will be presented along with some experimental findings.

  16. High northern latitude temperature extremes, 1400-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, M. P.; Huybers, P.; Hughen, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is often an interest in determining which interval features the most extreme value of a reconstructed climate field, such as the warmest year or decade in a temperature reconstruction. Previous approaches to this type of question have not fully accounted for the spatial and temporal covariance in the climate field when assessing the significance of extreme values. Here we present results from applying BARSAT, a new, Bayesian approach to reconstructing climate fields, to a 600 year multiproxy temperature data set that covers land areas between 45N and 85N. The end result of the analysis is an ensemble of spatially and temporally complete realizations of the temperature field, each of which is consistent with the observations and the estimated values of the parameters that define the assumed spatial and temporal covariance functions. In terms of the spatial average temperature, 1990-1999 was the warmest decade in the 1400-1999 interval in each of 2000 ensemble members, while 1995 was the warmest year in 98% of the ensemble members. A similar analysis at each node of a regular 5 degree grid gives insight into the spatial distribution of warm temperatures, and reveals that 1995 was anomalously warm in Eurasia, whereas 1998 featured extreme warmth in North America. In 70% of the ensemble members, 1601 featured the coldest spatial average, indicating that the eruption of Huaynaputina in Peru in 1600 (with a volcanic explosivity index of 6) had a major cooling impact on the high northern latitudes. Repeating this analysis at each node reveals the varying impacts of major volcanic eruptions on the distribution of extreme cooling. Finally, we use the ensemble to investigate extremes in the time evolution of centennial temperature trends, and find that in more than half the ensemble members, the greatest rate of change in the spatial mean time series was a cooling centered at 1600. The largest rate of centennial scale warming, however, occurred in the 20th Century in

  17. Resilience of a High Latitude Red Sea Frining Corals Exposed to Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, M.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, S.; Moustafa, Z. D.

    2013-05-01

    Since 2004, multi-year study set out to establish linkages between fringing coral reefs in the northern Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, and local weather. Insight into local meteorological processes may provide a better understanding of the direct influence weather has on a fringing coral reef. To establish trends, seawater temperature and meteorological record were collected at a small fringing coral reef (Zaki's Reef), located near Ein Sokhna, Egypt (29.5oN & 32.4oE). Monitoring air and water temperature provides evidence of seasonality and interannual variability and may reveal correlations between reef health and climate conditions in this region. Prior to this study, there were no known long-term studies investigating coral reefs in this region. Approximately 35 coral taxa are known to survive the extreme temperature and salinity regime found here, yet only six corals compose 94% of coral cover on Zaki's Reef. Dominant corals include: Acropora humilis, A. microclados, A. hemprichii, Litophyton arboretum, Stylophora pistillata, Porites columna, and P. plantulata. Seawater temperatures were collected at 30 minutes intervals at 5 locations. Seawater temperature data indicate that corals experience 4-6.5oC daily temperature variations and seasonal variations that exceed 29oC. Air temperatures were collected just landward of the reef were compared to Hurghada and Ismailia 400 and 200 km south and north of the study site, respectively. Time series analysis results indicate that air temperature dominant frequencies are half-daily, daily, and yearly cycles, while water temperatures show yearly cycles. A comparison of air temperature with neighboring locations indicates that air temperatures at Ein Sokhna ranged between near 0o C to an excess of 55o C, yet, daily means for Ein Sokhna and Hurghada were very similar (24.2o C and. 25.2o C, respectively). Maximum daily air temperatures at the study site exceeded maximum air temperature at Hurghada (400 km south) by almost 7o C

  18. Trends in rainfall and temperature extremes in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomsi, K.; Mahe, G.; Tramblay, Y.; Sinan, M.; Snoussi, M.

    2015-02-01

    In Morocco, socioeconomic fields are vulnerable to weather extreme events. This work aims to analyze the frequency and the trends of temperature and rainfall extreme events in two contrasted Moroccan regions (the Tensift in the semi-arid South, and the Bouregreg in the sub-humid North), during the second half of the 20th century. This study considers long time series of daily extreme temperatures and rainfall, recorded in the stations of Marrakech and Safi for the Tensift region, and Kasba-Tadla and Rabat-Sale for the Bouregreg region, data from four other stations (Tanger, Fes, Agadir and Ouarzazate) from outside the regions were added. Extremes are defined by using as thresholds the 1st, 5th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. Results show upward trends in maximum and minimum temperatures of both regions and no generalized trends in rainfall amounts. Changes in cold events are larger than those for warm events, and the number of very cold events decrease significantly in the whole studied area. The southern region is the most affected with the changes of the temperature regime. Most of the trends found in rainfall heavy events are positive with weak magnitudes even though no statistically significant generalized trends could be identified during both seasons.

  19. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  20. Assessment of climate variations in temperature and precipitation extreme events over Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, M.; Laux, P.; Kunstmann, H.; Stan, K.; Sohrabi, M. M.; Molanejad, M.; Sabziparvar, A. A.; Ranjbar SaadatAbadi, A.; Ranjbar, F.; Rousta, I.; Zawar-Reza, P.; Khoshakhlagh, F.; Soltanzadeh, I.; Babu, C. A.; Azizi, G. H.; Martin, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of climate extreme indices were analyzed. Daily maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, and their association with climate change were used as the basis for tracking changes at 50 meteorological stations in Iran over the period 1975-2010. Sixteen indices of extreme temperature and 11 indices of extreme precipitation, which have been quality controlled and tested for homogeneity and missing data, are examined. Temperature extremes show a warming trend, with a large proportion of stations having statistically significant trends for all temperature indices. Over the last 15 years (1995-2010), the annual frequency of warm days and nights has increased by 12 and 14 days/decade, respectively. The number of cold days and nights has decreased by 4 and 3 days/decade, respectively. The annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures averaged across Iran both increased by 0.031 and 0.059 °C/decade. The probability of cold nights has gradually decreased from more than 20 % in 1975-1986 to less than 15 % in 1999-2010, whereas the mean frequency of warm days has increased abruptly between the first 12-year period (1975-1986) and the recent 12-year period (1999-2010) from 18 to 40 %, respectively. There are no systematic regional trends over the study period in total precipitation or in the frequency and duration of extreme precipitation events. Statistically significant trends in extreme precipitation events are observed at less than 15 % of all weather stations, with no spatially coherent pattern of change, whereas statistically significant changes in extreme temperature events have occurred at more than 85 % of all weather stations, forming strongly coherent spatial patterns.

  1. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  2. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  3. Parameterization of air sea gas fluxes at extreme wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Craig; D'Asaro, Eric

    2007-06-01

    Air-sea flux measurements of O 2 and N 2 obtained during Hurricane Frances in September 2004 [D'Asaro, E. A. and McNeil, C. L., 2006. Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at extreme wind speeds. Journal Marine Systems, this edition.] using air-deployed neutrally buoyant floats reveal the first evidence of a new regime of air-sea gas transfer occurring at wind speeds in excess of 35 m s - 1 . In this regime, plumes of bubbles 1 mm and smaller in size are transported down from near the surface of the ocean to greater depths by vertical turbulent currents with speeds up to 20-30 cm s - 1 . These bubble plumes mostly dissolve before reaching a depth of approximately 20 m as a result of hydrostatic compression. Injection of air into the ocean by this mechanism results in the invasion of gases in proportion to their tropospheric molar gas ratios, and further supersaturation of less soluble gases. A new formulation for air-sea fluxes of weakly soluble gases as a function of wind speed is proposed to extend existing formulations [Woolf, D.K, 1997. Bubbles and their role in gas exchange. In: Liss, P.S., and Duce, R.A., (Eds.), The Sea Surface and Global Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 173-205.] to span the entire natural range of wind speeds over the open ocean, which includes hurricanes. The new formulation has separate contributions to air-sea gas flux from: 1) non-supersaturating near-surface equilibration processes, which include direct transfer associated with the air-sea interface and ventilation associated with surface wave breaking; 2) partial dissolution of bubbles smaller than 1 mm that mix into the ocean via turbulence; and 3) complete dissolution of bubbles of up to 1 mm in size via subduction of bubble plumes. The model can be simplified by combining "surface equilibration" terms that allow exchange of gases into and out of the ocean, and "gas injection" terms that only allow gas to enter the ocean. The model was tested against the

  4. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOEpatents

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  5. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    DOEpatents

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Glorieux, Benoit

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  6. Temperature Tunable Air-Gap Etalon Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experimental measurements of a temperature tuned air-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits temperature dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.

  7. Changes in Extreme Warm and Cold Temperatures Associated with 20th Century Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Has 20thcentury global warming resulted in increases of extreme warm temperatures and decreases of extreme cold temperatures around the globe? One would certainly expect this to be so if the changes in the extreme temperature probabilities were determined only by the mean shift and not by changes in the width and/or shape of the temperature distribution. In reality, however, the latter two effects could also be important. Even ignoring changes of shape, it is easily shown that a 25% reduction of standard deviation, for example, can completely offset the effect of a mean positive shift of 0.5 standardized units on the probabilities of extreme positive values. A 25% increase of standard deviation can similarly offset the effect of the mean shift on the probabilities of extreme negative values. It is possible for such changes of standard deviation to occur in regions of large circulation and storminess changes associated with global warming. With this caveat in mind, we have investigated the change in probability of extreme weekly-averaged near-surface air temperatures, in both winter and summer, from the first half-century (1901-1950) to the last half-century (1960-2009) of the 1901 to 2009 period. We have done this using two newly available global atmospheric datasets (ERA-20C and 20CR-v2c) and large ensembles of global coupled climate model simulations of this period, plus very large ensembles of uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of our own. The results are revealing. In the tropics, the changes in the extreme warm and cold temperature probabilities are indeed generally consistent with those expected from the mean shift of the distribution. Outside the tropics, however, they are generally significantly inconsistent with the mean temperature shift, with many regions showing little or no change in the positive temperature extremes and in some instances even a decrease. In such regions, it is clear that the change in the temperature standard deviation is

  8. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  9. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  10. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  11. North American extreme temperature events and related large scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Mike; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun-Young; Lim, Young-Kwon; Prabhat

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to temperature extremes, with a focus upon extreme events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperature events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.

  12. Anthropogenic influence on the frequency of extreme temperatures in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunhui; Sun, Ying; Wan, Hui; Zhang, Xuebin; Yin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic influence on the frequencies of warm days, cold days, warm nights, and cold nights are detected in the observations of Chinese temperature data covering 1958-2002. We used an optimal fingerprinting method to compare these temperature indices computed from a newly homogenized observational data set with those from simulations conducted with multiple climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. We found the clear anthropogenic signals in the observational records of frequency changes in warm and cold days and nights. We also found that the models appear to be doing a better job in simulating the observed frequencies of daytime extremes than nighttime extremes. The model-simulated variability appears to be consistent with that of the observations, providing confidence on the detection results. Additionally, the anthropogenic signal can be clearly detected at subnational scales, with detectable human influence found in Eastern and Western China separately.

  13. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  14. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Reticle storage in microenvironments with extreme clean dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, Astrid; Glüer, Detlev; Honold, Alfred

    2012-11-01

    Haze formation on the patterned metal surface of reticles is a known problem for IC manufacturers that can impact device yield and increase operational costs due to the need for more frequent cleaning of the reticles. Storage of reticles in an ultraclean environment can reduce haze formation and reduce operational costs. We examined the contamination levels of a new type of reticle stocker that stores reticles in microenvironments which are continuously purged with extreme clean dry air (XCDA). Each microenvironment consists of twelve vertically stacked reticle storage slots which can be opened at any slot. The design of the microenvironment includes an XCDA supply that provides a homogeneous horizontal flow of XCDA between the reticles. Figure 1. Reduction of contamination levels inside the storage microenvironment as a function of XCDA flow rate. As shown in Fig. 1, continuous XCDA purge reduces the contaminant levels inside the microenvironment. The amount of reduction depends on the XCDA purge flow rate and the chemical species. Volatile organic substances can be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Humidity is reduced less because the plastic material of the storage microenvironment incorporates water in its matrix and can release moisture to the extremely dry atmosphere. Chemical filters applied to mini- or microenvironments typically reduce the contaminant levels only by 95-99% and do not reduce the humidity. To pick and place reticles, the reticle storage microenvironment must be opened. The transient contaminant levels inside the empty microenvironment show an increase at the moment when the microenvironment is opened. Under the given conditions, the microenvironment returns to equilibrium levels with a time constant of 105 seconds (see Fig. 2). Similar dynamic response was measured for IPA and acetone. Figure 2. Transient humidity when the storage microenvironment was opened for reticle handling. The impact of handling on reticles stored inside

  16. Changes in the frequency of extreme air pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Fang, Y.; Staehelin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past few decades, thresholds for national air quality standards, intended to protect public health and welfare, have been lowered repeatedly. At the same time observations, over Europe and the Eastern U.S., demonstrate that extreme air pollution events (high O3 and PM2.5) are typically associated with stagnation events. Recent work showed that in a changing climate high air pollution events are likely to increase in frequency and duration. Within this work we examine meteorological and surface ozone observations from CASTNet over the U.S. and EMEP over Europe and "idealized" simulations with the GFDL AM3 chemistry-climate model, which isolate the role of climate change on air quality. Specifically, we examine an "idealized 1990s" simulation, forced with 20-year mean monthly climatologies for sea surface temperatures and sea ice from observations for 1981-2000, and an "idealized 2090s" simulation forced by the observed climatologies plus the multi-model mean changes in sea surface temperature and sea ice simulated by 19 IPCC AR-4 models under the A1B scenario for 2081-2100. With innovative statistical tools (empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and statistics of extremes (EVT)), we analyze the frequency distribution of past, present and future extreme air pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe. The upper tail of observed values at individual stations (e.g., within the CASTNet), i.e., the extremes (maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O3>60ppb) are poorly described by a Gaussian distribution. However, further analysis showed that applying Peak-Over-Threshold-models, better capture the extremes and allows us to estimate return levels of pollution events above certain threshold values of interest. We next apply EOF analysis to identify regions that vary coherently within the ground-based monitoring networks. Over the United States, the first EOF obtained from the model in both the 1990s and 2090s idealized simulations identifies the

  17. Extreme High-Temperature Events: Changes in their probabilities with Changes in Mean Temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, Linda O.; Katz, Richard W.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    1984-12-01

    Most climate impact studies rely on changes in means of meteorological variables, such as temperature, to estimate potential climate impacts, including effects on agricultural production. However, extreme meteorological events, say, a short period of abnormally high temperatures, can have a significant harmful effect on crop growth and final yield. The characteristics of daily temperature time series, specifically mean, variance and autocorrelation, are analyzed to determine possible ranges of probabilities of certain extreme temperature events [e.g., runs of consecutive daily maximum temperatures of at least 95°F (35°C)] with changes in mean temperature of the time series. The extreme temperature events considered are motivated primarily by agricultural concerns, particularly, the effects of high temperatures on corn yields in the U.S. Corn Belt. However, runs of high temperatures can also affect, for example, energy demand or morbidity and mortality of animals and humans.The relationships between changes in mean temperature and the corresponding changes in the probabilities of these extreme temperature events are quite nonlinear, with relatively small changes in mean temperature sometimes resulting in relatively large changes in event probabilities. In particular, the likelihood of occurrence of a run of five consecutive daily maximum temperatures of at least 95°F under a 3°F (1.7°C) increase in the mean (holding the variance and autocorrelation constant) is about three times greater than that under the current climate at Des Moines, Moreover, by allowing either the variance or the autocorrelation as well as the mean to change, this likelihood of a run event varies over a relatively wide range of values. These changes in the probabilities of extreme events need to be taken into consideration in order to obtain realistic estimates of the impact of climate changes such as increases in mean temperature that may arise from increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

  18. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  19. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  20. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  1. Synthesis and microdiffraction at extreme pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Meng, Yue

    2013-10-07

    High pressure compounds and polymorphs are investigated for a broad range of purposes such as determine structures and processes of deep planetary interiors, design materials with novel properties, understand the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to very high stresses as in explosions or impacts. Synthesis and structural analysis of materials at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature entails remarkable technical challenges. In the laser heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC), very high pressure is generated between the tips of two opposing diamond anvils forced against each other; focused infrared laser beams, shined through the diamonds, allow to reach very high temperatures on samples absorbing the laser radiation. When the LH-DAC is installed in a synchrotron beamline that provides extremely brilliant x-ray radiation, the structure of materials under extreme conditions can be probed in situ. LH-DAC samples, although very small, can show highly variable grain size, phase and chemical composition. In order to obtain the high resolution structural analysis and the most comprehensive characterization of a sample, we collect diffraction data in 2D grids and combine powder, single crystal and multigrain diffraction techniques. Representative results obtained in the synthesis of a new iron oxide, Fe4O5 (1) will be shown.

  2. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  3. Fast temperature spectrometer for samples under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S.; Hu, Michael Y.

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast Temperature Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample’s transient temperature fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting temperature determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The temperatures determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient temperature fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for temperature determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under extreme conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting temperature of {sup 57}Fe{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1} at high pressure.

  4. Recent trends of extreme temperature indices for the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, D.; Carvalho, M. J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Melo-Gonçalves, P.; Rocha, A.

    2016-08-01

    Climate change and extreme climate events have a significant impact on societies and ecosystems. As a result, climate change projections, especially related with extreme temperature events, have gained increasing importance due to their impacts on the well-being of the population and ecosystems. However, most studies in the field are based on coarse global climate models (GCMs). In this study, we perform a high resolution downscaling simulation to evaluate recent trends of extreme temperature indices. The model used was Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) forced by MPI-ESM-LR, which has been shown to be one of the more robust models to simulate European climate. The domain used in the simulations includes the Iberian Peninsula and the simulation covers the 1986-2005 period (i.e. recent past). In order to study extreme temperature events, trends were computed using the Theil-Sen method for a set of temperature indexes defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). For this, daily values of minimum and maximum temperatures were used. The trends of the indexes were computed for annual and seasonal values and the Mann-Kendall Trend test was used to evaluate their statistical significance. In order to validate the results, a second simulation, in which WRF was forced by ERA-Interim, was performed. The results suggest an increase in the number of warm days and warm nights, especially during summer and negative trends for cold nights and cold days for the summer and spring. For the winter, contrary to the expected, the results suggest an increase in cold days and cold nights (warming hiatus). This behavior is supported by the WRF simulation forced by ERA-Interim for the autumn days, pointing to an extension of the warming hiatus phenomenon to the remaining seasons. These results should be used with caution since the period used to calculate the trends may not be long enough for this purpose. However, the general sign of trends are similar for

  5. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  6. Extremely Low Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures Due to Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme events by their nature fall outside the bounds of routine experience. With imperfect or ambiguous measuring systems, it is appropriate to question whether an unusual measurement represents an extreme event or is the result of instrument errors or other sources of noise. About three weeks after the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite began collecting data in Dec 1997, a thunderstorm was observed over northern Argentina with 85 GHz brightness temperatures below 50 K and 37 GHz brightness temperatures below 70 K (Zipser et al. 2006). These values are well below what had previously been observed from satellite sensors with lower resolution. The 37 GHz brightness temperatures are also well below those measured by TRMM for any other storm in the subsequent 16 years. Without corroborating evidence, it would be natural to suspect a problem with the instrument, or perhaps an irregularity with the platform during the first weeks of the satellite mission. Automated quality control flags or other procedures in retrieval algorithms could treat these measurements as errors, because they fall outside the expected bounds. But the TRMM satellite also carries a radar and a lightning sensor, both confirming the presence of an intense thunderstorm. The radar recorded 40+ dBZ reflectivity up to about 19 km altitude. More than 200 lightning flashes per minute were recorded. That same storm's 19 GHz brightness temperatures below 150 K would normally be interpreted as the result of a low-emissivity water surface (e.g., a lake, or flood waters) if not for the simultaneous measurements of such intense convection. This paper will examine records from TRMM and related satellite sensors including SSMI, AMSR-E, and the new GMI to find the strongest signatures resulting from thunderstorms, and distinguishing those from sources of noise. The lowest brightness temperatures resulting from thunderstorms as seen by TRMM have been in Argentina in November and December. For

  7. Urban climate effects on extreme temperatures in Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Jason; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2015-09-01

    As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat, cities and their urban heat island (UHI) effects are growing, as are the urban populations encountering them. These mutually reinforcing trends present a growing risk for urban populations. However, we have limited understanding of urban climates during extreme temperature episodes, when additional heat from the UHI may be most consequential. We observed a historically hot summer and historically cold winter using an array of up to 150 temperature and relative humidity sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin, an urban area of population 402 000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. In the summer of 2012 (third hottest since 1869), Madison’s urban areas experienced up to twice as many hours ⩾32.2 °C (90 °F), mean July TMAX up to 1.8 °C higher, and mean July TMIN up to 5.3 °C higher than rural areas. During a record setting heat wave, dense urban areas spent over four consecutive nights above the National Weather Service nighttime heat stress threshold of 26.7 °C (80 °F), while rural areas fell below 26.7 °C nearly every night. In the winter of 2013-14 (coldest in 35 years), Madison’s most densely built urban areas experienced up to 40% fewer hours ⩽-17.8 °C (0 °F), mean January TMAX up to 1 °C higher, and mean January TMIN up to 3 °C higher than rural areas. Spatially, the UHI tended to be most intense in areas with higher population densities. Temporally, both daytime and nighttime UHIs tended to be slightly more intense during more-extreme heat days compared to average summer days. These results help us understand the climates for which cities must prepare in a warming, urbanizing world.

  8. Survival of high latitude fringing corals in extreme temperatures: Red Sea oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, M. Z.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, Z. D.; Moustafa, S. E.

    2014-04-01

    This multi-year study set out to establish a comprehensive knowledgebase for a fringing coral reef in the Gulf of Suez, while also investigating the link between coral reef survivability and the extreme environmental conditions present in the region. The Gulf of Suez is a narrow branch of the northern Red Sea for which all forms of environmental and scientific data are severely lacking. Monitoring oceanographic and meteorological data provides evidence of both seasonal variability and interannual variability in this region, and may reveal correlations between reef health and prevailing climate conditions. Specifically, this research sought to document the environmental conditions under which Zaki's Reef, a small fringing coral reef (29.5°N and 32.4°E) that lies at the northernmost limit of tropical reefs worldwide, is able to survive, in order to determine how extreme the conditions are. Results of observed seawater temperature revealed that coral species at Zaki's Reef regularly experience 2-4 °C and 10-15 °C daily and seasonal temperature variations, respectively. Seawater temperature monthly means reached a minimum of 14 °C in February and a maximum of 33 °C in August. Monthly mean sea surface temperature climatology obtained from satellite measurements was comparable to observed seawater temperatures, while annual air and seawater temperature means were identical at 22 °C. Observed seawater temperatures exceeded established coral bleaching thresholds for extended periods of time, suggesting that coral species at this location may have developed a mechanism to cope with such extreme temperatures. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended.

  9. Simultaneous modulations of precipitation and temperature extremes in Southern parts of China by the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-01-01

    The boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO), including a 30-60 day component (BSISO1) and a quasi-biweekly component (BSISO2), is the most prominent form of subtropical intraseasonal variability. Influences of BSISOs on summertime precipitation and temperature extremes in China are examined. Results indicate that BSISOs can simultaneously facilitate precipitation extremes in central-eastern China and extreme high temperatures in South China-Southeast China. During phase 2-4 of active BSISO1, accompanying precipitation extremes in central-eastern China, there is a fourfold-fivefold increase in probability of extreme high temperatures in Southeast China. About 50% of such simultaneous extremes fall into phase 2-3. BSISO2's influences are pronounced from phase 6 to the next phase 2, with about 58% simultaneous extremes clustered within phase 7 to the next phase 1. It is the BSISO-induced vertical cell, with ascending motion in the Yangtze-Huai River Valley and descending motion in the south, that contributes to simultaneous extremes. Enhanced low-level southwesterlies convey moist and warm air towards southern parts of China. Strengthened ascending branch loaded by anomalously abundant moisture produces precipitation extremes in the north. Concurrently, combined effects of warm advection and descent-triggered adiabatic heating anchors extreme high temperatures well located in South China. The northeastward propagation of the BSISO1 confines influenced regions to eastern-southeastern parts of China, with gradually narrowing spatial extents. The BSISO2-induced simultaneous extremes sweep much broader areas, from southeast coasts to the central inlands. Above analyses on BSISOs-simultaneous extremes relationship lay a crucial scientific basis for predicting these high-impact events on sub-seasonal to seasonal scales.

  10. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  11. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  12. Temperature Dependence of Lithium Reactions with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated temperatures due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated temperatures (298-373 K) when exposed to natural air. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in air, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated temperatures followed a markedly different behavior to that at room temperature. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. temperature and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  13. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja

    2015-04-01

    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  14. Synoptic-Dynamics of Extreme Cold Air Outbreaks Over the California Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Grotjahn, R.

    2015-12-01

    Cold air outbreaks (CAOs) have created multi-billion dollar losses in the state of California. Especially hard hit have been agricultural operations in the California Central Valley. Criteria based on duration and extreme values of daily minimum surface temperature at 17 stations over California Central Valley and 700hPa temperature at the Oakland radiosonde station are used to identify CAOs during the period of 1950-2013. 32 strong CAO events in total are obtained with our criterion. 10 stronger CAOs are selected for detailed study. Composite analyses and bootstrap statistical tests are applied to these 10 strong CAOs and find a similar large scale meteorological pattern (LSMP) in each event. This LSMP has a ridge-trough-ridge pattern in the mass field extending from Alaska across North America to the Southeastern part of the US as the LSMP in Grotjahn & Faure (2008). A challenging problem arises in the analyses caused by the different phase speeds of waves prior to different CAO events. We use dynamical analysis methods, such as wave activity flux, three-dimensional trajectories, and temperature tendency equation terms, to reveal the synoptic-dynamical mechanisms of how the LSMP and cold air formation/migration lead to these CAOs.

  15. Assessing surface air temperature variability using quantile regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured variables. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example extreme values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface air temperature observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of temperature value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For temperature trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of temperature values, including evolution of extremes.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.

  16. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  17. Managing fish habitat for flow and temperature extremes ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summer low flows and stream temperature maxima are key drivers affecting the sustainability of fish populations. Thus, it is critical to understand both the natural templates of spatiotemporal variability, how these are shifting due to anthropogenic influences of development and climate change, and how these impacts can be moderated by natural and constructed green infrastructure. Low flow statistics of New England streams have been characterized using a combination of regression equations to describe long-term averages as a function of indicators of hydrologic regime (rain- versus snow-dominated), precipitation, evapotranspiration or temperature, surface water storage, baseflow recession rates, and impervious cover. Difference equations have been constructed to describe interannual variation in low flow as a function of changing air temperature, precipitation, and ocean-atmospheric teleconnection indices. Spatial statistical network models have been applied to explore fine-scale variability of thermal regimes along stream networks in New England as a function of variables describing natural and altered energy inputs, groundwater contributions, and retention time. Low flows exacerbate temperature impacts by reducing thermal inertia of streams to energy inputs. Based on these models, we can construct scenarios of fish habitat suitability using current and projected future climate and the potential for preservation and restoration of historic habitat regimes th

  18. Debye temperature of hcp iron at extreme compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    The volume dependence of Debye temperature (θD) for hexagonal close packed (hcp) iron is derived using the Burakovsky and Preston model for volume dependence of Gruneisen parameter [L. Burakovsky, D.L. Preston J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 65 (2004) 1581] follows from the assumption that K∞' (first pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus in the infinite pressure limit i.e., P→∞) is the same for all the materials studied. This model is based on the Thomas-Fermi theory for solids at extreme compression. The formula for θD(V) obtained in the present study has been used to determine the results for hcp iron up to a pressure range of 359.5 GPa. The results obtained for θD(V) present a good agreement with the available experimental data.

  19. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  20. Examining Projected Changes in Weather & Air Quality Extremes Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change may alter regional weather extremes resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in air quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...

  1. Mechanisms of the Extreme Temperatures and the Precipitation Events in the Future over Korean Peninsula using CORDEX Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyomee; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the formation mechanisms of the extreme temperatures and the extreme precipitation in the future Korean Peninsula due to global warming. CORDEX-East Asia data such as the 2 m air temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, 850 hPa wind, 850 hPa temperature, and 850 hPa specific humidity are analyzed to characterize atmospheric conditions related to future extreme events. The extreme temperatures (>38 °C ) in the mid-southern regions of Korea tend to occur as a result of the heat accumulation by the warm advection originating from eastern China. Adding to advection, the Föhn phenomenon seems to produce more warming. In the case of precipitation, extreme events (>500 mm day-1) tend to occur as a result of the transport of water vapor by the south-westerly flow, with precipitation belt stretching from eastern China to Korea. A climate change also leads to an increase in the mean, variance, frequency, and 95 percentile value of the extreme events. This study will facilitate a better understanding of the formation mechanisms of the extreme events over Korea in a warming environment.

  2. Assessment of extreme value distributions for maximum temperature in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Alexander; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2015-04-01

    Extreme maximum temperatures highly affect the natural as well as the societal environment Heat stress has great effects on flora, fauna and humans and culminates in heat related morbidity and mortality. Agriculture and different industries are severely affected by extreme air temperatures. Even more under climate change conditions, it is necessary to detect potential hazards which arise from changes in the distributional parameters of extreme values, and this is especially relevant for the Mediterranean region which is characterized as a climate change hot spot. Therefore statistical approaches are developed to estimate these parameters with a focus on non-stationarities emerging in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors like sea level pressure, geopotential heights, atmospheric temperatures and relative humidity. Gridded maximum temperature data from the daily E-OBS dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from January 1950 until December 2012 are the predictands for the present analyses. A s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed in order to reduce data dimension and to retain different regions of similar maximum temperature variability. The grid box with the highest PC-loading represents the corresponding principal component. A central part of the analyses is the model development for temperature extremes under the use of extreme value statistics. A combined model is derived consisting of a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model and a quantile regression (QR) model which determines the GPD location parameters. The QR model as well as the scale parameters of the GPD model are conditioned by various large-scale predictor variables. In order to account for potential non-stationarities in the predictors-temperature relationships, a special calibration and validation scheme is applied, respectively. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P

  3. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  5. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  6. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  8. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  10. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  11. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  12. Fatty acid composition and extreme temperature tolerance following exposure to fluctuating temperatures in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Suring, Wouter; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-09-01

    Ectotherms commonly adjust their lipid composition to ambient temperature to counteract detrimental thermal effects on lipid fluidity. However, the extent of lipid remodeling and the associated fitness consequences under continuous temperature fluctuations are not well-described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated temperature fluctuations on fatty acid composition and thermal tolerance. We exposed the springtail Orchesella cincta to two constant temperatures of 5 and 20°C, and a continuously fluctuating treatment between 5 and 20°C every 2 days. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between constant low and high temperatures. As expected, animals were most cold tolerant in the low temperature treatment, while heat tolerance was highest under high temperature. Under fluctuating temperatures, fatty acid composition changed with temperature initially, but later in the experiment fatty acid composition stabilized and closely resembled that found under constant warm temperatures. Consistent with this, heat tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was comparable to the constant warm treatment. Cold tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was intermediate compared to animals acclimated to constant cold or warmth, despite the fact that fatty acid composition was adjusted to warm conditions. This unexpected finding suggests that in animals acclimated to fluctuating temperatures an additional underlying mechanism is involved in the cold shock response. Other aspects of homeoviscous adaptation may protect animals during extreme cold. This paper forms a next step to fully understand the functioning of ectotherms in more thermally variable environments.

  13. Extreme Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid Temperature & Pressure Optical Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeel Riza

    2010-09-01

    This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for extreme environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with temperature, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved temperature measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.

  14. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  15. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  16. Estimating changes in temperature extremes from millennial-scale climate simulations using generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Whitney K.; Stein, Michael L.; McInerney, David J.; Sun, Shanshan; Moyer, Elisabeth J.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in extreme weather may produce some of the largest societal impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, it is intrinsically difficult to estimate changes in extreme events from the short observational record. In this work we use millennial runs from the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) in equilibrated pre-industrial and possible future (700 and 1400 ppm CO2) conditions to examine both how extremes change in this model and how well these changes can be estimated as a function of run length. We estimate changes to distributions of future temperature extremes (annual minima and annual maxima) in the contiguous United States by fitting generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions. Using 1000-year pre-industrial and future time series, we show that warm extremes largely change in accordance with mean shifts in the distribution of summertime temperatures. Cold extremes warm more than mean shifts in the distribution of wintertime temperatures, but changes in GEV location parameters are generally well explained by the combination of mean shifts and reduced wintertime temperature variability. For cold extremes at inland locations, return levels at long recurrence intervals show additional effects related to changes in the spread and shape of GEV distributions. We then examine uncertainties that result from using shorter model runs. In theory, the GEV distribution can allow prediction of infrequent events using time series shorter than the recurrence interval of those events. To investigate how well this approach works in practice, we estimate 20-, 50-, and 100-year extreme events using segments of varying lengths. We find that even using GEV distributions, time series of comparable or shorter length than the return period of interest can lead to very poor estimates. These results suggest caution when attempting to use short observational time series or model runs to infer infrequent extremes.

  17. Evaluation of extreme temperature events in northern Spain based on process control charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeta, M.; Valencia, J. L.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Extreme climate events have recently attracted the attention of a growing number of researchers because these events impose a large cost on agriculture and associated insurance planning. This study focuses on extreme temperature events and proposes a new method for their evaluation based on statistical process control tools, which are unusual in climate studies. A series of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for 12 geographical areas of a Spanish region between 1931 and 2009 were evaluated by applying statistical process control charts to statistically test whether evidence existed for an increase or a decrease of extreme temperature events. Specification limits were determined for each geographical area and used to define four types of extreme anomalies: lower and upper extremes for the minimum and maximum anomalies. A new binomial Markov extended process that considers the autocorrelation between extreme temperature events was generated for each geographical area and extreme anomaly type to establish the attribute control charts for the annual fraction of extreme days and to monitor the occurrence of annual extreme days. This method was used to assess the significance of changes and trends of extreme temperature events in the analysed region. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of an attribute control chart for evaluating extreme temperature events. For example, the evaluation of extreme maximum temperature events using the proposed statistical process control charts was consistent with the evidence of an increase in maximum temperatures during the last decades of the last century.

  18. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  19. Changes in the frequency of extreme air pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Polvani, L. M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Fang, Y.; Staehelin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past few decades, thresholds for national air quality standards, intended to protect public health and welfare, have been lowered repeatedly. At the same time observations, over Europe and the Eastern U.S., demonstrate that extreme air pollution events (high O3 and PM2.5) are typically associated with stagnation events. Recent work showed that in a changing climate high air pollution events are likely to increase in frequency and duration. Within this work we examine meteorological and surface ozone observations from CASTNet over the U.S. and EMEP over Europe. With innovative statistical tools - i.e., statistics of extremes (EVT) - we analyze the frequency distribution of extreme air pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe. The upper tail of observed values at individual stations (e.g., within the CASTNet), i.e., the extremes (maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O3>60ppb) are poorly described by a Gaussian distribution. However, further analysis showed that applying Peak-Over-Threshold-models, better capture the extremes and allows us to estimate return levels of pollution events above certain threshold values of interest. The results show that changes in national ambient air quality standards had significant effect on the occurrence frequency of high air pollution episodes.

  20. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects.

  1. Extreme operative temperatures are better descriptors of the thermal environment than mean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Agustín; Trefaut Rodrigues, Miguel; Navas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In ecological studies of thermal biology the thermal environment is most frequently described using the mean or other measures of central tendency in environmental temperatures. However, this procedure may hide biologically relevant thermal variation for ectotherms, potentially misleading interpretations. Extremes of operative temperatures (EOT) can help with this problem by bracketing the thermal environment of focal animals. Within this paper, we quantify how mean operative temperatures relate to the range of simultaneously available operative temperatures (a measure of error). We also show how EOT: 1) detect more thermal differences among microsites than measures of central tendency, like the mean OT, 2) allow inferring on microsite use by ectothermic animals, and 3) clarify the relationships between field operative temperatures and temperatures measured at weather stations (WS). To do that, we explored operative temperatures measured at four sites of the Brazilian Caatingas and their correspondent nearest weather stations. We found that the daily mean OT can hide temperature ranges of 41 °C simultaneously available at our study sites. In addition, EOT detected more thermal differences among microsites than central quantiles. We also show how EOT allow inferring about microsite use of ectothermic animals in a given site. Finally, the daily maximum temperature and the daily temperature range measured at WSs predicted well the minimum available field OT at localities many kilometers away. Based on our results, we recommend the use of EOT, instead of mean OT, in thermal ecology studies.

  2. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming.

  3. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  13. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  14. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  15. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  16. Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate temperatures for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a temperature control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream temperature control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in temperatures due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream temperatures under extreme climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream temperature, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a temperature threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream temperature targets, performed best overall in meeting temperature targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet temperature targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air temperatures due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.

  17. Sensitivity of simulated extreme precipitation and temperature to convective parameterization using RegCM3 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the regional climate model of RegCM3 is applied to investigate the sensitivity of regional climate over China using four cumulus parameterizations, the modified Anthes-Kuo (AK), the Grell with Arakawa-Schubert closure, the Grell with Fritsch-Chappell closure, and the MIT-Emanuel (EM). The model was integrated over the period of 1982 to 2001 using the NCEP Reanalysis data NNRP2 as boundary conditions. RegCM3 coupled with various cumulus parameterizations is evaluated firstly as for its ability to represent regional climatology and climate extreme indices, and the results show that simulated regional climate in China is sensitive to the option of cumulus parameterizations. All the cumulus schemes produce a northward expansion of heavy rain area and an underestimation of surface air temperature. For precipitation, the AK scheme simulates relatively better magnitude, while the EM scheme has more reliable performance on the spatial distribution. RegCM3 can represent the spatial distributions of extreme indices for both precipitation and temperature, as well as their decadal trends irrelevant to the cumulus parameterizations. However, the model underestimates the consecutive dry days and overestimates the three extreme wet indices, with the EM scheme giving the worst result. Slight underestimations of extreme temperature indices are detected in all cumulus parameterization scheme runs. The shapes of probability distribution functions for extreme indices are correctly produced, though the probabilities of extreme dry and warm events are underestimated.

  18. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape.

  19. Can reanalysis datasets describe the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes over China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Huang, Dan-Qing; Yan, Pei-Wen; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Xue-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The persistent temperature and precipitation extremes may bring damage to the economy and human due to their intensity, duration and areal coverage. Understanding the quality of reanalysis datasets in descripting these extreme events is important for detection, attribution and model evaluation. In this study, the performances of two reanalysis datasets [the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR) and Interim ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim)] in reproducing the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes in China are evaluated. For the persistent temperature extremes, the two datasets can better capture the intensity indices than the frequency indices. The increasing/decreasing trend of persistent warm/cold extremes has been reasonably detected by the two datasets, particularly in the northern part of China. The ERA-Interim better reproduces the climatology and tendency of persistent warm extremes, while the 20CR has better skill to depict the persistent cold extremes. For the persistent precipitation extremes, the two datasets have the ability to reproduce the maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation. The two datasets largely underestimate the maximum consecutive dry days over the northern part of China, while overestimate the maximum consecutive wet days over the southern part of China. For the response of the precipitation extremes against the temperature variations, the ERA-Interim has good ability to depict the relationship among persistent precipitation extremes, local persistent temperature extremes, and global temperature variations over specific regions.

  20. Observed changes of temperature extremes during 1960-2005 in China: natural or human-induced variations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; David Chen, Yongqin; Chen, Xiaohong

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to statistically examine changes of surface air temperature in time and space and to analyze two factors potentially influencing air temperature changes in China, i.e., urbanization and net solar radiation. Trends within the temperature series were detected by using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. The scientific problem this study expected to address was that what could be the role of human activities in the changes of temperature extremes. Other influencing factors such as net solar radiation were also discussed. The results of this study indicated that: (1) increasing temperature was observed mainly in the northeast and northwest China; (2) different behaviors were identified in the changes of maximum and minimum temperature respectively. Maximum temperature seemed to be more influenced by urbanization, which could be due to increasing urban albedo, aerosol, and air pollutions in the urbanized areas. Minimum temperature was subject to influences of variations of net solar radiation; (3) not significant increasing and even decreasing temperature extremes in the Yangtze River basin and the regions south to the Yangtze River basin could be the consequences of higher relative humidity as a result of increasing precipitation; (4) the entire China was dominated by increasing minimum temperature. Thus, we can say that the warming process of China was reflected mainly by increasing minimum temperature. In addition, consistently increasing temperature was found in the upper reaches of the Yellow River basin, the Yangtze River basin, which have the potential to enhance the melting of permafrost in these areas. This may trigger new ecological problems and raise new challenges for the river basin scale water resource management.

  1. Soil temperature regime and vulnerability due to extreme soil temperatures in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja; Filić, Suzana; Smolić, Ante

    2016-10-01

    Soil temperature is an important factor within the climate system. Changes of trends in soil temperature and analysis of vulnerability due to heat stress can provide useful information on climate change. In this paper, the soil temperature regime was analyzed on seasonal and annual scales at depths of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 cm at 26 sites in Croatia. Trends of maximal, mean, and minimal soil temperatures were analyzed in the periods 1961-2010 and 1981-2010. Duration of extreme soil temperatures and vulnerability due to high or low soil temperatures in the recent standard period 1981-2010 was compared with the reference climate period 1961-1990. The results show a general warming in all seasons and depths for maximal and mean temperatures in both observed periods, while only at some locations for minimal soil temperature. Warming is more pronounced in the eastern and coastal parts of Croatia in the surface layers, especially in the spring and summer season in the second period. Significant trends of maximal, minimal, and mean soil temperature in both observed periods range from 2.3 to 6.6 °C/decade, from -1.0 to 1.3 °C/decade, and from 0.1 to 2.5 °C/decade, respectively. The highest vulnerability due to heat stress at 35 °C is noted in the upper soil layers of the coastal area in both observed periods. The mountainous and northwestern parts of Croatia at surface soil layers are the most vulnerable due to low soil temperature below 0 °C. Vulnerability due to high or low soil temperature decreases with depth.

  2. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  3. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  4. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  5. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  6. Compound summer temperature and precipitation extremes over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.

    2017-02-01

    Reliable knowledge of the near-future climate change signal of extremes is important for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Especially compound extremes, like heat and drought occurring simultaneously, may have a greater impact on society than their univariate counterparts and have recently become an active field of study. In this paper, we use a 12-member ensemble of high-resolution (7 km) regional climate simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over central Europe to analyze the climate change signal and its uncertainty for compound heat and drought extremes in summer by two different measures: one describing absolute (i.e., number of exceedances of absolute thresholds like hot days), the other relative (i.e., number of exceedances of time series intrinsic thresholds) compound extreme events. Changes are assessed between a reference period (1971-2000) and a projection period (2021-2050). Our findings show an increase in the number of absolute compound events for the whole investigation area. The change signal of relative extremes is more region-dependent, but there is a strong signal change in the southern and eastern parts of Germany and the neighboring countries. Especially the Czech Republic shows strong change in absolute and relative extreme events.

  7. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  8. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively. PMID:28125034

  9. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-24

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  10. Cooling vests with phase change materials: the effects of melting temperature on heat strain alleviation in an extremely hot environment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-06-01

    A previous study by the authors using a heated thermal manikin showed that the cooling rates of phase change material (PCM) are dependent on temperature gradient, mass, and covering area. The objective of this study was to investigate if the cooling effects of the temperature gradient observed on a thermal manikin could be validated on human subjects in extreme heat. The subjects wore cooling vests with PCMs at two melting temperatures (24 and 28°C) and fire-fighting clothing and equipment, thus forming three test groups (vest24, vest28 and control group without the vest). They walked on a treadmill at a speed of 5 km/h in a climatic chamber (air temperature = 55°C, relative humidity = 30%, vapour pressure = 4,725 Pa, and air velocity = 0.4 m/s). The results showed that the PCM vest with a lower melting temperature (24°C) has a stronger cooling effect on the torso and mean skin temperatures than that with a higher melting temperature (28°C). Both PCM vests mitigate peak core temperature increase during the resting recovery period. The two PCM vests tested, however, had no significant effect on the alleviation of core temperature increase during exercise in the heat. To study the possibility of effective cooling of core temperature, cooling garments with PCMs at even lower melting temperatures (e.g. 15°C) and a larger covering area should be investigated.

  11. Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon air temperature?

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of air temperature on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment temperatures and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of air temperature between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax temperatures (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax temperature on air temperature of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen temperature excess falling sharply over the same air temperature range. As air temperature increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as air temperature increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on air temperature became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and air temperature for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on air temperature in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax temperature is supported for honeybees in voluntary

  12. Evaluation of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with temperature extremes in the NARCCAP regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, Paul C.; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Huikyo; Neelin, J. David; Lintner, Benjamin R.; McGinnis, Seth; Mearns, Linda O.; Kim, Jinwon

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) associated with temperature extremes are evaluated in a suite of regional climate model (RCM) simulations contributing to the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. LSMPs are characterized through composites of surface air temperature, sea level pressure, and 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies concurrent with extreme temperature days. Six of the seventeen RCM simulations are driven by boundary conditions from reanalysis while the other eleven are driven by one of four global climate models (GCMs). Four illustrative case studies are analyzed in detail. Model fidelity in LSMP spatial representation is high for cold winter extremes near Chicago. Winter warm extremes are captured by most RCMs in northern California, with some notable exceptions. Model fidelity is lower for cool summer days near Houston and extreme summer heat events in the Ohio Valley. Physical interpretation of these patterns and identification of well-simulated cases, such as for Chicago, boosts confidence in the ability of these models to simulate days in the tails of the temperature distribution. Results appear consistent with the expectation that the ability of an RCM to reproduce a realistically shaped frequency distribution for temperature, especially at the tails, is related to its fidelity in simulating LMSPs. Each ensemble member is ranked for its ability to reproduce LSMPs associated with observed warm and cold extremes, identifying systematically high performing RCMs and the GCMs that provide superior boundary forcing. The methodology developed here provides a framework for identifying regions where further process-based evaluation would improve the understanding of simulation error and help guide future model improvement and downscaling efforts.

  13. Simulation and projection of summer surface air temperature over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface air temperature changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The air temperature indices used in this study included tmx (daily maximum temperature), t2m (daily average temperature) and tmn (daily minimum temperature), and extreme high-temperature events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (warm days) and WSDI (warm spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface air temperature and extreme high-temperature events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface air temperature were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface air temperature over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three temperature indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-temperature events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface air temperature; Extreme high-temperature events; Regional climate model; Climate change

  14. Critical care at extremes of temperature: effects on patients, staff and equipment.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Elise M; Henning, J D

    2014-12-01

    Modern travel and military operations have led to a significant increase in the need to provide medical care in extreme climates. Presently, there are few data on what happens to the doctor, their drugs and equipment when exposed to these extremes. A review was undertaken to find out the effects of 'extreme heat or cold' on anaesthesia and critical care; in addition, subject matter experts were contacted directly. Both extreme heat and extreme cold can cause a marked physiological response in a critically ill patient and the doctor treating these patients may also suffer a decrement in both physical and mental functioning. Equipment can malfunction when exposed to extremes of temperature and should ideally be stored and operated in a climatically controlled environment. Many drugs have a narrow range of temperatures in which they remain useable though some have been shown to remain effective if exposed to extremes of temperature for a short period of time. All personnel embarking on an expedition to an extreme temperature zone should be of sufficient physical robustness and ideally should have a period of acclimatisation which may help mitigate against some of the physiological effects of exposure to extreme heat or extreme cold. Expedition planners should aim to provide climatic control for drugs and equipment and should have logistical plans for replenishment of drugs and medical evacuation of casualties.

  15. Evaluation of COTS Electronic Parts for Extreme Temperature Use in NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems capable of extreme temperature operation are required for many future NASA space exploration missions where it is desirable to have smaller, lighter, and less expensive spacecraft and probes. Presently, spacecraft on-board electronics are maintained at about room temperature by use of thermal control systems. An Extreme Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on development of electronics suitable for space exploration missions. The effects of exposure to extreme temperatures and thermal cycling are being investigated for commercial-off-the-shelf components as well as for components specially developed for harsh environments. An overview of this program along with selected data is presented.

  16. The influence of air bags and restraining devices on extremity injuries in motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    McGovern, M K; Murphy, R X; Okunski, W J; Wasser, T E

    2000-05-01

    The influence of air bags and other restraining devices on injury after motor vehicle collisions is not well defined. This study examined the relationship between the use of restraining devices and the incidence of extremity injuries in motor vehicle collisions. A retrospective analysis was performed on motor vehicle collision data submitted to the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database from 1990 through 1995. Criteria for submission included trauma patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit, who died during hospitalization, who were hospitalized for more than 72 hours, or who were transferred in or out of the receiving hospital. A total of 21,875 patients met these criteria. These patients were analyzed for the presence or absence of upper and lower extremity injuries and were compared based on their use of restraining devices. Restraining devices were categorized into four groups: air bag alone, air bag and seat belt, seat belt or carseat without air bag, and no restraining device. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test of association. For contingency tables with small expected frequencies, Fisher's exact test was used. Study participants included 11,688 men and 10,185 women with a mean age of 38 +/- 20 years. There were 16,033 drivers and 5,842 passengers. Air bags were deployed in 472 instances. In 297 of these cases, additional restraint was provided with a seat belt. In 6,632 cases, air bags were not deployed; however, patients were restrained with either a seat belt or a carseat. In 14,771 cases, patients were not restrained. When comparing restraining devices as a group vs. no restraint, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of upper (p = 0.018) and lower (p < 0.001) extremity injuries. Air bags, however, were associated with an increased incidence of both upper (p = 0.033) and lower (p = 0.002) extremity injuries when compared with no restraint or when compared among patients who were restrained. As a group

  17. Temperature and precipitation extremes in century-long gridded observations, reanalyses, and atmospheric model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Herold, Nicholas; Dittus, Andrea J.

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge about long-term changes in climate extremes is vital to better understand multidecadal climate variability and long-term changes and to place today's extreme events in a historical context. While global changes in temperature and precipitation extremes since the midtwentieth century are well studied, knowledge about century-scale changes is limited. This paper analyses a range of largely independent observations-based data sets covering 1901-2010 for long-term changes and interannual variability in daily scale temperature and precipitation extremes. We compare across data sets for consistency to ascertain our confidence in century-scale changes in extremes. We find consistent warming trends in temperature extremes globally and in most land areas over the past century. For precipitation extremes we find global tendencies toward more intense rainfall throughout much of the twentieth century; however, local changes are spatially more variable. While global time series of the different data sets agree well after about 1950, they often show different changes during the first half of the twentieth century. In regions with good observational coverage, gridded observations and reanalyses agree well throughout the entire past century. Simulations with an atmospheric model suggest that ocean temperatures and sea ice may explain up to about 50% of interannual variability in the global average of temperature extremes, and about 15% in the global average of moderate precipitation extremes, but local correlations are mostly significant only in low latitudes.

  18. Protein stability and enzyme activity at extreme biological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Feller, Georges

    2010-08-18

    Psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in permanently cold environments, even at subzero temperatures. To maintain metabolic rates compatible with sustained life, they have improved the dynamics of their protein structures, thereby enabling appropriate molecular motions required for biological activity at low temperatures. As a consequence of this structural flexibility, psychrophilic proteins are unstable and heat-labile. In the upper range of biological temperatures, thermophiles and hyperthermophiles grow at temperatures > 100 °C and synthesize ultra-stable proteins. However, thermophilic enzymes are nearly inactive at room temperature as a result of their compactness and rigidity. At the molecular level, both types of extremophilic proteins have adapted the same structural factors, but in opposite directions, to address either activity at low temperatures or stability in hot environments. A model based on folding funnels is proposed accounting for the stability-activity relationships in extremophilic proteins.

  19. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  20. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  1. Climatological analysis of wintertime extreme low temperatures in São Paulo City, Brazil: impact of sea-surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Silva Dias, P. L.; Araújo, G. P.

    2002-10-01

    A diagnostic climatological study of winter cold temperature extremes in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is presented. This diagnosis is based on temperature data collected at the Meteorological Station of Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (IAG/USP) from 1950 to 2000. The persistence of synoptic and climatological patterns has been studied through principal component (PC) analysis and the results are compared with monthly anomalies in sea-surface temperature (SST) of the eastern Pacific and South Atlantic. The extreme cold air temperatures, on a monthly basis, have shown no significant change since 1950. On the other hand, the mean monthly air temperatures have shown a slight warming trend, in agreement with the South Atlantic Ocean warming trend. The PC indicates significant loadings of two SST anomaly types: a cold anomaly of the South Atlantic Ocean, and a warm anomaly off the southern Brazilian coast. The latter could also be responsible for some extreme cold events (for daily minimum temperatures) in the MASP, and to a dominant westerly wind direction (southwest to northwest). Both the cold events and the westerly wind direction were evident in such winters as 1953, 1975, 1978, 1981, and 1994. On the other hand, the cold mean monthly temperatures are very well correlated to a broad cold pool anomaly in the South Atlantic at around 25 to 35° S and 15 to 55° W - sometimes narrower (such as in 1979 and 1988), and sometimes broader (such as 1964 and 1990). Where there was a narrowing or a widening, the prevailing wind direction was from the south-southeast. Therefore, the conclusion of these results is that the SST anomalies in the South Atlantic Ocean have a dominant effect on the São Paulo winter temperature climatology.

  2. Probabilistic models for assessment of extreme temperatures and relative humidity in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzbutas, Robertas; Šeputytė, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Extreme temperatures are fairly common natural phenomenon in Lithuania. They have mainly negative effects both on the environment and humans. Thus there are important to perform probabilistic and statistical analyzes of possibly extreme temperature values and their time-dependant changes. This is especially important in areas where technical objects (sensitive to the extreme temperatures) are foreseen to be constructed. In order to estimate the frequencies and consequences of possible extreme temperatures, the probabilistic analysis of the event occurrence and its uncertainty has been performed: statistical data have been collected and analyzed. The probabilistic analysis of extreme temperatures in Lithuanian territory is based on historical data taken from Lithuanian Hydrometeorology Service, Dūkštas Meteorological Station, Lithuanian Energy Institute and Ignalina NNP Environmental Protection Department of Environmental Monitoring Service. The main objective of performed work was the probabilistic assessment of occurrence and impact of extreme temperature and relative humidity occurring in whole Lithuania and specifically in Dūkštas region where Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is closed for decommissioning. In addition, the other purpose of this work was to analyze the changes of extreme temperatures. The probabilistic analysis of extreme temperatures increase in Lithuanian territory was based on more than 50 years historical data. The probabilistic assessment was focused on the application and comparison of Gumbel, Weibull and Generalized Value (GEV) distributions, enabling to select a distribution, which has the best fit for data of extreme temperatures. In order to assess the likelihood of extreme temperatures different probabilistic models were applied to evaluate the probability of exeedance of different extreme temperatures. According to the statistics and the relationship between return period and probabilities of temperatures the return period for 30

  3. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  4. Electronic Components and Circuits for Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electrical power management and control systems that are capable of efficient and reliable operation in very low temperature environments. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronics capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures will not only tolerate the hostile environment of deep space but also reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the radioisotope heating units and their associate structures; thereby reducing system development as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results from better behavior and tolerance in the electrical and thermal properties of semiconductor and dielectric materials at low temperatures. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical components, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for reliable use down to cryogenic temperatures. Some of the commercial-off-the-shelf as well as developed components that are being characterized include switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits including digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being investigated for potential use in low temperature applications. An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Low Temperature Electronic Program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with

  5. The GOCF/AWAP system - forecasting temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, Robert; Hume, Timothy

    2010-08-01

    Gridded hourly temperature forecasts from the Bureau of Meteorology's Gridded Operational Consensus Forecasting (GOCF) system are combined in real time with the Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP) gridded daily temperature analyses to produce gridded daily maximum and minimum temperature forecasts with lead times from one to five days. These forecasts are compared against the historical record of AWAP daily temperature analyses (1911 to present), to identify regions where record or near-record temperatures are predicted to occur. This paper describes the GOCF/AWAP system, showing how the daily maximum and minimum temperature forecasts are prepared from the hourly forecasts, and how they are bias-corrected in real time using the AWAP analyses, against which they are subsequently verified. Using monthly climatologies of long-term daily mean, standard deviation and all-time highest and lowest on record, derived forecast products (for both maximum and minimum temperature) include ordinary and standardised anomalies, "forecast - highest on record" and "forecast - lowest on record". Compensation for the climatological variation across the country is achieved in these last two products, which provide the necessary guidance as to whether or not record-breaking temperatures are expected, by expressing the forecast departure from the previous record in both °C and standard deviations.

  6. The association of extreme temperatures and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variation in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been widely assumed. However, few studies have investigated the association between extreme temperatures and the incidence of TB. We collected data on cases of TB and mean temperature in Fukuoka, Japan for 2008-2012 and used time-series analyses to assess the possible relationship of extreme temperatures with TB incident cases, adjusting for seasonal and interannual variation. Our analysis revealed that the occurrence of extreme heat temperature events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (relative risk (RR) 1.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.43). We also found that the occurrence of extreme cold temperature events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.05-1.45). Sex and age did not modify the effect of either heat or cold extremes. Our study provides quantitative evidence that the number of TB cases increased significantly with extreme heat and cold temperatures. The results may help public health officials predict extreme temperature-related TB incidence and prepare for the implementation of preventive public health interventions.

  7. Spatial layout of forecasted extreme temperatures in the city of Murcia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banon, L.; Hernandez, E.; Belda, F.

    2010-09-01

    The extremely warm summer of 2003 encouraged the development of a "Heat wave Warning System." The health authorities issued extreme temperature warnings to the population using extreme temperatures that were forecast for the provincial capitals. The forecast of extreme temperatures is elaborated from the post-process of EPS from ECMWF. For the Region de Murcia, the heat wave warnings are generated using extreme temperatures from the Observatory Murcia/Guadalupe, which is located in the suburbs of the city of Murcia. However, under this warning system, some uncertainties were noticed regarding the difference in temperatures in the city and in rural areas. Therefore we designed a thermometric network in the city of Murcia as well as those rural areas. The thermometric network consisted of sensors taking measurement every ten minutes. Sensors were installed in points of the city with different urban layout, following the WMO assessments. We have detected urban thermal singularities and we have developed some tools based on Perfect Prog for forecasting's extreme temperatures in the city of Murcia. The development of this tool is expected to allow the prediction of extreme temperatures in summer for each part of the city of Murcia, based on the Sky View Factor (SVF) and meteorological parameters. The method will require the values of forecasted extreme temperatures and the values of meteorological parameters by the HIRLAM016. Furthermore, the method will need the values of Sky View Factor in the city of Murcia. We are obtaining the values of SVF in the streets of the city of Murcia using a GIS application and 3DSkyView extension, which was described by Souza et al. (2003). The final objective will be to design an automatic process that incorporates the forecasted meteorological variables and the values of SVF. It will generate a map, which will show the spatial layout of extreme temperatures in the city of Murcia.

  8. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in daily <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The warming in both mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..122D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..122D"><span>Scaling precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Mediterranean: past climate assessment and projection in anthropogenic scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drobinski, Philippe; Silva, Nicolas Da; Panthou, Gérémy; Bastin, Sophie; Muller, Caroline; Ahrens, Bodo; Borga, Marco; Conte, Dario; Fosser, Giorgia; Giorgi, Filippo; Güttler, Ivan; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Li, Laurent; Morin, Efrat; Önol, Bariş; Quintana-Segui, Pere; Romera, Raquel; Torma, Csaba Zsolt</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this study we investigate the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Mediterranean region by assessing against observations the present day and future regional climate simulations performed in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs. Over the 1979-2008 period, despite differences in quantitative precipitation simulation across the various models, the change in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is robust and consistent. The spatial variability of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relationship displays a hook shape across the Mediterranean, with negative slope at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a slope following Clausius-Clapeyron (CC)-scaling at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which the slope of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> relation sharply changes (or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> break), ranges from about 20 °C in the western Mediterranean to <10 °C in Greece. In addition, this slope is always negative in the arid regions of the Mediterranean. The scaling of the simulated precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is insensitive to ocean-atmosphere coupling, while it depends very weakly on the resolution at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for short precipitation accumulation times. In future climate scenario simulations covering the 2070-2100 period, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> break shifts to higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a value which is on average the mean regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change due to global warming. The slope of the simulated future <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relationship is close to CC-scaling at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> break, while at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the negative slope is close, but somewhat flatter or steeper, than in the current climate depending on the model. Overall, models predict more intense precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the future. Adjusting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relationship in the present climate using the CC law and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift in the future allows the recovery of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988773','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988773"><span>Rising sea levels will reduce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in tide-dominated reef habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540589"><span>Rising sea levels will reduce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in tide-dominated reef habitats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335821&keyword=Ecology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780915&CFTOKEN=56547265','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335821&keyword=Ecology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78780915&CFTOKEN=56547265"><span>Managing fish habitat for flow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Summer low flows and stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima are key drivers affecting the sustainability of fish populations. Thus, it is critical to understand both the natural templates of spatiotemporal variability, how these are shifting due to anthropogenic influences of development and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572263"><span>The effect of myostatin genotype on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howard, J T; Kachman, S D; Nielsen, M K; Mader, T L; Spangler, M L</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat and cold events can create deleterious physiological changes in cattle as they attempt to cope. The genetic background of animals can influence their response to these events. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of myostatin genotype (MG) on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during periods of heat and cold stress. Two groups of crossbred steers and heifers of unknown pedigree and breed fraction with varying percentages of Angus, Simmental, and Piedmontese were placed in a feedlot over 2 summers and 2 winters. Before arrival, animals were genotyped for the Piedmontese-derived myostatin mutation (C313Y) to determine their MG as either homozygous normal (0 copy; n = 84), heterozygous (1 copy; n = 96), or homozygous for inactive myostatin (2 copy; n = 59). Hourly tympanic and vaginal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were collected for steers and heifers, respectively, for 5 d during times of anticipated heat and cold stress. Mean (±SD) ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for summer and winter stress events were 24.4 (±4.64) and -1.80 (±11.71), respectively. A trigonometric function (sine + cosine) with periods of 12 and 24 h was used to describe the diurnal cyclical pattern. Hourly body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was analyzed within a season, and fixed effects included MG, group, trigonometric functions nested within group, and interaction of MG with trigonometric functions nested within group; random effects were animal and residual (Model [I]). A combined analysis of season and group was also investigated with the inclusion of season as a main effect and the nesting of effects within both group and season (Model [C]). In both models, the residual was fitted using an autoregressive covariance structure. A 3-way interaction of MG, season, and trigonometric function periodicities of 24 h (P < 0.001) and 12 h (P < 0.02) for Model [C] indicate that a genotype × environment interaction exists for MG. For MG during summer stress events the additive estimate was 0.10°C (P < 0.01) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054179"><span>Growth of group II Clostridium botulinum strains at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Derman, Yağmur; Lindström, Miia; Selby, Katja; Korkeala, Hannu</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The minimum and maximum growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the maximum growth rates at 10, 30, 37, and 40°C were determined for 24 group II Clostridium botulinum strains. Genetic diversity of the strains was revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The minimum growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranged from 6.2 to 8.6°C, and the maximum growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranged from 34.7 to 39.9°C. The mean maximum growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mean maximum growth rates of type E strains at 37°C were significantly higher than those of type B and type F strains. A significant correlation between maximum growth rates at 37°C and maximum growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was found for all strains. Some type E strains with a high minimum growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> also had a higher maximum growth rate at 37°C than at 30°C, which suggests that some group II C. botulinum strains are more mesophilic in their growth properties than others. We found relatively small differences between AFLP clusters, indicating that diverse genetic background among the strains was not reflected in the growth properties. The growth characteristics of group II C. botulinum and some type E strains with mesophilic growth properties may have an impact on inoculation studies and predictive modeling for assessing the safety of foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG32A..06D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG32A..06D"><span>Comparing <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Across Multiple Reanalyses and Gridded in Situ Observational Datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donat, M.; Alexander, L. V.; Sillmann, J.; Wild, S.; Zwiers, F. W.; Lippmann, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are often monitored using global gridded datasets of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> based on in situ observations or reanalysis data. This study assesses the consistency of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> between these datasets. We compare temporal evolution and spatial patterns of annual climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> indices across multiple global gridded datasets of in situ observations and reanalyses to make inferences on the robustness of the obtained results. While there are distinct differences in the actual values of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, normalized time series generally compare well and temporal correlations are high for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, in particular for the most recent three decades when satellite data are available for assimilation. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation is characterized by higher temporal and spatial variability than <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and there is less agreement between different datasets than for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, reasonable agreement between gridded precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the different datasets remains. While there is general agreement between the different reanalyses and gridded observational data in regions with dense observational coverage, different reanalyses show trends of partly opposing signs in areas where in situ observations are sparse, e.g. over parts of Africa and tropical South America. However, in the absence of reliable observations it is difficult to assess which reanalyses are more realistic here than others. Using data from the 20th Century reanalysis and a novel century-long gridded dataset of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> we also investigate consistency of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from these two datasets back to the beginning of the 20th Century. Global average time series of different <span class="hlt">extremes</span> indices compare generally well over the past 70 years but show larger differences before around 1940. However, in areas with good observational coverage, including North America, Europe and Australia, agreement remains strong also throughout the earlier decades</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817825M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817825M"><span>Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>: The OptiBarn project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menz, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In a first step we identify various multivariate high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019667"><span>Comparison of MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. <span class="hlt">Air-temperature</span>-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to stratify the sampling for LST and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S"><span>Trends and variability of daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A"><span>Trends and variability of daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510319O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510319O"><span>Retrieval of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from crowd-sourced battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of cell phones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. The number of available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to a server for storage. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model is calibrated with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos <span class="hlt">Aires</span>, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maps.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23731815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23731815"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> developmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> result in morphological abnormalities in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta): a climate change perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Telemeco, Rory S; Warner, Daniel A; Reida, Molly K; Janzen, Fredric J</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Increases in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental events are predicted to be major results of ongoing global climate change and may impact the persistence of species. We examined the effects of heat and cold waves during embryonic development of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in natural nests on the occurrence of abnormal shell morphologies in hatchlings. We found that nests exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for >60 h produced more hatchlings with abnormalities than nests exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for shorter periods, regardless of whether or not nesting females displayed abnormal morphologies. We observed no effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold nest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the occurrence of hatchlings with abnormalities. Moreover, the frequency of nesting females with abnormal shell morphologies was approximately 2-fold lower than that of their offspring, suggesting that such abnormalities are negatively correlated with survival and fitness. Female turtles could potentially buffer their offspring from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat by altering aspects of nesting behavior, such as choosing shadier nesting sites. We addressed this hypothesis by examining the effects of shade cover on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the occurrence of hatchling abnormalities. While shade cover was negatively correlated with the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot nest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, it was not significantly correlated with abnormalities. Therefore, female choice of shade cover does not appear to be a viable target for selection to reduce hatchling abnormalities. Our results suggest that increases in the frequency and intensity of heat waves associated with climate change might perturb developmental programs and thereby reduce the fitness of entire cohorts of turtles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8025H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8025H"><span>Spatial layout of forecasted <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city of Murcia (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernandez, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extremely</span> warm summer of 2003 encouraged the development of a "Heat wave Warning System." The health authorities issued <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warnings to the population using <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that were forecasted for the provincial capitals. The forecast of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is elaborated from the post-process of EPS from ECMWF. For the Region de Murcia, the heat wave warnings are generated using <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the Observatory Murcia/Guadalupe, which is located in the suburbs of the city of Murcia. However, under this warning system, some uncertainties were noticed regarding the difference in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city and in rural areas. Therefore we designed a thermometric network in the city of Murcia as well as those rural areas. The thermometric network consisted of sensors taking measurement every ten minutes. Sensors were installed in points of the city with different urban layout, following the WMO assessments. We have detected urban thermal singularities and we have developed some tools based on Perfect Prog for forecasting's <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city of Murcia. The development of this tool is expected to allow the prediction of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer for each part of the city of Murcia, based on the Sky View Factor (SVF) and meteorological parameters. The method will require the values of forecasted <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the values of meteorological parameters by the EPS from ECMWF. Furthermore, the method will need the values of Sky View Factor in the city of Murcia. We have obtained the values of SVF in the streets of the city of Murcia using a GIS application and 3DSkyView extension, which was described by Souza et al. (2003). We have designed an automatic process that incorporates the forecasted meteorological variables and the values of SVF to work out forecasted <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city of Murcia. We have generated thermometric maps for each day, which show the spatial layout of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.577E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.577E"><span>Synoptic characteristics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> episodes in the Basque Country.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Egaña, J.; Gaztelumendi, S.; Otxcoa de Alda, K.; Gelpi, I. R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>In winter season the situations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can cause many different problems all over the world. In the Basque country case, mainly related with car accidents due to ice formation on roads. In this work a preliminary study on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum episodes in the last years in the Basque Country is made. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data from the AWS network of the Basque Country are used to carry out this study. To define the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> episodes <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds are used. These thresholds are chosen taking into account the geographical situation of each station. Synoptic patterns are associated to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> episodes by means of a subjective classification. The main characteristics of the events are detailed, with the analysis of the main fields in the levels of 500 hPa, 850 hPa and surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP31A..06D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP31A..06D"><span>Simulated Changes in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Events at 6 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Bell, J. L.; Sloan, L. C.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Paleoenviromental archives record a range of information about past environments. Three key influences shaping paleoclimate records at a given time plane are the mean state of the climate system, interannual variability, and the frequency and seasonality of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events. We have employed a high resolution regional climate model (RCM) to test the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events to 6 ka orbital forcing, using western North America as a case study. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events were defined by the distribution of daily precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in the control simulation. Simulated anomalies (6 ka - control) in the number of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events per year were positive throughout the RCM domain, as were anomalies in the percent of annual precipitation delivered by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. These annual-scale positive anomalies in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation were driven by changes in the seasonality of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events at 6 ka, with January, October and November showing the greatest positive anomalies in percent of monthly precipitation delivered by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. The frequency and length of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in the western United States was also sensitive to 6 ka orbital forcing. Positive anomalies in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values occurred inland in the RCM domain, with peak anomalies of 24 days/year centered over the Great Basin. Likewise, the number of days/year in which the maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeded 32° C increased over land by 24%, with the average heat-wave up to 12 days longer in the 6 ka simulation than in the control simulation. Finally, mean first and last freeze dates were later inland in the 6 ka simulation than in the control simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...74S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...74S"><span>The nonstationary impact of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and ENSO on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation at the global scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Qingyun</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are important drivers of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. Understanding the impact of ENSO and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over global land will provide a foundation for risk assessment and climate-adaptive design of infrastructure in a changing climate. In this study, nonstationary generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions were used to model <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation over global land for the period 1979-2015, with ENSO indicator and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as covariates. Risk factors were estimated to quantify the contrast between the influence of different ENSO phases and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results show that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation is dominated by ENSO over 22% of global land and by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over 26% of global land. With a warming climate, the risk of high-intensity daily <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation increases at high latitudes but decreases in tropical regions. For ENSO, large parts of North America, southern South America, and southeastern and northeastern China are shown to suffer greater risk in El Niño years, with more than double the chance of intense <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in El Niño years compared with La Niña years. Moreover, regions with more intense precipitation are more sensitive to ENSO. Global climate models were used to investigate the changing relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and the covariates. The risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, high-intensity precipitation increases across high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but decreases in middle and lower latitudes under a warming climate scenario, and will likely trigger increases in severe flooding and droughts across the globe. However, there is some uncertainties associated with the influence of ENSO on predictions of future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, with the spatial extent and risk varying among the different models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........54L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........54L"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> subseasonal tropical <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea interactions and their relation to ocean thermal stratification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lloyd, Ian D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This thesis is concerned with <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, rapid timescale tropical <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea interactions and the influence of large-scale oceanic conditions on these interactions. The focus is on two types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events: equatorial Indian Ocean cooling events and tropical cyclones. Cooling events occur on timescales of a few days to several weeks, in which atmospheric forcing causes Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) cooling in the range of 1--5K, in both observational and coupled climate models. Cooling events are driven by changes in <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea enthalpy fluxes and Ekman upwelling. Because the cooling due to Ekman upwelling depends on thermocline depth, large-scale oceanic conditions influence SST cooling. La Nina and negative Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are conducive to a shallower southwest equatorial thermocline, resulting in greater intraseasonal SST cooling during these interannual events; El Nino and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions lead to a deeper thermocline and reduced SST cooling. Results indicate that cooling events are related to the eastward propagation of convective patterns that resemble the Madden-Julian Oscillation. For tropical cyclones, the response of intensity to cyclone-induced SST cooling was explored over 10-years of observational data. For slow moving (V/ f < 100km) tropical cyclones, it was found that the SST cooling response increases along with storm intensity from category 0--2 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. However, from category 2--5 the magnitude of SST cooling decreases. This result confirms model predictions indicating a prominent role for oceanic feedback controlling tropical cyclone intensity. Thus, only storms that develop in regions containing deep mixed layer and thermocline can achieve high intensity, and entrainment cooling is weaker for these storms. The SST-intensity response in observations was compared to the GFDL Hurricane Forecast Model (GHM) for the periods 2005 and 2006--2009. The GHM was modified in 2006 to include a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA622148','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA622148"><span>Evaluation of Oxygen Concentrators and Chemical Oxygen Generators at Altitude and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-22</p> <p>AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0010 Evaluation of Oxygen Concentrators and Chemical Oxygen Generators at Altitude and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>...REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March 2013 – December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Oxygen Concentrators and...Chemical Oxygen Generators at Altitude and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-2-6140 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-13-2-6B16 5c</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=shelter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dshelter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=shelter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dshelter"><span>Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Decreases in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The observations indicated near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687677"><span>Monitored summer peak attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Florida residences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has analyzed measured summer attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data taken for some 21 houses (three with two different roof configurations) over the last several years. The analysis is in support of the calculation within ASHRAE Special Project 152P, which will be used to estimate duct system conductance gains that are exposed to the attic space. Knowledge of prevailing attic thermal conditions are critical to the duct heat transfer calculations for estimation of impacts on residential cooling system sizing. The field data were from a variety of residential monitoring projects that were classified according to intrinsic differences in roofing configurations and characteristics. The sites were occupied homes spread around the state of Florida. There were a variety of different roofing construction types, roof colors, and ventilation configurations. Data at each site were obtained from June 1 to September 30 according to the ASHRAE definition of summer. The attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were used for the data analysis. The attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured with a shielded type-T thermocouple at mid-attic height, halfway between the decking and insulation surface. The ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was obtained at each site by thermocouples located inside a shielded exterior enclosure at a 3 to 4 m (10--12 ft) height. The summer 15-minute data from each site were sorted by the average ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> into the top 2.5% of the observations of the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Within this limited group of observations, the average outside <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and coincident difference were reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3208S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3208S"><span>Solar activity influence on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes in caves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey</p> <p></p> <p>Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave <span class="hlt">air</span> is connected with the most general circulation of the <span class="hlt">air</span> in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the <span class="hlt">air</span> of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> of the <span class="hlt">air</span> in the zone of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (ZCT) are compared with surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in caves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936471"><span>Solid Nitrogen at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions of High Pressure and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E</p> <p>2004-04-05</p> <p>We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020046979','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020046979"><span>Thermal Barrier/Seal for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l4001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l4001A"><span>Placing bounds on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response of maize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Christopher J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Peng, Yixing; Gassman, Philip W.; Campbell, Todd D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Plant water availability is a key factor that determines maize yield response to excess heat. Lack of available data has limited researchers’ ability to estimate this relationship at regional and global scales. Using a new soil moisture data set developed by running a crop growth simulator over historical data we demonstrate how current estimates of maize yield sensitivity to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are misleading. We develop an empirical model relating observed yields to climate variables and soil moisture in a high maize production region in the United States to develop bounds on yield sensitivity to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. For the portion of the region with a relatively long growing season, yield reduction per °C is 10% for high water availability and 32.5% for low water availability. Where the growing season is shorter, yield reduction per °C is 6% for high water availability and 27% for low water availability. These results indicate the importance of using both water availability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to model crop yield response to explain future climate change on crop yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..855Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..855Z"><span>Spatiotemporal variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Poyang Lake basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Yeqiao</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data from 15 rain gauges covering a period of 1957-2011 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall trend test with the aim to investigate changing characteristics of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Poyang Lake basin, the largest freshwater lake in China. Also, the connection between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is analyzed and possible causes for the connection are briefly discussed. Results indicate that (1) warming, characterized by a decreasing trend in frost days and a significant decrease of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> defined by lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in the Poyang Lake basin is observed. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, defined by higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices such as hot days, exhibit moderate changes with no significant trends. Moreover, warming occurs mainly in the northern part of the Poyang Lake basin; (2) precipitation changes are intensifying as reflected by increasing precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. However, these changes are different from 1 month to another and the intensification is found mainly in winter and/or summer months; (3) the influence of ENSO on precipitation changes in the Poyang Lake basin is evident with a time lag of longer than 3 months. This should be due to the fact that higher sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tends to trigger the occurrence of convective precipitation regimes. Results of this study are important for modeling the occurrence of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a changing climate and regional climatic responses to global climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810999S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810999S"><span>Effect of green roofs on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; measurement study of well-watered and dry conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solcerova, Anna; van de Ven, Frans; Wang, Mengyu; van de Giesen, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Rapid urbanization and increasing number and duration of heat waves poses a need for understanding urban climate and ways to mitigate <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. One of repeatedly suggested and often investigated methods to moderate the so called urban heat island are green roofs. This study investigates several extensive green roofs in Utrecht (NL) and their effect on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> right above the roof surface. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured 15 and 30 cm above the roof surface and also in the substrate. We show that under normal condition is <span class="hlt">air</span> above green roof, compared to white gravel roof, colder at night and warmer during day. This suggest that green roofs might help decrease <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at night, when the urban heat island is strongest, but possibly contribute to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during daytime. We also measured situation when the green roofs wilted and dried out. Under such conditions green roof exhibits more similar behavior to conventional white gravel roof. Interestingly, pattern of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remains almost the same for both dry and well-prospering green roof, colder during day and warmer at night. As such, green roof works as a buffer of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980219330','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980219330"><span>Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Transient <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=ultrasound&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78120188&CFTOKEN=21109967','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=ultrasound&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78120188&CFTOKEN=21109967"><span>Associations of endothelial function and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in diabetic subjects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... must be made within 100 cm of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... must be made within 100 cm of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... location must be within 10 cm of the engine intake system (i.e., the <span class="hlt">air</span> cleaner, for most engines.) (b... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9367S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9367S"><span>An assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Events and its impact on Wildlife Plant Phenology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegmund, Jonatan; Donner, Reik</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Besides gradual changes of the mean behaviour of climate variables, global climate change results in higher frequencies and intensities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events. Especially heat waves struck Central Europe during the last decade and are predicted to do so even more frequently during the 21st century. The impact of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on the ecologically important flowering dates of wildlife plant species is not yet known precisely, although the temporal displacement or even absolute failure of flowering may lead to the disturbance of sensitive ecological equlibria. In this study, we systematically investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on various wildlife plant flowering dates dur- ing the time period of 1951-2014 for 52 German regions using the Plant Phenology dataset of the German Weather Service. The impact of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is quantified using the coincidence analysis, a method to detect non-random simultaneous appearences of events in two time series. We calculate cumulative coincidence rates between both time series for time- lags between 0 and 16 months in both directions. Our results underline the importance of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the flowering month regarding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and indicate long-term-dependencies between <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and very early plant flowering dates with a time-lag of almost one year. On the other hand, the disparity between the re- sults of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-phenology and phenology-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coincidence rates indicate, that <span class="hlt">extremely</span> warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> only cause very early flowering dates under certain conditions, leading to the notion of conditional coincidence. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis, that more and stronger <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events have the potential to sus- tainably disturb mid latitude ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023751&hterms=fishbein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfishbein','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023751&hterms=fishbein&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dfishbein"><span>High Lapse Rates in <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Retrieved <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Cold <span class="hlt">Air</span> Outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, large sea-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The bias in near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is seen to be independent of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, however. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is therefore sensitive to <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> near-surface retrieved <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005803&hterms=product+process+design+principles&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproduct%2Bprocess%2Bdesign%2Bprinciples','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005803&hterms=product+process+design+principles&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproduct%2Bprocess%2Bdesign%2Bprinciples"><span>Qualification of Bonding Process of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensors to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Deep Space Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard; Sunada, Eric T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A process has been explored based on the state-of-the-art technology to bond the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) on to potential aerospace material such as a flat aluminum surface and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cable for the flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a metal plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while attaching the sensor with braid to the base material for long duration deep space missions. Appropriate pretreatment has been implemented in this study to enhance the adhesion of the PRTs to the base material. NuSil product has been chosen in this research to attach PRT to the base materials. The resistance (approx.1.1 k(Omega)) of PRTs has been electrically monitored continuously during the qualification thermal cycling testing from -150 C to +120 C and -100 C to -35 C. The test hardware has been thermal cycled three times the mission life per JPL design principles for JUNO project. No PRT failures were observed during and after the PRT thermal cycling qualification test for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. However, there were some failures associated with staking of the PRT pig tails as a result of thermal cycling qualification test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21665190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21665190"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a classroom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean <span class="hlt">air</span> velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioner both on and off, the average ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, relative humidity and mean skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioner was changed, the differences of skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the <span class="hlt">extremities</span> (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856"><span>Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..465H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..465H"><span>Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E.; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715311Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715311Z"><span>Weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the Romans - A marine palynological perspective on Italian <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation between 200 BC and 500 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zonneveld, Karin; Clotten, Caroline; Chen, Liang</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Sediments of a tephra-dated marine sediment core located at the distal part of the Po-river discharge plume (southern Italy) have been studied with a three annual resolution. Based on the variability in the dinoflagellate cyst content detailed reconstructions have been established of variability in precipitation related river discharge rates and local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Furthermore about the variability in distort water quality has been reconstructed. We show that both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signals vary in tune with cyclic changes in solar insolation. On top of these cyclic changes, short term <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation can be observed that can be interpreted to reflect periods of local weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Comparison of our reconstructions with historical information suggest that times of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and maximal precipitation corresponds to the period of maximal expansion of the Roman Empire. We have strong indications that at this time discharge waters might have contained higher nutrient concentrations compared to previous and later time intervals suggesting anthropogenic influence of the water quality. First pilot-results suggest that the decrease in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructed just after the "Roman Optimum" corresponds to an increase in numbers of armored conflicts between the Roman and German cultures. Furthermore we observe a resemblance in timing of short-term intervals with cold weather spells during the early so called "Dark-Age-Period" to correspond to epidemic/pandemic events in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70177917','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70177917"><span>Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Hall, Courtney T.; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason; Jones, William R.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> freeze events (i.e., <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6 °C). We expect that in the past 121 years, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27935029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27935029"><span>Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Hall, Courtney T; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason L; Jones, William R</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> freeze events (i.e., <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6°C). We expect that in the past 121 yr, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465896"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of sewage sludge composting process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the influence was more significant when composting was in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising process: composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> falling process: composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span>'s responses to ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC12C..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC12C..04M"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in major cropping systems and their relation to agricultural land use change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; Siebert, S.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by altering the surface energy budget. Here we investigate growing season climate trends in major cropping systems and their relationship with agricultural land use change. In the US Midwest, 100-year trends exhibit a transition towards more favorable conditions, with cooler summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and increased precipitation. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that cooling is primarily associated with agricultural intensification increasing the potential for evapotranspiration, consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentiles, and that increased evapotranspiration generally leads to greater precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> revert to historically high <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Preliminary results indicate these relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, irrigation, and intensification are also observed in other major summer cropping systems, including northeast China, Argentina, and the Canadian Prairies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002496','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790002496"><span>The relationship of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations over the northern hemisphere during the secular and 11-year solar cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ryzhakov, L. Y.; Tomskaya, A. S.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A comparison was made of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly maps for the months of January and July against a background of high and low secular solar activity, with and without regard for the 11 year cycle. By comparing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations during the 11 year and secular cycles, it is found that the 11 year cycle influences thermal conditions more strongly than the secular cycle, and that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> phases of the solar cycles are greater in January than in July.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0050S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0050S"><span>Spatio-temporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Indonesian Borneo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Supari, Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Aldrian, Edvin</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study aims to investigate the characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Indonesian Borneo both in space and time. Using daily data of 15 weather stations, a subset of 12 climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices has been calculated to clarify whether the frequency, intensity and duration of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have changed over the last three decades. Results show that the island has clearly warmed up for the last three decades. The annual average of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXmean) and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNmean) increased significantly by 0.22 (0.36) °C per 10 years during the studied period. The annual number of warm days (TX90p) and warm nights (TN90p) significantly increased while the number of cool days (TX10p) and cool nights (TN10p) decreased significantly. In contrast, the trends of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were not clearly observed. The changes in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events are generally less consistent between the different stations. However, the tendency of the island to be wetter was observed as reflected by the frequency of heavy precipitation days (R20mm), the annual maxima of daily rainfall (RX1day) and the average intensity of daily rainfall (SDII). For SDII, the regional index shows a significant increasing trend by 0.3 mm/day per decade. This study fills information gaps of how climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are changing in Indonesian Borneo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26355265"><span>Effects of different sitting positions on skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> resulting in decrease of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107"><span>Effect of Initial Mixture <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Flame Speed of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-<span class="hlt">air</span> and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made either... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......237H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......237H"><span>Influence of synoptic scale circulation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Chicago, IL (1948-2014)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haldeman, Brooke</p> <p></p> <p>Heat waves are responsible for significant economic impacts and loss of life each year in the United States with humidity often playing an important role. This study examined synoptic patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Chicago, IL over the period of 1948-2014 using summertime (June 1st- September 15th) values. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based heat waves were defined as periods with at least eight consecutive six-hour observations exceeding the historical 95th percentile values of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively, using data from O'Hare International Airport. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) were then applied to 500 mb geopotential height and 850 mb specific humidity datasets from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to identify synoptic states associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. SOM nodes associated with heat waves were identified and assessed for trends using median of pairwise slopes regression. While mean summertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Chicago did not exhibit significant trends, yearly summertime minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were found to be increasing with a significant trend. Additionally, several synoptic patterns favorable for the development of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and high humidity heat waves were increasing significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33.1005D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33.1005D"><span>Abrupt summer warming and changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin), annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx), and annual warmest night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28216031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28216031"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution with contaminants originating from the mining-metallurgical processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serbula, Snezana M; Milosavljevic, Jelena S; Radojevic, Ana A; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Kalinovic, Tanja S</p> <p>2017-05-15</p> <p>Levels of SO2 and metals/metalloids in the <span class="hlt">air</span> near a copper smelter in Bor (Serbia) from 2009 to 2015 were presented in this study. Annual levels of SO2 were constantly above the proposed limit value (LV), at almost all the measuring sites. SO2 concentrations on an annual level measured in different zones in Bor were several times higher compared to the LV in 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015. Enormously high daily SO2 concentrations measured at the suburban zone (3734μgm(-3)) was 187 times higher than the LV given by the World Health Organization. Annual arsenic concentrations exceeded the LV at all the measuring sites during the study period. <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> high annual As level in 2012 was 21 times higher than the LV proposed by the European Union. The annual lead and cadmium concentrations frequently exceeded the LV. The vicinity of the measuring sites to the copper smelter and the location of the sites in regard to the prevailing wind directions contribute to higher content of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants. The data presented in this study revealed that <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high concentrations of <span class="hlt">air</span> polluting substances could rank the town of Bor as one of the most polluted regions in Serbia and beyond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2084H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2084H"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump barn with different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is <span class="hlt">air</span> rising, the other is <span class="hlt">air</span> falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump tobacco barn.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9118S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9118S"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution during dry spells and its relation to prevailing soil moisture regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwingshackl, Clemens; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The complex interplay between land and atmosphere makes accurate climate predictions very challenging, in particular with respect to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. More detailed investigations of the underlying dynamics, such as the identification of the drivers regulating the energy exchange at the land surface and the quantification of fluxes between soil and atmosphere over different land types, are thus necessary. The recently started DROUGHT-HEAT project (funded by the European Research Council) aims to provide better understanding of the processes governing the land-atmosphere exchange. In the first phase of the project, different datasets and methods are used to investigate major drivers of land-atmosphere dynamics leading to droughts and heatwaves. In the second phase, these findings will be used for reducing uncertainties and biases in earth system models. Finally, the third part of the project will focus on the application of the previous findings and use them for the attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to land processes and possible mitigation through land geoengineering. One of the major questions in land-atmosphere exchange is the relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. Different studies show that especially during dry spells soil moisture has a strong impact on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the amplification of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Whereas in dry and wet soil moisture regimes variations in latent heat flux during rain-free periods are expected to be small, this is not the case in transitional soil moisture regimes: Due to decreasing soil moisture content latent heat flux reduces with time, which causes in turn an increase in sensible heat flux and, subsequently, higher <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The investigation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution during dry spells can thus help to detect different soil moisture regimes and to provide insights on the effect of different soil moisture levels on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Here we assess the underlying relationships using different observational and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100015618','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100015618"><span>Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Soundings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soundings performs better than assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile performs best</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100041299','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100041299"><span>Characterization of Low Noise, Precision Voltage Reference REF5025-HT Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The performance of Texas Instruments precision voltage reference REF5025-HT was assessed under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This low noise, 2.5 V output chip is suitable for use in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> down-hole drilling applications, but no data existed on its performance at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The device was characterized in terms of output voltage and supply current at different input voltage levels as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between +210 C and -190 C. Line and load regulation characteristics were also established at six load levels and at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Restart capability at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the effects of thermal cycling, covering the test <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, on its operation and stability were also investigated. Under no load condition, the voltage reference chip exhibited good stability in its output over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of -50 C to +200 C. Outside that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, output voltage did change as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was changed. For example, at the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of +210 C and - 190 C, the output level dropped to 2.43 V and 2.32 V, respectively as compared to the nominal value of 2.5 V. At cryogenic test <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -100 C and -150 C the output voltage dropped by about 20%. The quiescent supply current of the voltage reference varied slightly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but remained close to its specified value. In terms of line regulation, the device exhibited excellent stability between -50 C and +150 C over the entire input voltage range and load levels. At the other test <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, however, while line regulation became poor at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -100 C and below, it suffered slight degradation at the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but only at the high load level of 10 mA. The voltage reference also exhibited very good load regulation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> down to -100 C, but its output dropped sharply at +210 C only at the heavy load of 10 mA. The semiconductor chip was able restart at the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -190 C and +210 C, and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+flow+AND+measurement&id=ED415666','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+flow+AND+measurement&id=ED415666"><span>Equipment for Measuring <span class="hlt">Air</span> Flow, <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Bruce W.</p> <p></p> <p>Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50g5105C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50g5105C"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effect on titanium nitride nanometer thin film in <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cen, Z. H.; Xu, B. X.; Hu, J. F.; Ji, R.; Toh, Y. T.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, Y. F.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Titanium nitride (TiN) is a promising alternative plasmonic material to conventional novel metals. For practical plasmonic applications under the influence of <span class="hlt">air</span>, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent optical properties of TiN thin films in <span class="hlt">air</span> and its volume variation are essential. Ellipsometric characterizations on a TiN thin film at different increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> were conducted, and optical constants along with film thickness were retrieved. Below 200 °C, the optical properties varied linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in good agreement with other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent studies of TiN films in vacuum. The thermal expansion coefficient of the TiN thin film was determined to be 10.27  ×  10‑6 °C‑1. At higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the TiN thin film gradually loses its metallic characteristics and has weaker optical absorption, impairing its plasmonic performance. In addition, a sharp increase in film thickness was observed at the same time. Changes in the optical properties and film thickness with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 200 °C were revealed to result from TiN oxidation in <span class="hlt">air</span>. For the stability of TiN-based plasmonic devices, operation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of lower than 200 °C, or measures to prevent oxidation, are required. The present study is important to fundamental physics and technological applications of TiN thin films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5371Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5371Z"><span>Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5°×5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4865736','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4865736"><span>Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969. PMID:27172861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625721Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625721Z"><span>Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017InAgr..31....9B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017InAgr..31....9B"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> prediction from <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barman, D.; Kundu, D. K.; Pal, Soumen; Pal, Susanto; Chakraborty, A. K.; Jha, A. K.; Mazumdar, S. P.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharyya, P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important factor in biogeochemical processes. On-site monitoring of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is limited in spatiotemporal scale as compared to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data inventories due to various management difficulties. Therefore, empirical models were developed by taking 30-year long-term (1985-2014) <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for prediction of soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at three depths (5, 15, 30 cm) in morning (0636 Indian standard time) and afternoon (1336 Indian standard time) for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain. At 5 cm depth, power and exponential regression models were best fitted for daily data in morning and afternoon, respectively, but it was reverse at 15 cm. However, at 30 cm, exponential models were best fitted for both the times. Regression analysis revealed that in morning for all three depths and in afternoon for 30 cm depth, soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (daily, weekly, and monthly) could be predicted more efficiently with the help of corresponding mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than that of maximum and minimum. However, in afternoon, prediction of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 5 and 15 cm depths were more precised for all the time intervals when maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was used, except for weekly soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 15 cm, where the use of mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gave better prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....7...66D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....7...66D"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and anaerobic conditions on Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyakov, M. Yu.; Insarova, I. D.; Kharabadze, D. E.; Ptushenko, V. V.; Shtaer, O. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Lichen are symbiotic systems constituted by heterotrophic fungi (mycobionts) and photosynthetic microorganism (photobionts). These organisms can survive under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> stress conditions. The aim of this work was to study the influence of low (- 70 °C) or high (+ 70 °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations from + 70 °C to - 70 °C, and anaerobic conditions on P. aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability. None of the studied stress factors affected significantly photosynthetic and respiratory activity of the thalli. No changes in morphology or ultrastructure of the cells were revealed for both photobiont and mycobiont components after <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment of P. aphthosa thalli. The data show the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> tolerance of P. aphthosa to some stress factors inherent to the space flight conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090008509','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090008509"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Operation of a 10 MHz Silicon Oscillator Type STCL1100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The performance of STMicroelectronics 10 MHz silicon oscillator was evaluated under exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The oscillator was characterized in terms of its output frequency stability, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current. The effects of thermal cycling and re-start capability at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were also investigated. The silicon oscillator chip operated well with good stability in its output frequency over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> region of -50 C to +130 C, a range that by far exceeded its recommended specified boundaries of -20 C to +85 C. In addition, this chip, which is a low-cost oscillator designed for use in applications where great accuracy is not required, continued to function at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as low as - 195 C but at the expense of drop in its output frequency. The STCL1100 silicon oscillator was also able to re-start at both -195 C and +130 C, and it exhibited no change in performance due to the thermal cycling. In addition, no physical damage was observed in the packaging material due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure and thermal cycling. Therefore, it can be concluded that this device could potentially be used in space exploration missions under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in microprocessor and other applications where tight clock accuracy is not critical. In addition to the aforementioned screening evaluation, additional testing, however, is required to fully establish the reliability of these devices and to determine their suitability for long-term use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.5541S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13.5541S"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the flowering dates of four German wildlife shrub species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegmund, Jonatan F.; Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions have already been shown to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how <span class="hlt">extremes</span> specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. Studying this question calls for the application of statistical methods that are tailored to the specific properties of event time series. Here, we employ event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences in order to systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the timing of the flowering of four shrub species across Germany. Our study confirms previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the flowering of the investigated plants. However, previous studies solely based on correlation analysis do not allow deriving explicit estimates of the strength of such interdependencies without further assumptions, a gap that is closed by our analysis. In addition to direct impacts of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> warm and cold spring <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, our analysis reveals statistically significant indications of an influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the autumn preceding the flowering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3100D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3100D"><span>Scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drobinski, P.; Alonzo, B.; Bastin, S.; Silva, N. Da; Muller, C.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Expected changes to future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at a rate of about 7% °C-1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the present climate using simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (cooler than around 15°C) with rates of increase close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (warmer than about 15°C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of scaling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (surface versus condensation level), and precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not necessarily constant with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. But most importantly, the dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over this area during the so-called "Cevenoles" events, explains the hook shape of the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APJAS..53...31L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APJAS..53...31L"><span>Future trend in seasonal lengths and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions over South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Jangho</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>CSEOF analysis is conducted on the daily mean, maximum, and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> measured at 60 Korea Meteorological Administration stations in the period of 1979-2014. Each PC time series is detrended and fitted to an autoregressive (AR) model. The resulting AR models are used to generate 100 sets of synthetic PC time series for the period of 1979-2064, and the linear trends are added back to the resulting PC time series. Then, 100 sets of synthetic daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are produced by using the synthetic PC time series together with the The cyclostationary EOF (CSEOF) loading vectors. The statistics of the synthetic daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are similar to those of the original data during the observational period (1979-2064). Based on the synthetic datasets, future statistics including distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the length of four seasons have been analyzed. Average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in spring is expected to decrease by a small amount, whereas average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer, fall and winter are expected to increase. Standard deviation of daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is expected to increase in all four seasons. The Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value and Generalized Pareto distributions of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate that both warm and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are likely to increase in summer, while only warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are predicted to increase significantly in winter. Thus, heat waves will increase and cold waves will decrease in number in future. Spring and fall will be shorter, whereas summer and winter will be longer. A statistical prediction carried out in the present study may serve as a baseline solution for numerical predictions using complex models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5193H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5193H"><span>Correlation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above water-<span class="hlt">air</span> sections with the forecasted low level clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transformational variations on the sections "water-<span class="hlt">air</span>" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. DT is the differences of initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on section water-<span class="hlt">air</span> in started area, from contrast <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water surface along a trajectory of movement of <span class="hlt">air</span> masses and from the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in forecasting point and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm <span class="hlt">air</span> masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1537D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1537D"><span>Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since the mid-1990s over Western Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and warmest night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..220D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..220D"><span>Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since the mid-1990s over Western Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and warmest night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U"><span>Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina</p> <p></p> <p>Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 45 (°) СC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1280C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1280C"><span><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pacific Decadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040027572&hterms=test+TBCC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtest%2BTBCC','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040027572&hterms=test+TBCC&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dtest%2BTBCC"><span>Fault Tolerant Magnetic Bearing Testing and Conical Magnetic Bearing Development for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Clark, Daniel</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>During the six month tenure of the grant, activities included continued research of hydrostatic bearings as a viable backup-bearing solution for a magnetically levitated shaft system in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments (1000 F), developmental upgrades of the fault-tolerant magnetic bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center, and assisting in the development of a conical magnetic bearing for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments, particularly turbomachinery. It leveraged work from the ongoing Smart Efficient Components (SEC) and the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) program at NASA Glenn Research Center. The effort was useful in providing technology for more efficient and powerful gas turbine engines.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501"><span>Passive radiative cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. <span class="hlt">Air</span> conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below that of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span>. At night, passive cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1164293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1164293"><span>Low Frequency Modulation of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Regimes in a Changing Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Black, Robert X.</p> <p>2014-11-24</p> <p>The project examines long-term changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> episodes (ETE) associated with planetary climate modes (PCMs) in both the real atmospheric and climate model simulations. The focus is on cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks (CAOs) and warm waves (WWs) occurring over the continental US during the past 60 winters. No significant long-term trends in either WWs or CAOs are observed over the US. The annual frequency of CAOs is affected by the (i) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the Southeast US and (ii) Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern over the Northwest US. WW frequency is influenced by the (i) NAO over the eastern US and (ii) combined influence of PNA, Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and ENSO over the southern US. The collective influence of PCMs accounts for as much as 50% of the regional variability in ETE frequency. During CAO (WW) events occurring over the southeast US, there are low (high) pressure anomalies at higher atmospheric levels over the southeast US with oppositely-signed pressure anomalies in the lower atmosphere over the central US. These patterns lead to anomalous northerly (for CAOs) or southerly (for WWs) flow into the southeast leading to cold or warm surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, respectively. One distinction is that CAOs involve substantial <span class="hlt">air</span> mass transport while WW formation is more local in nature. The primary differences among event categories are in the origin and nature of the pressure anomaly features linked to ETE onset. In some cases, PCMs help to provide a favorable environment for event onset. Heat budget analyses indicate that latitudinal transport in the lower atmosphere is the main contributor to regional cooling during CAO onset. This is partly offset by adiabatic warming associated with subsiding <span class="hlt">air</span>. Additional diagnoses reveal that this latitudinal transport is partly due to the remote physical influence of a shallow cold pool of <span class="hlt">air</span> trapped along the east side of the Rocky Mountains. ETE and PCM behavior is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817749U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817749U"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from long climatological records at Barrow, Alaska and Tiksi, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.IASOA.org) Barrow Alaska and Tiksi, Russia are sites with two of the longest climatological records dating from 1901 and 1936 respectively. Tiksi and Barrow are also particularly useful sites for comparing Arctic regional variability because they are located at nearly the same latitude (71.325 N and 71.596 N respectively). When making comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, this fortunate coincidence allows elimination of the annual variability of incoming solar irradiance as one of the major factors controlling the variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when considering annual, seasonal, interannual and decadal changes. Although <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is one of the most basic of environmental parameters measured globally on a routine basis, acquiring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for analysis requires making choices about sources which may apply different quality control and averaging protocols affecting calculations especially of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Records are available from the U.S. NOAA National Climatic Data Center and the Climate Research Unit of the U.K. Met Office. In addition, historical data rescue digitized data sets for Tiksi are available from the Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Using these records a detailed analysis and comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is performed. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are examined using unique method whereby the variation of the trend itself is examined as a function of start year. Differences in statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is examined for average, minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are then compared between Barrow and Tiksi to determine if it is possible make a first order determination of relationships to larger scale circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..211G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..211G"><span>Analysis and modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in several cities in northwestern Mexico under climate change conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Cueto, O. Rafael; Cavazos, M. Tereza; de Grau, Pamela; Santillán-Soto, Néstor</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution is applied in this article to model the statistical behavior of the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution tails in four cities of Baja California in northwestern Mexico, using data from 1950-2010. The approach used of the maximum of annual time blocks. Temporal trends were included as covariates in the location parameter (μ), which resulted in significant improvements to the proposed models, particularly for the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in the cities of Mexicali, Tijuana, and Tecate, and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in Mexicali and Ensenada. These models were used to estimate future probabilities over the next 100 years (2015-2110) for different time periods, and they were compared with changes in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> (P90th and P10th) percentiles of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios for a set of six general circulation models under low (RCP4.5) and high (RCP8.5) radiative forcings. By the end of the twenty-first century, the scenarios of the changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are of the same order in both the statistical model and the high radiative scenario (increases of 4-5 °C). The low radiative scenario is more conservative (increases of 2-3 °C). The winter scenario shows that minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could be less severe; the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases suggested by the probabilistic model are greater than those projected for the end of the century by the set of global models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The likely impacts on the region are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048286"><span>Climate change and the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on Australian flying-foxes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Welbergen, Justin A; Klose, Stefan M; Markus, Nicola; Eby, Peggy</p> <p>2008-02-22</p> <p>Little is known about the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on natural systems. This is of increasing concern now that climate models predict dramatic increases in the intensity, duration and frequency of such <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Here we examine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on behaviour and demography of vulnerable wild flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.). On 12 January 2002 in New South Wales, Australia, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding 42 degrees C killed over 3500 individuals in nine mixed-species colonies. In one colony, we recorded a predictable sequence of thermoregulatory behaviours (wing-fanning, shade-seeking, panting and saliva-spreading, respectively) and witnessed how 5-6% of bats died from hyperthermia. Mortality was greater among the tropical black flying-fox, Pteropus alecto (10-13%) than the temperate grey-headed flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (less than 1%), and young and adult females were more affected than adult males (young, 23-49%; females, 10-15%; males, less than 3%). Since 1994, over 30000 flying-foxes (including at least 24500 P. poliocephalus) were killed during 19 similar events. Although P. alecto was relatively less affected, it is currently expanding its range into the more variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> envelope of P. poliocephalus, which increases the likelihood of die-offs occurring in this species. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are important additional threats to Australian flying-foxes and the ecosystem services they provide, and we recommend close monitoring of colonies where <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding 42.0 degrees C are predicted. The effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on flying-foxes highlight the complex implications of climate change for behaviour, demography and species survival.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504852"><span>Acclimation responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> vary with vertical stratification: implications for vulnerability of soil-dwelling species to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dooremalen, Coby; Berg, Matty P; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The occurrence of summer heat waves is predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the near future, but the consequences of such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are largely unknown, especially for belowground organisms. Soil organisms usually exhibit strong vertical stratification, resulting in more frequent exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for surface-dwelling species than for soil-dwelling species. Therefore soil-dwelling species are expected to have poor acclimation responses to cope with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. We used five species of surface-dwelling and four species of soil-dwelling Collembola that habituate different depths in the soil. We tested for differences in tolerance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> after acclimation to warm and cold conditions. We also tested for differences in acclimation of the underlying physiology by looking at changes in membrane lipid composition. Chill coma recovery time, heat knockdown time and fatty acid profiles were determined after 1 week of acclimation to either 5 or 20 °C. Our results showed that surface-dwelling Collembola better maintained increased heat tolerance across acclimation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but no such response was found for cold tolerance. Concordantly, four of the five surface-dwelling Collembola showed up to fourfold changes in relative abundance of fatty acids after 1 week of acclimation, whereas none of the soil-dwelling species showed a significant adjustment in fatty acid composition. Strong physiological responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations may have become redundant in soil-dwelling species due to the relative thermal stability of their subterranean habitat. Based on the results of the four species studied, we expect that unless soil-dwelling species can temporarily retreat to avoid <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the predicted increase in heat waves under climatic change renders these soil-dwelling species more vulnerable to extinction than species with better physiological capabilities. Being able to act under a larger thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573709"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090014040','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090014040"><span>SOI N-Channel Field Effect Transistors, CHT-NMOS80, for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Almad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, both hot and cold, are anticipated in many of NASA space exploration missions as well as in terrestrial applications. One can seldom find electronics that are capable of operation under both regimes. Even for operation under one (hot or cold) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, some thermal controls need to be introduced to provide appropriate ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> so that spacecraft on-board or field on-site electronic systems work properly. The inclusion of these controls, which comprise of heating elements and radiators along with their associated structures, adds to the complexity in the design of the system, increases cost and weight, and affects overall reliability. Thus, it would be highly desirable and very beneficial to eliminate these thermal measures in order to simplify system's design, improve efficiency, reduce development and launch costs, and improve reliability. These requirements can only be met through the development of electronic parts that are designed for proper and efficient operation under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based devices are finding more use in harsh environments due to the benefits that their inherent design offers in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, good radiation tolerance, and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operability. Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and under wide thermal swings. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) SOI parts over an extended <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range and to determine the effects of thermal cycling on their performance. The results will establish a baseline on the suitability of such devices for use in space exploration missions under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and will aid mission planners and circuit designers in the proper selection of electronic parts and circuits. The electronic part investigated in this work comprised of a CHT-NMOS80</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..711Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..711Q"><span>Who is more vulnerable to death from <span class="hlt">extremely</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>? A case-only approach in Hong Kong with a temperate climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The short-term effects of ambient cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. However, less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to death related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold. We aimed to examine the personal characteristics and underlying causes of death that modified the association between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold and mortality in a case-only approach. Individual information of 197,680 deaths of natural causes, daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution concentrations in cool season (November-April) during 2002-2011 in Hong Kong were collected. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> cold was defined as those days with preceding week with a daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at or less than the 1st percentile of its distribution. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of modification, further controlling for age, seasonal pattern, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by using the 5th percentile as cutoff point to define the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold. Subjects with age of 85 and older were more vulnerable to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.33 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.45). The greater risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold-related mortality was observed for total cardiorespiratory diseases and several specific causes including hypertensive diseases, stroke, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Hypertensive diseases exhibited the greatest vulnerability to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold exposure, with an OR of 1.37 (95 % CI, 1.13-1.65). Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of these effect modifications. This evidence on which subpopulations are vulnerable to the adverse effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold is important to inform public health measures to minimize those effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..560F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..560F"><span>Anthropogenic contribution to global occurrence of heavy-precipitation and high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, E. M.; Knutti, R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Climate change includes not only changes in mean climate but also in weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. For a few prominent heatwaves and heavy precipitation events a human contribution to their occurrence has been demonstrated. Here we apply a similar framework but estimate what fraction of all globally occurring heavy precipitation and hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is attributable to warming. We show that at the present-day warming of 0.85 °C about 18% of the moderate daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over land are attributable to the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase since pre-industrial times, which in turn primarily results from human influence. For 2 °C of warming the fraction of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> attributable to human influence rises to about 40%. Likewise, today about 75% of the moderate daily hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over land are attributable to warming. It is the most rare and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events for which the largest fraction is anthropogenic, and that contribution increases nonlinearly with further warming. The approach introduced here is robust owing to its global perspective, less sensitive to model biases than alternative methods and informative for mitigation policy, and thereby complementary to single-event attribution. Combined with information on vulnerability and exposure, it serves as a scientific basis for assessment of global risk from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather, the discussion of mitigation targets, and liability considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042967','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042967"><span>Operation of SOI P-Channel Field Effect Transistors, CHT-PMOS30, under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Electronic systems are required to operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in NASA planetary exploration and deep space missions. Electronics on-board spacecraft must also tolerate thermal cycling between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Thermal management means are usually included in today s spacecraft systems to provide adequate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for proper operation of the electronics. These measures, which may include heating elements, heat pipes, radiators, etc., however add to the complexity in the design of the system, increases its cost and weight, and affects its performance and reliability. Electronic parts and circuits capable of withstanding and operating under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> would reflect in improvement in system s efficiency, reducing cost, and improving overall reliability. Semiconductor chips based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are designed mainly for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications and find extensive use in terrestrial well-logging fields. Their inherent design offers advantages over silicon devices in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, and good radiation tolerance. Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and under wide thermal swings. Experimental investigation on the operation of SOI, N-channel field effect transistors under wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range was reported earlier [1]. This work examines the performance of P-channel devices of these SOI transistors. The electronic part investigated in this work comprised of a Cissoid s CHT-PMOS30, high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> P-channel MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) device [2]. This high voltage, medium-power transistor is designed for geothermal well logging applications, aerospace and avionics, and automotive industry, and is specified for operation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of -55 C to +225 C. Table I shows some specifications of this transistor [2]. The CHT-PMOS30 device was characterized at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4007O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4007O"><span>Pulsed positive streamer discharges in <span class="hlt">air</span> at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">air</span> pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the streamer discharges is studied. When the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased, the product of applied voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S"><span>Transient 21st Century Changes in Daily-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six daily-scale hot and cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) <span class="hlt">extremes</span> distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th daily-maximum-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions on composting process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate <span class="hlt">air</span> flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V"><span>Observed trends in indices of daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, L. A.; Aguilar, E.; Saindou, M.; Hassane, A. F.; Jumaux, G.; Roy, D.; Booneeady, P.; Virasami, R.; Randriamarolaza, L. Y. A.; Faniriantsoa, F. R.; Amelie, V.; Seeward, H.; Montfraix, B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A workshop on climate change indices was held at the Mauritius Meteorological Services in October 2009 to produce the first analysis of climate trends for the countries of the western Indian Ocean. Scientists brought their long-term daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for a careful assessment of data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices. This paper reports on the trends in daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices for 1961-2008. The results indicate a definitive warming of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Annual means of the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased at a similar rate, leading to no discernible change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant increasing trends were found in the frequency of warm days and warm nights, while decreasing trends were observed in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. Moreover, it seems that the warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have changed more than the cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the western Indian Ocean region. Trends in precipitation indices are generally weak and show less spatial coherence. Regionally, a significant decrease was found in the annual total rainfall for the past 48 years. The results also show some increase in consecutive dry days, no change in daily intensity and consecutive wet days, and a decrease in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> indices are highly correlated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the region, whereas weak correlations are found with the precipitation indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1754D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1754D"><span>Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Elevated mortality associated with high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and (iv) to compare the links to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for morbidity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..141W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..141W"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>By characterizing the patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> significantly decreased but warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn) and maximum daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4643P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4643P"><span>Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has better skill in means than in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> are found to be closely related, but not clearly between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> are always better simulated than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017704"><span>Reply to Stone Et Al.: Human-Made Role in Local <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Stone et al. find that their analysis is unable to show a causal relation of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, such as in Texas in 2011, with global warming. It was because of limitations in such local analyses that we reframed the problem in our report, separating the task of attribution of the causes of global warming from the task of quantifying changes in the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..17...67K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..17...67K"><span>An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Planning an <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi</p> <p></p> <p>In planning an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system, supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution system, and that the influence of supply <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is larger than that of supply water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the long-term economics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542882"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Sensitivity of Room-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Photoelectric Effect for Terahertz Detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhiming; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Jinchao; Huang, Jingguo; Ouyang, Cheng; Qu, Yue; Wu, Jing; Gao, Yanqing; Chu, Junhao</p> <p>2016-01-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> sensitivity of room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoelectric effect for terahertz (THz) detection is demonstrated by generating extra carriers in an electromagnetic induced well located at the semiconductor, using a wrapped metal-semiconductor-metal configuration. The excellent performance achieved with THz detectors shows great potential to open avenues for THz detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13..599Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13..599Z"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn <span class="hlt">air</span> samples from NEEM, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A series of 12 high volume <span class="hlt">air</span> samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn <span class="hlt">air</span> studies, the isotope results show <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn <span class="hlt">air</span> modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1218499Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1218499Z"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn <span class="hlt">air</span> samples from NEEM, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A series of 12 high volume <span class="hlt">air</span> samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn <span class="hlt">air</span> studies, the isotope results show <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn <span class="hlt">air</span> modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change must have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological changes in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr. Propagating the mass-balance calculations into the future demonstrates that as emissions decrease to zero, isotopic fractionation by the stratospheric sinks will lead to continued 13C enrichment in atmospheric CFC-12.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27638182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27638182"><span>Low precipitation aggravates the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on lizard reproduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Li, Shu-Ran; Bi, Jun-Huai; Du, Wei-Guo</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are occurring more frequently with ongoing anthropogenic climate warming, but the experimental tests of the effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on terrestrial vertebrates in natural conditions are rare. In this study, we investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on female reproduction and offspring traits of multi-ocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) kept in field enclosures in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia. Our studies indicate that high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> significantly affect the gestation period and reproductive output of females and the offspring sex ratio, but have little impact on offspring body size and mass. More interestingly, we found that the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on female reproductive output was not consistent between two consecutive years that differed in precipitation. Low precipitation may aggravate the impact of climate warming on lizards and negatively affect the survival of lizards in the desert steppe. Our results provide evidence that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interacts with precipitation to determine the life history of lizards, and they suggest that a drier and hotter environment, such as the future climate in arid mid-latitude areas, will likely impose severe pressure on lizard populations, which are an important component of the food web in desert areas around the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S"><span>Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 daily-scale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) <span class="hlt">extremes</span> distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span>) or minima (for cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011391','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011391"><span>Performance of the Micropower Voltage Reference ADR3430 Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Electronic systems designed for use in space exploration systems are expected to be exposed to harsh <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. For example, operation at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is anticipated in space missions such as polar craters of the moon (-223 C), James Webb Space Telescope (-236 C), Mars (-140 C), Europa (-223 C), Titan (-178 C), and other deep space probes away from the sun. Similarly, rovers and landers on the lunar surface, and deep space probes intended for the exploration of Venus are expected to encounter high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Electronics capable of operation under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> would not only meet the requirements of future spacebased systems, but would also contribute to enhancing efficiency and improving reliability of these systems through the elimination of the thermal control elements that present electronics need for proper operation under the harsh environment of space. In this work, the performance of a micropower, high accuracy voltage reference was evaluated over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The Analog Devices ADR3430 chip uses a patented voltage reference architecture to achieve high accuracy, low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient, and low noise in a CMOS process [1]. The device combines two voltages of opposite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficients to create an output voltage that is almost independent of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It is rated for the industrial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of -40 C to +125 C, and is ideal for use in low power precision data acquisition systems and in battery-powered devices. Table 1 shows some of the manufacturer s device specifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314896"><span>Climate change, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and respiratory health in Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Sario, M; Katsouyanni, K; Michelozzi, P</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Due to climate change and other factors, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution patterns are changing in several urbanised areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health both independently and synergistically with weather conditions; climate scenarios show Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions. European studies on heatwave episodes have consistently shown a synergistic effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while the potential weather-<span class="hlt">air</span> pollution interaction during wildfires and dust storms is unknown. Allergen patterns are also changing in response to climate change, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens, especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known; the health consequences vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases, and premature death. These multidimensional climate-pollution-allergen effects need to be taken into account in estimating both climate and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution-related respiratory effects, in order to set up adequate policy and public health actions to face both the current and future climate and pollution challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.360B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.360B"><span>Arctic <span class="hlt">air</span> may become cleaner as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">air</span> in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the <span class="hlt">air</span> during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the <span class="hlt">air</span> most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the <span class="hlt">air</span> and snow might also become cleaner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19550042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19550042"><span>Variations in morphological and life-history traits under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Drosophila ananassae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sisodia, Seema; Singh, B N</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Using half-sib analysis, we analysed the consequences of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rearing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on genetic and phenotypic variations in the morphological and life-history traits of Drosophila ananassae. Paternal half-sib covariance contains a relatively small proportion of the epistatic variance and lacks the dominance variance and variance due to maternal effect, which provides more reliable estimates of additive genetic variance. Experiments were performed on a mass culture population of D. ananassae collected from Kanniyakumari (India). Two <span class="hlt">extremely</span> stressful <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (18 degree C and 32 degree C) and one standard <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25 degree C) were used to examine the effect of stressful and non-stressful environments on the morphological and life-history traits in males and females. Mean values of various morphological traits differed signifi cantly among different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimens in both males and females. Rearing at 18 degree C and 32 degree C resulted in decreased thorax length, wing-to-thorax (w/t) ratio, sternopleural bristle number, ovariole number, sex comb-tooth number and testis length. Phenotypic variances increased under stressful <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in comparison with non-stressful <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Heritability and evolvability based on among-sires (males), among-dams (females), and the sum of the two components (sire + dam) showed higher values at both the stressful <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than at the non-stressful <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These differences reflect changes in additive genetic variance. Viability was greater at the high than the low <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. As viability is an indicator of stress, we can assume that stress was greater at 18 degree C than at 32 degree C in D. ananassae. The genetic variations for all the quantitative and life-history traits were higher at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Variation in sexual traits was more pronounced as compared with other morphometric traits, which shows that sexual traits are more prone to thermal stress. Our results agree with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455"><span>Flame Speeds of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures at Low Initial <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds were determined for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, propane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -73 C and for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> previously established for the range from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B"><span>Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fast-response accurate <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820386"><span>Trends in atmospheric patterns conducive to seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Swain, Daniel L.; Horton, Daniel E.; Singh, Deepti; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that changes in atmospheric circulation have altered the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate northeastern Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns that have historically (1949–2015) been associated with cool-season (October-May) precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California. We identify changes in occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns by measuring the similarity of the cool-season atmospheric configuration that occurred in each year of the 1949–2015 period with the configuration that occurred during each of the five driest, wettest, warmest, and coolest years. Our analysis detects statistically significant changes in the occurrence of atmospheric patterns associated with seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We also find a robust increase in the magnitude and subseasonal persistence of the cool-season West Coast ridge, resulting in an amplification of the background state. Changes in both seasonal mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event configurations appear to be caused by a combination of spatially nonuniform thermal expansion of the atmosphere and reinforcing trends in the pattern of sea level pressure. In particular, both thermal expansion and sea level pressure trends contribute to a notable increase in anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging patterns similar to that observed during the 2012–2015 California drought. Collectively, our empirical findings suggest that the frequency of atmospheric conditions like those during California’s most severely dry and hot years has increased in recent decades, but not necessarily at the expense of patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> wet years. PMID:27051876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051876"><span>Trends in atmospheric patterns conducive to seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swain, Daniel L; Horton, Daniel E; Singh, Deepti; Diffenbaugh, Noah S</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that changes in atmospheric circulation have altered the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate northeastern Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns that have historically (1949-2015) been associated with cool-season (October-May) precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California. We identify changes in occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns by measuring the similarity of the cool-season atmospheric configuration that occurred in each year of the 1949-2015 period with the configuration that occurred during each of the five driest, wettest, warmest, and coolest years. Our analysis detects statistically significant changes in the occurrence of atmospheric patterns associated with seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We also find a robust increase in the magnitude and subseasonal persistence of the cool-season West Coast ridge, resulting in an amplification of the background state. Changes in both seasonal mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event configurations appear to be caused by a combination of spatially nonuniform thermal expansion of the atmosphere and reinforcing trends in the pattern of sea level pressure. In particular, both thermal expansion and sea level pressure trends contribute to a notable increase in anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging patterns similar to that observed during the 2012-2015 California drought. Collectively, our empirical findings suggest that the frequency of atmospheric conditions like those during California's most severely dry and hot years has increased in recent decades, but not necessarily at the expense of patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> wet years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.9030O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.9030O"><span>Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Buric, Michael P.; Brown, Thomas D.; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Embedded sensors capable of operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments including high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gas sensing at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.Embedded sensors capable of operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments including high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004138','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004138"><span>Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Amplify <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Summer Precipitation in Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. PMID:27573802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632450V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...632450V"><span>Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Amplify <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Summer Precipitation in Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573802"><span>Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Amplify <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9535J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9535J"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spring <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. An arising question is how plants respond to an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm spell when following an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035035','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035035"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riza, Nabeel Agha; Perez, Frank</p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> only use or exposed for both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrES...10..644W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrES...10..644W"><span>An assessment of precipitation and surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China by regional climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xueyuan; Tang, Jianping; Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>An analysis of a 20-year summer time simulation of present-day climate (1989-2008) over China using four regional climate models coupled with different land surface models is carried out. The climatic means, interannual variability, linear trends, and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are examined, with focus on precipitation and near surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The models are able to reproduce the basic features of the observed summer mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China and the regional detail due to topographic forcing. Overall, the model performance is better for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than that of precipitation. The models reasonably grasp the major anomalies and standard deviations over China and the five subregions studied. The models generally reproduce the spatial pattern of high interannual variability over wet regions, and low variability over the dry regions. The models also capture well the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient increase to the north by latitude. Both the observed and simulated linear trend of precipitation shows a drying tendency over the Yangtze River Basin and wetting over South China. The models capture well the relatively small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in large areas of China. The models reasonably simulate the characteristics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation indices of heavy rain days and heavy precipitation fraction. Most of the models also performed well in capturing both the sign and magnitude of the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610644V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610644V"><span>Significant influences of global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ENSO on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall over Southeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Villafuerte, Marcelino, II; Matsumoto, Jun</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Along with the increasing concerns on the consequences of global warming, and the accumulating records of disaster related to heavy rainfall events in Southeast Asia, this study investigates whether a direct link can be detected between the rising global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall over the region. The maximum likelihood modeling that allows incorporating covariates on the location parameter of the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution is employed. The GEV model is fitted to annual and seasonal rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which were taken from a high-resolution gauge-based gridded daily precipitation data covering a span of 57 years (1951-2007). Nonstationarities in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall are detected over the central parts of Indochina Peninsula, eastern coasts of central Vietnam, northwest of the Sumatra Island, inland portions of Borneo Island, and on the northeastern and southwestern coasts of the Philippines. These nonstationarities in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall are directly linked to near-surface global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ENSO. In particular, the study reveals that a kelvin increase in global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly can lead to an increase of 30% to even greater than 45% in annual maximum 1-day rainfall, which were observed pronouncedly over central Vietnam, southern coast of Myanmar, northwestern sections of Thailand, northwestern tip of Sumatra, central portions of Malaysia, and the Visayas island in central Philippines. Furthermore, a pronounced ENSO influence manifested on the seasonal maximum 1-day rainfall; a northward progression of 10%-15% drier condition over Southeast Asia as the El Niño develops from summer to winter is revealed. It is important therefore, to consider the results obtained here for water resources management as well as for adaptation planning to minimize the potential adverse impact of global warming, particularly on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall and its associated flood risk over the region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..502Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..502Z"><span>Can tree-ring density data reflect summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and associated circulation patterns over Fennoscandia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Peng; Ionita, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit; Chen, Deliang; Linderholm, Hans W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Tree-ring maximum latewood density (MXD) records from Fennoscandia have been widely used to infer regional- and hemispheric-scale mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. Here, we explore if MXD records can also be used to infer past variability of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across Fennoscandia. The first principal component (PC1) based on 34 MXD chronologies in Fennoscandia explains 50% of the total variance in the observed warm-day <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the period 1901-1978. Variations in both observed summer warm-day <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and PC1 are influenced by the frequency of anomalous anticyclonic pattern over the region, summer sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Baltic, North and Norwegian Seas, and the strength of the westerly zonal wind at 200 hPa across Fennoscandia. Both time series are associated with nearly identical atmospheric circulation and SST patterns according to composite map analysis. In a longer context, the first PC based on 3 millennium-long MXD chronologies in central and northern Fennoscandia explains 83% of the total variance of PC1 from the 34 MXD chronologies over the period 1901-1978, 48% of the total variance of the summer warm-day <span class="hlt">extreme</span> variability over the period 1901-2006, and 36% of the total variance in the frequency of a summer anticyclonic pattern centered over eastern-central Fennoscandia in the period 1948-2006. The frequency of summer warm-day <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Fennoscandia is likely linked to a meridional shift of the northern mid-latitude jet stream. This study shows that the MXD network can be used to infer the variability of past summer warm-day <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the frequency of the associated summer anticyclonic circulation pattern over Fennoscandia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=meteor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmeteor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=meteor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmeteor"><span>The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpESc.......30.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpESc.......30."><span>Discovery about <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in turbulent <span class="hlt">air</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The law of spatial fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a turbulent flow in the atmosphere was studied. The turbulent movement of <span class="hlt">air</span> in the atmosphere manifests itself in random changes in wind velocity and in the dispersal of smoke. If a miniature thermometer with sufficient sensitivity and speed of response were placed in a <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, its readings would fluctuate chaotically against the background of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This is Characteristic of practically every point of the flow. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field forms as a result of the mixing of the <span class="hlt">air</span>. A method using the relation of the mean square of the difference in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of two points to the distance between these points as the structural characteristic of this field was proposed. It was found that the dissipation of energy in a flow and the equalization of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are connected with the breaking up of eddies in a turbulent flow into smaller ones. Their energy in turn is converted into heat due to the viscosity of the medium. The law that has been discovered makes for a much broader field of application of physical methods of analyzing atmospheric phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057559&hterms=kinetics+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkinetics%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057559&hterms=kinetics+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkinetics%2Bmodel"><span>Assessment of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> kinetic model for ionizing <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Chul</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> chemical-kinetic model for <span class="hlt">air</span> is assessed by comparing theoretical results with existing experimental data obtained in shock-tubes, ballistic ranges, and flight experiments. In the model, named the TTv model, one <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) is assumed to characterize the heavy-particle translational and molecular rotational energies, and another <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tv) to characterize the molecular vibrational, electron translational, and electronic excitation energies. The theoretical results for nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> flow in shock tubes are obtained using the computer code STRAP (Shock-Tube Radiation Program), and for flow along the stagnation streamline in the shock layer over spherical bodies using the newly developed code STRAP (Stagnation-Point Radiation Program). Substantial agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental results for relaxation times and radiative heat fluxes. At very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the spectral calculations need further improvement. The present agreement provides strong evidence that the two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> model characterizes principal features of nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> flow. New theoretical results using the model are presented for the radiative heat fluxes at the stagnation point of a 6-m-radius sphere, representing an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle, over a range of free-stream conditions. Assumptions, approximations, and limitations of the model are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15104905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15104905"><span>The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722"><span>Can <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> be used to project influences of climate change on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide, lack of data on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on more widely available data on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, based on <span class="hlt">air</span> temperature–stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of <span class="hlt">air</span> and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160000983&hterms=cities&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcities','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160000983&hterms=cities&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcities"><span>Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in New York City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, yet few studies have examined the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517639S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517639S"><span>Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat stress events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667274','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667274"><span>Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat stress events. PMID:26627576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070030904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070030904"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling and Exposure to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Reliability of Solid Tantalum Capacitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Teverovsky, Alexander</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this work, results of multiple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling (TC) (up to 1,000 cycles) of different types of solid tantalum capacitors are analyzed and reported. Deformation of chip tantalum during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations simulating reflow soldering conditions was measured to evaluate the possibility of the pop-corning effect in the parts. To simulate the effect of short-time exposures to solder reflow <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the reliability of tantalum capacitors, several part types were subjected to multiple cycles (up to 100) between room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 240 C with periodical measurements of electrical characteristics of the parts. Mechanisms of degradation caused by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling and exposure to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the requirements of MIL-PRF-55365 for assessment of the resistance of the parts to soldering heat are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12c4007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12c4007H"><span>Greater increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in low versus high income countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herold, Nicholas; Alexander, Lisa; Green, Donna; Donat, Markus</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>It is commonly expected that the world’s lowest income countries will face some of the worst impacts of global warming, despite contributing the least to greenhouse gas emissions. Using global atmospheric reanalyses we show that the world’s lowest income countries are already experiencing greater increases in the occurrence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> compared to the highest income countries, and have been for over two decades. Not only are low income countries less able to support mitigation and adaptation efforts, but their typically equatorial location predisposes them to lower natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and thus greater changes in the occurrence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with global warming. This aspect of global warming is well known but overlooked in current international climate policy agreements and we argue that it is an important factor in reducing inequity due to climate impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiler for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> prediction using measured potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and determining the vertical gradient of potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092"><span>CARS <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Species Measurements For <span class="hlt">Air</span> Vehicle Propulsion Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for <span class="hlt">air</span> vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson <span class="hlt">Air</span> Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814962Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814962Z"><span>Can tree-ring proxy reflect summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and their associated circulation patterns over Fennoscandia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Peng; Ionita, Monica; Lohmann, Gerrit; Chen, Deliang; Linderholm, Hans</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tree-ring maximum latewood density (MXD) records in Fennoscandia have been widely used to infer the regional and hemispheric-scale mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. Here, we explore whether the tree-ring record can be used to infer the variability of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Fennoscandia through a statistical analyses of gridded instrumental reanalysis and tree-ring data. The first principal component (PC1) of the MXD network in Fennoscandia, which explains 50% variance of the summer warm-day <span class="hlt">extreme</span> variability over the period 1901-1978, has a mopolar structure with the highest loadings in the central and northern part of Fennoscandia. The corresponding time series (PC1) is influenced by the variability of a blocking-like anticyclonic pattern over Fennoscandia, and the northward shift of northeast Atlantic high-altitude jet stream. The strongest correlations are found between the PC1 and the summer warm-day <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Fennoscandia, consistent with the anticyclonic pattern. This study shows that the Fennoscandian MXD network can be used to infer the variability of the past high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Fennoscandia and their associated circulation patterns over summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28076196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28076196"><span>Impacts of Lowered Urban <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Precursor Emission and Ozone <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts of decreased <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast <span class="hlt">Air</span> Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone <span class="hlt">air</span> quality can be substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1460C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1460C"><span>An improved method for correction of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured using different radiation shields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The variation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> error is considered and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8430534W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8430534W"><span>Requirements for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled central receivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, J. D.; Copeland, R. J.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 540 to 1000(0)C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on <span class="hlt">air</span> cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost effective thermal transport and thermal storage for <span class="hlt">air</span> cooled receivers is a critical problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19818553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19818553"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-<span class="hlt">air</span> deflagrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Such correlations are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13C1218D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13C1218D"><span>Climate change and river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the July river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> relative to current conditions. In all cases, river <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under the delta case increased the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under the warmer daytime case increased water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under the warmer nighttime case increased the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3738L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3738L"><span>Analysis of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using quantile regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kyoungmi; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, ChunHo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>One of the important research areas in climatology is to identify whether the long-period tendencies of change in meteorological variables appear. In the past, the analysis has been limited by the estimation of long-period trends for annual or seasonal average values on meteorological variables. However, recently, the interest in the trends regarding the whole range of values for meteorological variables, including the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ones, has arisen. The quantile regression is the regression analysis method for estimating the regression slopes for the values of any quantile from 0 to 1 of dependent variable distributions. This method provides a more complete picture for the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the independent variable when both lower and upper or all quantiles are of interest. This study examines the changes in regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in South Korea using quantile regression, which is applied to analyze trends, not only in the mean but in all parts of the data distribution. The results show considerable diversity across space and quantile level in South Korea. For daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter, the slopes in lower quantiles generally have a more distinct increase trend compared to the upper quantiles. The time series for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the winter season only shows a significant increasing trend in the lower quantile. In case of summer, most sites show an increase trend in both lower and upper quantiles for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while there are a number of sites with a decrease trend for daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It was also found that the increase trend of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in large urban areas (0.80°C/decade) is much larger than in rural areas (0.54°C/decade) due to the effects of urbanization. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climate events can have greater negative impacts on society, economy and natural environments than changes in climate means. The fast growth of population and industrialization in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23948985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23948985"><span>Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohodnicki, Paul R; Buric, Michael P; Brown, Thomas D; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark</p> <p>2013-10-07</p> <p>Embedded sensors capable of operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments including high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gas sensing at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000917','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000917"><span>Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> using Record Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events including record high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high (low) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the global landmass we find that the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Using daily <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations, we find that the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is greater in the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time-series compared to the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between the daily minimum and daily maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..163F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..163F"><span>The evolution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (1974-2013)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortin, Guillaume; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The majority of natural hazards that affect Canadian territory are the result of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate and weather conditions. Among these weather hazards, some can be calculated from the application of thresholds for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at a daily or monthly timescale. These thermal indices allowed the prediction of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions that may have an impact on the human population by affecting, for example, health, agriculture, and water resources. In this article, we discuss the methods used (RHtestsV4, SPLIDHOM, ClimPACT) then describe the steps followed to calculate the indices, including how we dealt with the problem of missing data and the necessity to identify a common methodology to analyze the time series. We also present possible solutions for ensuring the quality of meteorological data. We then present an overview of the results, namely the main trends and variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for seven stations located in the Gaspé Peninsula from 1974 to 2013. Our results indicate some break points in time series and positive trends for most indices related to the rise of the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> but indicate a negative trend for the indices related to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for most stations during the study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..114T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..114T"><span>Evaluating CMIP5 models using <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian H.; Teixeira, Joao; Manning, Evan; Hearty, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper documents the climatological mean features of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) monthly mean tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPs project and compares them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for validation and 16 models from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for CMIP5 model evaluation. MERRA is warmer than <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the free troposphere but colder in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. MERRA is also drier (~10%) than <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the tropical boundary layer but wetter (~30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large MERRA-<span class="hlt">AIRS</span> specific humidity differences are mainly located in the deep convective cloudy regions indicating that the low sampling of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the cloudy regions may be the main reason for these differences. In comparison to <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and MERRA, the sixteen CMIP5 models can generally reproduce the climatological features of tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity well, but several noticeable biases exist. The models have a tropospheric cold bias (around 2 K), especially in the extratropical upper troposphere, and a double-ITCZ problem in the troposphere from 1000 hPa to 300 hPa, especially in the tropical Pacific. The upper-tropospheric cold bias exists in the most (13 of 16) models, and the double-ITCZ bias is found in all 16 CMIP5 models. Both biases are independent of the reference dataset used (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span> or MERRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11424102T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11424102T"><span>Record low surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Vostok station, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The lowest recorded <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime <span class="hlt">air</span> masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm <span class="hlt">air</span> advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..158O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp..158O"><span>Spatiotemporal variations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for emergency transport: a nationwide observational study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Although recent studies have investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat on emergency transport, few have investigated the spatiotemporal variations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for emergency transport on a national scale. Data pertaining to emergency ambulance transport and weather variation in the 47 prefectures of Japan between 2007 and 2010 were obtained. Nonlinear and delayed relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and morbidity were assessed using a two-stage analysis. First, a Poisson regression analysis allowing for overdispersion in a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on morbidity. Second, a multivariate meta-analysis was applied to pool estimates on a national level. Of 15,868,086 emergency transports over the study period, 5,375,621 emergency transports were reported during the winter months (November through February). The overall cumulative relative risk (RR) at the first percentile vs. the minimum morbidity percentile was 1.24 (95 % CI = 1.15-1.34) for all causes, 1.50 (95 % CI = 1.30-1.74) for cardiovascular diseases, and 1.59 (95 % CI = 1.33-1.89) for respiratory diseases. There were differences in the temporal variations between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and respiratory disease morbidity. Spatial variation between prefectures was observed for all causes (Cochran Q test, p < 0.001; I 2 = 34.0 %) and respiratory diseases (Cochran Q test, p = 0.026; I 2 = 18.2 %); however, there was no significant spatial heterogeneity for cardiovascular diseases (Cochran Q test, p = 0.413; I 2 = 2.0 %). Our findings indicated that there were differences in the spatiotemporal variations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for emergency transport during winter in Japan. Our findings highlight the importance of further investigating to identify social and environmental factors, which can be responsible for spatial heterogeneity between prefectures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.719E..41M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ESASP.719E..41M"><span>Solar Orbiter- Solar Array- Thermal Design for an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muller, Jens; Paarmann, Carola; Lindner, Anton; Kreutz, Martin; Oberhuttinger, Carola; Costello, Ian; Icardi, Lidia</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The Solar Orbiter mission is an interdisciplinary mission to the sun, carried out by ESA in collaboration with NASA. The spacecraft will approach the sun close to 0.28 AU. At this distance, the solar array has to be operated under high solar array inclination angles to limit the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to a maximum qualification <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 200°C for the photo voltaic assembly (PVA). Nevertheless, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> appear at specific locations of the solar array which require purpose-built <span class="hlt">temperature</span> protection measures. A very specific thermal protection is needed to keep the PVA and its supporting structures within the qualified <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range and simultaneously minimize the thermal flux into the spacecraft.This paper describes the Solar Orbiter solar array design in general and its specific thermal design in particular. It describes the interdisciplinary steps between thermal- and mechanical analysis as well as design engineering necessary to result to the different shielding methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85c5104F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85c5104F"><span>In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ceramic in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..519H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..519H"><span>Climate changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in an alpine grassland of Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Zengyun; Li, Qingxiang; Chen, Xi; Teng, Zhidong; Chen, Changchun; Yin, Gang; Zhang, Yuqing</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The natural ecosystem in Central Asia is sensitive and vulnerable to the arid and semiarid climate variations, especially the climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. However, the climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in this area are still unclear. Therefore, this study analyzed the climate variability in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in an alpine grassland (Bayanbuluk) of Central Asia based on the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and daily precipitation from 1958 to 2012. Statistically significant ( p < 0.01) increasing trends were found in the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at annual, and seasonal time scales except the winter maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In the seasonal changes, the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had the largest contribution to the annual warming. Further, there appeared increasing trends for the warm nights and the warm days and decreasing trends for the cool nights and the cool days at a 99 % confidence level. These trends directly resulted in an increasing trend for the growing season length (GSL) which could have positively influence on the vegetation productivity. For the precipitation, it displayed an increasing trend for the annual precipitation although it was not significant. And the summer precipitation had the same variations as the annual precipitation which indicated that the precipitation in summer made the biggest contribution to the annual precipitation than the other three seasons. The winter precipitation had a significant increasing trend (1.49 mm/10a) and a decreasing trend was found in spring. We also found that the precipitation of the very wet days mainly contributes to the annual precipitation with the trend of 4.5 mm/10a. The maximum 1-day precipitation and the heavy precipitation days only had slight increasing trend. A sharp decreasing trend was found before the early 1980s, and then becoming increase for the above three precipitation indexes. The climate experienced a warm-wet abrupt climate change in the 1980s</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC11J..06A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC11J..06A"><span>Placing Bounds on <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response of Maize to Improve Crop Model Intercomparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, C.; Babcock, B.; Peng, Y.; Gassman, P. W.; Campbell, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We propose the development of community-based estimates for bounds on maize sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We use model-based, observation-driven soil moisture climatology in a high maize production region in the United States to develop bounds on high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity through its dependence on available water. For the portion of the region with relatively long growing season, yield reduction per degree-C is 10% for high water availability and 32.5% for low water availability. Where the growing season is shorter, yield reduction per degree-C is 6% for high water availability and 27% for low water availability. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity is indeterminate where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> yield effect does not yet exceed excessive water yield effect. We suggest new soil moisture climatology from reanalysis datasets could be used to develop community-based estimates of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity that would significantly improve the accuracy of maize <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity bounds, their regional variability, and their importance relative to other weather yield shocks. A community-based estimate would substantially improve evaluation of crop system simulation models and provide baseline information for evaluation of adaptation options. For instance, since process models are needed for evaluation of crop system adaptation response under climate projections, a community-developed estimate would provide a clear target for process model evaluation. Furthermore, the range of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity from empirical models would provide a lower bound on variability that could be achieved from process models. If the process models achieved this bound, it would mean the uncertainty among their simulations would be primarily from observational limitations than differences in model response. While we demonstrate the potential in the context of maize, the concept could be implemented within any crop production system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396587"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Transpiration Resistances of Xanthium Leaves as Affected by <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Humidity, and Wind Speed 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drake, B. G.; Raschke, K.; Salisbury, F. B.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Transpiration and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of single, attached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were measured in high intensity white light (1.2 calories per square centimeter per minute on a surface normal to the radiation), with abundant water supply, at wind speeds of 90, 225, and 450 centimeters per second, and during exposure to moist and dry <span class="hlt">air</span>. Partitioning of absorbed radiation between transpiration and convection was determined, and transpiration resistances were computed. Leaf resistances decreased with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (down to a minimum of 0.36 seconds per centimeter). Silicone rubber replicas of leaf surfaces proved that the decrease was due to increased stomatal apertures. At constant <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, leaf resistances were higher in dry than in moist <span class="hlt">air</span> with the result that transpiration varied less than would have been predicted on the basis of the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and <span class="hlt">air</span>. The dependence of stomatal conductance on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture content of the <span class="hlt">air</span> caused the following effects. At <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 35 C, average leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were above <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by an amount dependent on wind velocity; increasing wind diminished transpiration. At <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 35 C, leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were below <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and increasing wind markedly increased transpiration. Leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> equaled <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near 35 C at all wind speeds and in moist as well as in dry <span class="hlt">air</span>. PMID:16657458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1273U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1273U"><span>Multi-decadal Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends and <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> at Arctic Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic region is considered to be one where global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are changing the most quickly; a number of factors make it the region where an accurate determination of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most difficult to measure or estimate. In developing a pan-Arctic perspective on Arctic in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability, several issues must be addressed including accounting for the different lengths of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records at different locations when comparing trends, accounting for the steep latitudinal controls on 'seasonal' trends, considering the often significant variability between different (sometimes a multitude) of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements made in the vicinity of a single station, and loss of detail information when data is ingested in a global archives or interpolated into gridded data sets. The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.iasoa.org) is an internationally networked consortium of facilities that measure a wide range of meteorological and climate relevant parameters; <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most fundamental of these parameters. Many of the observatories have the longest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records in the Arctic region including Barrow, Alaska (114 years), Tiksi, Russia (83 years), and Eureka, Canada (67 years). Using the IASOA data sets a detailed analysis is presented of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends presented as a function of the beginning date from which the trend is calculated, seasonal trends considered in the context of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Arctic solar ephemeris, and the variability in occurrence of annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. At the Tiksi observatory, a complete record is available of 3-hourly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> 1932 to present that was constructed through digitization of decades of written records. This data set is used to investigate if calculated trends and variabilities are consistent with those calculated from daily minimum and maximum values archived by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information Global Historical Climatology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..541..136G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..541..136G"><span>Flash flood events recorded by <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in caves: A case study in Covadura Cave (SE Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José María; Fernández-Cortés, Ángel</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>On 28th September 2012, more than 150 mm rain fell in just two hours in some points of southeastern Spain, triggering intense flash floods that resulted in the death of ten people and widespread material damage. In the gypsum karst of Sorbas, rainfall intensity reached 33 mm/h. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring in different levels of Covadura Cave, down to 85 m depth, enabled the effect of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> episode on the cave microclimate to be evaluated in real time. The cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased by between 0.9 and 4.1 °C as a result of water flow into the cavity and intense mixing of <span class="hlt">air</span> masses, in addition to the displacement of deeper <span class="hlt">air</span> masses toward shallower levels produced by fast recharge of the surrounding karst aquifer. The lag between peak rainfall intensity and the highest cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 5-6 h, indicating the response time of the karst to this rainfall event. No trends with depth were observed, suggesting that water not only flowed in through the main cave entrance but also through secondary accesses and fractures. Furthermore, the size of the cave passages and the intensity of <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence generated by waterfalls in the cave played an important role in producing these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. Even though the rainfall event lasted 10 h, cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not return to pre-flash flood values until more than 20 days later. This indicates that, while waterflow through the cave might stop a few hours after the rainfall event, cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be affected over a longer period. This can be explained by slow groundwater level decreasing of the surrounding karst aquifer and latent heat liberation produced by moisture condensation on the cave walls. Our results show how continuous monitoring of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in caves can be a useful tool for evaluating the short-term effects of flash floods in subterranean karst systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007326','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007326"><span>Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Profiles of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008789','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008789"><span>Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Profiles of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> Cooling for High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Power Electronics (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Current emphasis on developing high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-<span class="hlt">air</span> heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and <span class="hlt">air</span> supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034"><span>Global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: 1851-1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Many attempts have been made to combine station surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6104C"><span>Rapid fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">air</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the city of Bucharest (Romania)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm <span class="hlt">air</span> advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..284M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..284M"><span>Minimum <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the gulf of mexico: is there a connection with solar activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maravilla, D.; Mendoza, B.; Jauregui, E.</p> <p></p> <p>Minimum <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ( MET) series from several meteorological stations of the Gulf of Mexico are spectrally analyzed using the Maximum Entrophy Method. We obtained periodicities similar to those found in the sunspot number, the magnetic solar cycle, comic ray fluxes and geomagnetic activity which are modulated by solar activity. We suggested that the solar signal is perhaps present in the MET record of this region of Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.220D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.220D"><span>Impacts of hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Kříž, B.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Elevated mortality associated with high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and (iv) to compare the links to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7911M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7911M"><span>Trend analysis of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series over Greece: 1955-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marougianni, G.; Melas, D.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Anandranistakis, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In this study, a database of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series from the network of Hellenic National Meteorological Service has been developed in the framework of the project GEOCLIMA, co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009. Initially, a quality test was applied to the raw data and then missing observations have been imputed with a regularized, spatial-temporal expectation - maximization algorithm to complete the climatic record. Next, a quantile - matching algorithm was applied in order to verify the homogeneity of the data. The processed time series were used for the calculation of temporal annual and seasonal trends of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Monthly maximum and minimum surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation means at all available stations in Greece were analyzed for temporal trends and spatial variation patterns for the longest common time period of homogenous data (1955 - 2010), applying the Mann-Kendall test. The majority of the examined stations showed a significant increase in the summer maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; this could be possibly physically linked to the Etesian winds, because of the less frequent expansion of the low over the southeastern Mediterranean. Summer minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been increasing at a faster rate than that of summer maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, reflecting an asymmetric change of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions. Total annual precipitation has been significantly decreased at the stations located in western Greece, as well as in the southeast, while the remaining areas exhibit a non-significant negative trend. This reduction is very likely linked to the positive phase of the NAO that resulted in an increase in the frequency and persistence of anticyclones over the Mediterranean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470"><span>Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurs near full moon and lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C"><span>Trends and periodicity of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate indices calculated from daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, and the nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases faster than the daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the annual scale. The changes in most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation show that the amount and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation during the past decades. The variations in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489844"><span>Straw mulching reduces the harmful effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hydrological and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in citrus orchards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087"><span>Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with ice leading the winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The implication is that summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6554D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6554D"><span>Changes in annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Carpathians since AD 1961</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Magdalena Micu, Dana; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Carpathians are the largest, longest, most twisted and fragmented segment of the Alpine system, stretching between latitudes 44°N and 50°N, and longitudes 17°E and 27°E. This European mountain range is a climatically transitional region between major atmospheric circulation source areas of the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and continental Europe. The region is a European biodiversity hotspot, containing over one third of all European plant species. It is acknowledged that the mountain regions are particularly sensitive and vulnerable to climate change than any other regions located at the same latitudes. Observational studies on the variability and trends of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events suggest an overall consensus towards a significant increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in most of these regions, including the Carpathians. 15 core indices, defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), were computed in order to investigate the changes in annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, based on their known relevance for the infrastructure, human health and tourism activities in these mountains. The indices were computed from gridded daily datasets of minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation at 0.1° resolution (~10 km), available online within the framework of the project CarpatClim (www.carpatclim-eu.org) for the period 1961-2010. Changes in the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the last five decades have been identified with the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, at the 90% significance level (two-tail test). The results show decreasing trends in cold-related thermal indices, especially in the number of frost days, and increasing trends in warm-related ones. No consistent trend in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been found. There is a generally uniform signal of significant increasing trends in the frequency of summer days across the Carpathians, with no obvious differences between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9634E..3PF','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9634E..3PF"><span>Measuring strain at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with a Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferreira, Marta S.; Roriz, Paulo; Bierlich, Jörg; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Katrin; Aichele, Claudia; Schuster, Kay; Santos, José L.; Frazão, Orlando</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this work, a Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensor for the measurement of strain at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is proposed. The cavity is formed by splicing a short section of a silica tube between two sections of single mode fiber. The tube, with a cladding ~14 μm thick and a hollow core, presents four small rods, of ~20 μm in diameter each, positioned in in diametrically opposite positions. This design ensures higher mechanical stability of the tube. Strain measurements are performed over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, until 900 °C. Some of the annealing effects are addressed in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23C1149L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23C1149L"><span>Detection and Attribution of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Drought using an Analogue-Based Dynamical Adjustment Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehner, F.; Deser, C.; Terray, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies highlight the importance of internal variability in decadal trends and variability of regional-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. We use constructed circulation analogues for dynamical adjustment and apply it to the CESM Large Ensemble and long preindustrial control simulation to dissect regional-scale variability and trends into dynamic and thermodynamic, as well as forced and internal components. This allows us to diagnose contributing factors to specific events and to the general statistics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and drought in presence of a climate change signal. Further, we will discuss impacts of heat and drought in the framework of human exposure based on projected population distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41I1285H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41I1285H"><span>Detection of Spatio-temporal variations of rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hari, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> implemented. The results from this study exhibit the observable changes in the rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events that occurred over India in past century. The country experienced large spatial heterogeneity of all the four rainfall variables, even in the meteorologically homogeneous regions. The correlation analyses show that the maximum grids are having positive correlation, however for the duration-frequency, a significant correlation is observed in few grids, with most of the grids showing no correlation. The spatial variation of RL shows spatial heterogeneity and trend analyses exhibit lack of uniformity throughout India. The change in RL shows significant positive change in mainly during past 50 years. The possible reason could be urbanization and change in climate variables. Hence for further investigation, this analysis will be associated with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> data throughout India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100041298','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100041298"><span>Operation of a Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) Digital Isolator, Type IL510, Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Panko, Scott</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A relatively new type of signal isolation based on Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) technology was investigated for potential use in harsh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. Operational characteristics of the 2Mbps single channel, IL510-Series commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) digital isolator chip was obtained under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure and thermal cycling in the range of -190 C to +120 C. The isolator was evaluated in terms of its output signal delivery and stability, output rise (t(sub r)) and fall times (t(sub f)), and propagation delays at 50% level between input and output during low to high (t(sub PLH)) and high to low (t(sub PHL)) transitions. The device performed very well throughout the entire test <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range as no significant changes occurred either in its function or in its output signal timing characteristics. The limited thermal cycling, which comprised of 12 cycles between -190 C and +120 C, also had no influence on its performance. In addition, the device packaging underwent no structural damage due to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure. These preliminary results indicate that this semiconductor chip has the potential for use in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range that extends beyond its specified regime. Additional and more comprehensive testing, however, is required to establish its operation and reliability and to determine its suitability for long-term use in space exploration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830016162','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830016162"><span>Spectral photometry of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars: Ultraviolet fluxes and effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.; Heber, U.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broad band photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broad band photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scale for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars extends to lower effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846383"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on parasitoids in a climate change perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hance, Thierry; van Baaren, Joan; Vernon, Philippe; Boivin, Guy</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Parasitoids depend on a series of adaptations to the ecology and physiology of their hosts and host plants for survival and are thus likely highly susceptible to changes in environmental conditions. We analyze the effects of global warming and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the life-history traits of parasitoids and interactions with their hosts. Adaptations of parasitoids to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are similar to those of most ectotherms, but these adaptations are constrained by the responses of their hosts. Life-history traits are affected by cold exposure, and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can reduce endosymbiont populations inside a parasitoid, eventually eliminating populations of endosymbionts that are susceptible to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In several cases, divergences between the thermal preferences of the host and those of the parasitoid lead to a disruption of the temporal or geographical synchronization, increasing the risk of host outbreaks. A careful analysis on how host-parasitoid systems react to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is needed so that researchers may predict and manage the consequences of global change at the ecosystem level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622076','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622076"><span>Increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although increases in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects. PMID:26502826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502826"><span>Increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-10-27</p> <p>Although increases in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515715J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515715J"><span>Increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Although increases in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JApMe..40.1413V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JApMe..40.1413V"><span>Daily <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Electricity Load in Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Spain, using a population-weighted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51E1137H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51E1137H"><span>Sensitivity of New England Stream <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> to <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Under Projected Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..473F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..473F"><span>Recent changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Italy: an index-based analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fioravanti, Guido; Piervitali, Emanuela; Desiato, Franco</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The assessment of climate change impacts requires updated estimates of the tendencies in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. With the objective of studying recent variations in frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Italy, a collection of daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series was selected for the calculation of a set of indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The trend of each index was investigated through a non-parametric statistical analysis over the last half-century (1961-2011), and its spatial variability was illustrated through trend maps. Mean national-scale trends were also assessed at annual and seasonal level. The results show that mean annual series exhibit a general warming tendency from 1961 to 2011, with significant trends for summer days, tropical nights, heat waves, and percentile-based indices at most stations, with warming trends more pronounced in summer and spring and weaker in winter and autumn. As a changepoint was identified in 1977 for the minimum ( T min) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ( T max) Italian annual series, the trend analysis was also performed for the two sub-periods 1961-1977 and 1978-2011. Non-significant "cooling" trends characterize the sub-period 1961-1977, while significant "warming" trends were identified over the period 1978-2011. This study updates previous research in the extent of time series, in the number of indices and in the approach followed for their analysis, providing useful information for evaluating the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the context of a changing climate in Italy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023513"><span>STUDY ON <span class="hlt">AIR</span> INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang H. Oh</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, <span class="hlt">air</span> will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient; (6) preventing high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various <span class="hlt">air</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090019021&hterms=Daisies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDaisies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090019021&hterms=Daisies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDaisies"><span>Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Cold <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (-190 and -120 C)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and at various intervals as a function of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939831"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and copper pollution on soil community--<span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events can lead to community extinction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes-Oliveira, Vanessa B; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Monica J B</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Global warming affects ecosystems and species' diversity. The physiology of individual species is highly influenced by changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The effects on species communities are less studied; they are virtually unknown when combining effects of pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. To assess the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pollution in the soil community, a 2-factorial soil mesocosms multispecies experiment was performed. Three exposure periods (28 d, 61 d, and 84 d) and 4 <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (19 °C, 23 °C, 26 °C, and 29 °C) were tested, resembling the mean annual values for southern Europe countries and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The soil used was from a field site, clean, or spiked with Cu (100 mg Cu/kg). Results showed clear differences between 29 °C treatment and all other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments, with a decrease in overall abundance of organisms, further potentiated by the increase in exposure time. Folsomia candida was the most abundant species and Enchytraeus crypticus was the most sensitive to Cu toxicity. Differences in species optimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were adequately covered: 19 °C for Hypoaspis aculeifer or 26 °C for E. crypticus. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects were more pronounced the longer the exposure time. Feeding activity decreased with higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and exposure time, following the decrease in invertebrate abundance, whereas for the same conditions the organic matter turnover increased. Hence, negative impacts on ecosystem services because of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase can be expected by changes on soil function and as consequence of biodiversity loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335454-magnetic-ordering-anomalously-high-temperatures-dy-extreme-pressures','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1335454-magnetic-ordering-anomalously-high-temperatures-dy-extreme-pressures"><span>Magnetic ordering at anomalously high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Dy at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; ...</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>In an attempt to destabilize the magnetic state of the heavy lanthanide Dy, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures were applied in an electrical resistivity measurement to 157 GPa over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 1.3 - 295 K. The magnetic ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> To and spin-disorder resistance Rsd of Dy, as well as the superconducting pair-breaking effect ΔTc in Y(1 at.% Dy), are found to track each other in a highly non-monotonic fashion as a function of pressure. Above 73 GPa, the critical pressure for a 6% volume collapse in Dy, all three quantities increase sharply (dTo=dP≃5.3 K/GPa), To appearing to rise above ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> formore » P > 107 GPa. In contrast, To and ΔTc for Gd and Y(0.5 at.% Gd), respectively, show no such sharp increase with pressure (dTo=dP≃ 0.73 K/GPa). Altogether, these results suggest that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure transports Dy into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335454','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1335454"><span>Magnetic ordering at anomalously high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Dy at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>In an attempt to destabilize the magnetic state of the heavy lanthanide Dy, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures were applied in an electrical resistivity measurement to 157 GPa over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 1.3 - 295 K. The magnetic ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T<sub>o</sub> and spin-disorder resistance R<sub>sd</sub> of Dy, as well as the superconducting pair-breaking effect ΔT<sub>c</sub> in Y(1 at.% Dy), are found to track each other in a highly non-monotonic fashion as a function of pressure. Above 73 GPa, the critical pressure for a 6% volume collapse in Dy, all three quantities increase sharply (dT<sub>o</sub>=dP≃5.3 K/GPa), T<sub>o</sub> appearing to rise above ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for P > 107 GPa. In contrast, T<sub>o</sub> and ΔT<sub>c</sub> for Gd and Y(0.5 at.% Gd), respectively, show no such sharp increase with pressure (dT<sub>o</sub>=dP≃ 0.73 K/GPa). Altogether, these results suggest that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure transports Dy into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31A1168F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31A1168F"><span>Dynamical Circulation Regimes and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the Contemporary and 21st Century Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present updated results of how changing climate affects dynamical circulation regimes, which has implications on the future of Arctic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We use a fully coupled Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) that includes the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW), Parallel Ocean Program (POP), Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE5), and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with the NCAR CESM CPL7 coupler. RASM simulates a pan-Arctic domain with a 50-km horizontal atmospheric resolution. The simulation uses atmospheric boundary conditions provided by the NCAR CCSM4. Additionally, part of the ocean domain also uses as boundary conditions daily values of SST and SSS from the NCAR CCSM4. Previous results suggest that as sea-ice cover wanes there is a tendency for increased persistent 1-regime (as opposed to 2-regime) behavior in Arctic atmospheric circulation. Using RASM, we extend the analysis to understand the development of persistent dynamical regimes in the 21st Century. Results from a multi-decadal simulation using RASM will be presented and will focus on the susceptibility of present and future persistent dynamical circulation regimes to producing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Results suggest that identification of when persistent 1- and 2-regime behavior occurs is useful for ascertaining the future of the Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713720P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713720P"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span>-sea interactions in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> frontal region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Representation of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22209370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22209370"><span>Associating emergency room visits with first and prolonged <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event in Taiwan: A population-based cohort study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Li, Ming-Hsu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Liao, Chun-Hui; Sung, Fung-Chang</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The present study evaluated emergency room visit (ERV) risks for all causes and cardiopulmonary diseases associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and long-lasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 2000 to 2009 in four major cities in Taiwan. The city-specific daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the high 95th, 97th, and 99th percentiles, and the low 10th, 5th, and 1st percentiles were defined as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat and cold. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the cumulative relative risk (RR) of ERV for morbidities associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (0 to 3-day lags), <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat and cold lasting for 2 to 9 days or longer, and with the annual first <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat or cold event after controlling for covariates. Low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were associated with slightly higher ERV risks than high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for circulatory diseases. After accounting for 4-day cumulative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect, the ERV risks for all causes and respiratory diseases were found to be associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold at the 5th percentile lasting for >8 days and 1st percentile lasting for >3 days. The annual first <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold event of 5th percentile or lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was also significantly associated with ERV, with RRs ranging from 1.09 to 1.12 for all causes and from 1.15 to 1.26 for respiratory diseases. The annual first <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat event of 99th percentile <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was associated with higher ERV for all causes and circulatory diseases. Annual first <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event and intensified prolonged <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold events are associated with increased ERVs in Taiwan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930864"><span>Elucidating the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on cereal croplands through remote sensing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncan, John M A; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Remote sensing-derived wheat crop yield-climate models were developed to highlight the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during thermo-sensitive periods (anthesis and grain-filling; TSP) of wheat crop development. Specific questions addressed are: can the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation occurring during the TSP on wheat crop yield be detected using remote sensing data and what is the impact? Do crop critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds during TSP exist in real world cropping landscapes? These questions are tested in one of the world's major wheat breadbaskets of Punjab and Haryana, north-west India. Warming average minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the TSP had a greater negative impact on wheat crop yield than warming maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Warming minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the TSP explain a greater amount of variation in wheat crop yield than average growing season <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In complex real world cereal croplands there was a variable yield response to critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold exceedance, specifically a more pronounced negative impact on wheat yield with increased warming events above 35 °C. The negative impact of warming increases with a later start-of-season suggesting earlier sowing can reduce wheat crop exposure harmful <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, even earlier sown wheat experienced <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced yield losses, which, when viewed in the context of projected warming up to 2100 indicates adaptive responses should focus on increasing wheat tolerance to heat. This study shows it is possible to capture the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the TSP on wheat crop yield in real world cropping landscapes using remote sensing data; this has important implications for monitoring the impact of climate change, variation and heat <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on wheat croplands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009315"><span>Using Annual Data to Estimate the Public Health Impact of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goggins, William B; Yang, Chunyuh; Hokama, Tomiko; Law, Lewis S K; Chan, Emily Y Y</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Short-term associations between both hot and cold ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and higher mortality have been found worldwide. Few studies have examined these associations on longer time scales. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated for 1976-2012 for Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, defining "annual" time periods in 2 ways: from May through April of the following year and from November through October. Annual frequency and severity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were summarized by using a degree-days approach with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat expressed as annual degree-days >29.3°C and cold as annual degree-days <27.5°C. For example, a day with a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25.0°C contributes 2.5 cold degree-days to the annual total. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the association between annual hot and cold degree-days and the ASMR, with adjustment for long-term trends. Increases of 10 hot or 200 cold degree-days in an annual period, the approximate interquartile ranges for these variables, were significantly (all P's ≤ 0.011) associated with 1.9% or 3.1% increases, respectively, in the annual ASMR for the May-April analyses and with 2.2% or 2.8% increases, respectively, in the November-October analyses. Associations were stronger for noncancer and elderly mortality. Mortality increases associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are not simply due to short-term forward displacement of deaths that would have occurred anyway within a few weeks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000778','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000778"><span>Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array Interconnect Packages Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A paper describes advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packaging interconnects technology test objects that were subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycles. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring boards (PWBs) of polyimide were assembled, inspected nondestructively, and, subsequently, subjected to ex - treme-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling to assess reliability for future deep-space, short- and long-term, <span class="hlt">extreme-temperature</span> missions. The test hardware consisted of two CCGA717 packages with each package divided into four daisy-chained sections, for a total of eight daisy chains to be monitored. The package is 33 33 mm with a 27 27 array of 80%/20% Pb/Sn columns on a 1.27-mm pitch. The change in resistance of the daisy-chained CCGA interconnects was measured as a function of the increasing number of thermal cycles. Several catastrophic failures were observed after 137 <span class="hlt">extreme-temperature</span> thermal cycles, as per electrical resistance measurements, and then the tests were continued through 1,058 thermal cycles to corroborate and understand the test results. X-ray and optical inspection have been made after thermal cycling. Optical inspections were also conducted on the CCGA vs. thermal cycles. The optical inspections were conclusive; the x-ray images were not. Process qualification and assembly is required to optimize the CCGA assembly, which is very clear from the x-rays. Six daisy chains were open out of seven daisy chains, as per experimental test data reported. The daisy chains are open during the cold cycle, and then recover during the hot cycle, though some of them also opened during the hot thermal cycle..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F"><span>Trends in indices of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitations <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S"><span>Generation of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma for food processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in <span class="hlt">air</span> and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.2423W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.2423W"><span>Equation of state density models for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark A.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The necessity of exploring ultradeep reservoirs requires the accurate prediction of hydrocarbon density data at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures. In this study, three equations of state (EoS) models, Peng-Robinson (PR), high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> high-pressure volume-translated PR (HTHP VT-PR), and perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS are used to predict the density data for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to 523 K and pressures to 275 MPa. The calculated values are compared with experimental data. The results show that the HTHP VT-PR EoS and PC-SAFT EoS always perform better than the regular PR EoS for all the investigated hydrocarbons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1025441','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1025441"><span>Composite Materials under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Radiation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simos, N.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated <span class="hlt">extreme</span> states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of flux and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdAtS..34..289W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdAtS..34..289W"><span>Changes in mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation over the arid region of northwestern China: Observation and projection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yujie; Zhou, Botao; Qin, Dahe; Wu, Jia; Gao, Rong; Song, Lianchun</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This paper reports a comprehensive study on the observed and projected spatiotemporal changes in mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate over the arid region of northwestern China, based on gridded observation data and CMIP5 simulations under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The observational results reveal an increase in annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> since 1961, largely attributable to the increase in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The annual mean precipitation also exhibits a significant increasing tendency. The precipitation amount in the most recent decade was greater than in any preceding decade since 1961. Seasonally, the greatest increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation appears in winter and in summer, respectively. Widespread significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are consistent with warming, with decreases in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and increases in warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The warming of the coldest night is greater than that of the warmest day, and changes in cold and warm nights are more evident than for cold and warm days. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation and wet days exhibit an increasing trend, and the maximum number of consecutive dry days shows a tendency toward shorter duration. Multi-model ensemble mean projections indicate an overall continual increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation during the 21st century. Decreases in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, increases in warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, intensification of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, increases in wet days, and decreases in consecutive dry days, are expected under both emissions scenarios, with larger changes corresponding to stronger radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020106"><span>Pd-modified Reactive <span class="hlt">Air</span> Braze for Increased Melting <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Darsell, Jens T.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Complex high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> devices such as planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks often require a two-step sealing process. For example, in pSOFC stacks the oxide ceramic fuel cell plates might be sealed into metallic support frames in one step. Then the frames with the fuel plates sealed to them would be joined together in a separate sealing step to form the fuel cell stack. In this case, the initial seal should have a sufficiently high solidus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that it will not begin to remelt at the sealing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the material used for the subsequent sealing step. Previous experience has indicated that, when heated at a rate of 10°C/min, Ag-CuO reactive <span class="hlt">air</span> braze (RAB) compositions have solidus and liquidus <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the approximate range of 925 to 955°C. Therefore, compositionally modifying the original Ag-CuO braze with Pd-additions such that the solidus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the new braze is between 1025 and 1050°C would provide two RAB compositions with a difference in melting points large enough to allow reactive <span class="hlt">air</span> brazing of both sets of seals in the fuel cell stack. This study determines the appropriate ratio of Pd to Ag in RAB required to achieve a solidus in the desired range and discusses the wettability of the resulting Pd-Ag-CuO brazes on YSZ substrates. The interfacial microstructures and flexural strengths of Pd-Ag-CuO joints in YSZ will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042583"><span>Assessment of SOI AND Gate, Type CHT-7408, for Operation in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dones, Keishla Rivera</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are finding widespread applications due to their ability to operate in harsh environments and the benefits they offer as compared to their silicon counterparts. Due to their construction, they are tailored for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation and show good tolerance to radiation events. In addition, their inherent design lessens the formation of parasitic junctions, thereby reducing leakage currents, decreasing power consumption, and enhancing speed. These devices are typically rated in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> capability from -55 C to about +225 C, and their characteristics over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range are documented in data sheets. Since electronics in some of NASA space exploration missions are required to operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions, both cold and hot, their characteristic behavior within the full <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spectrum must be determined to establish suitability for use in space applications. The effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure on the performance of a new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) SOI AND gate device were evaluated in this work. The high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, quad 2-inputs AND gate device, which was recently introduced by CISSOID, is fabricated using a CMOS SOI process. Some of the specifications of the CHT-7408 chip are listed in a table. By supplying a constant DC voltage to one gate input and a 10 kHz square wave into the other associated gate input, the chip was evaluated in terms of output response, output rise (t(sub r)) and fall times (tf), and propagation delays (using a 50% level between input and output during low to high (tPLH) and high to low (tPHL) transitions). The supply current of the gate circuit was also obtained. These parameters were recorded at various test <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between -195 C and +250 C using a Sun Systems environmental chamber programmed at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rate of change of 10 C/min. In addition, the effects of thermal cycling on this chip were determined by exposing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41G..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41G..01N"><span>Implications of dynamics underlying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation distributions for changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neelin, J. D.; Loikith, P. C.; Stechmann, S. N.; Sahany, S.; Bernstein, D. N.; Quinn, K. M.; Meyerson, J.; Hales, K.; Langenbrunner, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Characterizing present-day probability distributions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation measures are an important part of the pathway to improving quantitative assessment of changes in their <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In some cases, relatively simple prototypes for the dynamics underlying these distributions can assist in this characterization, pointing to key physical factors and measures to evaluate even in more complex distributions. In the case of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions, quantifying the widespread occurrence of non-Gaussian tails is motivated in part by tracer-advection across a maintained gradient prototypes. Substantial implications of the shape of these tails for regional changes in probabilities of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with large-scale warming motivate measures of non-Gaussianity specific to this problem for assessing climate model present-day simulations. In the case of distributions of precipitation accumulations, simple prototypes yield insights into the form of the present-day distribution and predictions for the form of the global warming changes that can be evaluated in models and observations. Probability drops relatively slowly over a substantial range of accumulation size, followed by a key cutoff scale that limits large event probabilities in current climate but changes under global warming. Precipitation integrated over spatial clusters exhibits similar distribution features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...272..457F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...272..457F"><span>Characterization of large format lithium ion battery exposed to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Xuning; Sun, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; He, Xiangming; Lu, Languang; Han, Xuebing; Fang, Mou; Peng, Huei</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This paper provides a study on the characterizations of large format lithium ion battery cells exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but without thermal runaway. A unique test is set up: an extended volume-accelerating rate calorimetry (EV-ARC) test is terminated at a specific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before thermal runaway happens in the battery. The battery was cooled down after an EV-ARC test with early termination. The performances of the battery before and after the EV-ARC test are investigated in detail. The results show that (a) the melting point of the separator dictates the reusability of the 25 Ah NCM battery after a near-runaway event. The battery cannot be reused after being heated to 140 °C or higher because of the exponential rise in ohmic resistance; (b) a battery can lose up to 20% of its capacity after being heated to 120 °C just one time; (c) if a battery is cycled after a thermal event, its lost capacity may be recovered partially. Furthermore, the fading and recovery mechanisms are analyzed by incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and a prognostic/mechanistic model. Model analysis confirms that the capacity loss at <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is caused by the increase of the resistance, the loss of lithium ion (LLI) at the anode and the loss of active material (LAM) at the cathode.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9775B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9775B"><span>Model-based estimation of changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seasonality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the 20th century. The analysed data are global <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048258&hterms=ipc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dipc','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048258&hterms=ipc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dipc"><span>Determination of plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and luminosities using multiple <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-ultraviolet and X-ray filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We carefully examine the techniques used to infer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of stellar coronal plasmas from the count rates of several broadband instruments in the X-ray and <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-ultraviolet spectral ranges. In particular, we determine to what extent <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be constrained and the corresponding uncertainties in the luminosities and emission measures lowered by fitting simultaneously count rates from the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC), the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), the ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) (both filters), and the EXOSAT Low Energy Telescope (LET) with the 3-Lex filter. We use published plasma emissivities with solar photospheric abundances. Since it has been found that single-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> plasmas do not fit IPC data well, we assume a two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> plasma model. We find that, even with count rates from all of the above filters and overly optimistic error estimates, it is still not possible to determine a unique two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> solution. However, since the use of count rates from many filters can reduce substantially the number of possible solutions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> solutions determined by other means can be tested. We carry out such an analysis on a set of 18 nearby late-type stars to determine possible two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> solutions using multifilter photometry, and we compare these results with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> solutions derived by Schmitt et al. (1990) using IPC spectral data. In general, the two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> fits derived from the IPC spectral data are inconsistent with our results, with our data implying that, for many stars, the two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived by the IPC may be too low by about a factor of 2. The EXOSAT transmission grating Spectrometer (TGS) spectra of capella and sigma(exp 2) CrB support this conclusion. For Procyon and 70 Oph, though, the presence of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> component cooler than a million degress (not detected by the IPC) is deduced. While our analysis suggests the existence of more than one <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7198E..1FF','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7198E..1FF"><span>High-power QCW arrays for operation over wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feeler, Ryan; Junghans, Jeremy; Stephens, Ed</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>A family of laser diode arrays has been developed for QCW operation in adverse environmental conditions. The arrays contain expansion-matched heatsinks, hard solder, and are built using a process that minimizes the packaging-induced strain on the laser diode bars. The arrays are rated for operation at 200 Watts/bar under normal operating conditions. This work contains test results for these arrays when run under a variety of harsh operating conditions. The conditions were chosen to mimic those required by many military and aerospace laser programs. Life test results are presented over a range of operating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> common to military specifications (-40 °C to + 70 °C) at a power level of approximately 215 Watts/bar. The arrays experienced no measurable degradation over the course of the life test. Operation at the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> did not introduce any additional detectable failure mechanisms. Also presented are results of characterization and reliability tests conducted at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Diode arrays have been subjected to repeated cycles in rapid succession between room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 77 K with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp rates up to 100 K/minute. Pre- and post- thermal cycle P-I-V data are compared. The results demonstrate the suitability of these arrays for operation at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254388-non-stationary-return-levels-cmip5-multi-model-temperature-extremes','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254388-non-stationary-return-levels-cmip5-multi-model-temperature-extremes"><span>Non-stationary Return Levels of CMIP5 Multi-model <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Cheng, L.; Phillips, T. J.; AghaKouchak, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to evaluate to what extent the CMIP5 climate model simulations of the climate of the twentieth century can represent observed warm monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under a changing environment. The biases and spatial patterns of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-year return levels of the annual maxima of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereafter, annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima) from CMIP5 simulations are compared with those of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observational data considered under a non-stationary assumption. The results show that CMIP5 climate models collectively underestimate the mean annual maxima over arid and semi-arid regions that are mostmore » subject to severe heat waves and droughts. Furthermore, the results indicate that most climate models tend to underestimate the historical annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima over the United States and Greenland, while generally disagreeing in their simulations over cold regions. Return level analysis shows that with respect to the spatial patterns of the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima, there are good agreements between the CRU observations and most CMIP5 simulations. However, the magnitudes of the simulated annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima differ substantially across individual models. Discrepancies are generally larger over higher latitudes and cold regions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254388"><span>Non-stationary Return Levels of CMIP5 Multi-model <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheng, L.; Phillips, T. J.; AghaKouchak, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to evaluate to what extent the CMIP5 climate model simulations of the climate of the twentieth century can represent observed warm monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under a changing environment. The biases and spatial patterns of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-year return levels of the annual maxima of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereafter, annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima) from CMIP5 simulations are compared with those of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observational data considered under a non-stationary assumption. The results show that CMIP5 climate models collectively underestimate the mean annual maxima over arid and semi-arid regions that are most subject to severe heat waves and droughts. Furthermore, the results indicate that most climate models tend to underestimate the historical annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima over the United States and Greenland, while generally disagreeing in their simulations over cold regions. Return level analysis shows that with respect to the spatial patterns of the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima, there are good agreements between the CRU observations and most CMIP5 simulations. However, the magnitudes of the simulated annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima differ substantially across individual models. Discrepancies are generally larger over higher latitudes and cold regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092267"><span><span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> AND <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span>-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kucera, T. A.; Tripathi, D.</p> <p>2012-09-20</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These <span class="hlt">temperature</span> substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.119..523Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.119..523Z"><span>Comparative analysis of the characteristics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes between cities and mountains in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zong, Shengwei; Wu, Zhengfang; Xu, Jiawei; Du, Haibo; Meng, Xiangjun; Wang, Lei</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>More than half of the world's population is living in towns and cities according to the United Nations Population Fund (http://www.unfpa.org/pds/urbanization.htm). The rapid urbanization, especially in China, has significantly influenced the climate at least at a local scale. The increasing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ET) occurrence in urban areas prompts us to examine the historical and current situation of ET occurrence in cities by comparing them with that in mountains which provide a relatively natural record of the earth's climate because they are far away from cities and it is not influenced by urbanization effects. The ET occurrence was determined by multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), a well-accepted method aiming at finding the ET thresholds according to the characteristics of the data themselves. Warming trends in the city and mountain sites and the frequencies, intensities, and severities of ET occurrence were compared using climatic data between 1959 and 2011. The results show that the warming amplitude of the cities is not higher than that of the mountain regions, even with urbanization effect. The <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (ELT) in the cities occurred significantly lower in frequency and severity compared with that in the mountain sites. However, the intensity of ELT is generally higher than that in the mountains. Only the cities at low latitudes in China have experienced more frequent and severe <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) occurrence than the mountain sites in recent decades. But the intensity was not as high as that in the mountain sites. We conclude that the current situation of ET occurrence in the cities is not very serious if we consider the ET occurrence of the mountains as the "new norm." However, it is highly possible that the frequency of ET, especially the EHT, in the cities would increase and will be even more than that of the mountains. Moreover, the changes of ET occurrences before and after 1980 are distinguishable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320425"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Changes in Deep Muscles of Humans During Upper and Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wirth, Valerie J.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Mistry, Dilaawar; Saliba, Ethan; McCue, Frank C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To examine the effect of 15 minutes of upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> exercise on raising intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the triceps surae to 39 ° C to 45 ° C (the therapeutic range). Design and Setting: Intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured 5 cm deep in the triceps surae using a 23-gauge thermistor needle microprobe connected to a monitor. Each subject was tested under 3 conditions: 15 minutes of rest, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill, and 15 minutes of handpedaling an upper-body ergometer. Exercise bouts were performed at 70% of each subject's maximum heart rate. Subjects: Six males, either sedentary or recreational athletes (age = 21.3 ± 2.9 years; ht = 176.8 ± 6.0 cm; wt = 72.7 ± 11.6 kg; resting heart rate = 57.8 ± 6.74 bpm; target heart rate = 156.5 ± 3.0 bpm), volunteered to participate in this experiment. Measurements: Intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured at a depth of 5 cm before and after each test condition. Results: Data analyses consisted of analyses of variance with repeated measures and a Tukey post hoc test (P < .05). The results showed a significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase over baseline after exercise on the treadmill (2.2 ° C ± 0.63 ° C); however, it did not yield <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases ≥ 39 ° C. No significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change occurred after exercise on the upper-body ergometer (-0.45 ° C ± 0.80 ° C). Conclusions: Active exercise increased intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in working muscles but did not affect intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in nonworking muscles. In addition, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill at 70% of maximum heart rate was not sufficient to raise intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 39 ° C to 45 ° C. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390728"><span><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.</p> <p>2014-12-04</p> <p>We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.359B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.359B"><span>Analysis and Forecast about spatial layout of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Murcia city (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banon, L.; Hernandez, E.; Belda, F.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The study of urban climate gets a higher relevance in climatology nowadays, as the highest percentage of the world's population live in cities. The city is the best example of the human impact on the environment. Cities modify their natural climatic variables according to urban parameters like street orientation, density and height of buildings, etc. Each city produces its own meteorological anomalies, especially of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is one of the most important parameters determining the comfort and people's standard of living, especially in climate areas like the South-East of Spain, which are characterized by warm summers and heat waves. The Health Authorities encouraged us to investigate the spatial behaviour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city of Murcia, especially in summer months. To carry out this study, we have designed a thermometric network in the city of Murcia, using sensors which measures <span class="hlt">temperature</span> each ten minutes. These sensors were located in busy areas with different urban layout as well as in green spaces. We have done some urban transects to complete the information obtained from the network. At the same time, we installed some reference sensors in the city suburbs. We have trained a forecast model for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city of Murcia from pedestrian areas to busy areas, using the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) database. The forecast model obtained depends both on the wind and the solar radiation. We aim to obtain and to predict some climate comfort indexes, using the information of the thermometric network and the urban transect. In addition, we will incorporate wind and humidity data. Finally, we will try to develop a spatial distribution model of climate comfort in different areas for the city of Murcia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044219"><span>Effect of Ambient Design <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Cooled Binary Plant Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dan Wendt; Greg Mines</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span>-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Nominally this <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the annual mean or average <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has on power generation for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fluctuating ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015439&hterms=river+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Driver%2Bsystems','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015439&hterms=river+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Driver%2Bsystems"><span><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815548S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815548S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> sensitivity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scaling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Evidence on historical <span class="hlt">extremely</span> heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ShWav..14..167C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ShWav..14..167C"><span>DDT in fuel <span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Card, J.; Rival, D.; Ciccarelli, G.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>An experimental study was carried out to investigate flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in fuel <span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 573 K and pressures up to 2 atm. The fuels investigated include hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene and JP-10 aviation fuel. The experiments were performed in a 3.1-m long, 10-cm inner-diameter heated detonation tube equipped with equally spaced orifice plates. Ionization probes were used to measure the flame time-of-arrival from which the average flame velocity versus propagation distance could be obtained. The DDT composition limits and the distance required for the flame to transition to detonation were obtained from this flame velocity data. The correlation developed by Veser et al. (run-up distance to supersonic flames in obstacle-laden tubes. In the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, France (2002)) for the flame choking distance proved to work very well for correlating the detonation run-up distance measured in the present study. The only exception was for the hydrogen <span class="hlt">air</span> data at elevated initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which tended to fall outside the scatter of the hydrocarbon mixture data. The DDT limits obtained at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were found to follow the classical d/λ = 1 correlation, where d is the orifice plate diameter and λ is the detonation cell size. Deviations found for the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data could be attributed to the one-dimensional ZND detonation structure model used to predict the detonation cell size for the DDT limit mixtures. This simple model was used in place of actual experimental data not currently available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28344929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28344929"><span>Comparing regional precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in climate model and reanalysis products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angélil, Oliver; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah; Alexander, Lisa V; Stone, Dáithí; Donat, Markus G; Wehner, Michael; Shiogama, Hideo; Ciavarella, Andrew; Christidis, Nikolaos</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A growing field of research aims to characterise the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and climate events. These analyses can be sensitive to the shapes of the tails of simulated distributions. If tails are found to be unrealistically short or long, the anthropogenic signal emerges more or less clearly, respectively, from the noise of possible weather. Here we compare the chance of daily land-surface precipitation and near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> generated by three Atmospheric Global Climate Models typically used for event attribution, with distributions from six reanalysis products. The likelihoods of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are compared for area-averages over grid cell and regional sized spatial domains. Results suggest a bias favouring overly strong attribution estimates for hot and cold events over many regions of Africa and Australia, and a bias favouring overly weak attribution estimates over regions of North America and Asia. For rainfall, results are more sensitive to geographic location. Although the three models show similar results over many regions, they do disagree over others. Equally, results highlight the discrepancy amongst reanalyses products. This emphasises the importance of using multiple reanalysis and/or observation products, as well as multiple models in event attribution studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920070"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> modifies the association between particulate <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modification effect on acute mortality due to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) on mortality were modified by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot days (daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: >99th percentile) in individuals aged <65 years. In those aged ≥65 years, the highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on very hot days and not on <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot days (daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: 95-99th percentile). There were strong harmful effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048032"><span>SiC JFET Transistor Circuit Model for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neudeck, Philip G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A technique for simulating <span class="hlt">extreme-temperature</span> operation of integrated circuits that incorporate silicon carbide (SiC) junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) has been developed. The technique involves modification of NGSPICE, which is an open-source version of the popular Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) general-purpose analog-integrated-circuit-simulating software. NGSPICE in its unmodified form is used for simulating and designing circuits made from silicon-based transistors that operate at or near room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Two rapid modifications of NGSPICE source code enable SiC JFETs to be simulated to 500 C using the well-known Level 1 model for silicon metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). First, the default value of the MOSFET surface potential must be changed. In the unmodified source code, this parameter has a value of 0.6, which corresponds to slightly more than half the bandgap of silicon. In NGSPICE modified to simulate SiC JFETs, this parameter is changed to a value of 1.6, corresponding to slightly more than half the bandgap of SiC. The second modification consists of changing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of MOSFET transconductance and saturation parameters. The unmodified NGSPICE source code implements a T(sup -1.5) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence for these parameters. In order to mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior of experimental SiC JFETs, a T(sup -1.3) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence must be implemented in the NGSPICE source code. Following these two simple modifications, the Level 1 MOSFET model of the NGSPICE circuit simulation program reasonably approximates the measured high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior of experimental SiC JFETs properly operated with zero or reverse bias applied to the gate terminal. Modification of additional silicon parameters in the NGSPICE source code was not necessary to model experimental SiC JFET current-voltage performance across the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 25 to 500 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.5103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..110.5103L"><span>Impact of Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the warmest global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Riyu</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The year 1998 is the warmest year in the record of instrumental measurements. In this study, an atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the role of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in this warmth, with a focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean. The model forced with the observed global SSTs captures the main features of land surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in 1998. A sensitivity experiment shows that in comparison with the global SST anomalies, the Atlantic SST anomalies can explain 35% of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GMAT) anomaly, and 57% of the land surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly in 1998. The mechanisms through which the Atlantic Ocean influences the GMAT are likely different from season to season. Possible detailed mechanisms involve the impact of SST anomalies on local convection in the tropical Atlantic region, the consequent excitation of a Rossby wave response that propagates into the North Atlantic and the Eurasian continent in winter and spring, and the consequent changes in tropical Walker circulation in summer and autumn that induce changes in convection over the tropical Pacific. This in turn affects climate in Asia and Australia. The important role of the Atlantic Ocean suggests that attention should be paid not only to the tropical Pacific Ocean, but also to the tropical Atlantic Ocean in understanding the GMAT variability and its predictability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...328...37L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...328...37L"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a "base" load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017962&hterms=adaptive+filter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dadaptive%2Bfilter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017962&hterms=adaptive+filter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dadaptive%2Bfilter"><span>Self-Adaptive System based on Field Programmable Gate Array for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo; Rajeshuni, Ramesham; Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas; Graves, Sharon; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this work, we report the implementation of a self-adaptive system using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and data converters. The self-adaptive system can autonomously recover the lost functionality of a reconfigurable analog array (RAA) integrated circuit (IC) [3]. Both the RAA IC and the self-adaptive system are operating in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (from 120 C down to -180 C). The RAA IC consists of reconfigurable analog blocks interconnected by several switches and programmable by bias voltages. It implements filters/amplifiers with bandwidth up to 20 MHz. The self-adaptive system controls the RAA IC and is realized on Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts. It implements a basic compensation algorithm that corrects a RAA IC in less than a few milliseconds. Experimental results for the cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment (down to -180 C) demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/environmental-economics/estimating-effect-climate-change-crop-yields-and-farmland-values-importance','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/environmental-economics/estimating-effect-climate-change-crop-yields-and-farmland-values-importance"><span>Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is a presentation titled Estimating the Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yields and Farmland Values: The Importance of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> that was given for the National Center for Environmental Economics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41D0615M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41D0615M"><span>High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> - Will They Transform Structure of Avian Assemblages in the Desert Southwest?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiibwa, D.; Albright, T. P.; Wolf, B. O.; Mckechnie, A. E.; Gerson, A. R.; Talbot, W. A.; Sadoti, G.; O'Neill, J.; Smith, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can alter ecosystem structure and function and have caused mass mortality events in animals. With climate change, high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are increasing in frequency and magnitude. To better understand the consequences of climate change, scientists have frequently employed correlative models based on species occurrence records. However, these approaches may be of limited utility in the context of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, as these are often outside historical ranges and may involve strong non-linear responses. Here we describe work linking physiological response informed by experimental data to geospatial climate datasets in order to mechanistically model the dynamics of dehydration risk to dessert passerine birds. Specifically, we modeled and mapped the occurrence of current (1980-2013) high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and evaporative water loss rates for eight species of passerine birds ranging in size from 6.5-75g in the US Southwest portion of their range. We then explored the implications of a 4° C warming scenario. Evaporative water loss (EWL) across a range of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was measured in heat-acclimated birds captured in the field. We used the North American Land Data Assimilation System 2 dataset to obtain hourly estimates of EWL with a 14-km spatial grain. Assuming lethal dehydration occurs when water loss reaches 15% of body weight, we then produced maps of total daily EWL and time to lethal dehydration based on both current data and future scenarios. We found that milder events capable of producing dehydration in passerine birds over four or more hours were not uncommon over the Southwest, but rapid dehydration conditions (<3 hours) were rare. Under the warming scenario, the frequency and extent of dehydration events expanded greatly, often affecting areas several times larger than in present-day climate. Dehydration risk was especially high among smaller bodied passerines due to their higher mass-specific rates of water loss. Even after</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7687G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7687G"><span>Do forest cover changes have any feedback on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Hungary?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galos, B.; Goettel, H.; Haensler, A.; Preuschmann, S.; Matyas, Cs.; Jacob, D.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In Southeast Europe, warming and drying of summers are stronger than the global trends. In Hungary a significant increase in drought frequency started during the second half of the 20th century. Regional impact studies show that recurrent droughts can cause growth decline and mortality of zonal forests at their lower limit of distribution. This reduction of forested area may lead to a positive feedback in global warming at the forest/steppe limit in the East-Central- and Southeast-European countries. Forests cover can affect regional climate by reducing surface albedo, enhancing roughness lengths and leaf area index, which also have a feedback on the surface water and energy fluxes. For the period 2021-2050 the effect of forest cover changes on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been studied using the regional climate model REMO. For the A1B IPCC scenario, three sensitivity studies have been carried out over Hungary: · Potential forest cover for the simulation period (planned by the Hungarian State Forest Service) · Complete afforestation (except of urban areas and water bodies) · Complete deforestation Sensitivity studies concentrate on the following questions: · Does potential forest cover have any effect on the simulated climate? · Does increased or decreased forest cover induce changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and in the climate variability? How big are these feedbacks compared to the climate change signal? · Can increasing forest cover reduce the drying tendency over Hungary? · Are the effects localised only in the areas, where forest cover has been modified? Keywords: land cover change - climate feedbacks, forest distribution, climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...84S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...84S"><span>Sensitivity of historical orographically enhanced <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events to idealized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandvik, Mari Ingeborg; Sorteberg, Asgeir; Rasmussen, Roy</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Using high resolution convective permitting simulations, we have investigated the sensitivity of historical orographically enhanced <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events to idealized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbations. Our simulations were typical autumn and winter synoptic scale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events on the west coast of Norway. The response in daily mean precipitation was around 5%/K for a 2 °C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbation with a clear topographical pattern. Low lying coastal regions experienced relative changes that were only about 1/3 of the changes at higher elevations. The largest changes were seen in the highest elevations of the near coastal mountain regions where the change was in order of +7.5%/K. With a response around 5%/K, our simulations had a precipitation response that was around 2%/K lower than Clausius-Clapeyron scaling and 3%/K lower than the water vapor change. The below Clausius-Clapeyron scaling in precipitation could not be explained by changes in vertical velocities, stability or relative humidity. We suggest that the lower response in precipitation is a result of a shift from the more efficient ice-phase precipitation growth to less effective rain production in a warmer atmosphere. A considerable change in precipitation phase was seen with a mean increase in rainfall of 16%/K which was partly compensated by a reduction in snowfall of around 23%/K. This change may have serious implications for flooding and geohazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209910"><span>In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Profile in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Skliar, Mikhail</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>A gasifier’s <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3827786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3827786"><span>Effectiveness of an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled vest using selected <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity combinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pimental, N A; Cosimini, H M; Sawka, M N; Wenger, C B</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>We evaluated the effectiveness of an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled vest in reducing thermal strain of subjects exercising in the heat (49 degrees C dry bulb (db), 20 degrees C dew point (dp] in chemical protective clothing. Four male subjects attempted 300-min heat exposures at two metabolic rates (175 and 315 W) with six cooling combinations--control (no vest) and five different db and dp combinations. <span class="hlt">Air</span> supplied to the vest at 15 scfm ranged from 20-27 degrees C db, 7-18 degrees C dp; theoretical cooling capacities were 498-687 W. Without the vest, endurance times were 118 min (175 W) and 73 min (315 W). Endurance times with the vest were 300 min (175 W) and 242-300 min (315 W). The five cooling combinations were similarly effective in reducing thermal strain and extending endurance time, although there was a trend for the vest to be more effective when supplied with <span class="hlt">air</span> at the lower dry bulb <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. At 175 W, subjects maintained a constant body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; at 315 W, the vest's ability to extend endurance is limited to about 5 hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......226L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......226L"><span>Characteristics of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over North America in observations and climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loikith, Paul C.</p> <p></p> <p>Motivated by a desire to understand the physical mechanisms involved in future anthropogenic changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events, the key atmospheric circulation patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over North America in the current climate are identified. Several novel metrics are used to systematically identify and describe these patterns for the entire continent. The orientation, physical characteristics, and spatial scale of these circulation patterns vary based on latitude, season, and proximity to important geographic features (i.e., mountains, coastlines). The anomaly patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold events tend to be similar to, but opposite in sign of, those associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm events, especially within the westerlies, and tend to scale with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the same locations. The influence of the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days and months shows that associations between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the PNA and NAM are stronger than associations with ENSO. In general, the association with <span class="hlt">extremes</span> tends to be stronger on monthly than daily time scales. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with the PNA and NAM in locations typically influenced by these circulation patterns; however many <span class="hlt">extremes</span> still occur on days when the amplitude and polarity of these patterns do not favor their occurrence. In winter, synoptic-scale, transient weather disturbances are important drivers of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days; however these smaller-scale events are often concurrent with amplified PNA or NAM patterns. Associations are weaker in summer when other physical mechanisms affecting the surface energy balance, such as anomalous soil moisture content, are associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Analysis of historical runs from seventeen climate models from the CMIP5 database suggests that most models simulate realistic circulation patterns</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMS....66...92D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JMS....66...92D"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> sea gas exchange at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speeds measured by autonomous oceanographic floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Asaro, Eric; McNeil, Craig</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Measurements of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea fluxes of N 2 and O 2 were made in winds of 15-57 m s - 1 beneath Hurricane Frances using two types of <span class="hlt">air</span>-deployed neutrally buoyant and profiling underwater floats. Two "Lagrangian floats" measured O 2 and total gas tension (GT) in pre-storm and post-storm profiles and in the actively turbulent mixed layer during the storm. A single "EM-APEX float" profiled continuously from 30 to 200 m before, during and after the storm. All floats measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity. N 2 concentrations were computed from GT and O 2 after correcting for instrumental effects. Gas fluxes were computed by three methods. First, a one-dimensional mixed layer budget diagnosed the changes in mixed layer concentrations given the pre-storm profile and a time varying mixed layer depth. This model was calibrated using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity data. The difference between the predicted mixed layer concentrations of O 2 and N 2 and those measured was attributed to <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea gas fluxes FBO and FBN. Second, the covariance flux FCO( z) = < wO 2'>( z) was computed, where w is the vertical motion of the water-following Lagrangian floats, O 2' is a high-pass filtered O 2 concentration and <>( z) is an average over covariance pairs as a function of depth. The profile FCO( z) was extrapolated to the surface to yield the surface O 2 flux FCO(0). Third, a deficit of O 2 was found in the upper few meters of the ocean at the height of the storm. A flux FSO, moving O 2 out of the ocean, was calculated by dividing this deficit by the residence time of the water in this layer, inferred from the Lagrangian floats. The three methods gave generally consistent results. At the highest winds, gas transfer is dominated by bubbles created by surface wave breaking, injected into the ocean by large-scale turbulent eddies and dissolving near 10-m depth. This conclusion is supported by observations of fluxes into the ocean despite its supersaturation; by the molar flux ratio FBO/ FBN, which is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMS....74..722D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMS....74..722D"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> sea gas exchange at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speeds measured by autonomous oceanographic floats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Asaro, Eric; McNeil, Craig</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Measurements of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea fluxes of N 2 and O 2 were made in winds of 15-57 m s - 1 beneath Hurricane Frances using two types of <span class="hlt">air</span>-deployed neutrally buoyant and profiling underwater floats. Two "Lagrangian floats" measured O 2 and total gas tension (GT) in pre-storm and post-storm profiles and in the actively turbulent mixed layer during the storm. A single "EM-APEX float" profiled continuously from 30 to 200 m before, during and after the storm. All floats measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity. N 2 concentrations were computed from GT and O 2 after correcting for instrumental effects. Gas fluxes were computed by three methods. First, a one-dimensional mixed layer budget diagnosed the changes in mixed layer concentrations given the pre-storm profile and a time varying mixed layer depth. This model was calibrated using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity data. The difference between the predicted mixed layer concentrations of O 2 and N 2 and those measured was attributed to <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea gas fluxes FBO and FBN. Second, the covariance flux FCO( z) = < wO 2'>( z) was computed, where w is the vertical motion of the water-following Lagrangian floats, O 2' is a high-pass filtered O 2 concentration and <>( z) is an average over covariance pairs as a function of depth. The profile FCO( z) was extrapolated to the surface to yield the surface O 2 flux FCO(0). Third, a deficit of O 2 was found in the upper few meters of the ocean at the height of the storm. A flux FSO, moving O 2 out of the ocean, was calculated by dividing this deficit by the residence time of the water in this layer, inferred from the Lagrangian floats. The three methods gave generally consistent results. At the highest winds, gas transfer is dominated by bubbles created by surface wave breaking, injected into the ocean by large-scale turbulent eddies and dissolving near 10-m depth. This conclusion is supported by observations of fluxes into the ocean despite its supersaturation; by the molar flux ratio FBO/ FBN, which is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.183...26R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.183...26R"><span>Observed changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Serbia over the period 1961 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruml, Mirjana; Gregorić, Enike; Vujadinović, Mirjam; Radovanović, Slavica; Matović, Gordana; Vuković, Ana; Počuča, Vesna; Stojičić, Djurdja</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of spatiotemporal changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Serbia, based on 18 ETCCDI indices, was performed using daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations from 26 meteorological stations over the period 1961-2010. The observation period was divided into two sub-periods (1961-1980 and 1981-2010) according to the results of the sequential Mann-Kendall test. Temporal trends were evaluated by a least-squares linear regression method. The average annual minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> displayed a mixed pattern of increasing, decreasing, and no trends over 1961-1980 and a significant increasing trend over 1981-2010 across the whole country, with a regionally averaged rate of 0.48 °C per decade. The average annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed a decreasing trend during 1961-1980 and a significant increasing trend at all stations during 1981-2010, with a regionally averaged rate of 0.56 °C per decade. Hot indices exhibited a general cooling tendency until 1980 and a warming tendency afterwards, with the most pronounced trends in the number of summer and tropical days during the first period and in the frequency of warm days and nights in the second. Cold indices displayed a mostly warming tendency over the entire period, with the most remarkable increase in the lowest annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the number of ice days during the first period and in the frequency of cool nights during the second. At most stations, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range showed a decrease until 1980 and no change or a slight increase afterwards. The lengthening of the growing season was much more pronounced in the later period. The computed correlation coefficient between the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and large-scale circulation features revealed that the East Atlantic pattern displayed much stronger association with examined indices than the North Atlantic Oscillation and East Atlantic/West Russia pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..607L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121..607L"><span>Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenz, Ruth; Argüeso, Daniel; Donat, Markus G.; Pitman, Andrew J.; Hurk, Bart; Berg, Alexis; Lawrence, David M.; Chéruy, Frédérique; Ducharne, Agnès.; Hagemann, Stefan; Meier, Arndt; Milly, P. C. D.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examine how soil moisture variability and trends affect the simulation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in six global climate models using the experimental protocol of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5). This protocol enables separate examinations of the influences of soil moisture variability and trends on the intensity, frequency, and duration of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> by the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) emission scenario. Removing soil moisture variability significantly reduces <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over most continental surfaces, while wet precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are enhanced in the tropics. Projected drying trends in soil moisture lead to increases in intensity, frequency, and duration of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> by the end of the 21st century. Wet precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are decreased in the tropics with soil moisture trends in the simulations, while dry <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are enhanced in some regions, in particular the Mediterranean and Australia. However, the ensemble results mask considerable differences in the soil moisture trends simulated by the six climate models. We find that the large differences between the models in soil moisture trends, which are related to an unknown combination of differences in atmospheric forcing (precipitation, net radiation), flux partitioning at the land surface, and how soil moisture is parameterized, imply considerable uncertainty in future changes in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70184223','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70184223"><span>Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lorenz, Ruth; Argueso, Daniel; Donat, Markus G.; Pitman, Andrew J.; van den Hurk, Bart; Berg, Alexis; Lawrence, David M.; Cheruy, Frederique; Ducharne, Agnes; Hagemann, Stefan; Meier, Arndt; Milly, Paul C.D.; Seneviratne, Sonia I</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examine how soil moisture variability and trends affect the simulation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in six global climate models using the experimental protocol of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5). This protocol enables separate examinations of the influences of soil moisture variability and trends on the intensity, frequency, and duration of climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> by the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) emission scenario. Removing soil moisture variability significantly reduces <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over most continental surfaces, while wet precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are enhanced in the tropics. Projected drying trends in soil moisture lead to increases in intensity, frequency, and duration of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> by the end of the 21st century. Wet precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are decreased in the tropics with soil moisture trends in the simulations, while dry <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are enhanced in some regions, in particular the Mediterranean and Australia. However, the ensemble results mask considerable differences in the soil moisture trends simulated by the six climate models. We find that the large differences between the models in soil moisture trends, which are related to an unknown combination of differences in atmospheric forcing (precipitation, net radiation), flux partitioning at the land surface, and how soil moisture is parameterized, imply considerable uncertainty in future changes in climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41A0015W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41A0015W"><span>Daily Cycle of <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Stone Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of stones and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1993R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1993R"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using <span class="hlt">Airs</span> Data Over Peninsular Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the <span class="hlt">air</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2067G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2067G"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> profile and producer gas composition of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> gasification of oil palm fronds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> were investigated and compared with unheated <span class="hlt">air</span>. By preheating the gasifying <span class="hlt">air</span> at 500°C the process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186586&hterms=wire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwire','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186586&hterms=wire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwire"><span>Cyclic Oxidation of High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Alloy Wires in <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reigel, Marissa M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> alloy wires are proposed for use in seal applications for future re-useable space vehicles. These alloys offer the potential for improved wear resistance of the seals. The wires must withstand the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments the seals are subjected to as well as maintain their oxidation resistance during the heating and cooling cycles of vehicle re-entry. To model this, the wires were subjected to cyclic oxidation in stagnant <span class="hlt">air</span>. of this layer formation is dependent on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Slow growing oxides such as chromia and alumina are desirable. Once the oxide is formed it can prevent the metal from further reacting with its environment. Cyclic oxidation models the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> these wires will undergo in application. Cycling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> introduces thermal stresses which can cause the oxide layer to break off. Re-growth of the oxide layer consumes more metal and therefore reduces the properties and durability of the material. were used for cyclic oxidation testing. The baseline material, Haynes 188, has a Co base and is a chromia former while the other two alloys, Kanthal A1 and PM2000, both have a Fe base and are alumina formers. Haynes 188 and Kanthal A1 wires are 250 pm in diameter and PM2000 wires are 150 pm in diameter. The coiled wire has a total surface area of 3 to 5 sq cm. The wires were oxidized for 11 cycles at 1204 C, each cycle containing a 1 hour heating time and a minimum 20 minute cooling time. Weights were taken between cycles. After 11 cycles, one wire of each composition was removed for analysis. The other wire continued testing for 70 cycles. Post-test analysis includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for phase identification and morphology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090017608','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090017608"><span>Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Using Only Shortwave <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind,Joel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This procedure is now being used by the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team in preparation for the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1248869','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1248869"><span>Manipulation of Samples at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> for Fast in-situ Synchrotron Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weber, Richard</p> <p>2016-04-22</p> <p>An aerodynamic sample levitation system with laser beam heating was integrated with the APS beamlines 6 ID-D, 11 ID-C and 20 BM-B. The new capability enables in-situ measurements of structure and XANES at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (300-3500 °C) and in conditions that completely avoid contact with container surfaces. In addition to maintaining a high degree of sample purity, the use of aerodynamic levitation enables deep supercooling and greatly enhanced glass formation from a wide variety of melts and liquids. Development and integration of controlled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sample environments and new measurement techniques is an important aspect of beamline operations and user support. Processing and solidifying liquids is a critical value-adding step in manufacturing semiconductors, optical materials, metals and in the operation of many energy conversion devices. Understanding structural evolution is of fundamental importance in condensed materials, geology, and biology. The new capability provides unique possibilities for materials research and helps to develop and maintain a competitive materials manufacturing and energy utilization industry. Test samples were used to demonstrate key features of the capability including experiments on hot crystalline materials, liquids at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from about 500 to 3500 °C. The use of controlled atmospheres using redox gas mixtures enabled in-situ changes in the oxidation states of cations in melts. Significant innovations in this work were: (i) Use of redox gas mixtures to adjust the oxidation state of cations in-situ (ii) Operation with a fully enclosed system suitable for work with nuclear fuel materials (iii) Making high quality high energy in-situ x-ray diffraction measurements (iv) Making high quality in-situ XANES measurements (v) Publishing high impact results (vi) Developing independent funding for the research on nuclear materials This SBIR project work led to a commercial instrument product for the niche market of processing and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930089403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930089403"><span>Study of Ram-<span class="hlt">air</span> Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-<span class="hlt">air</span> weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram <span class="hlt">air</span> was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-<span class="hlt">air</span> weight flows were considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196724','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196724"><span>Characterizing the Chemical Stability of High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Materials for Application in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Opila, Elizabeth</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The chemical stability of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> materials must be known for use in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments of combustion applications. The characterization techniques available at NASA Glenn Research Center vary from fundamental thermodynamic property determination to material durability testing in actual engine environments. In this paper some of the unique techniques and facilities available at NASA Glenn will be reviewed. Multiple cell Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry is used to determine thermodynamic data by sampling gas species formed by reaction or equilibration in a Knudsen cell held in a vacuum. The transpiration technique can also be used to determine thermodynamic data of volatile species but at atmospheric pressures. Thermodynamic data in the Si-O-H(g) system were determined with this technique. Free Jet Sampling Mass Spectrometry can be used to study gas-solid interactions at a pressure of one atmosphere. Volatile Si(OH)4(g) was identified by this mass spectrometry technique. A High Pressure Burner Rig is used to expose high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> materials in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) volatility rates were measured in the burner rig as a function of total pressure, gas velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Finally, the Research Combustion Lab Rocket Test Cell is used to expose high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> materials in hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine environments to assess material durability. SiC recession due to rocket engine exposures was measured as a function of oxidant/fuel ratio, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and total pressure. The emphasis of the discussion for all techniques will be placed on experimental factors that must be controlled for accurate acquisition of results and reliable prediction of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> material chemical stability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....88....1E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....88....1E"><span>Variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of northern Scandinavian summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the past two millennia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esper, Jan; Büntgen, Ulf; Timonen, Mauri; Frank, David C.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Palaeoclimatic evidence revealed synchronous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations among Northern Hemisphere regions over the past millennium. The range of these variations (in degrees Celsius) is, however, largely unknown. We here present a 2000-year summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction from northern Scandinavia and compare this timeseries with existing proxy records to assess the range of reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at a regional scale. The new reconstruction is based on 578 maximum latewood density profiles from living and sub-fossil Pinus sylvestris samples from northern Sweden and Finland. The record provides evidence for substantial warmth during Roman and Medieval times, larger in extent and longer in duration than 20th century warmth. The first century AD was the warmest 100-year period (+ 0.60 °C on average relative to the 1951-1980 mean) of the Common Era, more than 1 °C warmer than the coldest 14th century AD (- 0.51 °C). The warmest and coldest reconstructed 30-year periods (AD 21-50 = + 1.05 °C, and AD 1451-80 = - 1.19 °C) differ by more than 2 °C, and the range between the five warmest and coldest reconstructed summers in the context of the past 2000 years is estimated to exceed 5 °C. Comparison of the new timeseries with five existing tree-ring based reconstructions from northern Scandinavia revealed synchronized climate fluctuations but substantially different absolute <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Level offset among the various reconstructions in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> cold and warm years (up to 3 °C) and cold and warm 30-year periods (up to 1.5 °C) are in the order of the total <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance of each individual reconstruction over the past 1500 to 2000 years. These findings demonstrate our poor understanding of the absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance in a region where high-resolution proxy coverage is denser than in any other area of the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800016497','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800016497"><span>Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Machablishvili, O. G.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The thermal state of women during the effect of high <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, and <span class="hlt">air</span> movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1569D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1569D"><span>What matters most: Are summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> more sensitive to changing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We investigated stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to changes in both <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> relative to current <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, even under future climates when mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased from 2 to 4 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2964241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2964241"><span>Impacts of wind farms on surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms. PMID:20921371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921371"><span>Impacts of wind farms on surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J</p> <p>2010-10-19</p> <p>Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11E..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11E..02K"><span>CMIP5 Projections of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> for the U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunkel, K.; Sun, L.; Buddenberg, A.; Stevens, L. E.; Fischer, E. M.; Li, W.; Long, L.; Seth, A.; Sheffield, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In support of the development of the 2013 National Climate Assessment report, we analyzed climate model simulation data from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive, focusing on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. CMIP5 simulated changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high (low) monthly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [defined here as the hottest (coldest) month in a 30-yr period] show increases. Multi-model mean changes in the hottest and coldest months of the year are relatively consistent across the U.S., with increases of 5-7 and 4-8°C respectively for 2071-2099. Changes in Alaska (Hawaii) are similar (slightly lower) for the hottest month and greater (lower) for Alaska (Hawaii) for the coldest month.While the projected 21st century changes for the warmest summer days vary substantially across CMIP5 models, there is a clear joint behavior; models that show greater warming also show greater reductions in relative humidity over the continental US. Using metrics for the combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-humidity health effects, CMIP5 simulations consistently project increasing levels of heat stress across the U.S. CMIP5 analyses of changes in the annual cycle of precipitation in the North American Monsoon region suggest reductions during winter and early summer rainy seasons, but indicate increased rainfall later in the rainy season. For the southeast U.S., future variability of summer precipitation intensifies under the RCP4.5 scenario due to a pattern shift of the NASH western ridge. The NASH western ridge extends further westward and leads to more frequent occurrences of the northwestward and southwestward ridge patterns that are respectively related to the dry and wet southeast U.S. summers.The historical frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> drought and persistent wet events is characterized by two hydroclimate U.S. regimes, with dry (wet) events dominating over the western half (east). The CMIP5 simulations show an intensification of this east-west contrast in hydroclimatic regimes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021249"><span>QTL analysis of seed germination and pre-emergence growth at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Medicago truncatula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dias, Paula Menna Barreto; Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Dürr, Carolyne; Huguet, Thierry; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Helene</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Enhancing the knowledge on the genetic basis of germination and heterotrophic growth at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is of major importance for improving crop establishment. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out at sub- and supra-optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at these early stages in the model Legume Medicago truncatula. On the basis of an ecophysiological model framework, two populations of recombinant inbred lines were chosen for the contrasting behaviours of parental lines: LR5 at sub-optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (5 or 10°C) and LR4 at a supra-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (20°C). Seed masses were measured in all lines. For LR5, germination rates and hypocotyl growth were measured by hand, whereas for LR4, imbibition and germination rates as well as early embryonic axis growth were measured using an automated image capture and analysis device. QTLs were found for all traits. The phenotyping framework we defined for measuring variables, distinguished stages and enabled identification of distinct QTLs for seed mass (chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 8), imbibition (chromosome 4), germination (chromosomes 3, 5, 7 and 8) and heterotrophic growth (chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 8). The three QTL identified for hypocotyl length at sub-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explained the largest part of the phenotypic variation (60% together). One digenic interaction was found for hypocotyl width at sub-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the loci involved were linked to additive QTLs for hypocotyl elongation at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Together with working on a model plant, this approach facilitated the identification of genes specific to each stage that could provide reliable markers for assisting selection and improving crop establishment. With this aim in view, an initial set of putative candidate genes was identified in the light of the role of abscissic acid/gibberellin balance in regulating germination at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (e.g. ABI4, ABI5), the molecular cascade in response to cold stress (e.g. CBF1, ICE1) and hypotheses on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20878383"><span>QTL analysis of seed germination and pre-emergence growth at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Medicago truncatula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dias, Paula Menna Barreto; Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; Dürr, Carolyne; Huguet, Thierry; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Helene; Teulat-Merah, Béatrice</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Enhancing the knowledge on the genetic basis of germination and heterotrophic growth at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is of major importance for improving crop establishment. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out at sub- and supra-optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at these early stages in the model Legume Medicago truncatula. On the basis of an ecophysiological model framework, two populations of recombinant inbred lines were chosen for the contrasting behaviours of parental lines: LR5 at sub-optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (5 or 10°C) and LR4 at a supra-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (20°C). Seed masses were measured in all lines. For LR5, germination rates and hypocotyl growth were measured by hand, whereas for LR4, imbibition and germination rates as well as early embryonic axis growth were measured using an automated image capture and analysis device. QTLs were found for all traits. The phenotyping framework we defined for measuring variables, distinguished stages and enabled identification of distinct QTLs for seed mass (chromosomes 1, 5, 7 and 8), imbibition (chromosome 4), germination (chromosomes 3, 5, 7 and 8) and heterotrophic growth (chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 8). The three QTL identified for hypocotyl length at sub-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explained the largest part of the phenotypic variation (60% together). One digenic interaction was found for hypocotyl width at sub-optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the loci involved were linked to additive QTLs for hypocotyl elongation at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Together with working on a model plant, this approach facilitated the identification of genes specific to each stage that could provide reliable markers for assisting selection and improving crop establishment. With this aim in view, an initial set of putative candidate genes was identified in the light of the role of abscissic acid/gibberellin balance in regulating germination at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (e.g. ABI4, ABI5), the molecular cascade in response to cold stress (e.g. CBF1, ICE1) and hypotheses on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54C..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A54C..05L"><span>Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Associated with <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> as a Basis for Model Evaluation: Methodological Overview and Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loikith, P. C.; Broccoli, A. J.; Waliser, D. E.; Lintner, B. R.; Neelin, J. D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Anomalous large-scale circulation patterns often play a key role in the occurrence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. For example, large-scale circulation can drive horizontal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> advection or influence local processes that lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, such as by inhibiting moderating sea breezes, promoting downslope adiabatic warming, and affecting the development of cloud cover. Additionally, large-scale circulation can influence the shape of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution tails, with important implications for the magnitude of future changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. As a result of the prominent role these patterns play in the occurrence and character of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, the way in which <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> change in the future will be highly influenced by if and how these patterns change. It is therefore critical to identify and understand the key patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at local to regional scales in the current climate and to use this foundation as a target for climate model validation. This presentation provides an overview of recent and ongoing work aimed at developing and applying novel approaches to identifying and describing the large-scale circulation patterns associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in observations and using this foundation to evaluate state-of-the-art global and regional climate models. Emphasis is given to anomalies in sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height over North America using several methods to identify circulation patterns, including self-organizing maps and composite analysis. Overall, evaluation results suggest that models are able to reproduce observed patterns associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with reasonable fidelity in many cases. Model skill is often highest when and where synoptic-scale processes are the dominant mechanisms for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and lower where sub-grid scale processes (such as those related to topography) are important. Where model skill in reproducing these patterns is high, it can be inferred that <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145694"><span><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, foundation species, and abrupt ecosystem change: an example from an iconic seagrass ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomson, Jordan A; Burkholder, Derek A; Heithaus, Michael R; Fourqurean, James W; Fraser, Matthew W; Statton, John; Kendrick, Gary A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events can trigger abrupt and often lasting change in ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation (i.e., habitat-forming) species. However, while the frequency/intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is predicted to increase under climate change, the impact of these events on many foundation species and the ecosystems they support remains poorly understood. Here, we use the iconic seagrass meadows of Shark Bay, Western Australia--a relatively pristine subtropical embayment whose dominant, canopy-forming seagrass, Amphibolis antarctica, is a temperate species growing near its low-latitude range limit--as a model system to investigate the impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ecosystems supported by thermally sensitive foundation species in a changing climate. Following an unprecedented marine heat wave in late summer 2010/11, A. antarctica experienced catastrophic (>90%) dieback in several regions of Shark Bay. Animal-borne video footage taken from the perspective of resident, seagrass-associated megafauna (sea turtles) revealed severe habitat degradation after the event compared with a decade earlier. This reduction in habitat quality corresponded with a decline in the health status of largely herbivorous green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the 2 years following the heat wave, providing evidence of long-term, community-level impacts of the event. Based on these findings, and similar examples from diverse ecosystems, we argue that a generalized framework for assessing the vulnerability of ecosystems to abrupt change associated with the loss of foundation species is needed to accurately predict ecosystem trajectories in a changing climate. This includes seagrass meadows, which have received relatively little attention in this context. Novel research and monitoring methods, such as the analysis of habitat and environmental data from animal-borne video and data-logging systems, can make an important contribution to this framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/947218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/947218"><span>NETL <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Drilling Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480°F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/915608','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/915608"><span>NETL <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Drilling Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and describes NETL’s Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 °F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL’s test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Drilling Lab’s studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86w5442C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86w5442C"><span><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> strong room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> transient photocurrent-detected magnetic resonance in organic devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ying; Liu, Rui; Cai, Min; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">extremely</span> strong room-<spa