Science.gov

Sample records for air temperature extremes

  1. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  2. The assessment of future extremes of air temperature to design EPR type power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, S.; Hoang, T. T. H.; Dacunha-Castelle, D.

    2010-09-01

    EDF projects the construction of new EPR type nuclear power plants in Europe. These installations are likely to run until the second half of the century, and thus, it is necessary to think their dimensioning in taking current knowledge of climate change impact into account. This paper will present the study dedicated to the estimation of future extremes of air temperature by using the statistical extreme value theory. The adopted methodology consists firstly in comparing current climate temperature extremes between local observations and models at the nearest grid point. Then, if the extremes of both series are comparable, future extremes are derived from the modelled series for a future period. In parallel, the link between the evolution of the mean, variance and extremes is studied in the observation series. If a strong link is identified, future extremes are derived from the stationary extremes of the centred and normalised series and the changes in mean and variance given by climate models for the desired future period. The approach will be illustrated with an example of such an evaluation for an EPR project in the United Kingdom.

  3. Photoionization capable, extreme and vacuum ultraviolet emission in developing low temperature plasmas in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Beeson, S.; Laity, G.; Trienekens, D.; Joshi, R. P.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental observation of photoionization capable extreme ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet emission from nanosecond timescale, developing low temperature plasmas (i.e. streamer discharges) in atmospheric air is presented. Applying short high voltage pulses enabled the observation of the onset of plasma formation exclusively by removing the external excitation before spark development was achieved. Contrary to the common assumption that radiative transitions from the b{{}1}{{\\Pi}u} (Birge-Hopfield I) and b{{}\\prime 1}Σu+ (Birge-Hopfield II) singlet states of N2 are the primary contributors to photoionization events, these results indicate that radiative transitions from the c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ (Carroll-Yoshino) singlet state of N2 are dominant in developing low temperature plasmas in air. In addition to c{}4\\prime transitions, photoionization capable transitions from atomic and singly ionized atomic oxygen were also observed. The inclusion of c{{4\\prime}1}Σu+ transitions into a statistical photoionization model coupled with a fluid model enabled streamer growth in the simulation of positive streamers.

  4. Investigation of the impact of extreme air temperature on river water temperature: case study of the heat episode 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water temperature of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. Using the extensive data set

  5. Spatiotemporal changes in extreme ground surface temperatures and the relationship with air temperatures in the Three-River Source Regions during 1980-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongliang; Jin, Huijun; Lü, Lanzhi; Zhou, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Climate changes are affecting plant growth, ecosystem evolution, hydrological processes, and water resources in the Three-River Source Regions (TRSR). Daily ground surface temperature (GST) and air temperature (Ta) recordings from 12 meteorological stations illustrated trends and characteristics of extreme GST and Ta in the TRSR during 1980-2013. We used the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimate to analyze 12 temperature extreme indices as recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The mean annual ground surface temperatures (MAGST) are 2.4-4.3 °C higher than the mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) in the TRSR. The increasing trends of the MAGST are all higher than those of the MAAT. The multi-year average maximum GST (28.1 °C) is much higher than that of the Ta (7.6 °C), while the minimum GST (-8.7 °C) is similar to that of the minimum Ta (-6.9 °C). The minimum temperature trends are more significant than those of the maximum temperature and are consistent with temperature trends in other regions of China. Different spatiotemporal patterns of GST extremes compared to those of Ta may result from greater warming of the ground surface. Consequently, the difference between the GST and Ta increased. These findings have implications for variations of surface energy balance, sensible heat flux, ecology, hydrology, and permafrost.

  6. Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian

    2010-11-01

    Fewer studies have been published on the association between daily mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with daily mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high temperature on the association between air pollution and daily mortality due to all natural causes and daily cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average daily temperature in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum daily temperature often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained daily mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. Daily mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of

  7. Daily global solar radiation prediction from air temperatures using kernel extreme learning machine: A case study for Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Chen, Hui-Ling; Narayana Samy, Ganthan; Petković, Dalibor; Ma, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Lately, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) has gained considerable importance in the scientific area due to its great efficiency, easy implementation and fast training speed. In this paper, for the first time the potential of KELM to predict the daily horizontal global solar radiation from the maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) is appraised. The effectiveness of the proposed KELM method is evaluated against the grid search based support vector regression (SVR), as a robust methodology. Three KELM and SVR models are developed using different input attributes including: (1) Tmin and Tmax, (2) Tmin and Tmax-Tmin, and (3) Tmax and Tmax-Tmin. The achieved results reveal that the best predictions precision is achieved by models (3). The achieved results demonstrate that KELM offers favorable predictions and outperforms the SVR. For the KELM (3) model, the obtained statistical parameters of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, relative root mean square error and correlation coefficient are 1.3445 MJ/m2, 2.0164 MJ/m2, 11.2464% and 0.9057%, respectively for the testing data. As further examination, a month-by-month evaluation is conducted and found that in six months from May to October the KELM (3) model provides further accuracy than overall accuracy. Based upon the relative root mean square error, the KELM (3) model shows excellent capability in the period of April to October while in the remaining months represents good performance.

  8. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  9. Cooling of daytime temperatures in coastal California air basins during 1969-2005: Monthly and extreme value trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.; Charland, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of long-term (1969-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June-August) previously showed an aggregate CA asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum values Tmax. The spatial distributions of daily Tmax temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins were more complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation coastal-areas and warming at inland areas. Our hypothesis was that this temperature pattern arose from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas induced global-warming, in that the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. These results appeared in the July 2009 issue of the J. of Climate. Extension of this analysis over the entire year now shows that the cooling trend in average Tmax values occurred during most months, with warming trends only during winter months. The largest rate of cooling, however, occurred in June (-0.95 K/decade), indicating that an earlier initiation of sea breeze activity may be the most important cooling factor, relative to increases in its intensity, duration, and/or penetration. Possible beneficial effects of the cooling were discussed (e.g., decreased maximum O3 and human thermal-stress levels), but as these impact would occur during periods of maximum Tmax values, the previous analysis was thus expanded to includes trends in the frequency of high Tmax values, i.e., 85, 90, 95, and 100oF. Results showed that all of these frequencies were decreasing, with rates decreasing with Tmax value (from -0.27 to -0.04 days/year, respectively). While this result is expected, as the frequency of occurrence decreases with Tmax value (from about 50 to about 3 per year, respectively), the percent decrease in frequency showed the opposite results, i.e., it was largest with the highest Tmax value (from -0.57 to -1.57 %/year, respectively). In addition, the rate of decrease of annual

  10. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  11. Precautions for breast cancer-related lymphoedema: risk from air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Asdourian, Maria S; Skolny, Melissa N; Brunelle, Cheryl; Seward, Cara E; Salama, Laura; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-09-01

    Precautionary recommendations conveyed to survivors of cancer by health-care practitioners to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema are indispensable aspects of clinical care, yet remain unsubstantiated by high-level scientific evidence. By reviewing the literature, we identified 31 original research articles that examined whether lifestyle-associated risk factors (air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and skin infections-eg, cellulitis) increase the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Among the few studies that lend support to precautionary guidelines, most provide low-level (levels 3-5) or inconclusive evidence of an association between lymphoedema and these risk factors, and only four level 2 studies show a significant association. Skin infections and previous infection or inflammation on the ipsilateral arm were among the most clearly defined and well established risk factors for lymphoedema. The paucity of high-level evidence and the conflicting nature of the existing literature make it difficult to establish definitive predictive factors for breast cancer-related lymphoedema, which could be a considerable source of patient distress and anxiety. Along with further research into these risk factors, continued discussion regarding modification of the guidelines and adoption of a risk-adjusted approach is needed. PMID:27599144

  12. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  13. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  14. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology. PMID:27029386

  15. Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Montserrat; Henry, John; Reich, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Estimating the probability of extreme temperature events is difficult because of limited records across time and the need to extrapolate the distributions of these events, as opposed to just the mean, to locations where observations are not available. Another related issue is the need to characterize the uncertainty in the estimated probability of extreme events at different locations. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate extremes are well-developed, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order to make inference about spatial extreme events, we introduce a new nonparametric model for extremes. We present a Dirichlet-based copula model that is a flexible alternative to parametric copula models such as the normal and t-copula. The proposed modelling approach is fitted using a Bayesian framework that allow us to take into account different sources of uncertainty in the data and models. We apply our methods to annual maximum temperature values in the east-south-central United States. PMID:24058280

  16. New adhesive withstands temperature extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Seidenberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive, developed for high-temperature components aboard satellites, is useful at both high and low temperatures and exhibits low-vacuum volatility and low shrinkage. System uses polyfunctional epoxy with high aromatic content, low equivalent weight, and more compact polymer than conventional bisphenol A tape.

  17. Extreme Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor for Venus Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jerri; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Narine, Roop

    After developed two types of extreme temperature motors (Switched Reluctance Motor and Blushless DC Motor), Honeybee Robotics has successfully developed an Extreme Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor that can be used to commutate motors and provide positional information. This paper presents an insight into the challenges of designing extreme tempera-ture electro-mechanical system and provides results of the experiment performed in the Venus environment. The operational temperature range for existing commutation devices, include Hall Sensors, Resolvers and Encoders is limited to temperatures less than 180C. The Extreme Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor is capable of working continuously at 460C and at 92 atm. The design of this device involves a unique rotor design and an innovative phase pulsing algorithm implemented through a high speed DSP. The shape of the rotor provides a unique flow-path to the lines-of-flux through the poles of the stator. The pulsing algorithm makes it possible to nullify the effects of parametric changes (wire resistance, permeability, air gap, etc.) due to increase in temperature. The algorithm relies on the relative flux density between two stator poles rather than the absolute measurement of the flux density in each pole. Extreme temperature position sensor, along with scalable extreme temperature motor and gearhead allow for creation of robot arms and even mobility systems for future Venus missions to achieve their goals and objectives.

  18. Detection of Extremes with AIRS and CrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.; Behrangi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be detected first as changes in extreme values rather than in mean values. The availability of data of from two instruments in the same orbit, AIRS data for the past eleven years and AIRS and CrIS data from the past year, provides an opportunity to evaluate this using examples of climate relevance: Desertification, seen as changes in hot extremes, severe storm, seen as a change in extremely cold clouds and the warming of the polar zone. We use AIRS to establish trends for the 1%tile, the mean and 99%tile brightness temperatures measured with the 900 cm(exp -1) channel from AIRS for the past 11 years. This channel is in the clearest part of the 11 micron atmospheric window. Substantial trends are seen for land and ocean, which in the case of the 1%tile (cold) extremes are related to the current shift of deep convection from ocean to land. Changes are also seen in the 99%tile for day tropical land, but their interpretation is at present unclear. We also see dramatic changes for the mean and 99%tile of the North Polar area. The trends are an order of magnitude larger than the instrument trend of about 3 mK/year. We use the statistical distribution from the past year derived from AIRS to evaluate the accuracy of continuing the trends established with AIRS with CrIS data. We minimize the concern about differences in the spectral response functions by limiting the analysis to the channel at 900 cm(exp -1).While the two instruments agree within 100 mK for the global day/night land/ocean mean values, there are significant differences when evaluating the1% and 99%tiles. We see a consistent warm bias in the CrIS data relative to AIRS for the 1%tile (extremely cold, cloudy) data in the tropical zone, particularly for tropical land, but the bias is not day/night land/ocean consistent. At this point the difference appears to be due to differences in the radiometric response of AIRS and CrIS to differences in the day/night land/ocean cloud types

  19. Sensitivity of mountain permafrost to extreme climatic events; a case study from the 2006-2007 air temperature anomaly in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaksen, K.; Ødegård, R. S.; Eiken, T.; Sollid, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    An unusual synoptic situation with long periods of warm and humid southerlies produced record breaking temperatures in southern Norway during the period from July 2006 to June 2007, particularly late summer, autumn and early winter 2006-2007. For the one-year period, the temperature anomaly was 2.5-3.0 °C above the 1961-1990 average, with highest anomalies in the eastern and northern parts of southern Norway. The homogenised mean air temperature for the station Kjøremsgrende (62°06'N, 9°03'E, 626 m a.s.l.) was 2.9 °C above the 1961-1990 average. This is the warmest since records began in 1867. The most striking month was December 2006, when mean air temperature was 7.5 °C above the 1961-1990 average. At the official mountain station Fokstugu (62°11'N, 9°29'E, 972 m a.s.l.), on Dovrefjell, there were no days with temperatures below freezing in August and September. The late summer heat had a particularly strong impact on snow, ice and frozen ground in the mountains of southern Norway. Official mass balance investigations performed on three glaciers showed that they had their most negative net balances ever measured. Analysis of a leather shoe that melted out from a perennial snowfield at 2000 meters altitude was dated back 3,400 years old. Several complete arrows and a spade made from wood were also found in front of perennial snowfields. This study seeks to analyse the impact of the 2006-2007 air temperature anomaly on the ground thermal regime, including permafrost and seasonal frost, in the high mountains of Jotunheimen and Dovrefjell in southern Norway. In Jotunheimen, ground temperature data are monitored in a 129 m deep permafrost borehole, located at Juvvasshøe (61°40'N, 8°22'E, 1894 m a.s.l.), established within the PACE-project (Permafrost and Climate in Europe). On Dovrefjell ground temperatures are measured in a transect from deep seasonal frost at 1039 m a.s.l. to discontinuous mountain permafrost at 1505 m a.s.l. in 11 boreholes, 9 m deep

  20. Flexible diaphragm-extreme temperature usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A diaphragm suitable for extreme temperature usage, such as encountered in critical aerospace applications, is fabricated by a unique method, and of a unique combination of materials. The materials include multilayered lay-ups of diaphragm materials sandwiched between layers of bleeder fabrics. After being formed in the desired shape on a mold, they are vacuum sealed and then cured under pressure, in a heated autoclave. A bond capable of withstanding extreme temperatures are produced.

  1. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Extreme temperature conditions and wildland fires in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardil, A.; Eastaugh, C. S.; Molina, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Extreme temperature events are known to favor large wildland fires. It is expected that fire activity will increase with changing climate. This work analyzes the effects of high-temperature days on medium and large fires (those larger than 50 ha) from 1978 to 2010 in Spain. A high-temperature day was defined as being when air temperature at 850 hPa was higher than the 95th percentile of air temperature at that elevation from June to September across the years 1978-2010. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the state of the lower troposphere. The effects of high temperature on forest fires were remarkable and significant in terms of fire number (15 % of total large fires occurred under high-temperature days) and burned area (25 % of the total burned area occurred under high-temperature days). Fire size was also significantly higher under the 95th percentile air temperature at 850 hPa, and a large part of the largest fires in the past 20 years were under these extreme conditions. Additionally, both burned area and fire number only decreased under non-high-temperature days in the study period and not under high-temperature conditions.

  3. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  4. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  5. Immune defence under extreme ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Owing to global climate change, the extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an extreme temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance. PMID:20610417

  6. Temperature extremes in Western Europe and associated atmospheric anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, V. A.; Santos, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    This worḱs focal point is the analysis of temperature extremes over Western Europe in the period 1957-2007 and their relationship to large-scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation patterns. The study is based on temperature daily time series recorded at a set of meteorological stations covering the target area. The large-scale anomalies are analyzed using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis project. Firstly, a preliminary statistical analysis was undertaken in order to identify data gaps and erroneous values and to check the homogeneity of the time series, using not only elementary statistical approaches (e.g., chronograms, box-plots, scatter-plots), but also a set of non-parametric statistical tests particularly suitable for the analysis of monthly and seasonal mean temperature time series (e.g., Wald-Wolfowitz serial correlation test, Spearman and Mann-Kendall trend tests). Secondly, based on previous results, a selection of the highest quality time series was carried out. Aiming at identifying temperature extremes, we then proceed to the isolation of months with temperature values above or below pre-selected thresholds based on the empirical distribution of each time series. In particular, thresholds are based on percentiles specifically computed for each individual temperature record (data adaptive) and not on fixed values. As a result, a calendar of extremely high and extremely low monthly mean temperatures is obtained and the large-scale atmospheric conditions during each extreme are analyzed. Several atmospheric fields are considered in this study (e.g., 2-m maximum and minimum air temperature, sea level pressure, geopotential height, zonal and meridional wind components, vorticity, relative humidity) at different isobaric levels. Results show remarkably different synoptic conditions for temperature extremes in different parts of Western Europe, highlighting the different dynamical mechanisms underlying their

  7. Anthropogenic signals in Iranian extreme temperature indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balling, Robert C.; Kiany, Mohammad Sadegh Keikhosravi; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal patterns in temperature extremes from 31 stations located throughout Iran for the period 1961 to 2010. As with many other parts of the globe, we found that the number of days (a) with high maximum temperatures was rising, (b) with high minimum temperatures was rising, and (c) with low minimum temperatures was declining; all of these trends were statistically significant at the 0.05 level of confidence. Population records from 1956 to 2011 at the station locations allowed us to reveal that the rate of human population growth was positively related to the increase in the number of days with high maximum temperatures and negatively related to days with low maximum temperatures. Our research shows a number of identifiable anthropogenic signals in the temperature records from Iran, but unlike most other studies, the signals are stronger with indices related to maximum, not minimum, temperatures.

  8. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and Implications for Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiliang; Hou, Pei

    2014-05-01

    Climate change can significantly affect air pollution meteorology. Of particular concern is the changes in extreme meteorological events (such as heat waves, temperature inversion, atmospheric stagnation and lightning) that have important implications for air quality and public health. We analyze the observed long-term changes in air pollution meteorology based on global datasets for the past decades (ca. 1950-2010) to examine the possible trends in the context of global climate change. Statistically significant increasing trends have been identified for heat waves, temperature inversion and lightning activities over large areas around the world. Global models are combined with statistical analysis to help us understand these changes as well as their implications for atmospheric composition and air quality in the past and future decades.

  9. Extreme conditions in a dissolving air nanobubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulations of the dissolution of an air nanobubble in water have been performed taking into account the effect of bubble dynamics (inertia of the surrounding liquid). The presence of stable bulk nanobubbles is not assumed in the present study because the bubble radius inevitably passes the nanoscale in the complete dissolution of a bubble. The bubble surface is assumed to be clean because attachment of hydrophobic materials on the bubble surface could considerably change the gas diffusion rate. The speed of the bubble collapse (the bubble wall speed) increases to about 90 m/s or less. The shape of a bubble is kept nearly spherical because the amplitude of the nonspherical component of the bubble shape is negligible compared to the instantaneous bubble radius. In other words, a bubble never disintegrates into daughter bubbles during the dissolution. At the final moment of the dissolution, the temperature inside a bubble increases to about 3000 K due to the quasiadiabatic compression. The bubble temperature is higher than 1000 K only for the final 19 ps. However, the Knudsen number is more than 0.2 for this moment, and the error associated with the continuum model should be considerable. In the final 2.3 ns, only nitrogen molecules are present inside a bubble as the solubility of nitrogen is the lowest among the gas species. The radical formation inside a bubble is negligible because the probability of nitrogen dissociation is only on the order of 10-15. The pressure inside a bubble, as well as the liquid pressure at the bubble wall, increases to about 5 GPa at the final moment of dissolution. The pressure is higher than 1 GPa for the final 0.7 ns inside a bubble and for the final 0.6 ns in the liquid at the bubble wall. The liquid temperature at the bubble wall increases to about 360 K from 293 K at the final stage of the complete dissolution.

  10. Extreme conditions in a dissolving air nanobubble.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulations of the dissolution of an air nanobubble in water have been performed taking into account the effect of bubble dynamics (inertia of the surrounding liquid). The presence of stable bulk nanobubbles is not assumed in the present study because the bubble radius inevitably passes the nanoscale in the complete dissolution of a bubble. The bubble surface is assumed to be clean because attachment of hydrophobic materials on the bubble surface could considerably change the gas diffusion rate. The speed of the bubble collapse (the bubble wall speed) increases to about 90 m/s or less. The shape of a bubble is kept nearly spherical because the amplitude of the nonspherical component of the bubble shape is negligible compared to the instantaneous bubble radius. In other words, a bubble never disintegrates into daughter bubbles during the dissolution. At the final moment of the dissolution, the temperature inside a bubble increases to about 3000 K due to the quasiadiabatic compression. The bubble temperature is higher than 1000 K only for the final 19 ps. However, the Knudsen number is more than 0.2 for this moment, and the error associated with the continuum model should be considerable. In the final 2.3 ns, only nitrogen molecules are present inside a bubble as the solubility of nitrogen is the lowest among the gas species. The radical formation inside a bubble is negligible because the probability of nitrogen dissociation is only on the order of 10^{-15}. The pressure inside a bubble, as well as the liquid pressure at the bubble wall, increases to about 5 GPa at the final moment of dissolution. The pressure is higher than 1 GPa for the final 0.7 ns inside a bubble and for the final 0.6 ns in the liquid at the bubble wall. The liquid temperature at the bubble wall increases to about 360 K from 293 K at the final stage of the complete dissolution. PMID:27575216

  11. On-Going Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Temperature trends (grows up to 0.5 °C per decade), more frequent occurrence of temperature extremes provoked serious natural disasters (2010 heat waves in Russia, 2013 flood in Russia's Far East) led to socio-economical impact (crop damages, infrastructure failures, respectively). To get reliable knowledge on location, frequency and magnitude of observed extremes we have studied daily max/min temperature trends based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data (0,25°×0,25°). This dataset is most accurately reproduces observed temperature behavior in the region. Statistical analysis of daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. Results obtained provide regional decision-makers with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information required for adaptation and mitigation measures development. Calculations presented have been realized using information-computational web-GIS system "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/) which automatically generates the archive of calculated fields ready for multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the RFBR (13-05-12034, 14-05-00502), SB RAS 131 and VIII.80.2.1.) and grant of the President of RF (№ 181).

  12. Data Converters Performance at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rejeshuni, Rarnesham; Kumar, Nikil; Mao, James; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Stoica, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Space missions often require radiation and extreme-temperature hardened electronics to survive the harsh environments beyond earth's atmosphere. Traditional approaches to preserve electronics incorporate shielding, insulation and redundancy at the expense of power and weight. However, a novel way of bypassing these problems is the concept of evolutionary hardware. A reconfgurable device, consisting of several switches interconnected with analog/digital parts, is controlled by an evolutionary processor (EP). When the EP detects degradation in the circuit it sends signals to reconfgure the switches, thus forming a new circuit with the desired output. This concept has been developed since the mid-90s, but one problem remains - the EP cannot degrade substantially. For this reason, extensive testing at extreme temperatures (-180' to 120(deg)C) has been done on devices found on FPGA boards (taking the role of the EP) such as the Analog to Digital and the Digital to Analog Converter. Analysis of the results has shown that FPGA boards implementing EP with some compensation may be a practical solution to evolving circuits. This paper describes results on the tests of data converters at extreme temperatures.

  13. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Strimbeck, G. Richard; Schaberg, Paul G.; Fossdal, Carl G.; Schröder, Wolfgang P.; Kjellsen, Trygve D.

    2015-01-01

    Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40°C and minimum temperatures below -60°C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature (ELT). Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at ELT: (1) Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to -30°C), preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. (2) High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. (3) Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane–membrane interactions. PMID:26539202

  14. High Temperature Polyimide Materials in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    At the end of the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) Program, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began a program to screen the high-temperature Polymeric Composite Materials (PMCs) characterized by the HSR Durability Program for possible use in Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) operating under extreme temperature conditions. The HSR Program focused on developing material-related technologies to enable a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) capable of operating temperatures ranging from 54 C (-65 F) to 177 C (350 F). A high-temperature polymeric resin, PETI-5 was used in the HSR Program to satisfy the requirements for performance and durability for a PMC. For RLVs, it was anticipated that this high temperature material would contribute to reducing the overall weight of a vehicle by eliminating or reducing the thermal protection required to protect the internal structural elements of the vehicle and increasing the structural strain limits. The tests were performed to determine temperature-dependent mechanical and physical proper-ties of IM7/PETI-5 composite over a temperature range from cryogenic temperature -253 C (-423F) to the material's maximum use temperature of 230 C (450 F). This paper presents results from the test program for the temperature-dependent mechanical and physical properties of IM7/PETI-5 composite in the temperature range from -253 C (-423 F) to 27 C (80 F).

  15. Advanced Flip Chips in Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2010-01-01

    The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the extreme temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills provides a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate

  16. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  17. Air quality in Moscow megacity: basic level and extreme cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, N.; Skorokhod, A.; Moiseenko, K.

    2012-04-01

    Moscow is one of the largest megacities in the world. Total annual emissions of polluting substances into the atmosphere in Moscow is likely to be about 2,0 mln. t. More than 90% of pollutants are emitted by traffic. Problem of air quality assessment is very urgent for Moscow both to alarm population and to compare with other world megacities. To study contemporary structure of atmospheric pollution over Moscow megacity data on air composition (including CO, NO, NO2, O3, CH4, CO2, SO2, NMHC, aerosol) obtained since 2002 has been analyzed. The monitoring site is located at Moscow State University meteorological observatory on South-West of Moscow. All observations are provided by A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. Due to these continuous measurements typical (basic) level of pollution as well as extreme cases have been studied. The relationship between O3, NOx and VOCs were analyzed as well. Due to weather conditions (cyclonic regime is dominated) concentrations of pollutants usually do not reach dangerous levels but sometimes they are high. The case of abnormal hot and dry weather in the summer of 2010 was investigated. Many Russians were suffering from the record-breaking heat and the worst drought in 40 years. The heat was caused by very intensive and stable blocking anticyclone that established in Moscow since June, 18 till August, 18. Anticyclone of such strength has been never observed before. During 33 days in succession surface air temperature exceeded 30°C. During these 2 months troposphere over ETR was almost closed for western winds. Hot weather led to numerous forest and peat fires (about 29,000 cases) with total covered area about 12,000 km2. One of aftermaths was significant change of atmospheric composition. Many cities and settlements were covered by dense haze from fires. Evident presence of high amount of aerosol in the ambient air caused anxiety and application of safeguards. Meanwhile, less obvious increase of concentrations of

  18. Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will further impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes...

  19. Functional Recovery of Analog Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Neff, Joseph; Katkoori, Srinivas

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new reconfigurable analog array (RAA) architecture and integrated circuit (IC) used to map analog circuits that can adapt to extreme temperatures under programmable control. Algorithm-driven adaptation takes place on the RAA IC. The algorithms are implemented in a separate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) IC, co-located with the RAA in the extreme temperature environment. The experiments demonstrate circuit adaptation over a wide temperature range, from extremely low temperature of -180 C to high 120 C.

  20. Extreme Winter/Early-Spring Temperature Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Brakke, Thomas; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Glantz, Michael; Rogers, Jeff; Sud, Yogesh; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60 deg North Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18 C for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index 1na of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m/s in February 1990, but only 2.6 m/ s in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.

  1. Coaxial Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Harvey, Wayne L.; Valas, Sam; Tsai, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Work was conducted to validate the use of the rover external flexible coaxial cabling for space under the extreme environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The antennas must survive all ground operations plus the nominal 670-Martian-day mission that includes summer and winter seasons of the Mars environment. Successful development of processes established coaxial cable hardware fatigue limits, which were well beyond the expected in-flight exposures. In keeping with traditional qualification philosophy, this was accomplished by subjecting flight-representative coaxial cables to temperature cycling of the same depth as expected in-flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. Insertion loss and return loss tests were performed on the coaxial cables during the thermal chamber breaks. A vector network analyzer was calibrated and operated over the operational frequency range 7.145 to 8.450 GHz. Even though some of the exposed cables function only at UHF frequencies (approximately 400 MHz), the testing was more sensitive, and extending the test range down to 400 MHz would have cost frequency resolution. The Gore flexible coaxial cables, which were the subject of these tests, proved to be robust and displayed no sign of degradation due to the 3X exposure to the punishing Mars surface operations cycles.

  2. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for Australia to assess changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but it is weaker than that for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the frequency of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices represent moderately <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984OrLi...14..809S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984OrLi...14..809S"><span id="translatedtitle">Anaerobic Life at <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> High <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stetter, Karl O.</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Continental and submarine solfataric fields turned out to contain various <span class="hlt">extremely</span> thermophilic anaerobic organisms which all belong to the archaebacteria. They are living autotrophically on sulphur, hydrogen and CO2 or by methanogenesis or heterotrophically on different organic substrates by sulphur respiration or, less frequently, by fermentation. The most <span class="hlt">extremely</span> thermophilic isolates are growing between 80 and 110°C with an optimum around 105°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA24A..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA24A..07C"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change and the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coffel, E.; Horton, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Climate change is projected to increase mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on commercial aviation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26519584"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Cyprus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (<span class="hlt">air</span> mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two <span class="hlt">air</span> mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26519584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=9197&keyword=space+AND+statistics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74770655&CFTOKEN=90877833','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=9197&keyword=space+AND+statistics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74770655&CFTOKEN=90877833"><span id="translatedtitle">PROBABILITIES OF <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">EXTREMES</span> IN THE U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The model <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Version 1.0 provides the capability to estimate the probability, for 332 locations in the 50 U.S. states, that an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will occur for one or more consecutive days and/or for any number of days in a given month or season, based on stat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Events and Resolving Their Implications for Yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huybers, P. J.; Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although it is well recognized that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurring at particular growth stages are destructive to yield, there appears substantial scope for improved empirical assessment and simulation of the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and yield. Several anecdotes are discussed. First, a statistical analysis of historical U.S. <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is provided. It is demonstrated that both reanalysis and model simulations significantly differ from near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in the frequency and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. This finding supports empirical assessment using near-surface instrumental records and underscores present difficulties in simulating past and predicting future changes. Second, an analysis of the implications of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on U.S. maize yield is provided where the response is resolved regionally and according to growth stage. Sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during silking is found to be uniformly high across the U.S., but the response during grain filling varies spatially, with higher sensitivity in the North. This regional and growth-stage dependent sensitivity implies the importance of representing cultivar, planting times, and development rates, and is also indicative of the potential for future changes according to the combined effects of climate and technology. Finally, interaction between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and agriculture is indicated by analysis showing that historical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the U.S. Midwest have cooled in relation to changes in regional productivity, possibly because of greater potential for cooling through evapotranspiration. This interpretation is consistent with changes in crop physiology and management, though also noteworthy is that the moderating influence of increased evapotranspiration on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> appears to be lost during severe drought. Together, these findings indicate that a more accurate assessment of the historical relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and yield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035997&hterms=xilinx&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dxilinx','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035997&hterms=xilinx&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dxilinx"><span id="translatedtitle">Operation of FPGAs at <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Low <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burke, Gary R.; Cozy, Scott; Lacayo, Veronica; Bakhshi, Alireza; Stern, Ryan; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Bolotin, Gary; Gregoire, Tim; Ramesham, Rajeshuni</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the operation of FPGAs at very low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> eg -160(deg)C. Both Actel and Xilinx parts are tested It was found that low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operations is not a problem with the parts tested, but there is a problem with powering on an FPGA at cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=316302','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=316302"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomes of seeds germinating at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> stress on plants is defined as any drop (cold stress) or rise (heat stress) in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that causes reversible or irreversible inactivation of physiological processes or lethal injury in plants. In general each plant has an optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to grow and develop and any deviation tha...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3241C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3241C"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic conditions during wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Gutowski, William J.; Glisan, Justin M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The large-scale atmospheric state associated with widespread wintertime warm and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in southern Alaska was identified using 1989 to 2007 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-I) data. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> were defined as days with the coldest and warmest 1% of daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events were identified for days when at least 25 50 km grid cells in the study domain met the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> criteria. A total of 55 cold and 74 warm <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days were identified in 19 winters. Composites of the atmospheric state from 5 days before through the day of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events were analyzed to assess the large-scale atmospheric state associated with the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The method of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was used to identify the range of sea level pressure (SLP) patterns present in the ERA-I December-February data, and these SLP patterns were then used to stratify the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days by their large-scale atmospheric circulation. Composites for all warm or cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days showed less intense features than those for specific SLP patterns. In all of the composites <span class="hlt">temperature</span> advection, strongest at 700 hPa, and anomalous longwave radiation were the primary factors that led to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The anomalous downwelling longwave radiation was due to either reduced cloud cover, during cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, or to increased cloud cover, during warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The SOM composites provided additional insight into the temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days and highlighted different portions of southern Alaska most likely to experience <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for a given SOM SLP pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27168567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27168567"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of Portable Ventilators Following Storage at <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Britton, Tyler J; Johannigman, Jay A; Petro, Michael C; Branson, Richard D</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In the current theater of operation, medical devices are often shipped and stored at ambient conditions. The effect of storage at hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on ventilator performance is unknown. We evaluated three portable ventilators currently in use or being evaluated for use by the Department of Defense (731, Impact Instrumentation; T1, Hamilton Medical; and Revel, CareFusion) at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a laboratory setting. The ventilators were stored at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 60°C and -35°C for 24 hours and were allowed to acclimate to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 30 minutes before evaluation. The T1 required an extra 15 to 30 minutes of acclimation to room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before the ventilator would deliver breaths. All delivered tidal volumes at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and after storage at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> were less than the ±10% American Society for Testing and Materials standard with the Revel. Delivered tidal volumes at the pediatric settings were less than the ±10% threshold after storage at both <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with the 731. Storage at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affected the performance of the portable ventilators tested. This study showed that portable ventilators may need an hour or more of acclimation time at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> after storage at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to operate as intended. PMID:27168567</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812201R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812201R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> atmospheric electron densities created by extensive <span class="hlt">air</span> showers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rutjes, Casper; Camporeale, Enrico; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A sufficient density of free electrons and strong electric fields are the basic requirements to start any electrical discharge. In the context of thunderstorm discharges it has become clear that in addition droplets and or ice particles are required to enhance the electric field to values above breakdown. In our recent study [1] we have shown that these three ingredients have to interplay to allow for lightning inception, triggered by an extensive <span class="hlt">air</span> shower event. The extensive <span class="hlt">air</span> showers are a very stochastic natural phenomenon, creating highly coherent bursts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> electron density in our atmosphere. Predicting these electron density bursts accurately one has to take the uncertainty of the input variables into account. To this end we use uncertainty quantification methods, like in [2], to post-process our detailed Monte Carlo extensive <span class="hlt">air</span> shower simulations, done with the CORSIKA [3] software package, which provides an efficient and elegant way to determine the distribution of the atmospheric electron density enhancements. We will present the latest results. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, E., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., and Trinh, G. T. N. "Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive <span class="hlt">Air</span> Showers." PRL 115 015002 (2015) [2] G.J.A. Loeven, J.A.S. Witteveen, H. Bijl, Probabilistic collocation: an efficient nonintrusive approach for arbitrarily distributed parametric uncertainties, 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 2007, AIAA-2007-317 [3] Heck, Dieter, et al. CORSIKA: A Monte Carlo code to simulate extensive <span class="hlt">air</span> showers. No. FZKA-6019. 1998.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11505864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11505864"><span id="translatedtitle">[Sports and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. Cardiovascular incidence in long term exertion and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (heat, cold)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melin, B; Savourey, G</p> <p>2001-06-30</p> <p>During ultra-endurance exercise, both increase in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dehydration due to sweat losses, lead to a decrease in central blood volume. The heart rate drift allows maintaining appropriate cardiac output, in order to satisfy both muscle perfusion and heat transfer requirements by increasing skin blood flow. The resulting dehydration can impair thermal regulation and increase the risks of serious accidents as heat stroke. Endurance events, lasting more than 8 hours, result in large sweat sodium chloride losses. Thus, ingestion of large amounts of water with poor salt intake can induce symptomatic hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 130 mEq/L) which is also a serious accident. Heat environment increases the thermal constraint and when the <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity is high, evaporation of sweat is compromise. Thus, thermal stress becomes uncompensable which increases the risk of cardiovascular collapse. Cold exposure induces physiological responses to maintain internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by both limiting thermal losses and increasing metabolic heat production. Cold can induce accidental hypothermia and local frost-bites; moreover, it increases the risk of arrhythmia during exercise. Some guidelines (cardiovascular fitness, water and electrolyte intakes, protective clothing) are given for each <span class="hlt">extreme</span> condition. PMID:11505864</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690978','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690978"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Mortality in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xuying; Li, Guoxing; Liu, Liqun; Westerdahl, Dane; Jin, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiaochuan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Limited evidence is available for the effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods: We collected data from Beijing and Shanghai, China, during 2007–2009, including the daily mortality of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, as well as <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution concentrations and weather conditions. We used Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high and low ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality. Results: For all cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, Beijing had stronger cold and hot effects than those in Shanghai. The cold effects on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality reached the strongest at lag 0–27, while the hot effects reached the strongest at lag 0–14. The effects of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> differed by mortality types in the two cities. Hypertensive disease in Beijing was particularly susceptible to both <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; while for Shanghai, people with ischemic heart disease showed the greatest relative risk (RRs = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Conclusion: People with hypertensive disease were particularly susceptible to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Beijing. People with ischemic heart disease in Shanghai showed greater susceptibility to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> cold days. PMID:26703637</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.9772O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.9772O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing urban <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. However, the availability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to a server for storage. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model is calibrated with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos <span class="hlt">Aires</span>, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868703','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868703"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasonic transducer for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Light, Glenn M.; Cervantes, Richard A.; Alcazar, David G.</p> <p>1993-03-23</p> <p>An ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer that is operable in very high and very low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The transducer has a dual housing structure that isolates the expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element from the expansion and contraction of the housing. Also, the internal components are made from materials having similar coefficients of expansion so that they do not interfere with the motion of the piezoelectric element.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......414K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......414K"><span id="translatedtitle">Changing <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Europe's Climate of the 20th Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein Tank, Albertus Maria Gerardus</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>This thesis aims at increasing the knowledge on past changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> through the analysis of historical records of observations at meteorological stations. The key question addressed is: How did the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of daily surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation change in Europe's climate of the 20th century, and what can we learn from this? The contents is structured along the lines of four follow-up questions: Are the available observational datasets adequate to analyse <span class="hlt">extremes</span>? Which trends are observed for the daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation? Can the observed changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in recent decades be regarded as a fingerprint of anthropogenic climate change? Do the observed changes guide the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios for our future climate? Europe is one of the regions of the world that lacked a readily available and accessible dataset of high-resolution observational series with sufficient density and quality to study <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Such a dataset was developed for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation and used to detect statistically significant and non-trivial changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends indicate a coarsening of our climate and the precipitation trends indicate an increase of wet <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The calculated trends represent changes that can be due to natural internal processes within the climate system and/or external forcing, which can either be natural (solar irradiance, volcanic aerosols, ozone, etc.) or anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, etc.). Comparisons between the trend patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the station records, the patterns associated with natural variability in the observations, and the patterns of future warming and natural variability as simulated by a climate model reveal fingerprints of anthropogenic warming over Europe. The last part of this thesis goes beyond the observations of the climate of the past and speculates on future changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. It presents a 'what- if scenario</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........20D"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> event using nonparametric methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Silva, Anisha</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis presents a new method of estimating the one-in-N low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold using a non-parametric statistical method called kernel density estimation applied to daily average wind-adjusted <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We apply our One-in-N Algorithm to local gas distribution companies (LDCs), as they have to forecast the daily natural gas needs of their consumers. In winter, demand for natural gas is high. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events are not directly related to an LDCs gas demand forecasting, but knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is important to ensure that an LDC has enough capacity to meet customer demands when <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are experienced. We present a detailed explanation of our One-in-N Algorithm and compare it to the methods using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution. We show that our One-in-N Algorithm estimates the one-in- N low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold more accurately than the methods using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution, the normal distribution, and the variance-weighted composite distribution according to root mean square error (RMSE) measure at a 5% level of significance. The One-in- N Algorithm is tested by counting the number of times the daily average wind-adjusted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is less than or equal to the one-in- N low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41H0176L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41H0176L"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change and Health Risks from <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Heat and <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution in the Eastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Limaye, V.; Vargo, J.; Harkey, M.; Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Patz, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Climate change is expected to exacerbate health risks from exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Directly, warmer ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> promote biogenic emissions of ozone precursors and favor the formation of ground-level ozone, while an anticipated increase in the frequency of stagnant <span class="hlt">air</span> masses will allow fine particulates to accumulate. Indirectly, warmer summertime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> stimulate energy demand and exacerbate polluting emissions from the electricity sector. Thus, while technological adaptations such as <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning can reduce risks from exposures to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat, they can trigger downstream damage to <span class="hlt">air</span> quality and public health. Through an interdisciplinary modeling effort, we quantify the impacts of climate change on ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, summer energy demand, <span class="hlt">air</span> quality, and public health. The first phase of this work explores how climate change will directly impact the burden of heat-related mortality. Climatic patterns, demographic trends, and epidemiologic risk models suggest that populations in the eastern United States are likely to experience an increasing heat stress mortality burden in response to rising summertime <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We use North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program modeling data to estimate mid-century 2-meter <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and humidity across the eastern US from June-August, and quantify how long-term changes in actual and apparent <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from present-day will affect the annual burden of heat-related mortality across this region. With the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, we estimate health risks using concentration-response functions, which relate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases to changes in annual mortality rates. We compare mid-century summertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, to 2007 baseline <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at a 12 km resolution in order to estimate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy...46.1769K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy...46.1769K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes during 1951-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>An attribution analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050161024','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050161024"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Evaluation of Fiber Bragg Gratings at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Juergens, Jeffrey; Adamovsky, Grigory; Bhatt, Ramakrishna; Morscher, Gregory; Floyd, Bertram</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The development of integrated fiber optic sensors for use in aerospace health monitoring systems demands that the sensors be able to perform in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. In order to use fiber optic sensors effectively in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment one must have a thorough understanding of the sensor's capabilities, limitations, and performance under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental conditions. This paper reports on our current sensor evaluation examining the performance of freestanding fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. While the ability of FBGs to survive at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has been established, their performance and long term survivability is not well documented. At <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the grating structure would be expected to dissipate, degrading the sensors performance and eventually ceasing to return a detectable signal. The fiber jacket will dissipate leaving a brittle, unprotected fiber. For FBGs to be used in aerospace systems their performance and limitations need to be thoroughly understood at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As the limits of the FBGs performance are pushed the long term survivability and performance of the sensor comes into question. We will not only examine the ability of FBGs to survive <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> but also look at their performance during many thermal cycles. This paper reports on test results of the performance of thermal cycling commercially available FBGs, at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 1000 C, seen in aerospace applications. Additionally this paper will report on the performance of commercially available FBGs held at 1000 C for hundreds of hours. Throughout the evaluation process, various parameters of the FBGs performance were monitored and recorded. Several test samples were subjected to identical test conditions to allow for statistical analysis of the data. Test procedures, calibrations, referencing techniques, performance data, and interpretations and explanations of results are presented in the paper along with directions for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent spatiotemporal patterns in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across conterminous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiibwa, Denis; Vavrus, Steven J.; McAfee, Stephanie A.; Albright, Thomas P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>With a warming climate, understanding the physical dynamics of hot and cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events has taken on increased importance for public health, infrastructure, ecosystems, food security, and other domains. Here we use a high-resolution spatial and temporal seamless gridded land surface forcing data set to provide an assessment of recent spatiotemporal patterns in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the conterminous United States (CONUS). We asked the following: (1) How are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> changing across the different regions of CONUS? (2) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary on seasonal, annual, and decadal scales? (3) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to changes in mean conditions? And (4) do <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to major modes of ocean-atmosphere variability? We derive a subset of the CLIMDEX <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices from the North American Land Data Assimilation phase 2 forcing data set. While there were warming trends in all indices, daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> warmed more than nighttime. Spring warming was the strongest and most extensive across CONUS, and summer experienced the strongest and most extensive decrease in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Increase in winter warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> appeared weakening relative to the rapid 1950-1990 increase found in previous studies. The Northeast and Midwest experienced the most warming, while the Northwest and North Great Plains saw the least. We found changes in average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were more associated with changes in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Since 2006 there have been 5 years when more than 5% of the U.S. experienced at least 90 warm days, something not observed in the previous 25 years. The unusually warm first decade of 21st century could have been associated with the warm conditions of near El Niño-Southern Oscillation-neutral phase of the decade, and possibly amplified by anthropogenic forcing. The widespread, lengthy, and severe <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot events documented here during the past three decades underscore the need to implement thoughtful</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820023393&hterms=lynas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlynas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820023393&hterms=lynas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlynas"><span id="translatedtitle">UV fluxes and effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schoenberner, D.; Drilling, J. S.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.; Heber, U.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Low resolution IUE spectra of a complete ensemble of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars are presented and their appearance in comparison with normal stars is discussed. Effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from these observations by means of line blanketed model atmospheres are determined. It is found that the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are in accordance with earlier results from ground based observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6155V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6155V"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of spatial and temporal scales in identifying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Mulder, Vera L.; Regnier, Pierre A. G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat events are becoming more frequent. Notable are severe heatwaves such as the European heatwave of 2003, the Russian heat wave of 2010 and the Australian heatwave of 2013. Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is attaining new maxima not only during the summer but also during the winter. The year of 2015 is reported to be a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record breaking year for both summer and winter. These <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are taking their human and environmental toll, emphasizing the need for an accurate method to define a heat <span class="hlt">extreme</span> in order to fully understand the spatial and temporal spread of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and its impact. This research aims to explore how the use of different spatial and temporal scales influences the identification of a heat <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. For this purpose, two near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> datasets of different temporal scale and spatial scale are being used. First, the daily ERA-Interim dataset of 0.25 degree and a time span of 32 years (1979-2010). Second, the daily Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset of 0.5 degree and a time span of 63 years (1948-2010). A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered <span class="hlt">extreme</span> anomalous when it is surpassing the 90th, 95th, or the 99th percentile threshold based on the aforementioned pre-processed datasets. The analysis is conducted on a global scale, dividing the world in IPCC's so-called SREX regions developed for the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events. Pre-processing is done by detrending and/or subtracting the monthly climatology based on 32 years of data for both datasets and on 63 years of data for only the Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset. This results in 6 datasets of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies from which the location in time and space of the anomalous warm days are identified. Comparison of the differences between these 6 datasets in terms of absolute threshold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the temporal and spatial spread of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> anomalous warm days show a dependence of the results on the datasets and methodology used. This stresses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC14C..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC14C..05H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and Their Mechanisms in NARCCAP Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, R. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Liu, J.; Bader, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Radley M. Horton, Daniel A. Bader, Jiping Liu, and Cynthia Rosenzweig Using 8 GCM-RCM pairings from NARCCAP simulations, we present evidence that for large parts of the United States, the once-per-year warmest maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and coldest minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events are projected to warm significantly more than corresponding seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (in summer and winter, respectively). We explore several possible mechanisms for the (often large) changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, including changes in local soil moisture and snow depth, and changes in regional dynamics. The relative role of the GCMs and RCMs in creating these changing patterns in once per year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is explored by leveraging the fact that individual GCMs were paired with multiple RCMs, and vice-versa. For much of the U.S., the once per year high and/or low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with large societal impacts. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with increased mortality, with infrastructure impacts ranging from increased energy demand to buckling of roads and rails. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are likewise associated with excess mortality, increasing energy demand for heating, and damage to transportation infrastructure. Almost by definition, once per year events happen frequently enough to be relevant for adaptation planning, and are not so rare as to require statistical techniques geared towards small sample sizes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43B0716H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43B0716H"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> on <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>H, V.; Singh, J.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrologic disturbances are commonly associated with the phenomenal occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The human kind has always been facing problem with hydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in terms of deaths and economic loss. Hence, a complete analysis of observed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events will have a substantial role in planning, designing and management of the water resource systems. Over the United States, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and streamflow, have increased during the twentieth century and has been attributed to many natural and anthropogenic influences. The present study examines the association of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over US for the period of 1950-2000. The annual maxima (AM) precipitation has been extracted for hot and cold years. The spatial mean of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/ sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 1950 to 2000, so obtained is arranged in ascending order. The corresponding years, with lowest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25 years are defined as cold years and highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25 years are defined as hot years respectively. The spatio-temporal variability of 50 year return level (RL) for the AM is determined considering generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) and non-parametric kernel distributions. To identify the significant changes in the derived RL from cold to hot years, a bootstrap-based approach is implemented. The results exhibited no significant changes in the 50 year RL of AM precipitation between hot and cold years, with 70% of total grids showing no significant changes with respect to both land surface and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 20% significance level. The scatter plot between the spatial mean of AM precipitation and both land surface and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over US showed no association. Further the comparison with the CMIP5 models revealed that the models are showed significant association between both land surface and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with the AM of precipitation. The major decision making and planning rely on the model predictions, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683097"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on COPD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Kim, Victor</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12-16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-both heat and cold-have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4081O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4081O"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing urban <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. However, the availability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate daily mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring in densely populated areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000282&hterms=Gun&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGun','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000282&hterms=Gun&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGun"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Hot-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Gun</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Munoz, M. C.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-<span class="hlt">air</span> gun, setup used to apply blasts of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1244795"><span id="translatedtitle">North American <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun -Young; Lim, Young -Kwon; Prabhat, -</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Our specific focus is upon <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244795-north-american-extreme-temperature-events-related-large-scale-meteorological-patterns-review-statistical-methods-dynamics-modeling-trends','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1244795-north-american-extreme-temperature-events-related-large-scale-meteorological-patterns-review-statistical-methods-dynamics-modeling-trends"><span id="translatedtitle">North American <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events and related large scale meteorological patterns: A review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Michael; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, Jr., William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; et al</p> <p>2015-05-22</p> <p>This paper reviews research approaches and open questions regarding data, statistical analyses, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends in relation to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Our specific focus is upon <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events of short duration (roughly less than 5 days) that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). Methods used to define <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques can connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> through appropriately defined covariates that supplements more straightforward analyses. A wide array of LSMPs, ranging from synoptic tomore » planetary scale phenomena, have been implicated as contributors to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Current knowledge about the physical nature of these contributions and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the implicated LSMPs is incomplete. There is a pressing need for (a) systematic study of the physics of LSMPs life cycles and (b) comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event linkages and LSMP behavior. Generally, climate models capture the observed heat waves and cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Climate models have been used to investigate past changes and project future trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Overall, modeling studies have identified important mechanisms such as the effects of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs more specifically to understand the role of LSMPs on past and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated so</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020060765','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020060765"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of Winter <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Mid-Latitude Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to report <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winter/early-spring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-<span class="hlt">air</span> advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its <span class="hlt">extreme</span> by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cloud</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971573','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971573"><span id="translatedtitle">Lack of Dependence of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> on <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>: An Observational Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vittal, H.; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar; Pathak, Amey; Murtugudde, Raghu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The intensification of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a warming world has been reported on a global scale and is traditionally explained with the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation. The relationship is observed to be valid in mid-latitudes; however, the debate persists in tropical monsoon regions, with the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) being a prime example. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the dependence of ISMR <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on both the 2 m surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India and on the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the tropical Indian Ocean. Remarkably, the ISMR <span class="hlt">extremes</span> exhibit no significant association with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at either spatial scale: neither aggregated over the entire India/Tropical Indian Ocean area nor at the grid levels. We find that the theoretical C-C relation overestimates the positive changes in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which is also reflected in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We emphasize that the changing patterns of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the Indian subcontinent need a scientific re-evaluation, which is possible due to availability of the unique long-term in-situ data. This can aid bias correction of model projections of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> whose value for climate adaptation can hardly be overemphasized, especially for the developing tropical countries. PMID:27485661</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27485661"><span id="translatedtitle">Lack of Dependence of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> on <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>: An Observational Evidence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vittal, H; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar; Pathak, Amey; Murtugudde, Raghu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The intensification of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a warming world has been reported on a global scale and is traditionally explained with the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation. The relationship is observed to be valid in mid-latitudes; however, the debate persists in tropical monsoon regions, with the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) being a prime example. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the dependence of ISMR <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on both the 2 m surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India and on the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the tropical Indian Ocean. Remarkably, the ISMR <span class="hlt">extremes</span> exhibit no significant association with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at either spatial scale: neither aggregated over the entire India/Tropical Indian Ocean area nor at the grid levels. We find that the theoretical C-C relation overestimates the positive changes in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which is also reflected in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We emphasize that the changing patterns of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the Indian subcontinent need a scientific re-evaluation, which is possible due to availability of the unique long-term in-situ data. This can aid bias correction of model projections of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> whose value for climate adaptation can hardly be overemphasized, especially for the developing tropical countries. PMID:27485661</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...631039V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...631039V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Lack of Dependence of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> on <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>: An Observational Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vittal, H.; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar; Pathak, Amey; Murtugudde, Raghu</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The intensification of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a warming world has been reported on a global scale and is traditionally explained with the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation. The relationship is observed to be valid in mid-latitudes; however, the debate persists in tropical monsoon regions, with the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) being a prime example. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the dependence of ISMR <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on both the 2 m surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India and on the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the tropical Indian Ocean. Remarkably, the ISMR <span class="hlt">extremes</span> exhibit no significant association with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at either spatial scale: neither aggregated over the entire India/Tropical Indian Ocean area nor at the grid levels. We find that the theoretical C-C relation overestimates the positive changes in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which is also reflected in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We emphasize that the changing patterns of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the Indian subcontinent need a scientific re-evaluation, which is possible due to availability of the unique long-term in-situ data. This can aid bias correction of model projections of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> whose value for climate adaptation can hardly be overemphasized, especially for the developing tropical countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...54W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...54W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dynamically downscaled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using a spatially-aggregated generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiali; Han, Yuefeng; Stein, Michael L.; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Huang, Whitney K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The weather research and forecast (WRF) model downscaling skill in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is evaluated by using the generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution. While the GEV distribution has been used extensively in climatology and meteorology for estimating probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, accurately estimating GEV parameters based on data from a single pixel can be difficult, even with fairly long data records. This work proposes a simple method assuming that the shape parameter, the most difficult of the three parameters to estimate, does not vary over a relatively large region. This approach is applied to evaluate 31-year WRF-downscaled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through comparison with North American regional reanalysis (NARR) data. Uncertainty in GEV parameter estimates and the statistical significance in the differences of estimates between WRF and NARR are accounted for by conducting a novel bootstrap procedure that makes no assumption of temporal or spatial independence within a year, which is especially important for climate data. Despite certain biases over parts of the United States, overall, WRF shows good agreement with NARR in the spatial pattern and magnitudes of GEV parameter estimates. Both WRF and NARR show a significant increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the southern Great Plains and southeastern United States in January and over the western United States in July. The GEV model shows clear benefits from the regionally constant shape parameter assumption, for example, leading to estimates of the location and scale parameters of the model that show coherent spatial patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..317M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..317M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooling of US Midwest summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from cropland intensification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Butler, Ethan E.; McKinnon, Karen A.; Rhines, Andrew; Tingley, Martin; Holbrook, N. Michele; Huybers, Peter</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by altering the surface energy budget. Here we identify centennial trends towards more favourable growing conditions in the US Midwest, including cooler summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and increased precipitation, and investigate the origins of these shifts. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that agricultural intensification increases the potential for evapotranspiration, leading to cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and contributing to increased precipitation. The tendency for greater evapotranspiration on hotter days is consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentiles. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> revert to historically high <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865745','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865745"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> separation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure swing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cassano, Anthony A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A chemical absorbent <span class="hlt">air</span> separation process is set forth which uses a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..08U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..08U"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: soil water supply and yield variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urban, D.; Lobell, D. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events have profound consequences for both the mean and interannual variability of agricultural production, but while the role of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat has been convincingly demonstrated, soil water supply has received less attention. In particular, there is debate over the extent to which damages attributed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat are confounded with drought conditions. In a pair of studies, we examine the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> moisture conditions, both wet and dry, on maize and soybean yields in the U.S. We find significant effects of waterlogging during the planting season, when crops are most vulnerable to excess moisture, as well as evidence for a strong interaction between high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and low moisture during during the critical stages of the summer growing season. Using both precipitation and model-derived soil moisture data, our results suggest that considering <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture independently will underestimate yield damages during hot, dry conditions. Many warming scenarios project increases in both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and soil dryness, and considering these effects jointly can be important in estimating future yield variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031809&hterms=future+electronics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfuture%2Belectronics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031809&hterms=future+electronics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfuture%2Belectronics"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics Using a Reconfigurable Analog Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Rejeshuni, Ramesham; Keymeulen, Didier; Daud, Taher; Neff, Joseph; Stoica, Adrian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and radiation tolerant electronics, as well as long life survivability are key capabilities required for future NASA missions. Current approaches to electronics for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments focus on component level robustness and hardening. Compensation techniques such as bias cancellation circuitry have also been employed. However, current technology can only ensure very limited lifetime in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. Previous work presented a novel approach, based on evolvable hardware technology, which allows adaptive in-situ circuit redesign/reconfiguration during operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments. This technology would complement material/device advancements and increase the mission capability to survive harsh environments. This work describes a new reconfigurable analog chip developed by JPL and SPAWAR that is targeted for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and evolutionary hardware experiments. Being based on Gm-C technology, this chip can have its functionality tuned and adapted to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> through voltage bias adjustment. This tuning process will be controlled by Evolutionary Algorithms. This paper presents details of the reconfigurable analog chip as well as a system level overview. Some early experiments are also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EOSTr..94Q.372B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EOSTr..94Q.372B"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing urban <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements using smartphones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors to avoid damage to the phone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004677','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004677"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Components for use in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Aerospace Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Electrical power management and control systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electronics that are capable of efficient and reliable operation under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. Space-based infra-red satellites, all-electric ships, jet engines, electromagnetic launchers, magnetic levitation transport systems, and power facilities are also typical examples where the electronics are expected to be exposed to harsh <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to operate under severe thermal swings. Most commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are not designed to function under such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions and, therefore, new parts must be developed or the conventional devices need to be modified. For example, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. At the other end, built-in radiators and coolers render the operation of electronics possible under hot conditions. These thermal measures lead to design complexity, affect development costs, and increase size and weight. Electronics capable of operation at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, thus, will not only tolerate the hostile operational environment, but also make the overall system efficient, more reliable, and less expensive. The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices, including COTS parts, for potential use under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These components include semiconductor switching devices, passive devices, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators. An overview of the program will be presented along with some experimental findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878829','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878829"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on COPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.1175K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.1175K"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khomsi, K.; Mahe, G.; Tramblay, Y.; Sinan, M.; Snoussi, M.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In Morocco, socioeconomic fields are vulnerable to weather <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This work aims to analyze the frequency and the trends of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in two contrasted Moroccan regions (the Tensift in the semi-arid South, and the Bouregreg in the sub-humid North), during the second half of the 20th century. This study considers long time series of daily <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and rainfall, recorded in the stations of Marrakech and Safi for the Tensift region, and Kasba-Tadla and Rabat-Sale for the Bouregreg region, data from four other stations (Tanger, Fes, Agadir and Ouarzazate) from outside the regions were added. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> are defined by using as thresholds the 1st, 5th, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. Results show upward trends in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of both regions and no generalized trends in rainfall amounts. Changes in cold events are larger than those for warm events, and the number of very cold events decrease significantly in the whole studied area. The southern region is the most affected with the changes of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. Most of the trends found in rainfall heavy events are positive with weak magnitudes even though no statistically significant generalized trends could be identified during both seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=206590','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=206590"><span id="translatedtitle">Recovery of Phytophthora ramorum following exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We examined the impact of exposure to high and low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on survival of P. ramorum both as free chlamydospores and within infected rhododendron tissue over a 7 day period. Infected Rhododendron - Cunningham’s White - leaf disks held in a sandy loam, loam, or sand at 2 different soil...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..183S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60..183S"><span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting daily minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> and grass <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savage, M. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> and grass <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> 2 or 4 h before sunrise. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from one location in South Africa and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123473"><span id="translatedtitle">Nowcasting daily minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> and grass <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savage, M J</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> and grass <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> 2 or 4 h before sunrise. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from one location in South Africa and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS42A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS42A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">Resilience of a High Latitude Red Sea Frining Corals Exposed to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moustafa, M.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, S.; Moustafa, Z. D.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Since 2004, multi-year study set out to establish linkages between fringing coral reefs in the northern Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, and local weather. Insight into local meteorological processes may provide a better understanding of the direct influence weather has on a fringing coral reef. To establish trends, seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and meteorological record were collected at a small fringing coral reef (Zaki's Reef), located near Ein Sokhna, Egypt (29.5oN & 32.4oE). Monitoring <span class="hlt">air</span> and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> provides evidence of seasonality and interannual variability and may reveal correlations between reef health and climate conditions in this region. Prior to this study, there were no known long-term studies investigating coral reefs in this region. Approximately 35 coral taxa are known to survive the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity regime found here, yet only six corals compose 94% of coral cover on Zaki's Reef. Dominant corals include: Acropora humilis, A. microclados, A. hemprichii, Litophyton arboretum, Stylophora pistillata, Porites columna, and P. plantulata. Seawater <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected at 30 minutes intervals at 5 locations. Seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data indicate that corals experience 4-6.5oC daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations and seasonal variations that exceed 29oC. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected just landward of the reef were compared to Hurghada and Ismailia 400 and 200 km south and north of the study site, respectively. Time series analysis results indicate that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dominant frequencies are half-daily, daily, and yearly cycles, while water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show yearly cycles. A comparison of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with neighboring locations indicates that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at Ein Sokhna ranged between near 0o C to an excess of 55o C, yet, daily means for Ein Sokhna and Hurghada were very similar (24.2o C and. 25.2o C, respectively). Maximum daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the study site exceeded maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Hurghada (400 km south) by almost 7o C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990004150','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990004150"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Tunable <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Gap Etalon Filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We report on experimental measurements of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tuned <span class="hlt">air</span>-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6615178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6615178"><span id="translatedtitle">Nerve conduction studies in upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span>: skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Soine, T L</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>The relationship of skin to near nerve (NN) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and to nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and distal latency (DL) was studied in 34 normal adult subjects before and after cooling both upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. Median and ulnar motor and sensory NCV, DL, and NN <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were determined at ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (mean X skin temp = 33 C) and after cooling, at approximately 26, 28, and 30 C of forearm skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the volar side of the forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers and NN <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the forearm, midpalm, and thenar or hypothenar eminence were compared with respective NCV and DL. Results showed a significant linear correlation between skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and NN <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at corresponding sites (r2 range, 0.4-0.84; p less than 0.005). Furthermore, both skin and NN <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> correlated significantly with respective NCV and DL. Midline wrist skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed the best correlation to NCV and DL. Median motor and sensory NCV were altered 1.5 and 1.4m/sec/C degree and their DL 0.2 msec/C degree of wrist skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change, respectively. Ulnar motor and sensory NCV were changed 2.1 and 1.6m/sec/C degree respectively, and 0.2 msec/C degree wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for motor and sensory DL. Average ambient skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the wrist (33 C) was used as a standard skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction formula: NCV or DL(temp corrected) = CF(Tst degree - Tm degree) + obtained NCV or DL, where Tst = 33 C for wrist, Tm = the measured skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and CF = correction factor of tested nerve. Use of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction formula for NCV and DL is suggested in patients with changed wrist skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> outside 29.6-36.4C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. PMID:6615178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...54C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...54C"><span id="translatedtitle">Trend of monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2012 in New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caloiero, Tommaso</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Among several variables affecting climate change and climate variability, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> plays a crucial role in the process because its variations in monthly and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values can impact on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. In this study, an analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data has been performed over 22 series observed in New Zealand. In particular, to detect possible trends in the time series, the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was first applied at monthly scale and then to several indices of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> computed since 1951. The results showed a positive trend in both the maximum and the minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in particular, in the autumn-winter period. This increase has been evaluated faster in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than in minimum one. The trend analysis of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices suggests that there has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, while most of the cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> showed a downward tendency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919848"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for synthesizing <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Glorieux, Benoit</p> <p>2007-11-06</p> <p>The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/879875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/879875"><span id="translatedtitle">Method For Synthesizing <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Melting Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Glorieux, Benoit</p> <p>2005-11-22</p> <p>The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992868','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/992868"><span id="translatedtitle">Undulator Hall <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Fault Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC</p> <p>2010-11-17</p> <p>Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes of the <span class="hlt">air</span> would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.113..407A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.113..407A"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling monthly mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models are recommended to predict <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in all Brazilian territories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33A1058R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC33A1058R"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, H. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Fang, Y.; Staehelin, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Over the past few decades, thresholds for national <span class="hlt">air</span> quality standards, intended to protect public health and welfare, have been lowered repeatedly. At the same time observations, over Europe and the Eastern U.S., demonstrate that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events (high O3 and PM2.5) are typically associated with stagnation events. Recent work showed that in a changing climate high <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events are likely to increase in frequency and duration. Within this work we examine meteorological and surface ozone observations from CASTNet over the U.S. and EMEP over Europe and "idealized" simulations with the GFDL AM3 chemistry-climate model, which isolate the role of climate change on <span class="hlt">air</span> quality. Specifically, we examine an "idealized 1990s" simulation, forced with 20-year mean monthly climatologies for sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and sea ice from observations for 1981-2000, and an "idealized 2090s" simulation forced by the observed climatologies plus the multi-model mean changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea ice simulated by 19 IPCC AR-4 models under the A1B scenario for 2081-2100. With innovative statistical tools (empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (EVT)), we analyze the frequency distribution of past, present and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe. The upper tail of observed values at individual stations (e.g., within the CASTNet), i.e., the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O3>60ppb) are poorly described by a Gaussian distribution. However, further analysis showed that applying Peak-Over-Threshold-models, better capture the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and allows us to estimate return levels of pollution events above certain threshold values of interest. We next apply EOF analysis to identify regions that vary coherently within the ground-based monitoring networks. Over the United States, the first EOF obtained from the model in both the 1990s and 2090s idealized simulations identifies the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8363680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8363680"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on drugs for prehospital ACLS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johansen, R B; Schafer, N C; Brown, P I</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Advanced cardiac life support drugs undergo a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposures in the prehospital setting. Although manufacturers place <span class="hlt">temperature</span> restrictions for drug stability on their products, it has been shown that these limits are often exceeded in the prehospital environment. We exposed four different drugs to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of -20 degrees C (-6 degrees F) and 70 degrees C (150 degrees F) and subsequently performed assays to determine their respective chemical stability compared with that of control samples. We determined that no significant difference in chemical structure occurred between the standard sample and the four drugs exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (P > .05). This information has obvious implications in making further recommendations for drug storage. More work to determine bioactivity of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-exposed drugs may show results with implications for success in prehospital cardiac resuscitation. PMID:8363680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013526"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental and theoretical analysis results for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tanigawa, Tadashi; Morita, Mitsunobu</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>With Japan's preparation of its Action program to prevent global warming in 1990 and the holding of the United National Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit) in 1992 as a backdrop, reflecting the global effort to protect the environment, a high performance industrial furnace development project was launched in 1993 by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). This project focuses on the development of a combustion technology which uses <span class="hlt">air</span> that is preheated to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (above 1,000 C), heretofore considered impossible. Not only can this technology reduce carbon dioxide emission, thought to cause the greenhouse effect, by over 30%, but it can also reduce nitrogen oxide emission by nearly half. This new technology makes use of the recently-developed high-cycle regenerative heat exchanger, for preheating the furnace <span class="hlt">air</span> supply. This exchanger preheats <span class="hlt">air</span> to above 1,000 C, much higher than for conventional furnaces, and then this <span class="hlt">air</span> is injected with fuel. R and D data have shown that CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced markedly. However, the theoretical analysis is yet to be made, thereby hampering efforts to have this advanced technology become widely adopted. This project accumulated new data related to uniform <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution, high energy heat transfer and low NO{sub x} as common characteristics of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6511L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6511L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic influence on the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Chunhui; Sun, Ying; Wan, Hui; Zhang, Xuebin; Yin, Hong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic influence on the frequencies of warm days, cold days, warm nights, and cold nights are detected in the observations of Chinese <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data covering 1958-2002. We used an optimal fingerprinting method to compare these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices computed from a newly homogenized observational data set with those from simulations conducted with multiple climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. We found the clear anthropogenic signals in the observational records of frequency changes in warm and cold days and nights. We also found that the models appear to be doing a better job in simulating the observed frequencies of daytime <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than nighttime <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The model-simulated variability appears to be consistent with that of the observations, providing confidence on the detection results. Additionally, the anthropogenic signal can be clearly detected at subnational scales, with detectable human influence found in Eastern and Western China separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.1151G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.1151G"><span id="translatedtitle">North American <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events and related large scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Mike; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun-Young; Lim, Young-Kwon; Prabhat</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, with a focus upon <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11e5007H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11e5007H"><span id="translatedtitle">Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900040087&hterms=air+shower&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bshower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900040087&hterms=air+shower&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bshower"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span>-sea interaction during an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreak from the eastern coast of the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grossman, Robert L.; Betts, Alan K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An aircraft investigation of boundary layer mean and turbulent structure is reported, and the Lagrangian budgets of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture in the subcloud layer following a streamline during an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreak are evaluated. The maximum sea-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference was 23 K. Two aircraft were used: the NCAR Electra, which measured turbulent fluxes and investigated subcloud layer conditions, and the NASA Electra, which measured the height of cloud tops using lidar. A stratocumulus overcast was found from about 60 km offshore to the Gulf Stream core with cloud top rising downstream. East of the Gulf Stream cumulus congestus and snow showers were observed. Cloud base decreased downstream and numerous steam plumes filled the subcloud layer. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> cross sections show most warming, and moistening of the subcloud layer occurred before the Gulf Stream core. Windspeeds increased downstream and maxima were observed near cloud top (inversion) and in the subcloud layer. Lagrangian budgets showed most warming, and moistening of the layer between 70 m and about 100 m below mean cloud base was due to turbulent flux divergence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840044887&hterms=lynas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlynas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840044887&hterms=lynas&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlynas"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectrophotometry of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars - Ultraviolet fluxes and effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heber, U.; Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broadband photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broadband photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scale for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars extends to lower effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090043012','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090043012"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Advanced COTS Passive Devices for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dones, Keishla R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Electronic sensors and circuits are often exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in many of NASA deep space and planetary surface exploration missions. Electronics capable of operation in harsh environments would be beneficial as they simplify overall system design, relax thermal management constraints, and meet operational requirements. For example, cryogenic operation of electronic parts will improve reliability, increase energy density, and extend the operational lifetimes of space-based electronic systems. Similarly, electronic parts that are able to withstand and operate efficiently in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments will negate the need for thermal control elements and their associated structures, thereby reducing system size and weight, enhancing its reliability, improving its efficiency, and reducing cost. Passive devices play a critical role in the design of almost all electronic circuitry. To address the needs of systems for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation, some of the advanced and most recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) passive devices, which included resistors and capacitors, were examined for operation under a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. The types of resistors investigated included high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> precision film, general purpose metal oxide, and wirewound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0759W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0759W"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Increases in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Occurrence over Land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, S. J.; Kumar, A.; Chen, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Recently observed global and U.S. <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases are probed from the perspective of several hundred climate realizations afforded by the availability of reforecast climate model runs from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). The large number of seasonal realizations with the observed time varying CO2 affords a unique opportunity to explore the role of greenhouse gas changes on 3-month seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and specifically, whether they are the result of a shift in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution or an increase in its variability. It is found that significant positive shifts in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Probability Density Function (PDF) occurs primarily as the result of the time varying CO2 included in the historical model runs, although a contribution from natural climate variability modes cannot be categorically excluded. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> PDF comparison further indicates that the increasing global and U.S. <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the last 30 years are predominantly the result of shifts in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and not increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. As such, the likelihood of increases in the occurrence of warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will likely continue to increase worldwide, leading to significant impacts on many socioeconomic sectors such as agriculture and public health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4669W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4669W"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent increases in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence over land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, Scott J.; Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Recently observed global and U.S. <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases are probed from the perspective of several hundred climate realizations afforded by the availability of reforecast climate model runs from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2. The large number of seasonal realizations with the observed time-varying CO2 affords a unique opportunity to explore the role of greenhouse gas changes on 3 month seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and specifically, whether they are the result of a shift in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution or an increase in its variability. It is found that significant positive shifts in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability density function (PDF) occur primarily as the result of the time-varying CO2 included in the historical model runs, although a contribution from natural climate variability modes cannot be categorically excluded. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> PDF comparison further indicates that the increasing global and U.S. <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the last 30 years are predominantly the result of shifts in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and not increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. As such, the likelihood of increases in the occurrence of warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will likely continue to increase worldwide, leading to significant impacts on many socioeconomic sectors such as agriculture and public health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004549"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of SOI Devices and Circuits at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elbuluk, Malik; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Electronics designed for use in future NASA space exploration missions are expected to encounter <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and wide thermal swings. Such missions include planetary surface exploration, bases, rovers, landers, orbiters, and satellites. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to perform properly for the duration of mission. The Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical devices, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in deep space exploration missions and aerospace environment. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has been under active consideration in the electronics industry for many years due to the advantages that it can provide in integrated circuit (IC) chips and computer processors. Faster switching, less power, radiationtolerance, reduced leakage, and high <span class="hlt">temp-erature</span> capability are some of the benefits that are offered by using SOI-based devices. A few SOI circuits are available commercially. However, there is a noticeable interest in SOI technology for different applications. Very little data, however, exist on the performance of such circuits under cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In this work, the performance of SOI integrated circuits, evaluated under low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and thermal cycling, are reported. In particular, three examples of SOI circuits that have been tested for operation at low at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are given. These circuits are SOI operational amplifiers, timers and power MOSFET drivers. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these circuits for use in space exploration missions at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The findings are useful to mission planners and circuit designers so that proper selection of electronic parts can be made, and risk assessment can be established for such circuits for use in space missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG33A3814S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNG33A3814S"><span id="translatedtitle">Reanalysis Data Evaluation to Study <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ongoing global climate changes are strongly pronounced in Siberia by significant warming in the 2nd half of 20th century and recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events such as 2010 heat wave and 2013 flood in Russia's Far East. To improve our understanding of observed climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and to provide to regional decision makers the reliable scientifically based information with high special and temporal resolution on climate state, we need to operate with accurate meteorological data in our study. However, from available 231 stations across Siberia only 130 of them present the homogeneous daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series. Sparse, station network, especially in high latitudes, force us to use simulated reanalysis data. However those might differ from observations. To obtain reliable information on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> "hot spots" in Siberia we have compared daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> form ERA-40, ERA Interim, JRA-25, JRA-55, NCEP/DOE, MERRA Reanalysis, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX gridded datasets with observations from RIHMI-WDC/CDIAC dataset for overlap period 1981-2000. Data agreement was estimated at station coordinates to which reanalysis data were interpolated using modified Shepard method. Comparison of averaged over 20 year annual mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> shows general agreement for Siberia excepting Baikal region, where reanalyses significantly underestimate observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior. The annual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> closest to observed one were obtained from ERA-40 and ERA Interim. Furthermore, t-test results show homogeneity of these datasets, which allows one to combine them for long term time series analysis. In particular, we compared the combined data with observations for percentile-based <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices. In Western Siberia reanalysis and gridded data accurately reproduce observed daily max/min <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. For East Siberia, Lake Baikal area, ERA Interim data slightly underestimates TN90p and TX90p values. Results obtained allows regional decision-makers to get required high spatial resolution (0,25°×0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement... the supply system or in the <span class="hlt">air</span> stream entering the engine. (b) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement... the supply system or in the <span class="hlt">air</span> stream entering the engine. (b) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec91-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement... the supply system or in the <span class="hlt">air</span> stream entering the engine. (b) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec91-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement... the supply system or in the <span class="hlt">air</span> stream entering the engine. (b) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement... the supply system or in the <span class="hlt">air</span> stream entering the engine. (b) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6153M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6153M"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic situations and occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Iberian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohammed, Ali; Alarcón, Marta</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The occurrence of hot waves and cold spells is having a particular attention in the last years due to their influence on human activities, health, agriculture, power supply, infrastructure and ecosystems (Bieli et al., 2015). In the context of climate change, there are evidences that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> episodes, and not only the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, are changing in response to the anthropogenic radiative forcing. The atmospheric large-scale circulation patterns are related to episodes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Pfahl and Wernli, 2012). The distribution and intensity of high and low systems, and the meridional movement of their associated <span class="hlt">air</span> masses configure the situations that lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in particular regions. This work focuses in the study of these events in the Iberian Peninsula in the recent 20-year period 1994-2013 and the relationship with the synoptic situations in Europe. A Lagrangian approach is used to provide information about the pathways of the <span class="hlt">air</span> masses causing the 0.1% most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot and cold events for that period. The impact of climate variability is also investigated by computing the correlations between the frequency of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the most influencing modes of climate variability affecting Western Mediterranean: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO). There is a significant (p<0.01) negative correlation between the number of cold days and the NAO and AO annual indices, whereas that a significant (p<0.01) positive correlation has been found between the annual average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for hot days and the WeMO annual indice. The relationship between the synoptic situations and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events has been studied in three vertical levels by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to the pressure fields and by using the Hess-Brezowsky (GWL) catalogue. The results showed that in 65% of hot <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events the IP was affected by the presence of the Iberian thermal low</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899358','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899358"><span id="translatedtitle">A Leech Capable of Surviving Exposure to <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Low <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Dai; Miyamoto, Tomoko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is widely considered that most organisms cannot survive prolonged exposure to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 0°C, primarily because of the damage caused by the water in cells as it freezes. However, some organisms are capable of surviving <span class="hlt">extreme</span> variations in environmental conditions. In the case of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the ability to survive subzero <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is referred to as cryobiosis. We show that the ozobranchid leech, Ozobranchus jantseanus, a parasite of freshwater turtles, has a surprisingly high tolerance to freezing and thawing. This finding is particularly interesting because the leach can survive these <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> without any acclimation period or pretreatment. Specifically, the leech survived exposure to super-low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by storage in liquid nitrogen (−196°C) for 24 hours, as well as long-term storage at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as low as −90°C for up to 32 months. The leech was also capable of enduring repeated freeze-thaw cycles in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 20°C to −100°C and then back to 20°C. The results demonstrated that the novel cryotolerance mechanisms employed by O. jantseanus enable the leech to withstand a wider range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than those reported previously for cryobiotic organisms. We anticipate that the mechanism for the observed tolerance to freezing and thawing in O. jantseanus will prove useful for future studies of cryopreservation. PMID:24466250</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947952','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947952"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and Microdiffraction at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Pressures and <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Meng, Yue</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>High pressure compounds and polymorphs are investigated for a broad range of purposes such as determine structures and processes of deep planetary interiors, design materials with novel properties, understand the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to very high stresses as in explosions or impacts. Synthesis and structural analysis of materials at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> entails remarkable technical challenges. In the laser heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC), very high pressure is generated between the tips of two opposing diamond anvils forced against each other; focused infrared laser beams, shined through the diamonds, allow to reach very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on samples absorbing the laser radiation. When the LH-DAC is installed in a synchrotron beamline that provides <span class="hlt">extremely</span> brilliant x-ray radiation, the structure of materials under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions can be probed in situ. LH-DAC samples, although very small, can show highly variable grain size, phase and chemical composition. In order to obtain the high resolution structural analysis and the most comprehensive characterization of a sample, we collect diffraction data in 2D grids and combine powder, single crystal and multigrain diffraction techniques. Representative results obtained in the synthesis of a new iron oxide, Fe4O5 1 will be shown. PMID:24145761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145761"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and microdiffraction at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Meng, Yue</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>High pressure compounds and polymorphs are investigated for a broad range of purposes such as determine structures and processes of deep planetary interiors, design materials with novel properties, understand the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to very high stresses as in explosions or impacts. Synthesis and structural analysis of materials at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> entails remarkable technical challenges. In the laser heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC), very high pressure is generated between the tips of two opposing diamond anvils forced against each other; focused infrared laser beams, shined through the diamonds, allow to reach very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on samples absorbing the laser radiation. When the LH-DAC is installed in a synchrotron beamline that provides <span class="hlt">extremely</span> brilliant x-ray radiation, the structure of materials under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions can be probed in situ. LH-DAC samples, although very small, can show highly variable grain size, phase and chemical composition. In order to obtain the high resolution structural analysis and the most comprehensive characterization of a sample, we collect diffraction data in 2D grids and combine powder, single crystal and multigrain diffraction techniques. Representative results obtained in the synthesis of a new iron oxide, Fe4O5 (1) will be shown. PMID:24145761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT........36E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT........36E"><span id="translatedtitle">a Climatology of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Minimum Winter <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Ohio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edgell, Dennis Joe</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Minimum Winter <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (EMWT) is the coldest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> recorded each winter at a given weather station. This variable is a measure of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> cold influences the geographic distribution of plants, and is a prime control for the production of some valuable fruit crops grown in Ohio. EMWT values are often used to map plant hardiness zones, however the magnitude of EMWT and the date that it occurs has varied widely from year to year. Climatic variables rarely remain constant over time, and the plant hardiness zones could shift significantly if the climate changes and there is a trend towards warmer EMWTs. Plants that have their present geographic ranges limited by cold winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could increase their spatial extent. Furthermore, EMWT has impacts on human health and has applications for architecture. EMWTs at eighty-nine weather stations in Ohio were analyzed. Summary statistics and return period intervals for critical EMWTs are tabulated and mapped. Return period maps may be more useful for environmental planning than plant hardiness zone maps based on average EMWT, especially in a variable climate. Graphical methods, curve fitting and a probability model for the mean were utilized to examine the long term trend. The EMWT has not warmed during the known climatic record of this variable in Ohio. This study demonstrates the need for more applied climatological studies based on the observed climate record, not obscured by the assumptions of the global warming paradigm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1583B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1583B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling daily average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and watershed area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gauges and a NOAA <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gauge. The daily average stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the observed water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data ranged from 0.7 </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392305','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392305"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spectrometer for samples under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S.; Hu, Michael Y.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample’s transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of {sup 57}Fe{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1} at high pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86a3105Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86a3105Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spectrometer for samples under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E. Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S.; Hu, Michael Y.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample's transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 57Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25638070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25638070"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spectrometer for samples under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Dongzhou; Jackson, Jennifer M; Zhao, Jiyong; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Alp, E Ercan; Toellner, Thomas S; Hu, Michael Y</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a multi-wavelength Fast <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Readout (FasTeR) spectrometer to capture a sample's transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, and reduce uncertainties in melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determination. Without sacrificing accuracy, FasTeR features a fast readout rate (about 100 Hz), high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and a well-constrained focus. Complimenting a charge-coupled device spectrometer, FasTeR consists of an array of photomultiplier tubes and optical dichroic filters. The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> determined by FasTeR outside of the vicinity of melting are, generally, in good agreement with results from the charge-coupled device spectrometer. Near melting, FasTeR is capable of capturing transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, at least on the order of 300 K/s. A software tool, SIMFaster, is described and has been developed to simulate FasTeR and assess design configurations. FasTeR is especially suitable for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determinations that utilize ultra-fast techniques under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. Working in parallel with the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell, synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we have applied the FasTeR spectrometer to measure the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of (57)Fe0.9Ni0.1 at high pressure. PMID:25638070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101r1111F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101r1111F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujita, Kazuue; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Furuta, Shinichi; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Edamura, Tadataka</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Conspicuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performances of λ ˜ 8.7 μm quantum cascade lasers with anticrossed dual-upper laser states are reported. The lasers characterized by strong super-linear current-light output curves exhibit an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high characteristic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the threshold current density above 330 K (T0 ˜ 750 K). The slope efficiency grows with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (a negative T1-value). In addition, for the pulsed operation of a short 1 mm length laser, the T0-value reaches a value of 1085 K above 340 K. These distinctive characteristics are attributable to optical absorption quenching in the injector as well as to suppression of carrier leakage in the active region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.4026W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.4026W"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduced spatial extent of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasko, Conrad; Sharma, Ashish; Westra, Seth</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation intensity is expected to increase in proportion to the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere. However, increases beyond this expectation have been observed, implying that changes in storm dynamics may be occurring alongside changes in moisture availability. Such changes imply shifts in the spatial organization of storms, and we test this by analyzing present-day sensitivities between storm spatial organization and near-surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We show that both the total precipitation depth and the peak precipitation intensity increases with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while the storm's spatial extent decreases. This suggests that storm cells intensify at warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with a greater total amount of moisture in the storm, as well as a redistribution of moisture toward the storm center. The results have significant implications for the severity of flooding, as precipitation may become both more intense and spatially concentrated in a warming climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23L1260Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23L1260Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Estimation over the Third Pole Using MODIS LST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Ye, M.; Che, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Third Pole is centered on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which is the highest large plateau around the world with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> complex terrain and climate conditions, resulting in very scarce meteorological stations especially in the vast west region. For these unobserved areas, the remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) can greatly contribute to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation. In our research we utilized the MODIS LST production from both TERRA and AQUA to estimate daily mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the TP using multiple statistical models. Other variables used in the models include longitudes, latitudes, Julian day, solar zenith, NDVI and elevation. To select a relatively optimal model, we chose six popular and representative statistical models as candidate models including the multiple linear regression (MLR), the partial least squares regression (PLS), back propagate neural network (BPNN), support vector regression (SVR), random forests (RF) and Cubist regression (CR). The performances of the six models were compared for each possible combination of LSTs at four satellite pass times and two quality situations. Eventually a ranking table consisting of optimal models for each LST combination and quality situation was built up based on the validation results. By this means, the final production is generated providing daily mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with the least cloud blockage and acceptable accuracy. The average RMSEs of cross validation are mostly around 2℃. Stratified validations were also performed to test the expansibility to unobserved and high-altitude areas of the final models selected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..121R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..121R"><span id="translatedtitle">The variability of winter high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Romania and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rimbu, N.; Stefan, S.; Necula, C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The frequency variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as recorded at 85 meteorological stations from Romania during 1962-2010 period and its relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation was investigated. An Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals that large part of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> frequency variability is common to all stations suggesting a strong influence of large-scale circulation anomalies. The North Atlantic Oscillation, West Pacific, East Atlantic, and Scandinavian patterns are related with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> frequency variability. We show that the East Atlantic Oscillation controls a significant part of interannual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over Romania via advection of warm <span class="hlt">air</span> from the west. In addition, a strong relationship between blocking activity and frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Romania was found. High blocking activity in the (20°W-70°E) sector is related with relatively strong advection of cold <span class="hlt">air</span> over the country during winter. On the other hand, low blocking activity in the same sector is related with weak advection of relatively cold <span class="hlt">air</span> in the region. Moreover, the blocking frequency in this sector is modulated mainly by the East Atlantic Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2218955','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2218955"><span id="translatedtitle">Pregnancy and Beyond Part II: <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> and High Altitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borkenhagen, Rainer H.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Over the last 35 years, transport technology has created new environmental frontiers in which family physicians are, and will continue to be, involved both in research and in administering patient care. Some frontiers address basic physiological problems that cross over into others. In a series of four articles, the author describes six of these frontiers with specific emphasis on pregnancy, from hyperbarism (undersea physiology) to microgravity (space physiology), and the problems, and linkages where evident. This second article explores the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and high altitude on the well-being of pregnant women. PMID:21253103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Nanot..15S.371S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004Nanot..15S.371S"><span id="translatedtitle">Scanning tunnelling microscopy in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields: very low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, high magnetic field, and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high vacuum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sagisaka, Keisuke; Kitahara, Masayo; Fujita, Daisuke; Kido, Giyuu; Koguchi, Nobuyuki</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>We present the performance of our newly developed very-low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> scanning tunnelling microscope (VLT-STM). This system can operate with high spatial and energy resolution at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> down to 350 mK, and in a magnetic field up to 11 T. The uniqueness of our VLT-STM is that the system possesses <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-high-vacuum chambers (XHV) ({\\sim } 10^{-10} Pa). System operation ranges from sample preparation, such as cleaning and deposition, to observations in an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> clean environment. XHV will have a significant impact within material sciences, particularly when treating a semiconductor surface. Test results have revealed STM images obtained below 1 K and with atomic resolution of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), Si(100) dimers, and Au(111) surfaces. Our Si(100) experiments are the first atomically-resolved STM images of the semiconductor surface obtained below 1 K. The results of those tests have conclusively determined its true ground state structure—a subject under debate for many years. Some of the STM images acquired in a high magnetic field are included in this paper. The XHV-VLT-STM system is state-of-the-art and a very powerful instrument for exploration of the nano-sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152990"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> alter forest phenology and productivity in Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crabbe, Richard A; Dash, Jadu; Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor F; Janous, Dalibor; Pavelka, Marian; Marek, Michal V</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Recent climate warming has shifted the timing of spring and autumn vegetation phenological events in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems of Europe. In many areas spring phenological events start earlier and autumn events switch between earlier and later onset. Consequently, the length of growing season in mid and high latitudes of European forest is extended. However, the lagged effects (i.e. the impact of a warm spring or autumn on the subsequent phenological events) on vegetation phenology and productivity are less explored. In this study, we have (1) characterised <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm spring and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm autumn events in Europe during 2003-2011, and (2) investigated if direct impact on forest phenology and productivity due to a specific warm event translated to a lagged effect in subsequent phenological events. We found that warmer events in spring occurred extensively in high latitude Europe producing a significant earlier onset of greening (OG) in broadleaf deciduous forest (BLDF) and mixed forest (MF). However, this earlier OG did not show any significant lagged effects on autumnal senescence. Needleleaf evergreen forest (NLEF), BLDF and MF showed a significantly delayed end of senescence (EOS) as a result of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm autumn events; and in the following year's spring phenological events, OG started significantly earlier. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> warm spring events directly led to significant (p=0.0189) increases in the productivity of BLDF. In order to have a complete understanding of ecosystems response to warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during key phenological events, particularly autumn events, the lagged effect on the next growing season should be considered. PMID:27152990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARF20008B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARF20008B"><span id="translatedtitle">Electride-like phases at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> compression and elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonev, Stanimir; Dubois, Jonathan</p> <p></p> <p>The transformation of materials into electride-like structures under the application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure has attracted a lot of interest recently. Theoretical studies have predicted the existence of low-coordinated crystal phases, where the conduction electrons are localized in the interstitial atomic regions, for a number of elements at high density. Most of these works have been limited to static lattice calculations. The pressures where such transformations are projected to occur are accessible in shock-wave experiments, but at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In this talk I will discuss the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of elecride structures, both solids and liquids, as well as the requirements for their accurate simulation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8309C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8309C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colfescu, Ioana; Hegerl, Gabi; Tett, Simon</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Central Europe and United Kingdom monthly-scale changes in location, intensity and probability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are quantified and compared for three different periods using 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c ensemble mean. The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events calculation is based on a composite analysis and the temporal linear trend for each region is considered to be a good approximation of the externally forced component while the remaining part to be internal variability. For hot and cold events of five and three days composites of all occurrences above and below the 95th and 5th respectively are calculated for 1920-1950, 1951-1980 and and 1981-2011 for the internal and total components. The circulation patterns associated with the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are calculated as the composites of the 500mb gepotential height found at each occurrence of cold or hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event. Differences between the composites of the most recent period and the other two are analysed for both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation. A Mann-Whitney test is used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences. Preliminary mechanisms for the changes found are evaluated using radiation, sensible heat flux lead-lag correlations with respect to the events. Our findings suggest no changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and their associated circulation patterns for hot events over the regions of study. The inclusion of the trend ( i.e external forcing) doesn't overall change the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns either for these regions. However areas where the differences are found to be significant are seen in the North Atlantic and Greenland when trend is included and suggest an overall warming for these regions. For the cold events significant cooling over Europe and heating over Greenland is found with respect to 1920s while cooling over the central Atlantic can be seen with respect to the 1950s period. The associated circulation patterns show a consequent strengthening of the circulation over Greenland and a weakening</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002873"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Low Passive Microwave Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Due to Thunderstorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cecil, Daniel J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events by their nature fall outside the bounds of routine experience. With imperfect or ambiguous measuring systems, it is appropriate to question whether an unusual measurement represents an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event or is the result of instrument errors or other sources of noise. About three weeks after the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite began collecting data in Dec 1997, a thunderstorm was observed over northern Argentina with 85 GHz brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 50 K and 37 GHz brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 70 K (Zipser et al. 2006). These values are well below what had previously been observed from satellite sensors with lower resolution. The 37 GHz brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are also well below those measured by TRMM for any other storm in the subsequent 16 years. Without corroborating evidence, it would be natural to suspect a problem with the instrument, or perhaps an irregularity with the platform during the first weeks of the satellite mission. Automated quality control flags or other procedures in retrieval algorithms could treat these measurements as errors, because they fall outside the expected bounds. But the TRMM satellite also carries a radar and a lightning sensor, both confirming the presence of an intense thunderstorm. The radar recorded 40+ dBZ reflectivity up to about 19 km altitude. More than 200 lightning flashes per minute were recorded. That same storm's 19 GHz brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 150 K would normally be interpreted as the result of a low-emissivity water surface (e.g., a lake, or flood waters) if not for the simultaneous measurements of such intense convection. This paper will examine records from TRMM and related satellite sensors including SSMI, AMSR-E, and the new GMI to find the strongest signatures resulting from thunderstorms, and distinguishing those from sources of noise. The lowest brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> resulting from thunderstorms as seen by TRMM have been in Argentina in November and December. For</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10i4024S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10i4024S"><span id="translatedtitle">Urban climate effects on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Madison, Wisconsin, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schatz, Jason; Kucharik, Christopher J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat, cities and their urban heat island (UHI) effects are growing, as are the urban populations encountering them. These mutually reinforcing trends present a growing risk for urban populations. However, we have limited understanding of urban climates during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> episodes, when additional heat from the UHI may be most consequential. We observed a historically hot summer and historically cold winter using an array of up to 150 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin, an urban area of population 402 000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. In the summer of 2012 (third hottest since 1869), Madison’s urban areas experienced up to twice as many hours ⩾32.2 °C (90 °F), mean July TMAX up to 1.8 °C higher, and mean July TMIN up to 5.3 °C higher than rural areas. During a record setting heat wave, dense urban areas spent over four consecutive nights above the National Weather Service nighttime heat stress threshold of 26.7 °C (80 °F), while rural areas fell below 26.7 °C nearly every night. In the winter of 2013-14 (coldest in 35 years), Madison’s most densely built urban areas experienced up to 40% fewer hours ⩽-17.8 °C (0 °F), mean January TMAX up to 1 °C higher, and mean January TMIN up to 3 °C higher than rural areas. Spatially, the UHI tended to be most intense in areas with higher population densities. Temporally, both daytime and nighttime UHIs tended to be slightly more intense during more-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat days compared to average summer days. These results help us understand the climates for which cities must prepare in a warming, urbanizing world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308919&keyword=nasa&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65355685&CFTOKEN=44239461','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308919&keyword=nasa&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65355685&CFTOKEN=44239461"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining Projected Changes in Weather & <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Between 2000 & 2030 using Dynamical Downscaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Climate change may alter regional weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> resulting in a range of environmental impacts including changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> quality, water quality and availability, energy demands, agriculture, and ecology. Dynamical downscaling simulations were conducted with the Weather Research...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6290C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6290C"><span id="translatedtitle">Future climate projections of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions by using an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory non-stationary model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casati, B.; Lefaivre, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can cause large damages and losses, and have high societal and economical impacts. Climate model integrations predict increases in both frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Better understanding of the capabilities of climate models in representing the present climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, joint with the analysis of the future climate projections for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, can help to forewarn society from future high-impact events, and possibly better develop adaptation strategies. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (EVT) provides a well established and robust framework to analyse the behaviour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events for the present climate and future projections. In this study a non-stationary model for Generalised <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value (GEV) distributions is used to analyse the trend of the distributions of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in the context of a changing climate. The analysis is performed for the climate projections of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), under a SRES A2 emission scenario, for annual, seasonal and monthly <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, for 12 regions characterised by different climatologies over the North American domain. Significant positive trends for the location of the distributions are found in most regions, indicating an expected increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value intensities, whereas the scale (variability) and shape (tail values) of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> distributions seem not to vary significantly. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, such as intense convective precipitation, are often associated to small-scale features. The enhanced resolution of Regional Climate Models enables to better represent such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, with respect to Global Climate Models. However the resolution of these models is sometimes still too coarse to reproduce realistic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To address this representativeness issue, statistical downscaling of the CRCM projections is performed. The downscaling relation is obtained by comparing the GEV distributions for the CRCM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33G..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33G..06M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the United States: Quantifying the Responses to Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mascioli, N. R.; Fiore, A. M.; Previdi, M. J.; Correa, G. J. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, heat waves, heavy rainfall events, and precipitation frequency can have adverse impacts on human health, <span class="hlt">air</span> quality, agricultural productivity, and water resources. Using the aerosol only (AER) and greenhouse gas only (GHG) "single forcing" simulations (3 ensemble members each) from the GFDL CM3 chemistry-climate model, we investigate aerosol- versus greenhouse gas-induced changes in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the United States. We identify changes in these events from 1860 to 2005 and the associated large-scale dynamical conditions. Small changes in these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the "all forcing" simulations reflect cancellations between the individual, opposite-signed effects of increasing anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases. In AER, aerosols lead to lower <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and fewer warm spells over the western US (-2.1 K regional average; -20 days/year) and over the central and northeast US (-1.5 K; -12 days/year). In GHG, a similar but opposite-signed response pattern occurs (+2.7 K and +14 days/year over the western US; +2.5 K and +10 days/year in the central and northeast US). The similar spatial response patterns in AER versus GHG suggest a preferred regional mode of response that is largely independent of the regional distribution of the forcing agent. The influence of both greenhouse gases and aerosols on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is weakest in the southeast US, collocated with the observed "warming hole". No statistically significant change occurs in AER, and a warming of only +1.8 K occurs in GHG. Warming in this region continues to be muted over the 21st century under the RCP 8.5 scenario, with increases in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> more than 1 K smaller than elsewhere. Aerosols induce decreases in the number of days per year with at least 10mm of precipitation (R10mm) over the eastern US in summer and winter and over the southern US in spring of roughly 1 day/year. In contrast, greenhouse gases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0765T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0765T"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability using quantile regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured variables. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values, including evolution of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.3626S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.3626S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and Seasonal Variability of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Croatia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In terms of taking the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which are not real <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JSR....88..144M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JSR....88..144M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Survival of high latitude fringing corals in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: Red Sea oceanography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moustafa, M. Z.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, Z. D.; Moustafa, S. E.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This multi-year study set out to establish a comprehensive knowledgebase for a fringing coral reef in the Gulf of Suez, while also investigating the link between coral reef survivability and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental conditions present in the region. The Gulf of Suez is a narrow branch of the northern Red Sea for which all forms of environmental and scientific data are severely lacking. Monitoring oceanographic and meteorological data provides evidence of both seasonal variability and interannual variability in this region, and may reveal correlations between reef health and prevailing climate conditions. Specifically, this research sought to document the environmental conditions under which Zaki's Reef, a small fringing coral reef (29.5°N and 32.4°E) that lies at the northernmost limit of tropical reefs worldwide, is able to survive, in order to determine how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> the conditions are. Results of observed seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> revealed that coral species at Zaki's Reef regularly experience 2-4 °C and 10-15 °C daily and seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations, respectively. Seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monthly means reached a minimum of 14 °C in February and a maximum of 33 °C in August. Monthly mean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climatology obtained from satellite measurements was comparable to observed seawater <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while annual <span class="hlt">air</span> and seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means were identical at 22 °C. Observed seawater <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeded established coral bleaching thresholds for extended periods of time, suggesting that coral species at this location may have developed a mechanism to cope with such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.122...16B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.122...16B"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> observed in Modena, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boccolari, M.; Malmusi, S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Climate changes has become one of the most analysed subjects from researchers community, mainly because of the numerous <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events that hit the globe. To have a better view of climate changes and trends, long observations time series are needed. During last decade a lot of Italian time series, concerning several surface meteorological variables, have been analysed and published. No one of them includes one of the longest record in Italy, the time series of the Geophysical Observatory of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Measurements, collected since early 19th century, always in the same position, except for some months during the second world war, embrace daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation amount, relative humidity, pressure, cloudiness and other variables. In this work we concentrated on the analysis of yearly and seasonal trends and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, both minimum and maximum, and precipitation time series, for the periods 1861-2010 and 1831-2010 respectively, in which continuous measurements are available. In general, our results confirm quite well those reported by IPCC and in many other studies over Mediterranean area. In particular, we found that minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has a non significant positive trend of + 0.1 °C per decade considering all the period, the value increases to 0.9 °C per decade for 1981-2010. For maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we observed a non significant + 0.1 °C trend for all the period, while + 0.8 °C for the last thirty years. On the other hand precipitation is decreasing, -6.3 mm per decade, considering all the analysed period, while the last thirty years are characterised by a great increment of 74.8 mm per decade. For both variables several climate indices have been analysed and they confirm what has been found for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation. In particular, during last 30 years frost days and ice days are decreasing, whereas summer days are increasing. During the last 30-year tropical nights</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120006714','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120006714"><span id="translatedtitle">Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=251020&keyword=Wildfires&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67128506&CFTOKEN=35954269','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=251020&keyword=Wildfires&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67128506&CFTOKEN=35954269"><span id="translatedtitle">IMPACTS OF CLIMATE-INDUCED CHANGES IN <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> EVENTS ON OZONE AND PARTICULATE MATTER <span class="hlt">AIR</span> QUALITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p> Historical data records of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution meteorology from multiple datasets will be compiled and analyzed to identify possible trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Changes in climate and <span class="hlt">air</span> quality between 2010 and 2050 will be simulated with a suite of models. The consequential effe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007595"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton delocalization under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of high pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goncharov, Alexander F.; Crowhurst, Jonathan</p> <p>2008-10-02</p> <p>Knowledge of the behaviour of light hydrogen-containing molecules under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of high pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is crucial to a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental physics and chemistry that is relevant under such conditions. It is also vital for interpreting the results of planetary observations, in particular those of the gas giants, and also for various materials science applications. On a fundamental level, increasing pressure causes the redistribution of the electronic density, which results in a modification of the interatomic potentials followed by a consequent qualitative change in the character of the associated bonding. Ultimately, at sufficiently high pressure, one may anticipate a transformation to a homogeneously bonded material possessing unusual physical properties (e.g. a quantum fluid). As <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases so does the concentration of ionised species leading ultimately to a plasma. Considerable improvements have recently been made in both the corresponding experimental and theoretical investigations. Here we review recent results for hydrogen and water that reveal unexpected routes of transformation to nonmolecular materials. We stress the importance of quantum effects, which remain significant even at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13N..07P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13N..07P"><span id="translatedtitle">Is <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Enough to Predict Lake Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of <span class="hlt">air</span>2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> only. In addition, <span class="hlt">air</span>2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only <span class="hlt">air</span> and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009SSCom.149.2207S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009SSCom.149.2207S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Debye <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of hcp iron at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> compression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, S. K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The volume dependence of Debye <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (θD) for hexagonal close packed (hcp) iron is derived using the Burakovsky and Preston model for volume dependence of Gruneisen parameter [L. Burakovsky, D.L. Preston J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 65 (2004) 1581] follows from the assumption that K∞' (first pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus in the infinite pressure limit i.e., P→∞) is the same for all the materials studied. This model is based on the Thomas-Fermi theory for solids at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> compression. The formula for θD(V) obtained in the present study has been used to determine the results for hcp iron up to a pressure range of 359.5 GPa. The results obtained for θD(V) present a good agreement with the available experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4563B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.4563B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation events in March 2015 in central and northern Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Bradford S.; Campos, Diego A.; Veloso, José Vicencio; Rondanelli, Roberto</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>From 18 to 27 March 2015, northern, central, and southern Chile experienced a series of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hydrometeorological events. First, the highest surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ever recorded in Santiago (with reliable records dating to 1877), 36.8°C at Quinta Normal, was measured at 15:47 local time on 20 March 2015. Immediately following this high heat event, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation event, with damaging streamflows from precipitation totals greater than 45 mm, occurred in the semiarid and hyperarid Atacama regions. Finally, concurrent with the heavy precipitation event, <span class="hlt">extremely</span> warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were recorded throughout southern Chile. These events were examined from a synoptic perspective with the goal of identifying forcing mechanisms and potential interaction between each analysis which provides operational context by which to identify and predict similar events in the future. Primary findings were as follows: (1) record warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in central Chile resulted from anomalous lower troposphere ridging and easterly downslope flow, both of which developed in response to an anomalous midtroposphere ridge-trough pattern; (2) a cutoff low with anomalous heights near one standard deviation below normal slowly moved east and was steered ashore near 25°S by circulation around a very strong ridge (anomalies more than 3 standard deviations above normal) centered near 60°S; (3) anomalously high precipitable water content (20 mm above climatological norms) over the Peruvian Bight region was advected southward and eastward ahead of the cutoff low by low-level northwesterly flow, greatly enhancing observed precipitation over northern Chile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6176R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6176R"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, H. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Polvani, L. M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Fang, Y.; Staehelin, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Over the past few decades, thresholds for national <span class="hlt">air</span> quality standards, intended to protect public health and welfare, have been lowered repeatedly. At the same time observations, over Europe and the Eastern U.S., demonstrate that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events (high O3 and PM2.5) are typically associated with stagnation events. Recent work showed that in a changing climate high <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events are likely to increase in frequency and duration. Within this work we examine meteorological and surface ozone observations from CASTNet over the U.S. and EMEP over Europe. With innovative statistical tools - i.e., statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (EVT) - we analyze the frequency distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events over the Eastern United States and Europe. The upper tail of observed values at individual stations (e.g., within the CASTNet), i.e., the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O3>60ppb) are poorly described by a Gaussian distribution. However, further analysis showed that applying Peak-Over-Threshold-models, better capture the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and allows us to estimate return levels of pollution events above certain threshold values of interest. The results show that changes in national ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> quality standards had significant effect on the occurrence frequency of high <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..788B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..788B"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Romania and their connection to large-scale <span class="hlt">air</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbu, Nicu; Ştefan, Sabina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate the connection between climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation) in Romania and large-scale <span class="hlt">air</span> circulation. Daily observational data of maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and amount of precipitation for the period 1961-2010 were used to compute two seasonal indices associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation, quantifying their frequency, as follows: frequency of very warm days (FTmax90 ≥ 90th percentile), frequency of very wet days (FPp90; daily precipitation amount ≥ 90th percentile). Seasonally frequency of circulation types were calculated from daily circulation types determined by using two objective catalogues (GWT - GrossWetter-Typen and WLK - WetterLargenKlassifikation) from the COST733Action. Daily reanalysis data sets (sea level pressure, geopotential height at 925 and 500 hPa, u and v components of wind vector at 700 hPa and precipitable water content for the entire atmospheric column) build up by NCEP/NCAR, with 2.5°/2.5° lat/lon spatial resolution, were used to determine the circulation types. In order to select the optimal domain size related to the FTmax90 and the FPp90, the explained variance (EV) has been used. The EV determines the relation between the variance among circulation types and the total variance of the variable under consideration. This method quantifies the discriminatory power of a classification. The relationships between climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Romania and large-scale <span class="hlt">air</span> circulation were investigated by using multiple linear regression model (MLRM), the predictands are FTmax90 and FPp90 and the circulation types were used as predictors. In order to select the independent predictors to build the MLRM the collinearity and multicollinearity analysis were performed. The study period is dividend in two periods: the period 1961-2000 is used to train the MLRM and the period 2001-2010 is used to validate the MLRM. The analytical relationship obtained by using MLRM can be used for future projection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5291B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5291B"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions for maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Mediterranean area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beck, Alexander; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> highly affect the natural as well as the societal environment Heat stress has great effects on flora, fauna and humans and culminates in heat related morbidity and mortality. Agriculture and different industries are severely affected by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Even more under climate change conditions, it is necessary to detect potential hazards which arise from changes in the distributional parameters of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values, and this is especially relevant for the Mediterranean region which is characterized as a climate change hot spot. Therefore statistical approaches are developed to estimate these parameters with a focus on non-stationarities emerging in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors like sea level pressure, geopotential heights, atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and relative humidity. Gridded maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from the daily E-OBS dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from January 1950 until December 2012 are the predictands for the present analyses. A s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed in order to reduce data dimension and to retain different regions of similar maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. The grid box with the highest PC-loading represents the corresponding principal component. A central part of the analyses is the model development for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under the use of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value statistics. A combined model is derived consisting of a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model and a quantile regression (QR) model which determines the GPD location parameters. The QR model as well as the scale parameters of the GPD model are conditioned by various large-scale predictor variables. In order to account for potential non-stationarities in the predictors-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships, a special calibration and validation scheme is applied, respectively. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510349P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510349P"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the observed sensitivities of <span class="hlt">air</span>-quality <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to meteorological drivers via quantile regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, W. C.; Heald, C. L.; Cooley, D.; Russell, B.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span> pollution variability is strongly dependent on meteorology. However, quantifying the impacts of changes in regional climatology on pollution <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can be difficult due to the many non-linear and competing meteorological influences on the production, transport, and removal of pollutant species. Furthermore, observed pollutant levels at many sites show sensitivities at the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> that differ from those of the overall mean, indicating relationships that would be poorly characterized by simple linear regressions. To address this challenge, we apply quantile regression to observed daily ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and reanalysis meteorological fields in the USA over the past decade to specifically identify the meteorological sensitivities of higher pollutant levels. From an initial set of over 1700 possible meteorological indicators (including 28 meteorological variables with 63 different temporal options), we generate reduced sets of O3 and PM2.5 indicators for both summer and winter months, analyzing pollutant sensitivities to each for response quantiles ranging from 2 to 98 %. Primary covariates connected to high-quantile O3 levels include <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity in the summer, while winter O3 levels are most commonly associated with incoming radiation flux. Covariates associated with summer PM2.5 include <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, wind speed, and tropospheric stability at many locations, while stability, humidity, and planetary boundary layer height are the key covariates most frequently associated with winter PM2.5. We find key differences in covariate sensitivities across regions and quantiles. For example, we find nationally averaged sensitivities of 95th percentile summer O3 to changes in maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of approximately 0.9 ppb °C-1, while the sensitivity of 50th percentile summer O3 (the annual median) is only 0.6 ppb °C-1. This gap points to differing sensitivities within various percentiles of the pollutant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013345"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> & Pressure Optical Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nabeel Riza</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AnGeo..23..239G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AnGeo..23..239G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Herrera, R.; Díaz, J.; Trigo, R. M.; Hernández, E.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>This paper examines the effect of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal) and Madrid (Spain). Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid). The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value. The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP), 500hPa geopotential height and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective <span class="hlt">extreme</span> summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry <span class="hlt">air</span> masses that usually lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly conditions, when Northern African <span class="hlt">air</span> flows over the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASCMO...2...79H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASCMO...2...79H"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from millennial-scale climate simulations using generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Whitney K.; Stein, Michael L.; McInerney, David J.; Sun, Shanshan; Moyer, Elisabeth J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather may produce some of the largest societal impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, it is intrinsically difficult to estimate changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events from the short observational record. In this work we use millennial runs from the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) in equilibrated pre-industrial and possible future (700 and 1400 ppm CO2) conditions to examine both how <span class="hlt">extremes</span> change in this model and how well these changes can be estimated as a function of run length. We estimate changes to distributions of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (annual minima and annual maxima) in the contiguous United States by fitting generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distributions. Using 1000-year pre-industrial and future time series, we show that warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> largely change in accordance with mean shifts in the distribution of summertime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> warm more than mean shifts in the distribution of wintertime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but changes in GEV location parameters are generally well explained by the combination of mean shifts and reduced wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. For cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at inland locations, return levels at long recurrence intervals show additional effects related to changes in the spread and shape of GEV distributions. We then examine uncertainties that result from using shorter model runs. In theory, the GEV distribution can allow prediction of infrequent events using time series shorter than the recurrence interval of those events. To investigate how well this approach works in practice, we estimate 20-, 50-, and 100-year <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events using segments of varying lengths. We find that even using GEV distributions, time series of comparable or shorter length than the return period of interest can lead to very poor estimates. These results suggest caution when attempting to use short observational time series or model runs to infer infrequent <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..04S"><span id="translatedtitle">Need for Caution in Interpreting Daily <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; Penland, C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Given the substantial anthropogenic contribution to global warming, it is tempting to seek an anthropogenic component in any unusual recent weather event, or more generally in any recent change in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather statistics. We caution that such detection and attribution efforts may, however, lead to wrong conclusions if the distinctively skewed and heavy-tailed features of the probability distributions of daily weather variations are not properly accounted for. Large deviations from the mean are far more common in such a non-Gaussian world than they are in a Gaussian world. In such a world, a mean climate shift is also generally accompanied by changes in the width and shape of the probability distribution. Consequently, even the sign of the changes in tail probabilities cannot be inferred unequivocally from the mean shift. These realities further complicate the establishment of significant changes in tail probabilities from historical records of limited length and accuracy. A possible solution is to exploit the fact that the salient non-Gaussian features of the observed distributions are captured in a general class of probability distributions introduced in the meteorological literature by Sardeshmukh and Sura (2009). These distributions, called Stochastically Generated Skewed (SGS) distributions (of which Gaussian distributions are special cases), are associated with modified forms of stochastically perturbed damped linear processes, and as such represent perhaps the simplest physically based non-Gaussian prototypes of the observed distributions. Importantly, the distribution of an SGS variable remains an SGS distribution under a mean climate shift. We show further that fitting SGS distributions to all daily values in limited climate records yields <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions of block maxima with smaller sampling uncertainties than GEV distributions fitted to only the block maxima. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value analysis based on SGS distributions thus provides an attractive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24j9201F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24j9201F"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regional low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Tai-Chen; Zhang, Ke-Quan; Su, Hai-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Gong, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Yu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Based on an objective identification technique for regional low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> event (OITRLTE), the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China has been detected from 1960 to 2013. During this period, there were 60 regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events (ERLTEs), which are included in the 690 regional low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events (RLTEs). The 60 ERLTEs are analyzed in this paper. The results show that in the last 50 years, the intensity of the ERLTEs has become weak; the number of lasted days has decreased; and, the affected area has become small. However, that situation has changed in this century. In terms of spatial distribution, the high intensity regions are mainly in Northern China while the high frequency regions concentrate in Central and Eastern China. According to the affected area of each event, the 60 ERLTEs are classified into six types. The atmospheric circulation background fields which correspond to these types are also analyzed. The results show that, influenced by stronger blocking highs of Ural and Lake Baikal, as well as stronger southward polar vortex and East Asia major trough at 500-hPa geopotential height, cold <span class="hlt">air</span> from high latitudes is guided to move southward and abnormal northerly winds at 850 hPa makes the cold <span class="hlt">air</span> blow into China along diverse paths, thereby forming different types of regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41305075), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB955203 and 2012CB955902), and the Special Scientific Research on Public Welfare Industry, China (Grant No. GYHY201306049).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004674','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004674"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Operation of electronic parts and circuits under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27274081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27274081"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-field phase diagram of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnetoresistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fallah Tafti, Fazel; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Krizan, Jason W; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Cava, Robert Joseph</p> <p>2016-06-21</p> <p>The recent discovery of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnetoresistance (XMR) in LaSb introduced lanthanum monopnictides as a new platform to study this effect in the absence of broken inversion symmetry or protected linear band crossing. In this work, we report XMR in LaBi. Through a comparative study of magnetotransport effects in LaBi and LaSb, we construct a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-field phase diagram with triangular shape that illustrates how a magnetic field tunes the electronic behavior in these materials. We show that the triangular phase diagram can be generalized to other topological semimetals with different crystal structures and different chemical compositions. By comparing our experimental results to band structure calculations, we suggest that XMR in LaBi and LaSb originates from a combination of compensated electron-hole pockets and a particular orbital texture on the electron pocket. Such orbital texture is likely to be a generic feature of various topological semimetals, giving rise to their small residual resistivity at zero field and subject to strong scattering induced by a magnetic field. PMID:27274081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5262542','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5262542"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypothetical <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress scenarios in advanced modular high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas cooled reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kroeger, P.G.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Considering an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hypothetical scenario of complete cross duct failure and unlimited <span class="hlt">air</span> supply into the reactor vessel of a modular high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas cooled ractor, it is found that the potential <span class="hlt">air</span> inflow remains limited due to the high friction pressure drop through the active core. All incoming <span class="hlt">air</span> will be oxidized to CO and some local external burning would be temporarily possible in such a scenario. The accident would have to continue with unlimited <span class="hlt">air</span> supply for hundreds of hours before the core structural integrity would be jeopardized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.5951H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.5951H"><span id="translatedtitle">A quantitative assessment of the relationship between precipitation deficits and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, B.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, Q. F.; Di, Z. H.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Previous studies have reported precipitation deficits related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. However, how and to what extent precipitation deficits affect surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is still poorly understood. In this study, the relationship between precipitation deficits and surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was examined in China from 1960 to 2012 based on monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records from 565 stations. Significant negative correlations were identified in each season, with the strongest relationships in the summer, indicating that higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> usually accompanied water-deficient conditions and lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> usually accompanied wet conditions. The examination of the correlations based on 30 year moving windows suggested that the interaction between the two variables has declined over the past three decades. Further investigation indicated a higher impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry conditions on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than that of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wet conditions. In addition, a new simple index (Dry <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Index, DTI) was developed and used to quantitatively describe the relationship between water deficits and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. We tested and compared the DTI in the coldest month (January) and the hottest month (July) of the year, station by station. In both months, the number of stations with a DThighI ≥ 50% was greater than those with a DThighI < 50%, indicating that a greater proportion of higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred during dry conditions. Based on the results, we conclude that water deficits in China are usually correlated to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> but not to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236095','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236095"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation within various heated <span class="hlt">air</span> seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation across the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED035214.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED035214.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible Economies in <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Conditioning by Accepting <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Swings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Public building <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls based on outside <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside <span class="hlt">air</span> and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=223146','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=223146"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AIR</span> <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation within various heated <span class="hlt">air</span> seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation across the airflow ductwork...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APhy...60..353K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APhy...60..353K"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic method for measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in rooms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanev, N. G.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A method is proposed to determine <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in rooms with a system of sound sources and receivers, making it possible to find the sound velocity and reverberation time. Nomograms for determining the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity are constructed from the found sound velocity and time reverberation values. The required accuracy of measuring these parameters is estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51A0396D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51A0396D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Rainfall Events, their Changes and Future Projections in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dash, S. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>India has unique geographical location and the country spreads over a large area. The southwest and northeast monsoons are the most important quasi permanent systems which dominate the weathers in this part of the world. The summer monsoon rainfall during the months June to September has a large temporal as well as spatial variability. The surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has also a large temporal and spatial variability. For suitable scientific analysis, the whole country can be divided into several homogeneous rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> zones. Some of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events occurring in the country include land slides, cold wave conditions, flash floods, cyclones, heat wave conditions, floods, droughts and heavy precipitation. In the context of climate change, in addition to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cases, it is important to examine all the weather events above their respective threshold levels in terms of frequencies of occurrences. Results of this study show that the atmospheric surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has enhanced in all the homogeneous regions of India with a maximum value of about 10C during winter and post-monsoon months. There is a significant seasonal asymmetry in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise. Also <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events of different types have enhanced over all the regions. It is found that the total precipitation during the summer monsoon months of June to September does not show any statistically significant trend. However, the numbers of short spell high intensity rain events and dry spells have increased in the last half century. Long spell rain events, on the other hand, show decreasing trend. The decrease in the number of long spell rain events associated with similar tendencies in the number of monsoon depressions, the mean monsoon wind and its shears over India suggests that the Indian summer monsoon circulation might be weakening. This talk will also attempt to describe the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and their projections at some selected locations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.122..315H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.122..315H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of simulated <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to convective parameterization using RegCM3 in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Pinhong; Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Wu, Jian</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this study, the regional climate model of RegCM3 is applied to investigate the sensitivity of regional climate over China using four cumulus parameterizations, the modified Anthes-Kuo (AK), the Grell with Arakawa-Schubert closure, the Grell with Fritsch-Chappell closure, and the MIT-Emanuel (EM). The model was integrated over the period of 1982 to 2001 using the NCEP Reanalysis data NNRP2 as boundary conditions. RegCM3 coupled with various cumulus parameterizations is evaluated firstly as for its ability to represent regional climatology and climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices, and the results show that simulated regional climate in China is sensitive to the option of cumulus parameterizations. All the cumulus schemes produce a northward expansion of heavy rain area and an underestimation of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For precipitation, the AK scheme simulates relatively better magnitude, while the EM scheme has more reliable performance on the spatial distribution. RegCM3 can represent the spatial distributions of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices for both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as their decadal trends irrelevant to the cumulus parameterizations. However, the model underestimates the consecutive dry days and overestimates the three <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wet indices, with the EM scheme giving the worst result. Slight underestimations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices are detected in all cumulus parameterization scheme runs. The shapes of probability distribution functions for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices are correctly produced, though the probabilities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dry and warm events are underestimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H31H0741D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H31H0741D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for Chinook salmon under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate change may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climates and climate change by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets, performed best overall in meeting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate change, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..726B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..726B"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the origin of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events over the Iberian Peninsula by clustering <span class="hlt">air</span> quality-climate simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baró, Rocío; Egea, Jose A.; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A wide number of studies show that the Iberian Peninsula (IP) exceeds some of the thresholds of <span class="hlt">air</span> quality established in the legislation. Chemistry transport models (CTMs) play a key role in forecasting the threshold exceedances for human health and ecosystems, and to understand the causes of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events. Despite improvements due to European legislations, particulate matter and ground-level ozone remain important pollutants affecting human health. However, the short-term forecasts available today (generally less than 48 hours) may hamper the decision-making and the design of abatement strategies to comply with <span class="hlt">air</span> quality standards in the Iberian Peninsula. In this sense, a characterization of the types <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events could help to characterize and understand future exceedances. Moreover, the variation of several circulation types projected under future climate scenarios may increase of the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events related to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution over southwestern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. In this context, a definition of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution events based on a regionalization process has been carried out, applied to a model climatology of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution over the Iberian Peninsula. Data from the regional modeling system MM5-CHIMERE-EMEP (driven by ERA40 reanalysis) for the period 1970-2000 is used in this study. The studied pollutants are PM10 and ozone. The domain of study covers the Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere. The thresholds set for defining the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are characterized from the objective and limit values defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC for ozone (120 µg m-3, 8-hour) and PM10 (50 µg m-3, daily mean). In order to identify locations with similar patterns in terms of the studied pollutants, a principal component analysis was carried out. This analysis helped us to group areas which usually present the same level of each</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26706765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26706765"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more closely related to mortality during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat events than other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (also known as land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> revealed that skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was poorly correlated with both <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (R(2)=0.38) and apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was predicted to exceed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape. PMID:26706765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011ThApC.106..417Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011ThApC.106..417Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during 1960-2005 in China: natural or human-induced variations?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; David Chen, Yongqin; Chen, Xiaohong</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to statistically examine changes of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in time and space and to analyze two factors potentially influencing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in China, i.e., urbanization and net solar radiation. Trends within the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series were detected by using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. The scientific problem this study expected to address was that what could be the role of human activities in the changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Other influencing factors such as net solar radiation were also discussed. The results of this study indicated that: (1) increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was observed mainly in the northeast and northwest China; (2) different behaviors were identified in the changes of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> respectively. Maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seemed to be more influenced by urbanization, which could be due to increasing urban albedo, aerosol, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutions in the urbanized areas. Minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was subject to influences of variations of net solar radiation; (3) not significant increasing and even decreasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Yangtze River basin and the regions south to the Yangtze River basin could be the consequences of higher relative humidity as a result of increasing precipitation; (4) the entire China was dominated by increasing minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Thus, we can say that the warming process of China was reflected mainly by increasing minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In addition, consistently increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was found in the upper reaches of the Yellow River basin, the Yangtze River basin, which have the potential to enhance the melting of permafrost in these areas. This may trigger new ecological problems and raise new challenges for the river basin scale water resource management.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...33H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...33H"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal features of summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Lisuo; Huang, Gang; Qu, Xia</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Based on daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 772 stations in China, the present study uses absolute index and percentile index to investigate the spatial and temporal features of summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China during the period 1960-2013. The analysis indicates that Xinjiang and southeastern China are two major domains where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat events frequently occur and that the number of heat day (NHD) and the frequency of heat wave (FHW) both show an increasing trend throughout the country except for Shandong and Henan provinces where a decreasing trend is identified. Although the two leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the NHD and the FHW based on the absolute index and percentile index have differences, the time series of the first principal components (PC1) are consistent; PC1 depicts opposite trends from 1960 to late 1990s and during the late 1990s to 2013. According to the climatology and EOF modes, four sub-regions are chosen: Chuanyu, Huanghuai, Southeast, and Xinjiang area. The inter-decadal variation over the four sub-regions differs, but the NHD and the FHW significantly increase after the mid-1990s. Based on Mann-Kendall method, it is found that the NHD and the FHW over Chuanyu exhibited abrupt shifts in 1978 and 2000; sudden shifts occurred in 1973 and 2000 over Huanghuai; an abrupt shift occurred over the Southeast area in 2003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362632"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> urban-rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the coastal city of Turku, Finland: Quantification and visualization based on a generalized additive model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hjort, Jan; Suomi, Juuso; Käyhkö, Jukka</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Fundamental knowledge on the determinants of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across spatial and temporal scales is essential in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Spatial-based statistical modelling provides an efficient approach for the analysis and prediction of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in human-modified environments at high spatial accuracy. The aim of the study was firstly, to analyse the environmental factors affecting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in a coastal high-latitude city and secondly, to explore the applicability of generalized additive model (GAM) in the study of urban-rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We utilized <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 50 permanent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> logger stations and extensive geospatial environmental data on different scales from Turku, SW Finland. We selected five <span class="hlt">temperature</span> situations (cases) and altogether 12 urban and natural explanatory variables for the analyses. The results displayed that (i) water bodies and topographical conditions were often more important than urban variables in controlling the spatial variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, (ii) case specificity of the explanatory variables and their scales should be considered in the analyses and (iii) GAM was highly suitable in quantifying and visualizing the relations between urban-rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and environmental determinants at local scales. The results promote the use of GAMs in spatial-based statistical modelling of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in future. PMID:27362632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.A51H0157X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.A51H0157X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Regimes during the Cool Season and their Associated Large-Scale Circulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Z.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the cool season (November-March), <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events (ETEs) always hit the continental United States (US) and provide significant societal impacts. According to the anomalous amplitudes of the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT), there are two typical types of ETEs, e.g. cold waves (CWs) and warm waves (WWs). This study used cluster analysis to categorize both CWs and WWs into four distinct regimes respectively and investigated their associated large-scale circulations on intra-seasonal time scale. Most of the CW regimes have large areal impact over the continental US. However, the distribution of cold SAT anomalies varies apparently in four regimes. In the sea level, the four CW regimes are characterized by anomalous high pressure over North America (near and to west of cold anomaly) with different extension and orientation. As a result, anomalous northerlies along east flank of anomalous high pressure convey cold <span class="hlt">air</span> into the continental US. To the middle troposphere, the leading two groups feature large-scale and zonally-elongated circulation anomaly pattern, while the other two regimes exhibit synoptic wavetrain pattern with meridionally elongated features. As for the WW regimes, there are some patterns symmetry and anti-symmetry with respect to CW regimes. The WW regimes are characterized by anomalous low pressure and southerlies wind over North America. The first and fourth groups are affected by remote forcing emanating from North Pacific, while the others appear mainly locally forced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events associated with precipitation and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMIN33B1551K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMIN33B1551K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy comparison of spatial interpolation methods for estimation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Y.; Shim, K.; Jung, M.; Kim, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Because of complex terrain, micro- as well as meso-climate variability is <span class="hlt">extreme</span> by locations in Korea. In particular, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of agricultural fields are influenced by topographic features of the surroundings making accurate interpolation of regional meteorological data from point-measured data. This study was conducted to compare accuracy of a spatial interpolation method to estimate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Korean Peninsula with the rugged terrains in South Korea. Four spatial interpolation methods including Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Spline, Kriging and Cokriging were tested to estimate monthly <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of unobserved stations. Monthly measured data sets (minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) from 456 automatic weather station (AWS) locations in South Korea were used to generate the gridded <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surface. Result of cross validation showed that using Exponential theoretical model produced a lower root mean square error (RMSE) than using Gaussian theoretical model in case of Kriging and Cokriging and Spline produced the lowest RMSE of spatial interpolation methods in both maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation. In conclusion, Spline showed the best accuracy among the methods, but further experiments which reflect topography effects such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lapse rate are necessary to improve the prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126981"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Impact Organisms and the Evolution of their Thermal Tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckley, Lauren B; Huey, Raymond B</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>SynopsisUnderstanding the biological impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> requires translating meteorological estimates into organismal responses, but that translation is complex. In general, the physiological stress induced by a given thermal <span class="hlt">extreme</span> should increase with the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>'s magnitude and duration, though acclimation may buffer that stress. However, organisms can differ strikingly in their exposure to and tolerance of a given <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Moreover, their sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can vary during ontogeny, across seasons, and among species; and that sensitivity and its variation should be subject to selection. We use a simple quantitative genetic model and demonstrate that thermal <span class="hlt">extremes</span>-even when at low frequency-can substantially influence the evolution of thermal sensitivity, particularly when the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> cause mortality or persistent physiological injury, or when organisms are unable to use behavior to buffer exposure to <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Thermal <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can drive organisms in temperate and tropical sites to have similar thermal tolerances despite major differences in mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Indeed, the model correctly predicts that Australian Drosophila should have shallower latitudinal gradients in thermal tolerance than would be expected based only on gradients in mean conditions. Predicting responses to climate change requires understanding not only how past selection to tolerate thermal <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has helped establish existing geographic gradients in thermal tolerances, but also how increasing the incidence of thermal <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will alter geographic gradients in the future. PMID:27126981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.3257L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.3257L"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the NARCCAP regional climate model simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loikith, Paul C.; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Huikyo; Neelin, J. David; Lintner, Benjamin R.; McGinnis, Seth; Mearns, Linda O.; Kim, Jinwon</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Large-scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are evaluated in a suite of regional climate model (RCM) simulations contributing to the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. LSMPs are characterized through composites of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, sea level pressure, and 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies concurrent with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days. Six of the seventeen RCM simulations are driven by boundary conditions from reanalysis while the other eleven are driven by one of four global climate models (GCMs). Four illustrative case studies are analyzed in detail. Model fidelity in LSMP spatial representation is high for cold winter <span class="hlt">extremes</span> near Chicago. Winter warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are captured by most RCMs in northern California, with some notable exceptions. Model fidelity is lower for cool summer days near Houston and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> summer heat events in the Ohio Valley. Physical interpretation of these patterns and identification of well-simulated cases, such as for Chicago, boosts confidence in the ability of these models to simulate days in the tails of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution. Results appear consistent with the expectation that the ability of an RCM to reproduce a realistically shaped frequency distribution for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, especially at the tails, is related to its fidelity in simulating LMSPs. Each ensemble member is ranked for its ability to reproduce LSMPs associated with observed warm and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, identifying systematically high performing RCMs and the GCMs that provide superior boundary forcing. The methodology developed here provides a framework for identifying regions where further process-based evaluation would improve the understanding of simulation error and help guide future model improvement and downscaling efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B21E0373D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B21E0373D"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning on street <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the city of Paris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Munck, C. S.; Pigeon, G.; Masson, V.; Marchadier, C.; Meunier, F.; Tréméac, B.; Merchat, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A consequence of urban heat islands in summer is the increased use of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat events : the use of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning systems, while cooling the inside of buildings releases waste heat (as latent and sensible heat) in the lower part of the urban atmosphere, hence potentially increasing <span class="hlt">air</span> street <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> where the heat is released. This may lead locally to a further increase in <span class="hlt">air</span> street <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, therefore increasing the <span class="hlt">air</span> cooling demand, while at the same time lowering the efficiency of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning units. A coupled model consisting of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH) and an urban energy balance model (TEB) has been implemented with an <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning module and used in combination to real spatialised datasets to understand and quantify potential increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning heat releases for the city of Paris . In a first instance, the current types of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning systems co-existing in the city were simulated (underground chilled water network, wet cooling towers and individual <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning units) to study the effects of latent and sensible heat releases on street <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In a third instance, 2 scenarios were tested to characterise the impacts of likely future trends in <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning equipment in the city : a first scenario for which current heat releases were converted to sensible heat, and a second based on 2030s projections of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning equipment at the scale of the city. All the scenarios showed an increase in street <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which, as expected, was greater at night time than day time. For the first two scenarios, this increase in street <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was localised at or near the sources of <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioner heat releases, while the 2030s <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning scenario impacted wider zones in the city. The amplitude of the increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from 0,25°C to 1°C for the <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning current state, between 0,25°C and 2°C for the sensible heat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004581','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004581"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of COTS Electronic Parts for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Use in NASA Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Electronic systems capable of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation are required for many future NASA space exploration missions where it is desirable to have smaller, lighter, and less expensive spacecraft and probes. Presently, spacecraft on-board electronics are maintained at about room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by use of thermal control systems. An <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on development of electronics suitable for space exploration missions. The effects of exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and thermal cycling are being investigated for commercial-off-the-shelf components as well as for components specially developed for harsh environments. An overview of this program along with selected data is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329454"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid phase stability under an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Zhi; Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel</p> <p>2013-11-27</p> <p>Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we subject bulk liquid to a very high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient and observe a stable liquid phase with a local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> well above the boiling point. Also, under this high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, the vapor phase exhibits condensation into a liquid at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> higher than the saturation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, indicating that the observed liquid stability is not caused by nucleation barrier kinetics. We show that, assuming local thermal equilibrium, the phase change can be understood from the thermodynamic analysis. The observed elevation of the boiling point is associated with the interplay between the "bulk" driving force for the phase change and surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface that suppresses the transformation. This phenomenon is analogous to that observed for liquids in confined geometries. In our study, however, a low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> liquid, rather than a solid, confines the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> liquid. PMID:24329454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111v5701L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.111v5701L"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Phase Stability Under an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Zhi; Sasikumar, Kiran; Keblinski, Pawel</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we subject bulk liquid to a very high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient and observe a stable liquid phase with a local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> well above the boiling point. Also, under this high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, the vapor phase exhibits condensation into a liquid at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> higher than the saturation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, indicating that the observed liquid stability is not caused by nucleation barrier kinetics. We show that, assuming local thermal equilibrium, the phase change can be understood from the thermodynamic analysis. The observed elevation of the boiling point is associated with the interplay between the “bulk” driving force for the phase change and surface tension of the liquid-vapor interface that suppresses the transformation. This phenomenon is analogous to that observed for liquids in confined geometries. In our study, however, a low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> liquid, rather than a solid, confines the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> liquid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5815I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5815I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> regimes of atmospheric circulation and their role in the formation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation fields in the Arctic region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irina, Kulikova; Ekaterina, Kruglova; Dmitry, Kiktev; Vladimir, Tischenco; Valentina, Khan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the present study, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere as well as their role in the formation of monthly and seasonal anomalies of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation fields over Arctic region were examined using NCEP / NCAR-2 reanalysis data. To identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> modes, climate indexes were quantitatively assessed. The mapping of monthly and seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation fields for the different phases of indices using composite analysis was developed. It is allowed to identify allocated geographic areas in which the influence of modes of circulation for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation fields in Arctic is statistically significant. Quantitative estimations of contingency of atmospheric circulation modes in the Northern Hemisphere were analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> episodes of the climate circulation indices, associated with formation of significant anomalies of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. The results of numerical experiments to reproduce the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on monthly and seasonal time scale on the basis of the global semi-Lagrangian model SL-AV, developed in collaboration of Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, have been discussed. For this study the support has been provided by Grant of Russian Science Foundation (№14-37-00053).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1682e0011H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1682e0011H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices analyses: A case study of five meteorological stations in Peninsular Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events affect many human and natural systems. Changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events can be detected and monitored by developing the indices based on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. As an effort to provide the understanding of these changes to the public, a study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices is conducted at five meteorological stations in Peninsular Malaysia. In this study, changes in the means and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are assessed and compared using the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for the period of 2004 to 2013. The absolute <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices; TXx, TXn, TXn and TNn provided by Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) are utilized and linear trends of each index are extracted using least square likelihood method. The results indicate that there exist significant decreasing trend in the TXx index for Kota Bharu station and increasing trend in TNn index for Chuping and Kota Kinabalu stations. The comparison between the trend in mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show the same significant tendency for Kota Bharu and Kuala Terengganu stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B34C..02R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B34C..02R"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of health risks related to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in three Latin American cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We explore whether the health risks related to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9560A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9560A"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic models for assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and relative humidity in Lithuania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alzbutas, Robertas; Šeputytė, Ilona</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are fairly common natural phenomenon in Lithuania. They have mainly negative effects both on the environment and humans. Thus there are important to perform probabilistic and statistical analyzes of possibly <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values and their time-dependant changes. This is especially important in areas where technical objects (sensitive to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) are foreseen to be constructed. In order to estimate the frequencies and consequences of possible <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the probabilistic analysis of the event occurrence and its uncertainty has been performed: statistical data have been collected and analyzed. The probabilistic analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Lithuanian territory is based on historical data taken from Lithuanian Hydrometeorology Service, Dūkštas Meteorological Station, Lithuanian Energy Institute and Ignalina NNP Environmental Protection Department of Environmental Monitoring Service. The main objective of performed work was the probabilistic assessment of occurrence and impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity occurring in whole Lithuania and specifically in Dūkštas region where Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is closed for decommissioning. In addition, the other purpose of this work was to analyze the changes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The probabilistic analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase in Lithuanian territory was based on more than 50 years historical data. The probabilistic assessment was focused on the application and comparison of Gumbel, Weibull and Generalized Value (GEV) distributions, enabling to select a distribution, which has the best fit for data of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In order to assess the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> different probabilistic models were applied to evaluate the probability of exeedance of different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. According to the statistics and the relationship between return period and probabilities of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the return period for 30</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030016689','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030016689"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Components and Circuits for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electrical power management and control systems that are capable of efficient and reliable operation in very low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronics capable of operation at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> will not only tolerate the hostile environment of deep space but also reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the radioisotope heating units and their associate structures; thereby reducing system development as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This improvement results from better behavior and tolerance in the electrical and thermal properties of semiconductor and dielectric materials at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical components, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for reliable use down to cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Some of the commercial-off-the-shelf as well as developed components that are being characterized include switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits including digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being investigated for potential use in low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications. An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Low <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronic Program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> test facilities along with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8734M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8734M"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across the Iberian Peninsula, 1960-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merino, Andrés; Fernández-Vaquero, Mario; López, Laura; Sánchez, José Luis; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Fernández-González, Sergio; Marcos, José Luis</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The study of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is critical because of the great impact of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high or low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> dry or wet conditions on the environment, economy and society. Identification of areas at greater risk for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions, and of meteorological situations that give rise to such conditions, enhances understanding of climate risks and helps establish measures to reduce adverse impacts. In this paper, we analyzed the occurrence of very wet conditions and high/low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Spain between 1960 and 2011. Thresholds for determining severity of the events were defined using the 90th, 95th and 99th percentiles. First, we identified regions of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather risk, and analyzed trends of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in each weather observatory using the Mann-Kendall test. To better understand atmospheric processes associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events in each weather observatory, we analyzed synoptic-scale fields of events that exceeded the 99th percentile. By applying non-hierarchical K-means clustering, we defined large-scale atmospheric patterns under which <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation were produced on the Iberian Peninsula. The results show a clear ability to identify regions exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather hazards, which can assist decision-making toward minimizing vulnerability of those regions. In addition, correct identification of synoptic patterns associated with each type of weather <span class="hlt">extreme</span> will help predict such events, thereby providing useful information for decision-making and warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007890"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over Northern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and satellite remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daytime land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and nighttime land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and MODIS land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, surface maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015IJBm...59.1107O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015IJBm...59.1107O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The association of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Seasonal variation in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been widely assumed. However, few studies have investigated the association between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the incidence of TB. We collected data on cases of TB and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Fukuoka, Japan for 2008-2012 and used time-series analyses to assess the possible relationship of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with TB incident cases, adjusting for seasonal and interannual variation. Our analysis revealed that the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (relative risk (RR) 1.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.43). We also found that the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.05-1.45). Sex and age did not modify the effect of either heat or cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Our study provides quantitative evidence that the number of TB cases increased significantly with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The results may help public health officials predict <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related TB incidence and prepare for the implementation of preventive public health interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.370B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.370B"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and climatological drought long-term tendencies in Latvia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Briede, A.; Lizuma, L.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Drought is one of the major climatic hazard, which is can cause significant damage to the Latvia's agriculture, forestry, hydropower production, fire safety as well as ecology conditions. During warm season drought are usually related to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot conditions which can additionally cause heat wave related mortality or human health problems. This study investigated long-term variability and trends in Latvia's drought and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot conditions using meteorological data from 10 meteorological stations for the period 1925-2009 and from station Riga-University for the period 1850-2009. The set of long-term climatological indices characterized drought and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot conditions (summer days, tropical nights, warm nights and day-times, warm spell days, number of constitutive dry days, standardized precipitation index and fire safety index) were used for this investigation. According to long-term data from the station Riga -University, the number of summer days was much higher in the 1850-60-ties. Many more summer days occurred in the 1930-ties and in the beginning of the 21st century. The tendency observed from the beginning of the 20th century is caused by warm summers, especially the summer of 2002 with 60 days of maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 25 0C, the highest for the whole period of instrumental observations. Unusually warm nights that normally follow <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot days are one of the factors characteristic of hot waves that effect human health and general state. The marked increasing tendency has not been identified for <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot nights, yet from early 1990-ties, tropic nights have been registered more often than in the rest of the observation period. Over the whole observation period statistically significant increases in warm days, nights and day-times have been noted. The obtained results indicate that during the 20th century precipitation in warm period showed a decreasing tendency. On a country-wide scale, results indicate that more droughts</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJCli..22.1511G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJCli..22.1511G"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatological analysis of wintertime <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in São Paulo City, Brazil: impact of sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Silva Dias, P. L.; Araújo, G. P.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>A diagnostic climatological study of winter cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is presented. This diagnosis is based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected at the Meteorological Station of Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (IAG/USP) from 1950 to 2000. The persistence of synoptic and climatological patterns has been studied through principal component (PC) analysis and the results are compared with monthly anomalies in sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) of the eastern Pacific and South Atlantic. The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, on a monthly basis, have shown no significant change since 1950. On the other hand, the mean monthly <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have shown a slight warming trend, in agreement with the South Atlantic Ocean warming trend. The PC indicates significant loadings of two SST anomaly types: a cold anomaly of the South Atlantic Ocean, and a warm anomaly off the southern Brazilian coast. The latter could also be responsible for some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold events (for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) in the MASP, and to a dominant westerly wind direction (southwest to northwest). Both the cold events and the westerly wind direction were evident in such winters as 1953, 1975, 1978, 1981, and 1994. On the other hand, the cold mean monthly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are very well correlated to a broad cold pool anomaly in the South Atlantic at around 25 to 35° S and 15 to 55° W - sometimes narrower (such as in 1979 and 1988), and sometimes broader (such as 1964 and 1990). Where there was a narrowing or a widening, the prevailing wind direction was from the south-southeast. Therefore, the conclusion of these results is that the SST anomalies in the South Atlantic Ocean have a dominant effect on the São Paulo winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climatology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..122D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..122D"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Mediterranean: past climate assessment and projection in anthropogenic scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drobinski, Philippe; Silva, Nicolas Da; Panthou, Gérémy; Bastin, Sophie; Muller, Caroline; Ahrens, Bodo; Borga, Marco; Conte, Dario; Fosser, Giorgia; Giorgi, Filippo; Güttler, Ivan; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Li, Laurent; Morin, Efrat; Önol, Bariş; Quintana-Segui, Pere; Romera, Raquel; Torma, Csaba Zsolt</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this study we investigate the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Mediterranean region by assessing against observations the present day and future regional climate simulations performed in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs. Over the 1979-2008 period, despite differences in quantitative precipitation simulation across the various models, the change in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is robust and consistent. The spatial variability of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relationship displays a hook shape across the Mediterranean, with negative slope at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a slope following Clausius-Clapeyron (CC)-scaling at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which the slope of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> relation sharply changes (or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> break), ranges from about 20 °C in the western Mediterranean to <10 °C in Greece. In addition, this slope is always negative in the arid regions of the Mediterranean. The scaling of the simulated precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is insensitive to ocean-atmosphere coupling, while it depends very weakly on the resolution at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for short precipitation accumulation times. In future climate scenario simulations covering the 2070-2100 period, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> break shifts to higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a value which is on average the mean regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change due to global warming. The slope of the simulated future <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relationship is close to CC-scaling at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> break, while at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the negative slope is close, but somewhat flatter or steeper, than in the current climate depending on the model. Overall, models predict more intense precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the future. Adjusting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relationship in the present climate using the CC law and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift in the future allows the recovery of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988773','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988773"><span id="translatedtitle">Rising sea levels will reduce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in tide-dominated reef habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27540589"><span id="translatedtitle">Rising sea levels will reduce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in tide-dominated reef habitats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1164293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1164293"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Frequency Modulation of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Regimes in a Changing Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Black, Robert X.</p> <p>2014-11-24</p> <p>The project examines long-term changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> episodes (ETE) associated with planetary climate modes (PCMs) in both the real atmospheric and climate model simulations. The focus is on cold <span class="hlt">air</span> outbreaks (CAOs) and warm waves (WWs) occurring over the continental US during the past 60 winters. No significant long-term trends in either WWs or CAOs are observed over the US. The annual frequency of CAOs is affected by the (i) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the Southeast US and (ii) Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern over the Northwest US. WW frequency is influenced by the (i) NAO over the eastern US and (ii) combined influence of PNA, Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and ENSO over the southern US. The collective influence of PCMs accounts for as much as 50% of the regional variability in ETE frequency. During CAO (WW) events occurring over the southeast US, there are low (high) pressure anomalies at higher atmospheric levels over the southeast US with oppositely-signed pressure anomalies in the lower atmosphere over the central US. These patterns lead to anomalous northerly (for CAOs) or southerly (for WWs) flow into the southeast leading to cold or warm surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, respectively. One distinction is that CAOs involve substantial <span class="hlt">air</span> mass transport while WW formation is more local in nature. The primary differences among event categories are in the origin and nature of the pressure anomaly features linked to ETE onset. In some cases, PCMs help to provide a favorable environment for event onset. Heat budget analyses indicate that latitudinal transport in the lower atmosphere is the main contributor to regional cooling during CAO onset. This is partly offset by adiabatic warming associated with subsiding <span class="hlt">air</span>. Additional diagnoses reveal that this latitudinal transport is partly due to the remote physical influence of a shallow cold pool of <span class="hlt">air</span> trapped along the east side of the Rocky Mountains. ETE and PCM behavior is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212042','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212042"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Substrate Acidification by Geranium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The cause of sudden substrate pH decline by geranium is unknown and it may be due to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or low P. ‘Designer Dark Red’ Geraniums were grown in two experiments and the first tested the effect of four <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (57/50, 64/57, 72/64 and 79/72º F day/night) on substrate acidificatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12..549Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12..549Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes between grassland and forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Voigt, M.; Liu, H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>During the past several decades, observational data have shown a faster increase in hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than the change in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Increasingly high <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. The ecological impact of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on vegetation production, however, remains uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on vegetation production by combining the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data set and in situ climatic records during the period 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climate. Our results show that higher mean annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmax) greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effect of precipitation. The relative decrease in vegetation production was 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase was 5% for forest. We also observed a significantly positive relationship between interannual aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and Tmax for the forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). This line of evidence suggests that hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> lead to contrasting ecosystem-level responses of vegetation production between grassland and forest biomes. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider such contrasting responses to increasingly hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes associated with climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.5997Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.5997Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes between grassland and forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Voigt, M.; Liu, H.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Observational data during the past several decades show faster increase of hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over land than changes in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Towards more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. However, the ecological impacts of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) by combining MODIS EVI dataset and in situ climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climates. Our results showed that higher mean annual maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmax) greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effects of precipitation. Relative decreases in ANPP were 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase were 5% for forest. We also observed a significant positive relationship between interannual ANPP and Tmax for forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). This line of evidence suggests that hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> leads to contrasting ecosystem-level response of vegetation production to warming climate between grassland and forest. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider these contrasting responses to more hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes associated with climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JThSc...9..169K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JThSc...9..169K"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study on high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and low oxygen <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, W. B.; Chung, D. H.; Yang, J. B.; Noh, D. S.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> preheated and diluted <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion has been confirmed as the technology, mainly applied to industrial furnaces and kilns, to realize higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions. The purpose of this study was to investigate fundamental aspects of the above-mentioned combustion experimentally and to compare with those in ordinary hydrocarbon combustion with room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>. The test items were exhaust gas components of CO, NOx, flame shape and radical components of CH, OH and C2, which were measured with gas analyser, camera and ICCD(Intensified Charged - Coupled Device) camera. Many phenomena as results appeared in combustion with the oxidizer, low oxygen concentration and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>, such as expansion of the flammable limits, increased flame propagation speed, it looked so strange as compared with those in existing combustion technology. We confirmed that such extraordinary phenomena were believable through the hot-test experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.6037S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.6037S"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of microphysics on the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Martin S.; O'Gorman, Paul A.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium with a cloud-system resolving model are used to investigate the scaling of high percentiles of the precipitation distribution (precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>) over a wide range of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. At surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above roughly 295 K, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> increase with warming in proportion to the increase in surface moisture, following what is termed Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) scaling. At lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the rate of increase of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> depends on the choice of cloud and precipitation microphysics scheme and the accumulation period, and it differs markedly from CC scaling in some cases. Precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are found to be sensitive to the fall speeds of hydrometeors, and this partly explains the different scaling results obtained with different microphysics schemes. The results suggest that microphysics play an important role in determining the response of convective precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to warming, particularly when ice- and mixed-phase processes are important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=agronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dagronomy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=agronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dagronomy"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Decreases in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The observations indicated near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572263"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of myostatin genotype on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howard, J T; Kachman, S D; Nielsen, M K; Mader, T L; Spangler, M L</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat and cold events can create deleterious physiological changes in cattle as they attempt to cope. The genetic background of animals can influence their response to these events. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of myostatin genotype (MG) on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during periods of heat and cold stress. Two groups of crossbred steers and heifers of unknown pedigree and breed fraction with varying percentages of Angus, Simmental, and Piedmontese were placed in a feedlot over 2 summers and 2 winters. Before arrival, animals were genotyped for the Piedmontese-derived myostatin mutation (C313Y) to determine their MG as either homozygous normal (0 copy; n = 84), heterozygous (1 copy; n = 96), or homozygous for inactive myostatin (2 copy; n = 59). Hourly tympanic and vaginal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were collected for steers and heifers, respectively, for 5 d during times of anticipated heat and cold stress. Mean (±SD) ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for summer and winter stress events were 24.4 (±4.64) and -1.80 (±11.71), respectively. A trigonometric function (sine + cosine) with periods of 12 and 24 h was used to describe the diurnal cyclical pattern. Hourly body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was analyzed within a season, and fixed effects included MG, group, trigonometric functions nested within group, and interaction of MG with trigonometric functions nested within group; random effects were animal and residual (Model [I]). A combined analysis of season and group was also investigated with the inclusion of season as a main effect and the nesting of effects within both group and season (Model [C]). In both models, the residual was fitted using an autoregressive covariance structure. A 3-way interaction of MG, season, and trigonometric function periodicities of 24 h (P < 0.001) and 12 h (P < 0.02) for Model [C] indicate that a genotype × environment interaction exists for MG. For MG during summer stress events the additive estimate was 0.10°C (P < 0.01) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCS...84...70S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPCS...84...70S"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamics of iron at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saxena, Surendra K.; Eriksson, Gunnar</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A thermodynamic database on all iron phases (BCC, FCC, HCP and melt) has been created using thermochemical and equations of state data from experiments and theory. The database permits the calculation of the phase diagram of iron to physical conditions of the Earth's core (pressure of 365 GPa and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 6453 K). If the inner core were all iron, its upper <span class="hlt">temperature</span> would be 6453 (500) K. The average heat capacity of a pure iron HCP inner core is calculated as 29.4 J/mol/K with an entropy of 92 J/mol/K and a gruneisen parameter of 1.81.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3720H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3720H"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the interaction between land use change, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and land-atmosphere interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Annette L.; Pitman, Andy J.; Kala, Jatin; Lorenz, Ruth; Donat, Markus G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Using the Weather and Research Forecasting Model, we examine the combined impact of land-atmosphere coupling and land use change (LUC) on simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The sensitivity of the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to the choice of planetary boundary layer (PBL) and cumulus parameterization schemes are also evaluated to examine whether the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is dependent on the atmospheric model physics and if this impact is modulated by changes in land-atmosphere coupling. A decomposition of the surface energy balance is used to examine the different responses to LUC. Results show a consistent weakening in the soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling strength with LUC irrespective of the atmospheric model physics tested here. In contrast, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> show an asymmetric response to LUC dependent on the choice of PBL scheme, which is linked to differences in the parameterization of vertical transport. This influences convective precipitation, contributing a positive feedback on soil moisture and consequently on the partitioning of the surface turbulent fluxes. The results suggest that the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> depends on the land-atmosphere coupling that in turn depends on the choice of PBL. Indeed, the sign of the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> due to LUC can be changed simply by altering the choice of PBL schemes examined here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817825M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817825M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>: The OptiBarn project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menz, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In a first step we identify various multivariate high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019667"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. <span class="hlt">Air-temperature</span>-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to stratify the sampling for LST and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..1510319O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..1510319O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from crowd-sourced battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of cell phones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. The number of available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to a server for storage. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model is calibrated with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos <span class="hlt">Aires</span>, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and variability of daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and variability of daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AtmRe.108..128C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AtmRe.108..128C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistence analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> CO, NO2 and O3 concentrations in ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> of Delhi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chelani, Asha B.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Persistence analysis of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant concentration and corresponding exceedance time series is carried out to examine for temporal evolution. For this purpose, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutant concentrations, namely, CO, NO2 and O3 observed during 2000-2009 at a traffic site in Delhi are analyzed using detrended fluctuation analysis. Two types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values are analyzed; exceeded concentrations to a threshold provided by national pollution controlling agency and time interval between two exceedances. The time series of three pollutants is observed to possess persistence property whereas the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value time series of only primary pollutant concentrations is found to be persistent. Two time scaling regions are observed to be significant in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> time series of CO and NO2, mainly attributed to implementation of CNG in vehicles. The presence of persistence in three pollutant concentration time series is linked to the property of self-organized criticality. The observed persistence in the time interval between two exceeded levels is a matter of concern as persistent high concentrations can trigger health problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=Barometric&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65309830&CFTOKEN=37012261','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=Barometric&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65309830&CFTOKEN=37012261"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations of endothelial function and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in diabetic subjects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023751&hterms=cold+heat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcold%2Bheat','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023751&hterms=cold+heat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcold%2Bheat"><span id="translatedtitle">High Lapse Rates in <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Retrieved <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Cold <span class="hlt">Air</span> Outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, large sea-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The bias in near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is seen to be independent of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, however. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is therefore sensitive to <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> near-surface retrieved <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936471"><span id="translatedtitle">Solid Nitrogen at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions of High Pressure and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E</p> <p>2004-04-05</p> <p>We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21819066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21819066"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen confinement in carbon nanopores: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> densification at ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallego, Nidia C; He, Lilin; Saha, Dipendu; Contescu, Cristian I; Melnichenko, Yuri B</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In-situ small-angle neutron scattering studies of H(2) confined in small pores of polyfurfuryl alcohol-derived activated carbon at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have provided for the first time its phase behavior in equilibrium with external H(2) at pressures up to 200 bar. The data were used to evaluate the density of the adsorbed fluid, which appears to be a function of both pore size and pressure and is comparable to the density of liquid H(2) in narrow nanopores at ∼200 bar. The surface-molecule interactions responsible for densification of H(2) within the pores create internal pressures that exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to ∼50, confirming the benefits of adsorptive storage over compressive storage. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored for maximum H(2) storage capacities at near-ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:21819066</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023839','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023839"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen Confinement in Carbon Nanopores: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Densification at Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gallego, Nidia C; He, Lilin; Saha, Dipendu; Contescu, Cristian I; Melnichenko, Yuri B</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In-situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of hydrogen confined in small pores of polyfurfuryl alcohol-derived activated carbon (PFAC) at room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> provided for the first time its phase behavior in equilibrium with external H2 at pressures up to 200 bar. The data was used to evaluate the density of the adsorbed fluid, which appears to be a function of both pore size and pressure, and approaches the liquid hydrogen density in narrow nanopores at 200 bar. The surface-molecule interactions responsible for densification of hydrogen within the pores create internal pressures which exceed by a factor of up to ~ 60 the external gas pressures, confirming the benefits of adsorptive over compressive storage. These results can be utilized to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored for maximum hydrogen storage capacities at near ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020046979','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020046979"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Barrier/Seal for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l4001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10l4001A"><span id="translatedtitle">Placing bounds on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response of maize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Christopher J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Peng, Yixing; Gassman, Philip W.; Campbell, Todd D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Plant water availability is a key factor that determines maize yield response to excess heat. Lack of available data has limited researchers’ ability to estimate this relationship at regional and global scales. Using a new soil moisture data set developed by running a crop growth simulator over historical data we demonstrate how current estimates of maize yield sensitivity to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are misleading. We develop an empirical model relating observed yields to climate variables and soil moisture in a high maize production region in the United States to develop bounds on yield sensitivity to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. For the portion of the region with a relatively long growing season, yield reduction per °C is 10% for high water availability and 32.5% for low water availability. Where the growing season is shorter, yield reduction per °C is 6% for high water availability and 27% for low water availability. These results indicate the importance of using both water availability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to model crop yield response to explain future climate change on crop yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810999S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810999S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of green roofs on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; measurement study of well-watered and dry conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solcerova, Anna; van de Ven, Frans; Wang, Mengyu; van de Giesen, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Rapid urbanization and increasing number and duration of heat waves poses a need for understanding urban climate and ways to mitigate <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. One of repeatedly suggested and often investigated methods to moderate the so called urban heat island are green roofs. This study investigates several extensive green roofs in Utrecht (NL) and their effect on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> right above the roof surface. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured 15 and 30 cm above the roof surface and also in the substrate. We show that under normal condition is <span class="hlt">air</span> above green roof, compared to white gravel roof, colder at night and warmer during day. This suggest that green roofs might help decrease <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at night, when the urban heat island is strongest, but possibly contribute to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during daytime. We also measured situation when the green roofs wilted and dried out. Under such conditions green roof exhibits more similar behavior to conventional white gravel roof. Interestingly, pattern of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remains almost the same for both dry and well-prospering green roof, colder during day and warmer at night. As such, green roof works as a buffer of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980219330','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980219330"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Transient <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.124..855Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.124..855Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Poyang Lake basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Yeqiao</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data from 15 rain gauges covering a period of 1957-2011 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall trend test with the aim to investigate changing characteristics of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Poyang Lake basin, the largest freshwater lake in China. Also, the connection between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is analyzed and possible causes for the connection are briefly discussed. Results indicate that (1) warming, characterized by a decreasing trend in frost days and a significant decrease of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> defined by lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in the Poyang Lake basin is observed. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, defined by higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices such as hot days, exhibit moderate changes with no significant trends. Moreover, warming occurs mainly in the northern part of the Poyang Lake basin; (2) precipitation changes are intensifying as reflected by increasing precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. However, these changes are different from 1 month to another and the intensification is found mainly in winter and/or summer months; (3) the influence of ENSO on precipitation changes in the Poyang Lake basin is evident with a time lag of longer than 3 months. This should be due to the fact that higher sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tends to trigger the occurrence of convective precipitation regimes. Results of this study are important for modeling the occurrence of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a changing climate and regional climatic responses to global climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14...79K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14...79K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Pacific: improving seasonal prediction of tropical cyclones and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to improve resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuleshov, Y.; Jones, D.; Spillman, C. M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Climate change and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> have a major impact on Australia and Pacific Island countries. Of particular concern are tropical cyclones and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the first being the most destructive events for terrestrial systems, while the latter has the potential to devastate ocean ecosystems through coral bleaching. As a practical response to climate change, under the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning program (PACCSAP), we are developing enhanced web-based information tools for providing seasonal forecasts for climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Western Pacific. Tropical cyclones are the most destructive weather systems that impact on coastal areas. Interannual variability in the intensity and distribution of tropical cyclones is large, and presently greater than any trends that are ascribable to climate change. In the warming environment, predicting tropical cyclone occurrence based on historical relationships, with predictors such as sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) now frequently lying outside of the range of past variability meaning that it is not possible to find historical analogues for the seasonal conditions often faced by Pacific countries. Elevated SSTs are the primary trigger for mass coral bleaching events, which can lead to widespread damage and mortality on reef systems. Degraded coral reefs present many problems, including long-term loss of tourism and potential loss or degradation of fisheries. The monitoring and prediction of thermal stress events enables the support of a range of adaptive and management activities that could improve reef resilience to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. Using the climate model POAMA (Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia), we aim to improve accuracy of seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclone activity and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> SSTs for the regions of Western Pacific. Improved knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic events, with the assistance of tailored forecast tools, will help enhance the resilience and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9367S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9367S"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Events and its impact on Wildlife Plant Phenology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siegmund, Jonatan; Donner, Reik</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Besides gradual changes of the mean behaviour of climate variables, global climate change results in higher frequencies and intensities of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events. Especially heat waves struck Central Europe during the last decade and are predicted to do so even more frequently during the 21st century. The impact of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events on the ecologically important flowering dates of wildlife plant species is not yet known precisely, although the temporal displacement or even absolute failure of flowering may lead to the disturbance of sensitive ecological equlibria. In this study, we systematically investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on various wildlife plant flowering dates dur- ing the time period of 1951-2014 for 52 German regions using the Plant Phenology dataset of the German Weather Service. The impact of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is quantified using the coincidence analysis, a method to detect non-random simultaneous appearences of events in two time series. We calculate cumulative coincidence rates between both time series for time- lags between 0 and 16 months in both directions. Our results underline the importance of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the flowering month regarding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and indicate long-term-dependencies between <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and very early plant flowering dates with a time-lag of almost one year. On the other hand, the disparity between the re- sults of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-phenology and phenology-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coincidence rates indicate, that <span class="hlt">extremely</span> warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> only cause very early flowering dates under certain conditions, leading to the notion of conditional coincidence. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis, that more and stronger <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events have the potential to sus- tainably disturb mid latitude ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..198B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..198B"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial adaptation to <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartlett, Douglas</p> <p></p> <p>The largest portion of Earth's biosphere is represented by low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, high pressure deepsea environments which are exposed to reduced and recalcitrant forms of organic carbon and which are far removed from sun light. Progress that has been made in recent years examining the biodiversity, genomics and genetics of microbial life at great ocean depths will be described. Particular focus will be given to the comparative genomics of members of Colwellia, Photobacterium, Moritella, Shewanella, Psychromonas and Carnobacterium genera. The genomes of piezophiles (high pressure adapted microbes) are characterized by possessing large intergenic regions, large numbers of rRNA operons, rRNA of a modified secondary structure, a reliance on unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in their membrane lipids, a diversity of transport and physiological capabilities, and large numbers of transposable elements. Genetic studies in Photobacterium profundum have highlighted roles for extracellular polysaccharide production and DNA replication and protein synthesis in low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and high pressure growth. Recent advances in the cultivation of novel piezophiles from a deep-trench environment will also be described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010194','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110010194"><span id="translatedtitle">Lessons Learned from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>: Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Using Only Shortwave <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, Joel</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the use of shortwave channels available to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) to improve the determination of surface and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> instrument is compared with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board the MetOp-A satellite. The objectives of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU were to (1) provide real time observations to improve numerical weather prediction via data assimilation, (2) Provide observations to measure and explain interannual variability and trends and (3) Use of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> product error estimates allows for QC optimized for each application. Successive versions in the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieval methodology have shown significant improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Initial Mixture <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Flame Speed of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-<span class="hlt">air</span> and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AdAtS..28..147L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AdAtS..28..147L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Hong Kong and southern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, T. C.; Chan, H. S.; Ginn, E. W. L.; Wong, M. C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The observed long-term trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Hong Kong were studied based on the meteorological data recorded at the Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters from 1885-2008. Results show that, over the past 124 years, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, as well as the length of the warm spell in Hong Kong, exhibit statistically significant long-term rising trends, while the length of the cold spell shows a statistically significant decreasing trend. The time-dependent return period analysis also indicated that the return period for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 4°C or lower lengthened considerably from 6 years in 1900 to over 150 years in 2000, while the return periods for daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reaching 35°C or above shortened drastically from 32 years in 1900 to 4.5 years in 2000. Past trends in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from selected weather stations in southern China from 1951-2004 were also assessed. Over 70% of the stations studied yielded a statistically significant rising trend in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while the trend for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was found to vary, with no significant trend established for the majority of stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.423.2868I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.423.2868I"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared spectroscopy of hydrogenated fullerenes (fulleranes) at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iglesias-Groth, Susana; García-Hernández, D. A.; Cataldo, Franco; Manchado, Arturo</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The infrared spectra, as well as the integrated molar absorptivity (Ψ) and the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) of each infrared transition of the hydrogenated fullerenes (known as fulleranes) C60H36, C60H18 and C70H38, and a mixture of fulleranes generally referred to as 77 per cent of C60Hx and 22 per cent C70Hy with x≈y > 30, are presented and discussed. These data are useful for the search, identification and quantitative determination of fulleranes in space after the recent discovery that their parent molecules, C60 and C70, are more abundant in space than initially thought, being present in a variety of H-rich circumstellar environments such as planetary nebulae and only mild H-deficient R Coronae Borealis stars, and in the interstellar medium. It is shown that the C-H stretching band of the fulleranes C60H36, C60H18 and C70H38, and their mixture may be most useful for the identification of these molecules because their Ψ and ɛ values are unique in terms of strength, overcoming by far the typical Ψ and ɛ values of reference molecules such as adamantane and docosane, as well as typical ɛ literature data for aliphatic molecules. In contrast to the rather simple infrared spectra of C60H36 and C60H38, the infrared spectra of two C60H18 isomers are reported as characterized by a rich number of bands which may allow an easier identification than the higher homologues. The dependence of the infrared bands of fulleranes on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was studied over a wide range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (from -180°C to +250°C) and extrapolated to 0 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.7722H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.7722H"><span id="translatedtitle">Projected changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events based on the NARCCAP model suite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, Radley M.; Coffel, Ethan D.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Bader, Daniel A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Once-per-year (annual) maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) models are projected to increase more (less) than mean daily maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over much of the eastern (western) United States. In contrast, the models almost everywhere project greater warming of once-per-year minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as compared to mean daily minimum winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Under projected changes associated with <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution, Baltimore's maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that was met or exceeded once per year historically is projected to occur 17 times per season by midcentury, a 28% increase relative to projections based on summer mean daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change. Under the same approach, historical once-per-year cold events in Baltimore are projected to occur once per decade. The models are generally able to capture observed geopotential height anomalies associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in two subregions. Projected changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events cannot be explained by geopotential height anomalies or lower boundary conditions as reflected by soil moisture anomalies or snow water equivalent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005803&hterms=sensor+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsensor%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150005803&hterms=sensor+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsensor%2Btemperature"><span id="translatedtitle">Qualification of Bonding Process of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensors to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Deep Space Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard; Sunada, Eric T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A process has been explored based on the state-of-the-art technology to bond the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) on to potential aerospace material such as a flat aluminum surface and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cable for the flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a metal plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while attaching the sensor with braid to the base material for long duration deep space missions. Appropriate pretreatment has been implemented in this study to enhance the adhesion of the PRTs to the base material. NuSil product has been chosen in this research to attach PRT to the base materials. The resistance (approx.1.1 k(Omega)) of PRTs has been electrically monitored continuously during the qualification thermal cycling testing from -150 C to +120 C and -100 C to -35 C. The test hardware has been thermal cycled three times the mission life per JPL design principles for JUNO project. No PRT failures were observed during and after the PRT thermal cycling qualification test for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. However, there were some failures associated with staking of the PRT pig tails as a result of thermal cycling qualification test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252857&keyword=drought&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76695290&CFTOKEN=61200313','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=252857&keyword=drought&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76695290&CFTOKEN=61200313"><span id="translatedtitle">COMBINING EMPIRICAL ORTHOGONAL FUNCTION AND <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> VALUE THEORY METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE OBSERVED AND FUTURE CHANGES IN <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> U.S. <span class="hlt">AIR</span> POLLUTION EVENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p> The occurrence of meteorological conditions associated with poor <span class="hlt">air</span> quality (i.e. elevated levels of ozone and particulate matter) that are classified as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events at present are expected to increase in a warmer climate. Using state-of-the-art statistical techniques, ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking changes in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. However, observed evidence of long-term change in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed change in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic changes, the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent changes in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns. PMID:26108856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810449Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..11810449Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A physically based analytical spatial <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Yang; Endreny, Theodore A.; Nowak, David J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Spatial variation of urban surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat storage based on semiempirical functions and generates spatially distributed estimates based on inputs of topography, land cover, and the weather data measured at a reference site. The model assumes that for all grids under the same mesoscale climate, grid <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity are modified by local variation in absorbed solar radiation and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. The model uses a reference grid site for time series meteorological data and the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity of any other grid can be obtained by solving the heat flux network equations. PASATH was coupled with the USDA iTree-Hydro water balance model to obtain evapotranspiration terms and run from 20 to 29 August 2010 at a 360 m by 360 m grid scale and hourly time step across a 285 km2 watershed including the urban area of Syracuse, NY. PASATH predictions were tested at nine urban weather stations representing variability in urban topography and land cover. The PASATH model predictive efficiency R2 ranged from 0.81 to 0.99 for <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 0.77 to 0.97 for dew point <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PASATH is expected to have broad applications on environmental and ecological models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928071','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928071"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect modification in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> by mortality subgroups among the tropical cities of the Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seposo, Xerxes T.; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Honda, Yasushi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Temperature–mortality relationships have been extensively probed with varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range but with relatively similar patterns and in some instances are being modified by specific mortality groups such as causes of mortality, sex, and age. Objective This study aimed to determine the risk attributions in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and also identified the risks associated with the various mortality subgroups. Design We used the 2006–2010 daily average meteorological and daily mortality variables from the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration and Philippine Statistics Authority–National Statistics Office, respectively. Mortality data were divided according to cause (cardiovascular and respiratory), sex, and age (0–14 years, 15–64 years, and >64 years). We performed a two-stage analysis to estimate the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects stratified by the different mortality subgroups to observe the effect modification. Results In the pooled analysis, greater risks were observed in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (99th <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentile; RR (relative risk)=2.48 CI: 1.55–3.98) compared to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1st <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentile; RR=1.23 CI: 0.88–1.72). Furthermore, effect modification by mortality subgroups was evident, especially higher risks for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with respiratory-related diseases, women, and elderly. Conclusions Both sex and age were found to effect modify the risks in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of tropical cities; hence, health-related policies should take these risk variations into consideration to create strategies with respect to the risk population. PMID:27357073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relative+AND+humidity&pg=2&id=ED415666','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=relative+AND+humidity&pg=2&id=ED415666"><span id="translatedtitle">Equipment for Measuring <span class="hlt">Air</span> Flow, <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Bruce W.</p> <p></p> <p>Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573709"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today. PMID:26573709</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..167D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..167D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Maharashtra and Karnataka States of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhorde, Amit G.; Korade, Mahendra S.; Dhorde, Anargha A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Earth surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are changing worldwide together with the changes in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The present study investigates trends and variations of monthly maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and their effects on seasonal fluctuations at different climatological stations of Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India. Trend analysis was performed on annual and seasonal mean maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) and mean minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) for the period 1969 to 2006. During the last 38 years, an increase in annual TMAX and TMIN has occurred. At most of the locations, the increase in TMAX was faster than the TMIN, resulting in an increase in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. At the same time, annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TM) showed a significant increase over the study area. Percentiles were used to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. An increase in occurrence of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> was observed at southern locations, and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> increased over the central and northeastern part of the study area. Occurrences of cold wave conditions have decreased rapidly compared to heat wave conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC12C..04M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC12C..04M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in major cropping systems and their relation to agricultural land use change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; Siebert, S.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by altering the surface energy budget. Here we investigate growing season climate trends in major cropping systems and their relationship with agricultural land use change. In the US Midwest, 100-year trends exhibit a transition towards more favorable conditions, with cooler summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and increased precipitation. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that cooling is primarily associated with agricultural intensification increasing the potential for evapotranspiration, consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentiles, and that increased evapotranspiration generally leads to greater precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> revert to historically high <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Preliminary results indicate these relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, irrigation, and intensification are also observed in other major summer cropping systems, including northeast China, Argentina, and the Canadian Prairies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100015618','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100015618"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Soundings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soundings performs better than assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile performs best</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4563332','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4563332"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of different sitting positions on skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> resulting in decrease of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span>. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair. PMID:26355265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715311Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715311Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and the Romans - A marine palynological perspective on Italian <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation between 200 BC and 500 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zonneveld, Karin; Clotten, Caroline; Chen, Liang</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Sediments of a tephra-dated marine sediment core located at the distal part of the Po-river discharge plume (southern Italy) have been studied with a three annual resolution. Based on the variability in the dinoflagellate cyst content detailed reconstructions have been established of variability in precipitation related river discharge rates and local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Furthermore about the variability in distort water quality has been reconstructed. We show that both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signals vary in tune with cyclic changes in solar insolation. On top of these cyclic changes, short term <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation can be observed that can be interpreted to reflect periods of local weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Comparison of our reconstructions with historical information suggest that times of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and maximal precipitation corresponds to the period of maximal expansion of the Roman Empire. We have strong indications that at this time discharge waters might have contained higher nutrient concentrations compared to previous and later time intervals suggesting anthropogenic influence of the water quality. First pilot-results suggest that the decrease in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructed just after the "Roman Optimum" corresponds to an increase in numbers of armored conflicts between the Roman and German cultures. Furthermore we observe a resemblance in timing of short-term intervals with cold weather spells during the early so called "Dark-Age-Period" to correspond to epidemic/pandemic events in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.9118S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.9118S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution during dry spells and its relation to prevailing soil moisture regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwingshackl, Clemens; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The complex interplay between land and atmosphere makes accurate climate predictions very challenging, in particular with respect to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. More detailed investigations of the underlying dynamics, such as the identification of the drivers regulating the energy exchange at the land surface and the quantification of fluxes between soil and atmosphere over different land types, are thus necessary. The recently started DROUGHT-HEAT project (funded by the European Research Council) aims to provide better understanding of the processes governing the land-atmosphere exchange. In the first phase of the project, different datasets and methods are used to investigate major drivers of land-atmosphere dynamics leading to droughts and heatwaves. In the second phase, these findings will be used for reducing uncertainties and biases in earth system models. Finally, the third part of the project will focus on the application of the previous findings and use them for the attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events to land processes and possible mitigation through land geoengineering. One of the major questions in land-atmosphere exchange is the relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. Different studies show that especially during dry spells soil moisture has a strong impact on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the amplification of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Whereas in dry and wet soil moisture regimes variations in latent heat flux during rain-free periods are expected to be small, this is not the case in transitional soil moisture regimes: Due to decreasing soil moisture content latent heat flux reduces with time, which causes in turn an increase in sensible heat flux and, subsequently, higher <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The investigation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution during dry spells can thus help to detect different soil moisture regimes and to provide insights on the effect of different soil moisture levels on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Here we assess the underlying relationships using different observational and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.152...29P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.152...29P"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatology of upper <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philandras, C. M.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, I. N.; Repapis, C. C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study is to contribute to the climatology of upper <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Mediterranean region, during the period 1965-2011. For this purpose, both radiosonde recordings and gridded reanalysis datasets of upper <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) were used for seven barometric levels at 850 hPa, 700 hPa, 500 hPa, 300 hPa, 200 hPa, 150 hPa and 100 hPa. Trends and variability of upper <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were analyzed on annual and seasonal basis. Further, the impact of atmospheric circulation, by means of correlation between upper <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at different barometric levels and specific climatic indices such as Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), North Sea Caspian Pattern Index (NCPI) and North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI), was also quantified. Our findings have given evidence that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increasing at a higher rate in lower/middle troposphere against upper, and this is very likely due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579678"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at high northern latitudes unprecedented in the past 600 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tingley, Martin P; Huybers, Peter</p> <p>2013-04-11</p> <p>Recently observed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at high northern latitudes are rare by definition, making the longer time span afforded by climate proxies important for assessing how the frequency of such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> may be changing. Previous reconstructions of past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability have demonstrated that recent warmth is anomalous relative to preceding centuries or millennia, but <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events can be more thoroughly evaluated using a spatially resolved approach that provides an ensemble of possible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories. Here, using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis of instrumental, tree-ring, ice-core and lake-sediment records, we show that the magnitude and frequency of recent warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at high northern latitudes are unprecedented in the past 600 years. The summers of 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2011 were warmer than those of all prior years back to 1400 (probability P > 0.95), in terms of the spatial average. The summer of 2010 was the warmest in the previous 600 years in western Russia (P > 0.99) and probably the warmest in western Greenland and the Canadian Arctic as well (P > 0.90). These and other recent <span class="hlt">extremes</span> greatly exceed those expected from a stationary climate, but can be understood as resulting from constant space-time variability about an increased mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:23579678</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......237H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......237H"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of synoptic scale circulation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Chicago, IL (1948-2014)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haldeman, Brooke</p> <p></p> <p>Heat waves are responsible for significant economic impacts and loss of life each year in the United States with humidity often playing an important role. This study examined synoptic patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Chicago, IL over the period of 1948-2014 using summertime (June 1st- September 15th) values. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based heat waves were defined as periods with at least eight consecutive six-hour observations exceeding the historical 95th percentile values of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively, using data from O'Hare International Airport. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) were then applied to 500 mb geopotential height and 850 mb specific humidity datasets from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to identify synoptic states associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. SOM nodes associated with heat waves were identified and assessed for trends using median of pairwise slopes regression. While mean summertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and equivalent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Chicago did not exhibit significant trends, yearly summertime minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were found to be increasing with a significant trend. Additionally, several synoptic patterns favorable for the development of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and high humidity heat waves were increasing significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AdAtS..33.1005D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AdAtS..33.1005D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Abrupt summer warming and changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin), annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx), and annual warmest night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4865736','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4865736"><span id="translatedtitle">Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969. PMID:27172861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...625721Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...625721Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172861"><span id="translatedtitle">Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5° × 5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969. PMID:27172861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5371Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.5371Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Coldest <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Monotonically Increased and Hottest <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Oscillated over Northern Hemisphere Land during Last 114 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most studies on global warming rely on global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whose change is jointly determined by anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) and natural variability. This introduces a heated debate on whether there is a recent warming hiatus and what caused the hiatus. Here, we presented a novel method and applied it to a 5°×5° grid of Northern Hemisphere land for the period 1900 to 2013. Our results show that the coldest 5% minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the coldest deviation) have increased monotonically by 0.22 °C/decade, which reflects well the elevated anthropogenic GHG effect. The warmest 5% maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (the warmest deviation), however, display a significant oscillation following the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with a warming rate of 0.07 °C/decade from 1900 to 2013. The warmest (0.34 °C/decade) and coldest deviations (0.25 °C/decade) increased at much higher rates over the most recent decade than last century mean values, indicating the hiatus should not be interpreted as a general slowing of climate change. The significant oscillation of the warmest deviation provides an extension of previous study reporting no pause in the hottest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since 1979, and first uncovers its increase from 1900 to 1939 and decrease from 1940 to 1969.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0735C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0735C"><span id="translatedtitle">Increases in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Streamflow Events and Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Sierra Nevada and Colorado River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrillo, C.; Stewart, I. T.; Ficklin, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Some of the greatest impacts from global climatic changes on human life are expected from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hydrologic events, such as floods and droughts. Here we assess changes in the frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hydrologic conditions by the end of the century for the water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern U.S., namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basin. The <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions considered are high flows, low flows, and elevated stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydrologic model and downscaled output from a GCM ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low flows (representing <50% of historic averages), and elevated stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (> 3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions can assist in planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina</p> <p></p> <p>Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 45 (°) СC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349026','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/349026"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovative coal gasification system with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoshikawa, K.; Katsushima, H.; Kasahara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, R.; Ootsuka, T.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>This paper proposes innovative coal gasification power generation systems where coal is gasified with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> of about 1300K produced by gasified coal fuel gas. The main features of these systems are high thermal efficiency, low NO{sub x} emission, compact desulfurization and dust removal equipment and high efficiency molten slag removal with a very compact gasifier. Recent experimental results on the pebble bed coal gasifier appropriate for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> coal gasification are reported, where 97.7% of coal ash is successfully caught in the pebble bed and extracted without clogging. A new concept of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheating system is proposed which is characterized by its high reliability and low cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ACP....13..599Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013ACP....13..599Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn <span class="hlt">air</span> samples from NEEM, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A series of 12 high volume <span class="hlt">air</span> samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn <span class="hlt">air</span> studies, the isotope results show <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn <span class="hlt">air</span> modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ACPD...1218499Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ACPD...1218499Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn <span class="hlt">air</span> samples from NEEM, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Martinerie, P.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, J.; Witrant, E.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Petrenko, V.; Blunier, T.; Röckmann, T.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A series of 12 high volume <span class="hlt">air</span> samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn <span class="hlt">air</span> studies, the isotope results show <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m), to values lower than δ13C = -80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale), compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near -40‰. Firn <span class="hlt">air</span> modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to -120‰) near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change must have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological changes in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr. Propagating the mass-balance calculations into the future demonstrates that as emissions decrease to zero, isotopic fractionation by the stratospheric sinks will lead to continued 13C enrichment in atmospheric CFC-12.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0085Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41I0085Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks in summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an important component of land surface, can influence the climate through its effects on surface energy and water budgets and resulted changes in regional atmospheric circulation. However, the effects of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on climate variations have been less discussed. This study investigates the role of subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks in influencing summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over East Asia by means of regional climate model (RCM) simulations. For this aim, two long-term simulations with and without subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks are performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. From our investigation, it is evident that subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks make a dominant contribution to amplifying summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over the arid/semi-arid regions. Further analysis reveals that subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibits an asymmetric effect on summer daytime and nighttime surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability, with a stronger effect on daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability than that of daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. This study provides the first RCM-based demonstration that subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks play an important role in influencing climate variability over East Asia, such as summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In the meanwhile, the model bias should be recognized. The results achieved by this study thus need to be further confirmed in a multi-model framework to eliminate the model dependence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015LSSR....7...66D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015LSSR....7...66D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and anaerobic conditions on Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyakov, M. Yu.; Insarova, I. D.; Kharabadze, D. E.; Ptushenko, V. V.; Shtaer, O. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Lichen are symbiotic systems constituted by heterotrophic fungi (mycobionts) and photosynthetic microorganism (photobionts). These organisms can survive under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> stress conditions. The aim of this work was to study the influence of low (- 70 °C) or high (+ 70 °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations from + 70 °C to - 70 °C, and anaerobic conditions on P. aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability. None of the studied stress factors affected significantly photosynthetic and respiratory activity of the thalli. No changes in morphology or ultrastructure of the cells were revealed for both photobiont and mycobiont components after <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment of P. aphthosa thalli. The data show the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> tolerance of P. aphthosa to some stress factors inherent to the space flight conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26553640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26553640"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and anaerobic conditions on Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dyakov, M Yu; Insarova, I D; Kharabadze, D E; Ptushenko, V V; Shtaer, O V</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Lichen are symbiotic systems constituted by heterotrophic fungi (mycobionts) and photosynthetic microorganism (photobionts). These organisms can survive under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> stress conditions. The aim of this work was to study the influence of low (-70 °C) or high (+70 °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations from +70 °C to -70 °C, and anaerobic conditions on P. aphthosa (L.) Willd. viability. None of the studied stress factors affected significantly photosynthetic and respiratory activity of the thalli. No changes in morphology or ultrastructure of the cells were revealed for both photobiont and mycobiont components after <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment of P. aphthosa thalli. The data show the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> tolerance of P. aphthosa to some stress factors inherent to the space flight conditions. PMID:26553640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive radiative cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. <span class="hlt">Air</span> conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below that of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span>. At night, passive cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Romanian Carpathians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (<span class="hlt">extreme</span>) tail of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090004582"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Devices and Mixed-Signal Circuits for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Electronic systems in planetary exploration missions and in aerospace applications are expected to encounter <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and wide thermal swings in their operational environments. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to perform properly for the duration of the missions. Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known, based on device structure, to provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their silicon counterparts. They also exhibit reduced current leakage and are often tailored for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation. However, little is known about their performance at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The performance of several SOI devices and mixed-signal circuits was determined under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, cold-restart, and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these devices for use in space exploration missions under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The experimental results obtained on selected SOI devices are presented and discussed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090008509','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090008509"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Operation of a 10 MHz Silicon Oscillator Type STCL1100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The performance of STMicroelectronics 10 MHz silicon oscillator was evaluated under exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The oscillator was characterized in terms of its output frequency stability, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current. The effects of thermal cycling and re-start capability at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were also investigated. The silicon oscillator chip operated well with good stability in its output frequency over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> region of -50 C to +130 C, a range that by far exceeded its recommended specified boundaries of -20 C to +85 C. In addition, this chip, which is a low-cost oscillator designed for use in applications where great accuracy is not required, continued to function at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as low as - 195 C but at the expense of drop in its output frequency. The STCL1100 silicon oscillator was also able to re-start at both -195 C and +130 C, and it exhibited no change in performance due to the thermal cycling. In addition, no physical damage was observed in the packaging material due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure and thermal cycling. Therefore, it can be concluded that this device could potentially be used in space exploration missions under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in microprocessor and other applications where tight clock accuracy is not critical. In addition to the aforementioned screening evaluation, additional testing, however, is required to fully establish the reliability of these devices and to determine their suitability for long-term use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6343A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6343A"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the dynamics of European <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> well represented in CMIP5 historical simulations?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Faranda, Davide; Noël, Thomas; Yiou, Pascal</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (heatwaves/cold spells) have severe impacts on humans and ecosystems. Such events have increased in Europe within the last decades either in frequency or intensity and, because of their implications, it is important to compute returns periods of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Here, we analyse and quantify the biases in European <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in historical simulations (1900-1999) using model simulations of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and comparing them to the 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset. Several authors already found some inconsistencies between models and reanalysis. In order to investigate whether this lack of consistency is due to the different dynamical representation in climate simulation, we use the recurrence technique developed in Faranda and Vaienti 2013 to compute return levels of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We show that with respect to the traditional approaches, the recurrence technique is sensitive to the change in the size of the selection window of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> due to the conditions imposed by the dynamics. Eventually, we study the regions which show robust biases with respect to all the techniques investigating the possible origins. To assess whether the biases are due to the resolution, we compare our results as well with regional simulations within the European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (EURO-CORDEX). Resolution does not change the order of magnitude of biases but their locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5b5208L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ERL.....5b5208L"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking increases in hourly precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> to atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lenderink, Geert; van Meijgaard, Erik</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Relations between hourly precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture derived for the present-day climate are studied with the aim of understanding the behavior (and the uncertainty in predictions) of hourly precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a changing climate. A dependency of hourly precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on the daily mean 2 m <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of approximately two times the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation is found for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 10 °C. This is a robust relation obtained in four observational records across western Europe. A dependency following the CC relation can be explained by the observed increase in atmospheric (absolute) humidity with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, whereas the enhanced dependency (compared to the CC relation) appears to be caused by dynamical feedbacks owing to excess latent heat release in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> showers. Integrations with the KNMI regional climate model RACMO2 at 25 km grid spacing show that changes in hourly precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> may indeed considerably exceed the prediction from the CC relation. The results suggests that increases of + 70% or even more are possible by the end of this century. However, a different regional model (CLM operated at ETHZ) predicts much smaller increases; this is probably caused by a too strong sensitivity of this model to a decrease in relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711225F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711225F"><span id="translatedtitle">Models agree on forced response pattern of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Erich; Sedlacek, Jan; Hawkins, Ed; Knutti, Reto</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Model projections of heavy precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> include large uncertainties. We demonstrate that the disagreement between individual simulations primarily arises from internal variability, whereas models agree remarkably well on the forced signal, the change in the absence of internal variability. Agreement is high on the spatial pattern of the forced heavy precipitation response showing an intensification over most land regions, in particular Eurasia and North America. The forced response of heavy precipitation is even more robust than that of annual mean precipitation. Likewise, models agree on the forced response pattern of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> showing the greatest intensification over mid-latitudinal land regions. Thus, confidence in the forced changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in response to a certain warming is high. Although in reality internal variability will be superimposed on that pattern, it is the forced response that determines the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a risk perspective. Reference: Fischer, E.M., J. Sedláček, E. Hawkins and R. Knutti, 2014: Models agree on forced response pattern of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, Geophys. Res. Lett., 10.1002/2014GL062018.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AcMeS..25....1L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AcMeS..25....1L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Projection of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Hong Kong in the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Tsz-Cheung; Chan, Kin-Yu; Ginn, Wing-Lui</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The possible changes in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Hong Kong in the 21st century were investigated by statistically downscaling 26 sets of the daily global climate model projections (a combination of 11 models and 3 greenhouse gas emission scenarios, namely A2, A1B, and B1) of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The models' performance in simulating the past climate during 1971-2000 has also been verified and discussed. The verification revealed that the models in general have an acceptable skill in reproducing past statistics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Moreover, the models are more skillful in simulating the past climate of the hot nights and cold days than that of the very hot days. The projection results suggested that, in the 21st century, the frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in Hong Kong would increase significantly while that of the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events is expected to drop significantly. Based on the multi-model scenario ensemble mean, the average annual numbers of very hot days and hot nights in Hong Kong are expected to increase significantly from 9 days and 16 nights in 1980-1999 to 89 days and 137 nights respectively in 2090-2099. On the other hand, the average annual number of cold days will drop from 17 days in 1980-1999 to about 1 day in 2090-2099. About 65 percent of the model-scenario combinations indicate that there will be on average less than one cold day in 2090-2099. While all the model-emission scenarios in general have projected consistent trends in the change of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the 21st century, there is a large divergence in the projections between different model/emission scenarios. This reflects that there are still large uncertainties in the model simulation of the future climate of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.3100D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.3100D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drobinski, P.; Alonzo, B.; Bastin, S.; Silva, N. Da; Muller, C.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Expected changes to future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at a rate of about 7% °C-1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the present climate using simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (cooler than around 15°C) with rates of increase close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (warmer than about 15°C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of scaling <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (surface versus condensation level), and precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not necessarily constant with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. But most importantly, the dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over this area during the so-called "Cevenoles" events, explains the hook shape of the scaling of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4055464','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4055464"><span id="translatedtitle">Emission Controls Using Different <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> of Combustion <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holubčík, Michal; Papučík, Štefan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The effort of many manufacturers of heat sources is to achieve the maximum efficiency of energy transformation chemically bound in the fuel to heat. Therefore, it is necessary to streamline the combustion process and minimize the formation of emission during combustion. The paper presents an analysis of the combustion <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the heat performance and emission parameters of burning biomass. In the second part of the paper the impact of different dendromass on formation of emissions in small heat source is evaluated. The measured results show that the regulation of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the combustion <span class="hlt">air</span> has an effect on concentration of emissions from the combustion of biomass. PMID:24971376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598823','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598823"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase. Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants, <span class="hlt">air</span> quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world. Due to climate change, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health. The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world. Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases. Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual’s response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398734"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants, <span class="hlt">air</span> quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040027572&hterms=hydrostatic+bearings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhydrostatic%2Bbearings','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040027572&hterms=hydrostatic+bearings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhydrostatic%2Bbearings"><span id="translatedtitle">Fault Tolerant Magnetic Bearing Testing and Conical Magnetic Bearing Development for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Clark, Daniel</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>During the six month tenure of the grant, activities included continued research of hydrostatic bearings as a viable backup-bearing solution for a magnetically levitated shaft system in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments (1000 F), developmental upgrades of the fault-tolerant magnetic bearing rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center, and assisting in the development of a conical magnetic bearing for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments, particularly turbomachinery. It leveraged work from the ongoing Smart Efficient Components (SEC) and the Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) program at NASA Glenn Research Center. The effort was useful in providing technology for more efficient and powerful gas turbine engines.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..220D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..220D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> since the mid-1990s over Western Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and warmest night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PSST...25d4007O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PSST...25d4007O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulsed positive streamer discharges in <span class="hlt">air</span> at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">air</span> pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 293 K–1136 K, and the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the streamer discharges is studied. When the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased, the product of applied voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions on composting process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate <span class="hlt">air</span> flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770035504&hterms=world+temperatures&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dworld%2Btemperatures','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770035504&hterms=world+temperatures&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dworld%2Btemperatures"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> gradients and clear-<span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence probabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bender, M. A.; Panofsky, H. A.; Peslen, C. A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>In order to forecast clear-<span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence (CAT) in jet aircraft flights, a study was conducted in which the data from a special-purpose instrument aboard a Boeing 747 jet airliner were compared with satellite-derived radiance gradients, conventional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients from analyzed maps, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients obtained from a total <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor on the plane. The advantage of making use of satellite-derived data is that they are available worldwide without the need for radiosonde observations, which are scarce in many parts of the world. Major conclusions are that CAT probabilities are significantly higher over mountains than flat terrain, and that satellite radiance gradients appear to discriminate between CAT and no CAT better than conventional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients over flat lands, whereas the reverse is true over mountains, the differences between the two techniques being not large over mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817749U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817749U"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from long climatological records at Barrow, Alaska and Tiksi, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.IASOA.org) Barrow Alaska and Tiksi, Russia are sites with two of the longest climatological records dating from 1901 and 1936 respectively. Tiksi and Barrow are also particularly useful sites for comparing Arctic regional variability because they are located at nearly the same latitude (71.325 N and 71.596 N respectively). When making comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, this fortunate coincidence allows elimination of the annual variability of incoming solar irradiance as one of the major factors controlling the variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when considering annual, seasonal, interannual and decadal changes. Although <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is one of the most basic of environmental parameters measured globally on a routine basis, acquiring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for analysis requires making choices about sources which may apply different quality control and averaging protocols affecting calculations especially of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Records are available from the U.S. NOAA National Climatic Data Center and the Climate Research Unit of the U.K. Met Office. In addition, historical data rescue digitized data sets for Tiksi are available from the Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Using these records a detailed analysis and comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is performed. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are examined using unique method whereby the variation of the trend itself is examined as a function of start year. Differences in statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is examined for average, minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The trends and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are then compared between Barrow and Tiksi to determine if it is possible make a first order determination of relationships to larger scale circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..211G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..211G"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in several cities in northwestern Mexico under climate change conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Cueto, O. Rafael; Cavazos, M. Tereza; de Grau, Pamela; Santillán-Soto, Néstor</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distribution is applied in this article to model the statistical behavior of the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution tails in four cities of Baja California in northwestern Mexico, using data from 1950-2010. The approach used of the maximum of annual time blocks. Temporal trends were included as covariates in the location parameter (μ), which resulted in significant improvements to the proposed models, particularly for the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in the cities of Mexicali, Tijuana, and Tecate, and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in Mexicali and Ensenada. These models were used to estimate future probabilities over the next 100 years (2015-2110) for different time periods, and they were compared with changes in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> (P90th and P10th) percentiles of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios for a set of six general circulation models under low (RCP4.5) and high (RCP8.5) radiative forcings. By the end of the twenty-first century, the scenarios of the changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are of the same order in both the statistical model and the high radiative scenario (increases of 4-5 °C). The low radiative scenario is more conservative (increases of 2-3 °C). The winter scenario shows that minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could be less severe; the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases suggested by the probabilistic model are greater than those projected for the end of the century by the set of global models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The likely impacts on the region are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..560F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..560F"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic contribution to global occurrence of heavy-precipitation and high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, E. M.; Knutti, R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Climate change includes not only changes in mean climate but also in weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. For a few prominent heatwaves and heavy precipitation events a human contribution to their occurrence has been demonstrated. Here we apply a similar framework but estimate what fraction of all globally occurring heavy precipitation and hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is attributable to warming. We show that at the present-day warming of 0.85 °C about 18% of the moderate daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over land are attributable to the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase since pre-industrial times, which in turn primarily results from human influence. For 2 °C of warming the fraction of precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> attributable to human influence rises to about 40%. Likewise, today about 75% of the moderate daily hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over land are attributable to warming. It is the most rare and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events for which the largest fraction is anthropogenic, and that contribution increases nonlinearly with further warming. The approach introduced here is robust owing to its global perspective, less sensitive to model biases than alternative methods and informative for mitigation policy, and thereby complementary to single-event attribution. Combined with information on vulnerability and exposure, it serves as a scientific basis for assessment of global risk from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather, the discussion of mitigation targets, and liability considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090014040','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090014040"><span id="translatedtitle">SOI N-Channel Field Effect Transistors, CHT-NMOS80, for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Almad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, both hot and cold, are anticipated in many of NASA space exploration missions as well as in terrestrial applications. One can seldom find electronics that are capable of operation under both regimes. Even for operation under one (hot or cold) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, some thermal controls need to be introduced to provide appropriate ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> so that spacecraft on-board or field on-site electronic systems work properly. The inclusion of these controls, which comprise of heating elements and radiators along with their associated structures, adds to the complexity in the design of the system, increases cost and weight, and affects overall reliability. Thus, it would be highly desirable and very beneficial to eliminate these thermal measures in order to simplify system's design, improve efficiency, reduce development and launch costs, and improve reliability. These requirements can only be met through the development of electronic parts that are designed for proper and efficient operation under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based devices are finding more use in harsh environments due to the benefits that their inherent design offers in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, good radiation tolerance, and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operability. Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and under wide thermal swings. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) SOI parts over an extended <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range and to determine the effects of thermal cycling on their performance. The results will establish a baseline on the suitability of such devices for use in space exploration missions under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and will aid mission planners and circuit designers in the proper selection of electronic parts and circuits. The electronic part investigated in this work comprised of a CHT-NMOS80</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455"><span id="translatedtitle">Flame Speeds of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures at Low Initial <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds were determined for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, propane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -73 C and for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> previously established for the range from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..02S"><span id="translatedtitle">Has the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Climate of the United States Become More <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stevens, L. E.; Kunkel, K.; Vose, R. S.; Knight, R. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat has affected parts of the United States during recent summers, particularly 2011 and 2012. Severe cold has also occurred in recent years. This has created a perception that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate of the U.S. has become more <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. Is this the case? We address this question by computing probability distribution functions (PDFs) for each season and evaluating temporal changes for the 20th and early 21st centuries using a new gridded monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set. We examine changes in the mean, width, and shape of the PDFs for seven U.S. regions, as defined in the third National Climate Assessment. During the past 2-3 decades, there has been a shift toward more frequent very warm months, but this has been accompanied by a decrease in the occurrence of very cold months. Thus, overall we determine that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate of the U.S. has not become more <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. The 1930s were an earlier period of frequent very warm months, but this was primarily a result of very warm daytime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while the occurrence of months with very high nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was not unusually large during that period. There are important regional variations in these results. In particular, the shift to more frequent very warm months is not predominant in the southeast U.S. annually or in parts of the central U.S. in the summer. This lack of warming is a feature of daytime maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not nighttime minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26370114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26370114"><span id="translatedtitle">Who is more vulnerable to death from <span class="hlt">extremely</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>? A case-only approach in Hong Kong with a temperate climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yu, Ignatius T S; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The short-term effects of ambient cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. However, less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to death related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold. We aimed to examine the personal characteristics and underlying causes of death that modified the association between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold and mortality in a case-only approach. Individual information of 197,680 deaths of natural causes, daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution concentrations in cool season (November-April) during 2002-2011 in Hong Kong were collected. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> cold was defined as those days with preceding week with a daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at or less than the 1st percentile of its distribution. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of modification, further controlling for age, seasonal pattern, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by using the 5th percentile as cutoff point to define the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold. Subjects with age of 85 and older were more vulnerable to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.33 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.45). The greater risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold-related mortality was observed for total cardiorespiratory diseases and several specific causes including hypertensive diseases, stroke, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Hypertensive diseases exhibited the greatest vulnerability to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold exposure, with an OR of 1.37 (95 % CI, 1.13-1.65). Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of these effect modifications. This evidence on which subpopulations are vulnerable to the adverse effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold is important to inform public health measures to minimize those effects. PMID:26370114</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJBm...60..711Q&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJBm...60..711Q&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Who is more vulnerable to death from <span class="hlt">extremely</span> cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>? A case-only approach in Hong Kong with a temperate climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The short-term effects of ambient cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. However, less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to death related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold. We aimed to examine the personal characteristics and underlying causes of death that modified the association between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold and mortality in a case-only approach. Individual information of 197,680 deaths of natural causes, daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution concentrations in cool season (November-April) during 2002-2011 in Hong Kong were collected. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> cold was defined as those days with preceding week with a daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at or less than the 1st percentile of its distribution. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of modification, further controlling for age, seasonal pattern, and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by using the 5th percentile as cutoff point to define the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold. Subjects with age of 85 and older were more vulnerable to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.33 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.45). The greater risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold-related mortality was observed for total cardiorespiratory diseases and several specific causes including hypertensive diseases, stroke, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Hypertensive diseases exhibited the greatest vulnerability to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold exposure, with an OR of 1.37 (95 % CI, 1.13-1.65). Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of these effect modifications. This evidence on which subpopulations are vulnerable to the adverse effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold is important to inform public health measures to minimize those effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JGRA..11410312S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009JGRA..11410312S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomagnetic activity and polar surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seppälä, A.; Randall, C. E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rozanov, E.; Rodger, C. J.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Here we use the ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data sets from 1957 to 2006 to examine polar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the A p index. Previous modeling work has suggested that NO x produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SATs). We find that during winter months, polar SATs in years with high A p index are different than in years with low A p index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, depending on location. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are excluded. We take into account solar irradiance variations, unlike previous analyses of geomagnetic effects in ERA-40 and operational data. Although we cannot conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating wintertime surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We tested our SAT results against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode, and we cannot robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and geomagnetic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4502955','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4502955"><span id="translatedtitle">Drier <span class="hlt">Air</span>, Lower <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>, and Triggering of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Link, Mark S.; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Laden, Francine; Schwartz, Joel; Wessler, Benjamin S.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Gold, Diane R.; Dockery, Douglas W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background The few previous studies on the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and meteorologic conditions have focused on outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hospital admissions, but hospital admissions are a crude indicator of atrial fibrillation incidence, and studies have found other weather measures in addition to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Methods Two hundred patients with dual chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators were enrolled and followed prospectively from 2006 to 2010 for new onset episodes of atrial fibrillation. The date and time of arrhythmia episodes documented by the implanted cardioverter-defibrillators were linked to meteorologic data and examined using a case-crossover analysis. We evaluated associations with outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure, and three measures of humidity (relative humidity, dew point, and absolute humidity). Results Of the 200 enrolled patients, 49 patients experienced 328 atrial fibrillation episodes lasting ≥30 seconds. Lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the prior 48 hours were positively associated with atrial fibrillation. Lower absolute humidity (ie, drier <span class="hlt">air</span>) had the strongest and most consistent association: each 0.5 g/m3 decrease in the prior 24 hours increased the odds of atrial fibrillation by 4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%, 7%) and by 5% (95% CI: 2%, 8%) for exposure in the prior 2 hours. Results were similar for dew point but slightly weaker. Conclusions Recent exposure to drier <span class="hlt">air</span> and lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were associated with the onset of atrial fibrillation among patients with known cardiac disease, supporting the hypothesis that meteorologic conditions trigger acute cardiovascular episodes. PMID:25756220</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810958H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810958H"><span id="translatedtitle">The non-Gaussianity and spatial asymmetry of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relative to the jet: the role of horizontal advection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harnik, Nili; Garfinkel, Chaim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global warming is expected raise the number of warm spells and lower the number of cold spells, by simply shifting of the near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability distribution to warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, changes in the shape of distribution strongly affect how the occurrence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will change. Hence, understanding the processes shaping the spatial and statistical distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the present climate is central to understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> might vary in the future. Using meteorological reanalyses data we show that the distribution of near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability is non-Gaussian, and consistent with this, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm anomalies occur preferentially poleward of the location of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold anomalies. The non-Guassianity evident in reanalysis data is also found in a set of dry General Circulation Model runs in which the jet is forced at different latitudes, and the location of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is influenced by the location of the jet stream. Using a simple model of Lagrangian <span class="hlt">temperature</span> advection, we investigate the role of synoptic dynamics in causing this non Gaussianity. The meridional shifting between cold and warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and the related non-Gaussianity are traced back to the synoptic evolution leading up to cold and warm <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We find that the meridional movement of synotpic systems, as well as nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> advection are both of crucial importance for the warm/cold asymmetry in the latitudinal distribution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The possible implications for future changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will be briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042967','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042967"><span id="translatedtitle">Operation of SOI P-Channel Field Effect Transistors, CHT-PMOS30, under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Electronic systems are required to operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in NASA planetary exploration and deep space missions. Electronics on-board spacecraft must also tolerate thermal cycling between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Thermal management means are usually included in today s spacecraft systems to provide adequate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for proper operation of the electronics. These measures, which may include heating elements, heat pipes, radiators, etc., however add to the complexity in the design of the system, increases its cost and weight, and affects its performance and reliability. Electronic parts and circuits capable of withstanding and operating under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> would reflect in improvement in system s efficiency, reducing cost, and improving overall reliability. Semiconductor chips based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are designed mainly for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications and find extensive use in terrestrial well-logging fields. Their inherent design offers advantages over silicon devices in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, and good radiation tolerance. Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and under wide thermal swings. Experimental investigation on the operation of SOI, N-channel field effect transistors under wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range was reported earlier [1]. This work examines the performance of P-channel devices of these SOI transistors. The electronic part investigated in this work comprised of a Cissoid s CHT-PMOS30, high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> P-channel MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) device [2]. This high voltage, medium-power transistor is designed for geothermal well logging applications, aerospace and avionics, and automotive industry, and is specified for operation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of -55 C to +225 C. Table I shows some specifications of this transistor [2]. The CHT-PMOS30 device was characterized at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51E1054A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51E1054A"><span id="translatedtitle">Intensification of seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> prior to the 2°C global warming target</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, B. T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Given current international efforts to limit human-induced global-mean near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases to 2°C, relative to the pre-industrial era, there is an interest in determining what unavoidable impacts to physical, biological, and socio-economic systems might occur even if this target were met. In our research we show that substantial fractions of the globe could experience seasonal-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with unprecedented regularity, even if the global-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remains below the 2°C target currently envisioned. These results have significant implications for agriculture and crop yield; disease and human health; and ecosystems and biodiversity. To obtain these results, we first develop a novel method for combining numerical-model estimates of near-term increases in grid-point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with stochastically generated anomalies derived from high-resolution observations during the last half of the 20th century. This method has practical advantages because it generates results at fine spatial resolution without relying on computationally-intensive regional-model experiments; it explicitly incorporates information derived from the observations regarding interannual-to-decadal variations in seasonal-mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; and it includes the generation of thousands of realizations of the possible impacts of a global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase on local occurrences of hot <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Using this method we find that even given the "committed" future global-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase of 0.6°C (1.4°C relative to the pre-industrial era) historical seasonal-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will be exceeded in at least half of all years-equivalently, the historical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values will become the norm-for much of Africa, the southeastern and central portions of Asia, Indonesia, and the Amazon. Should the global-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase reach 2°C (relative to the pre-industrial era), it is more likely than not that these same regions, along with large portions of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1754D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1754D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Elevated mortality associated with high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and (iv) to compare the links to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for morbidity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..141W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..141W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>By characterizing the patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> significantly decreased but warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn) and maximum daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4643P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4643P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has better skill in means than in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> are found to be closely related, but not clearly between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> are always better simulated than</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16718468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16718468"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO(2) concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible. PMID:16718468</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fast-response accurate <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017704"><span id="translatedtitle">Reply to Stone Et Al.: Human-Made Role in Local <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Stone et al. find that their analysis is unable to show a causal relation of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, such as in Texas in 2011, with global warming. It was because of limitations in such local analyses that we reframed the problem in our report, separating the task of attribution of the causes of global warming from the task of quantifying changes in the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200579&keyword=institution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67202173&CFTOKEN=35350315','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200579&keyword=institution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=67202173&CFTOKEN=35350315"><span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATING AND TESTING EMERGENCY TESTING MONITORING DEVICES IN <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> COLD <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA Identifier: F8P11070<br/>Title: Evaluating and Testing Emergency Testing Monitoring Devices in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Cold <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span><br/>Fellow (Principal Investigator): Tyler S. O’Dell<br/>Institution: Lake Superior State University<br/>EPA GRANT Represent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542882"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Sensitivity of Room-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Photoelectric Effect for Terahertz Detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhiming; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Jinchao; Huang, Jingguo; Ouyang, Cheng; Qu, Yue; Wu, Jing; Gao, Yanqing; Chu, Junhao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> sensitivity of room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> photoelectric effect for terahertz (THz) detection is demonstrated by generating extra carriers in an electromagnetic induced well located at the semiconductor, using a wrapped metal-semiconductor-metal configuration. The excellent performance achieved with THz detectors shows great potential to open avenues for THz detection. PMID:26542882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=247483','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=247483"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on the Respiration and Cytochromes of an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Thermophile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McFeters, Gordon A.; Ulrich, J. Terry</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The rate of oxygen uptake in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> thermophile at 70 C was three times greater than at 50 C. Cytochromes a, b, and c were present in cells grown at 50, 60, and 70 C. The content of these electron transport system elements remained relatively constant as the growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was raised. PMID:5022175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.2626S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.2626S"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging trends in heavy precipitation and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherrer, S. C.; Fischer, E. M.; Posselt, R.; Liniger, M. A.; Croci-Maspoli, M.; Knutti, R.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Changes in intensity and frequency of daily heavy precipitation and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are analyzed in Swiss observations for the years 1901-2014/2015. A spatial pooling of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation stations is applied to analyze the emergence of trends. Over 90% of the series show increases in heavy precipitation intensity, expressed as annual maximum daily precipitation (mean change: +10.4% 100 years-1; 31% significant, p < 0.05) and in heavy precipitation frequency, expressed as the number of events greater than the 99th percentile of daily precipitation (mean change: +26.5% 100 years-1; 35% significant, p < 0.05). The intensity of heavy precipitation increases on average by 7.7% K-1 smoothed Swiss annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a value close to the Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. The hottest day and week of the year have warmed by 1.6 K to 2.3 K depending on the region, while the Swiss annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased by 1.9 K. The frequency of very hot days exceeding the 99th percentile of daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has more than tripled. Despite considerable local internal variability, increasing trends in heavy precipitation and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are now found at most Swiss stations. The identified trends are unlikely to be random and are consistent with climate model projections, with theoretical understanding of a human-induced change in the energy budget and water cycle and with detection and attribution studies of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on larger scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28..297Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28..297Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in association with weather-intraseasonal fluctuations in eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qian, Cheng; Yan, Zhongwei; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Congbin; Tu, Kai</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Trends in the frequencies of four <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (the occurrence of warm days, cold days, warm nights and cold nights) with respect to a modulated annual cycle (MAC), and those associated exclusively with weather-intraseasonal fluctuations (WIF) in eastern China were investigated based on an updated homogenized daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset for 1960-2008. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method was used to isolate the WIF, MAC, and longer-term components from the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. The annual, winter and summer occurrences of warm (cold) nights were found to have increased (decreased) significantly almost everywhere, while those of warm (cold) days have increased (decreased) in northern China (north of 40°N). However, the four <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> associated exclusively with WIF for winter have decreased almost everywhere, while those for summer have decreased in the north but increased in the south. These characteristics agree with changes in the amplitude of WIF. In particular, winter WIF of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tended to weaken almost everywhere, especially in eastern coastal areas (by 10%-20%); summer WIF tended to intensify in southern China by 10%-20%. It is notable that in northern China, the occurrence of warm days has increased, even where that associated with WIF has decreased significantly. This suggests that the recent increasing frequency of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is due to a considerable rise in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> level, which surpasses the effect of the weakening weather fluctuations in northern China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011391','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011391"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of the Micropower Voltage Reference ADR3430 Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Electronic systems designed for use in space exploration systems are expected to be exposed to harsh <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. For example, operation at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is anticipated in space missions such as polar craters of the moon (-223 C), James Webb Space Telescope (-236 C), Mars (-140 C), Europa (-223 C), Titan (-178 C), and other deep space probes away from the sun. Similarly, rovers and landers on the lunar surface, and deep space probes intended for the exploration of Venus are expected to encounter high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Electronics capable of operation under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> would not only meet the requirements of future spacebased systems, but would also contribute to enhancing efficiency and improving reliability of these systems through the elimination of the thermal control elements that present electronics need for proper operation under the harsh environment of space. In this work, the performance of a micropower, high accuracy voltage reference was evaluated over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The Analog Devices ADR3430 chip uses a patented voltage reference architecture to achieve high accuracy, low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient, and low noise in a CMOS process [1]. The device combines two voltages of opposite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficients to create an output voltage that is almost independent of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It is rated for the industrial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of -40 C to +125 C, and is ideal for use in low power precision data acquisition systems and in battery-powered devices. Table 1 shows some of the manufacturer s device specifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=1074&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=1074&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231074"><span id="translatedtitle">The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092"><span id="translatedtitle">CARS <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Species Measurements For <span class="hlt">Air</span> Vehicle Propulsion Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for <span class="hlt">air</span> vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson <span class="hlt">Air</span> Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiler for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> prediction using measured potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and determining the vertical gradient of potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..767V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..767V"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetric scaling properties in global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> and sea-surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8..335D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8..335D"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing for the determination of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Jong, S. A. P.; Slingerland, J. D.; van de Giesen, N. C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a method to correct for the effect of solar radiation in atmospheric distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing (DTS) applications. By using two cables with different diameters, one can determine what <span class="hlt">temperature</span> a zero diameter cable would have. Such a virtual cable would not be affected by solar heating and would take on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the surrounding <span class="hlt">air</span>. With two unshielded cable pairs, one black pair and one white pair, good results were obtained given the general consensus that shielding is needed to avoid radiation errors (WMO, 2010). The correlations between standard <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from both cables of colors had a high correlation coefficient (r2=0.99) and a RMSE of 0.38 °C, compared to a RMSE of 2.40 °C for a 3.0 mm uncorrected black cable. A thin white cable measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that were close to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured with a nearby shielded thermometer (RMSE of 0.61 °C). The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured along horizontal cables with an eye to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in urban areas, but the same method can be applied to any atmospheric DTS measurements, and for profile measurements along towers or with balloons and quadcopters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051876"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in atmospheric patterns conducive to seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swain, Daniel L; Horton, Daniel E; Singh, Deepti; Diffenbaugh, Noah S</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that changes in atmospheric circulation have altered the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate northeastern Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns that have historically (1949-2015) been associated with cool-season (October-May) precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California. We identify changes in occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns by measuring the similarity of the cool-season atmospheric configuration that occurred in each year of the 1949-2015 period with the configuration that occurred during each of the five driest, wettest, warmest, and coolest years. Our analysis detects statistically significant changes in the occurrence of atmospheric patterns associated with seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We also find a robust increase in the magnitude and subseasonal persistence of the cool-season West Coast ridge, resulting in an amplification of the background state. Changes in both seasonal mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event configurations appear to be caused by a combination of spatially nonuniform thermal expansion of the atmosphere and reinforcing trends in the pattern of sea level pressure. In particular, both thermal expansion and sea level pressure trends contribute to a notable increase in anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging patterns similar to that observed during the 2012-2015 California drought. Collectively, our empirical findings suggest that the frequency of atmospheric conditions like those during California's most severely dry and hot years has increased in recent decades, but not necessarily at the expense of patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> wet years. PMID:27051876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820386','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820386"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in atmospheric patterns conducive to seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Swain, Daniel L.; Horton, Daniel E.; Singh, Deepti; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that changes in atmospheric circulation have altered the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate northeastern Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns that have historically (1949–2015) been associated with cool-season (October-May) precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in California. We identify changes in occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns by measuring the similarity of the cool-season atmospheric configuration that occurred in each year of the 1949–2015 period with the configuration that occurred during each of the five driest, wettest, warmest, and coolest years. Our analysis detects statistically significant changes in the occurrence of atmospheric patterns associated with seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We also find a robust increase in the magnitude and subseasonal persistence of the cool-season West Coast ridge, resulting in an amplification of the background state. Changes in both seasonal mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event configurations appear to be caused by a combination of spatially nonuniform thermal expansion of the atmosphere and reinforcing trends in the pattern of sea level pressure. In particular, both thermal expansion and sea level pressure trends contribute to a notable increase in anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging patterns similar to that observed during the 2012–2015 California drought. Collectively, our empirical findings suggest that the frequency of atmospheric conditions like those during California’s most severely dry and hot years has increased in recent decades, but not necessarily at the expense of patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> wet years. PMID:27051876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NPGeo..15..365Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NPGeo..15..365Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather regime dependence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value statistics for summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yiou, P.; Goubanova, K.; Li, Z. X.; Nogaj, M.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (EVT) is a useful tool to describe the statistical properties of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Its underlying assumptions include some form of temporal stationarity in the data. Previous studies have been able to treat long-term trends in datasets, to obtain the time dependence of EVT parameters in a parametric form. Since there is also a dependence of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation to weather patterns obtained from pressure data, we determine the EVT parameters of those meteorological variables over France conditional to the occurrence of North Atlantic weather patterns in the summer. We use a clustering algorithm on geopotential height data over the North Atlantic to obtain those patterns. This approach refines the straightforward application of EVT on climate data by allowing us to assess the role of atmospheric variability on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> parameters. This study also investigates the statistical robustness of this relation. Our results show how weather regimes can modulate the different behavior of mean climate variables and their <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Such a modulation can be very different for the mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811678A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1811678A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial interpolation of monthly mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for Latvia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aniskevich, Svetlana</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004138','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004138"><span id="translatedtitle">Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Amplify <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Summer Precipitation in Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. PMID:27573802</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573802"><span id="translatedtitle">Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Amplify <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. PMID:27573802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23911338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23911338"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> pollution, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pediatric influenza in Brisbane, Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie C A; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of weather variables in influencing the incidence of influenza. However, the role of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution is often ignored in identifying the environmental drivers of influenza. This research aims to examine the impacts of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the incidence of pediatric influenza in Brisbane, Australia. Lab-confirmed daily data on influenza counts among children aged 0-14years in Brisbane from 2001 January 1st to 2008 December 31st were retrieved from Queensland Health. Daily data on maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the same period were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Winter was chosen as the main study season due to it having the highest pediatric influenza incidence. Four Poisson log-linear regression models, with daily pediatric seasonal influenza counts as the outcome, were used to examine the impacts of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants (i.e., ozone (O3), particulate matter≤10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (using a moving average of ten days for these variables) on pediatric influenza. The results show that mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Relative risk (RR): 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.82-0.89) was negatively associated with pediatric seasonal influenza in Brisbane, and high concentrations of O3 (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.25-1.31) and PM10 (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10-1.13) were associated with more pediatric influenza cases. There was a significant interaction effect (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93-0.95) between PM10 and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on pediatric influenza. Adding the interaction term between mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and PM10 substantially improved the model fit. This study provides evidence that PM10 needs to be taken into account when evaluating the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-influenza relationship. O3 was also an important predictor, independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:23911338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18.1419S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18.1419S"><span id="translatedtitle">Downscaling local <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in south-eastern Australia from the CSIRO Mark2 GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Sascha</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Climate impact studies crucially rely on climate change information at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the most developed tools for estimating future climate change - the general circulation models (GCMs) - still operate on rather coarse spatial scales, their output has to be downscaled in order to provide the needed high resolution input for climate impact models.In this study, a perfect prognosis approach is employed to downscale daily local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> at several stations in south-eastern Australia from synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields. The statistical model combines principal component analysis and linear multiple regression and is suitable to explain a considerable part of both short and long frequency variations of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Using simulated and observed daily data the regional to local performance of the Mark2 GCM, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was validated over the Australian region. While the regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> simulated under present-day climate conditions are in general agreement with the observed climate, there are highly significant differences on the local scale. The observed daily synoptic scale atmospheric circulation, however, is well reproduced by the GCM. This supports the idea of using these reliably simulated climatic parameters to estimate the changes in local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under altered global climate conditions.The downscaling model was applied to synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields generated by the CSIRO Mark2 GCM under 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 conditions. Compared to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes simulated by the GCM directly, the downscaled variations are much weaker. Several sources of uncertainty might be causing these differences. Firstly, the statistical model is stationary. Therefore, it is not capable of including changes in the relationships between circulation and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which are likely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9535J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9535J"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spring <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. An arising question is how plants respond to an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm spell when following an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5126252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5126252"><span id="translatedtitle">Requirements for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled central receivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wright, J.D.; Copeland, R.J.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 540 to 1000/sup 0/C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost-effective thermal transport and thermal storage for <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled receivers is a critical problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> be used to project influences of climate change on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide, lack of data on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on more widely available data on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, based on <span class="hlt">air</span> temperature–stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of <span class="hlt">air</span> and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23A1220A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H23A1220A"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> be used to project influences of climate change on stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M.; Dunham, J.; Johnson, S. L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The lack of available in situ stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records at broad spatiotemporal scales have been recognized as a major limiting factor in the understanding of thermal behavior of stream and river systems. This has motivated the promotion of a wide variety of models that use surrogates for stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> including a regression approach that uses <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as the predictor variable. We investigate the long-term performance of widely used linear and non-linear regression models between <span class="hlt">air</span> and stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to project the latter in future climate scenarios. Specifically, we examine the temporal variability of the parameters that define each of these models in long-term stream and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> datasets representing relatively natural and highly human-influenced streams. We selected 25 sites with long-term records that monitored year-round daily measurements of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (daily mean) in the western United States (California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and Alaska). Surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from each site was not available. Therefore, we calculated daily mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for each site in contiguous US from a 1/16-degree resolution gridded surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Our findings highlight several limitations that are endemic to linear or nonlinear regressions that have been applied in many recent attempts to project future stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our results also show that applications over longer time periods, as well as extrapolation of model predictions to project future stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are unlikely to be reliable. Although we did not analyze a broad range of stream types at a continental or global extent, our analysis of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the set of streams considered herein was more than sufficient to illustrate a number of specific limitations associated with statistical projections of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Radar plots of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035035','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035035"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Riza, Nabeel Agha; Perez, Frank</p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> only use or exposed for both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667274','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667274"><span id="translatedtitle">Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat stress events. PMID:26627576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160000983&hterms=health&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhealth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160000983&hterms=health&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhealth"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in New York City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, yet few studies have examined the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627576','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627576"><span id="translatedtitle">Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L; McCulloch, Malcolm T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat stress events. PMID:26627576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...517639S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...517639S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat stress events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27g6603K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27g6603K"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical studies of thermal convection with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>- and pressure-dependent viscosity at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> viscosity contrasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khaleque, Tania S.; Fowler, A. C.; Howell, P. D.; Vynnycky, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Motivated by convection of planetary mantles, we consider a mathematical model for Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a basally heated layer of a fluid whose viscosity depends strongly on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure, defined in an Arrhenius form. The model is solved numerically for <span class="hlt">extremely</span> large viscosity variations across a unit aspect ratio cell, and steady solutions for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, isotherms, and streamlines are obtained. To improve the efficiency of numerical computation, we introduce a modified viscosity law with a low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cutoff. We demonstrate that this simplification results in markedly improved numerical convergence without compromising accuracy. Continued numerical experiments suggest that narrow cells are preferred at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> viscosity contrasts, and this conclusion is supported by a linear stability analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.9030O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanos...5.9030O"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensing at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Buric, Michael P.; Brown, Thomas D.; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Embedded sensors capable of operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments including high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gas sensing at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.Embedded sensors capable of operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments including high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1460C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31.1460C"><span id="translatedtitle">An improved method for correction of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured using different radiation shields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The variation of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> error is considered and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9518M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9518M"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistence analysis of daily mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation in Georgia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Chelidze, Tamaz; Zhukova, Natalia; Mepharidze, Ekaterine; Sborshchikov, Alexander</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Extrapolation of observed linear trends is common practice in climate change researches on different scales. In this respect it is important, that though global warming is well established, the question of persistence of trends on regional scales remain controversial. Indeed, climate change for specific region and time by definition includes more than the simple average of weather conditions. Either random events or long-term changes, or more often combinations of them, can bring about significant swings in a variety of climate indicators from one time period to the next. Therefore in order to achieve further understanding of dynamics of climate change the character of stable peculiarities of analyzed dynamics should be investigated. Analysis of the character of long range correlations in climatological time series or peculiarities of their inherent memory is motivated exactly by this goal. Such analysis carried out on a different scales may help to understand spatial and temporal features of regional climate change. In present work the problem of persistence of observed trends in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series in Georgia was investigated. Longest available mean daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series of Tbilisi (1890-2008) were analyzed. Time series on shorter time scales of five stations in the West and East Georgia also were considered as well as monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series of five stations. Additionally, temporally and spatially averaged daily and monthly mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series were analyzed. Extent of persistence in mentioned time series were evaluated using R/S analysis calculation. Detrended and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis as well as multi scaling analysis based on CWT have been used. Our results indicate that variation of daily or monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reveals clear antipersistence on whole available time scale. It seems that antipersistence on global scale is general characteristics of mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation and is not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6092F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6092F"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are evident in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluxes measured in the sub-soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fraser, Fiona; McCormick, Benjamin; Hallett, Paul; Wookey, Philip; Hopkins, David</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Warming trends in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have implications for a plethora of soil processes, including exacerbated climate change through the net release of greenhouse gases. Whereas long-term datasets of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes are abundant, a search of scientific literature reveals a lack of information on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and their specific consequences. We analysed five long-term data series collected in the UK (Dundee and Armagh) and Canada (Charlottetown, Ottawa and Swift Current). They show that the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of soils at 5 - 20 cm depth, and sub-soils at 30 - 150 cm depth, increased in line with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes over the period 1958 - 2003. Differences were found, however, between soil and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> when data were sub-divided into seasons. In spring, soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warming ranged from 0.19°C at 30 cm in Armagh to 4.30°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. In summer, however, the difference was smaller and ranged from 0.21°C at 10 cm in Ottawa to 3.70°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. Winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were warmer in soil and ranged from 0.45°C at 5 cm in Charlottetown to 3.76°C at 150 cm in Charlottetown. There were significant trends in changes to soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over time, whereas <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends tended only to be significant in winter (changes range from 1.27°C in Armagh to 3.35°C in Swift Current). Differences in the seasonal warming patterns between <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have potential implications for the parameterization of models of biogeochemical cycling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=39757&keyword=equations+AND+linear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76016824&CFTOKEN=64635421','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=39757&keyword=equations+AND+linear&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76016824&CFTOKEN=64635421"><span id="translatedtitle">RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WATER <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span> AND <span class="hlt">AIR</span> <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span> FOR CENTRAL US STREAMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An analysis of the relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> and stream water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for 11 rivers located in the central United States was conducted. he reliability of commonly available water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records was shown to be of unequal quality. imple linear relationships between...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..187G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..187G"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on sediment rejection in three scleractinian coral species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganase, A.; Bongaerts, P.; Visser, P. M.; Dove, S. G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Sedimentation from resuspension following storm surge is a natural occurrence on coral reefs, and scleractinian corals have adapted to effectively reject sediment. However, it is unclear whether the physical ability to reject sedimentation is affected during seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We acclimated three coral species ( Montipora aequituberculata, Lobophyllia corymbosa and Fungia fungites), with different active shedding mechanisms, to three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments (winter minimum, summer maximum and mean). Corals were then exposed to a sediment rejection experiment in which we measured clearance rates and tissue inflation cycles associated with the clearance of sediment. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> impacted clearing rates of M. aequituberculata, which exhibited significantly faster sediment rejection under winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Fungia fungites, on the other hand, exhibited significantly higher tissue inflation rates under summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although limited in scope, this study demonstrates that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can have a strong effect on the response of corals to sedimentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070030904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070030904"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling and Exposure to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Reliability of Solid Tantalum Capacitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Teverovsky, Alexander</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this work, results of multiple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling (TC) (up to 1,000 cycles) of different types of solid tantalum capacitors are analyzed and reported. Deformation of chip tantalum during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations simulating reflow soldering conditions was measured to evaluate the possibility of the pop-corning effect in the parts. To simulate the effect of short-time exposures to solder reflow <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the reliability of tantalum capacitors, several part types were subjected to multiple cycles (up to 100) between room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 240 C with periodical measurements of electrical characteristics of the parts. Mechanisms of degradation caused by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling and exposure to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the requirements of MIL-PRF-55365 for assessment of the resistance of the parts to soldering heat are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> Cooling for High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Power Electronics (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Current emphasis on developing high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-<span class="hlt">air</span> heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and <span class="hlt">air</span> supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3738L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3738L"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using quantile regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kyoungmi; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, ChunHo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>One of the important research areas in climatology is to identify whether the long-period tendencies of change in meteorological variables appear. In the past, the analysis has been limited by the estimation of long-period trends for annual or seasonal average values on meteorological variables. However, recently, the interest in the trends regarding the whole range of values for meteorological variables, including the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ones, has arisen. The quantile regression is the regression analysis method for estimating the regression slopes for the values of any quantile from 0 to 1 of dependent variable distributions. This method provides a more complete picture for the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the independent variable when both lower and upper or all quantiles are of interest. This study examines the changes in regional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in South Korea using quantile regression, which is applied to analyze trends, not only in the mean but in all parts of the data distribution. The results show considerable diversity across space and quantile level in South Korea. For daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter, the slopes in lower quantiles generally have a more distinct increase trend compared to the upper quantiles. The time series for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the winter season only shows a significant increasing trend in the lower quantile. In case of summer, most sites show an increase trend in both lower and upper quantiles for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while there are a number of sites with a decrease trend for daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It was also found that the increase trend of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in large urban areas (0.80°C/decade) is much larger than in rural areas (0.54°C/decade) due to the effects of urbanization. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climate events can have greater negative impacts on society, economy and natural environments than changes in climate means. The fast growth of population and industrialization in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..163F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..163F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, Canada (1974-2013)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortin, Guillaume; Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The majority of natural hazards that affect Canadian territory are the result of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate and weather conditions. Among these weather hazards, some can be calculated from the application of thresholds for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at a daily or monthly timescale. These thermal indices allowed the prediction of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions that may have an impact on the human population by affecting, for example, health, agriculture, and water resources. In this article, we discuss the methods used (RHtestsV4, SPLIDHOM, ClimPACT) then describe the steps followed to calculate the indices, including how we dealt with the problem of missing data and the necessity to identify a common methodology to analyze the time series. We also present possible solutions for ensuring the quality of meteorological data. We then present an overview of the results, namely the main trends and variability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for seven stations located in the Gaspé Peninsula from 1974 to 2013. Our results indicate some break points in time series and positive trends for most indices related to the rise of the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> but indicate a negative trend for the indices related to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for most stations during the study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034"><span id="translatedtitle">Global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: 1851-1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Many attempts have been made to combine station surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000917','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000917"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> using Record Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events including record high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high (low) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the global landmass we find that the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Using daily <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations, we find that the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is greater in the daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time-series compared to the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between the daily minimum and daily maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008789','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008789"><span id="translatedtitle">Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Profiles of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007326','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007326"><span id="translatedtitle">Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Profiles of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981tesy.confS....S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981tesy.confS....S"><span id="translatedtitle">Industrial applications of MHD high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> heater technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saari, D. P.; Fenstermacher, J. E.; White, L. R.; Marksberry, C. L.</p> <p>1981-12-01</p> <p>The MHD high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> heater (HTAH) requires technology beyond the current state-of-the-art of industrial regenerative heaters. Specific aspects of HTAH technology which may find other application include refractory materials and valves resistant to the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, corrosive, slag-bearing gas, materials resistant to cyclic thermal stresses, high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> support structures for the cored brick bed, regenerative heater operating techniques for preventing accumulation of slag in the heater, and analytical tools for computing regenerative heater size, cost, and performance. Areas where HTAH technology may find application include acetylene/ethylene production processes, flash pyrolysis of coal, high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas reactors, coal gasification processes, various metallurgical processes, waste incineration, and improvements to existing regenerator technology such as blast furnace stoves and glass tank regenerators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurs near full moon and lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816624W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816624W"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of atmospheric blocking on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winter minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis; Sillmann, Jana</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Regional climate models (RCMs) are the primary source of high-resolution climate projections and it is of crucial importance to evaluate their ability to simulate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events under current climate conditions. Many <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are influenced by circulation features that occur outside, or on the edges of, RCM domains. Thus it is of interest to know whether such dynamically controlled aspects of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are well represented by RCMs. This study assesses the relationship between upstream blocking and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over North America in observations, reanalysis products (ERA-Interim, NARR) and RCMs (CanRCM4, CRCM5, HIRHAM5, RCA4). Generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions were fitted to winter minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn) incorporating blocking frequency (BF) as a covariate, which has a significant influence on TNn. The magnitude of blocking influence in the RCMs is consistent with observations but the spatial extent varies. CRCM5 and HIRHAM5 reproduce the pattern of influence best compared to observations. CanRCM4 and RCA4 capture the influence of blocking in British Columbia and the northeastern United States but the extension of influence that is seen in observations and reanalysis, into the southern United States is not evident. The difference in the 20-year return value (20RV) of TNn between high and low BF indicates that blocking is associated with a decrease of up to 15°C in the 20RV over the majority of the United States and in western Canada. In northern North America the difference in the 20RV is positive as blocking is associated with warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The 20RVs are generally simulated well by the RCMs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC11J..06A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC11J..06A"><span id="translatedtitle">Placing Bounds on <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response of Maize to Improve Crop Model Intercomparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, C.; Babcock, B.; Peng, Y.; Gassman, P. W.; Campbell, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We propose the development of community-based estimates for bounds on maize sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We use model-based, observation-driven soil moisture climatology in a high maize production region in the United States to develop bounds on high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity through its dependence on available water. For the portion of the region with relatively long growing season, yield reduction per degree-C is 10% for high water availability and 32.5% for low water availability. Where the growing season is shorter, yield reduction per degree-C is 6% for high water availability and 27% for low water availability. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity is indeterminate where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> yield effect does not yet exceed excessive water yield effect. We suggest new soil moisture climatology from reanalysis datasets could be used to develop community-based estimates of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity that would significantly improve the accuracy of maize <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity bounds, their regional variability, and their importance relative to other weather yield shocks. A community-based estimate would substantially improve evaluation of crop system simulation models and provide baseline information for evaluation of adaptation options. For instance, since process models are needed for evaluation of crop system adaptation response under climate projections, a community-developed estimate would provide a clear target for process model evaluation. Furthermore, the range of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity from empirical models would provide a lower bound on variability that could be achieved from process models. If the process models achieved this bound, it would mean the uncertainty among their simulations would be primarily from observational limitations than differences in model response. While we demonstrate the potential in the context of maize, the concept could be implemented within any crop production system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85c5104F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85c5104F"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ceramic in <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with ice leading the winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The implication is that summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6104C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6104C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">air</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the city of Bucharest (Romania)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm <span class="hlt">air</span> advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5778P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5778P"><span id="translatedtitle">Can global chemistry-climate models reproduce <span class="hlt">air</span>-quality <span class="hlt">extremes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prather, Michael; Schnell, Jordan; Holmes, Christopher</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A novel analysis of surface ozone measurements is shown to identify and characterize <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution episodes over the USA and EU. Over a decade of observations, major episodes are found and for the most part as coherent, connected synoptic patterns lasting a few days and covering 1000 x 1000 square km. The integrated exposure of human population and agriculture/ecosystems is heavily weighted towards these mega-episodes. The skill of global chemistry-climate models (CTMs) in reproducing these episodes (defined in terms of maximum daily 8-hour average values: MDA8 in ppb or nanomoles per mole) is tested using the UCI high-resolution (100 km) global chemistry-transport model in a hindcast mode to match the individual episodes. Although the UCI CTM has significant biases in surface ozone, it correctly identifies the major synoptic, multi-day episodes. Tests show (i) this skill is robust to different approaches in generating a gridded observational data set and (ii) the correlation coefficient at the 100-km scale (~0.25) is robust to white noise in the individual surface site measurements up to about 10 ppb. We conclude that even at relatively coarse resolution, global chemistry-climate models can be used to project major synoptic pollution episodes driven by large-scale climate and chemistry changes, although local absolute exposure will remain dominated by local emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1273U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1273U"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-decadal Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trends and <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> at Arctic Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uttal, T.; Makshtas, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic region is considered to be one where global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are changing the most quickly; a number of factors make it the region where an accurate determination of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most difficult to measure or estimate. In developing a pan-Arctic perspective on Arctic in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability, several issues must be addressed including accounting for the different lengths of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records at different locations when comparing trends, accounting for the steep latitudinal controls on 'seasonal' trends, considering the often significant variability between different (sometimes a multitude) of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements made in the vicinity of a single station, and loss of detail information when data is ingested in a global archives or interpolated into gridded data sets. The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.iasoa.org) is an internationally networked consortium of facilities that measure a wide range of meteorological and climate relevant parameters; <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most fundamental of these parameters. Many of the observatories have the longest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records in the Arctic region including Barrow, Alaska (114 years), Tiksi, Russia (83 years), and Eureka, Canada (67 years). Using the IASOA data sets a detailed analysis is presented of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends presented as a function of the beginning date from which the trend is calculated, seasonal trends considered in the context of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Arctic solar ephemeris, and the variability in occurrence of annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. At the Tiksi observatory, a complete record is available of 3-hourly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> 1932 to present that was constructed through digitization of decades of written records. This data set is used to investigate if calculated trends and variabilities are consistent with those calculated from daily minimum and maximum values archived by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information Global Historical Climatology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.7911M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.7911M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Trend analysis of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series over Greece: 1955-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marougianni, G.; Melas, D.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Anandranistakis, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In this study, a database of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series from the network of Hellenic National Meteorological Service has been developed in the framework of the project GEOCLIMA, co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009. Initially, a quality test was applied to the raw data and then missing observations have been imputed with a regularized, spatial-temporal expectation - maximization algorithm to complete the climatic record. Next, a quantile - matching algorithm was applied in order to verify the homogeneity of the data. The processed time series were used for the calculation of temporal annual and seasonal trends of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Monthly maximum and minimum surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation means at all available stations in Greece were analyzed for temporal trends and spatial variation patterns for the longest common time period of homogenous data (1955 - 2010), applying the Mann-Kendall test. The majority of the examined stations showed a significant increase in the summer maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; this could be possibly physically linked to the Etesian winds, because of the less frequent expansion of the low over the southeastern Mediterranean. Summer minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been increasing at a faster rate than that of summer maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, reflecting an asymmetric change of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions. Total annual precipitation has been significantly decreased at the stations located in western Greece, as well as in the southeast, while the remaining areas exhibit a non-significant negative trend. This reduction is very likely linked to the positive phase of the NAO that resulted in an increase in the frequency and persistence of anticyclones over the Mediterranean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3419709M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3419709M"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Tebaldi, Claudia</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Observations averaged over the U.S. for the second half of the 20th century have shown a decrease of frost days, an increase in growing season length, an increase in the number of warm nights, and an increase in heat wave intensity. For the first three, a nine member multi-model ensemble shows similar changes over the U.S. in 20th century experiments that combine anthropogenic and natural forcings, though the relative contributions of each are unclear. Here we show results from two global coupled climate models run with anthropogenic and natural forcings separately. Averaged over the continental U.S., they show that the observed changes in the four <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are accounted for with anthropogenic forcings, but not with natural forcings (even though there are some differences in the details of the forcings). This indicates that most of the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the U.S. are likely due to human activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..284M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..284M"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimum <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the gulf of mexico: is there a connection with solar activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maravilla, D.; Mendoza, B.; Jauregui, E.</p> <p></p> <p>Minimum <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ( MET) series from several meteorological stations of the Gulf of Mexico are spectrally analyzed using the Maximum Entrophy Method. We obtained periodicities similar to those found in the sunspot number, the magnetic solar cycle, comic ray fluxes and geomagnetic activity which are modulated by solar activity. We suggested that the solar signal is perhaps present in the MET record of this region of Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010ems..confE.220D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010ems..confE.220D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Kříž, B.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Elevated mortality associated with high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> on human society. Increases in mortality during heat waves were examined in many European countries; much less is known about the effects of heat waves on morbidity, measured for example by the number of hospital admissions. Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study examines links between hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and daily hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in the population of the Czech Republic over 1994-2007. We make use of a recently completed database of all admissions for cardiovascular diseases to hospitals in the area of the Czech Republic since 1994, with a detailed classification of diseases and detailed information concerning each patient (in total 1,467,675 hospital admissions over 1994-2007). The main goals of the study are (i) to identify excess/deficit morbidity during and after periods of heat waves in summer and cold spells in winter, (ii) to compare the links for individual diseases (e.g. acute myocardial infarction, I21; angina pectoris, I20; cerebral infarction, I63; brain ischemia, I64) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to weather, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and (iv) to compare the links to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for morbidity and mortality. Periods when morbidity data were affected by epidemics of influenza and acute respiratory infections in winter were excluded from the analysis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018868','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018868"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and interdecadal variability in United States surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 1910-87</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dettinger, M.D.; Ghil, M.; Keppenne, C.L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Monthly mean surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 870 sites in the contiguous United States were analyzed for interannual and interdecadal variability over the time interval 1910-87. The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were analyzed spatially by empirical-orthogonal-function analysis and temporally by singularspectrum analysis (SSA). The dominant modes of spatio-temporal variability are trends and nonperiodic variations with time scales longer than 15 years, decadal-scale oscillations with periods of roughly 7 and 10 years, and interannual oscillations of 2.2 and 3.3 years. Together, these modes contribute about 18% of the slower-than-annual United States <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance. Two leading components roughly capture the mean hemispheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and represent a long-term warming, largest in the southwest, accompanied by cooling of the domain's southeastern quadrant. The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of the 2.2-year interannual oscillation characterize <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between the Northeastern and Southwestern States, whereas the 3.3-year cycle is present mostly in the Western States. The 7- to 10-year oscillations are much less regular and persistent than the interannual oscillations and characterize <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between the western and interior sectors of the United States. These continental- or regional-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations may be related to climatic variations with similar periodicities, either global or centered in other regions; such variations include quasi-biennial oscillations over the tropical Pacific or North Atlantic and quasi-triennial oscillations of North Pacific sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...124...79G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...124...79G"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and variability of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Yinghui; Zhang, Xunchang; Zheng, Fenli; Wang, Bin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The variability of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been the focus of attention during the past several decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on daily minimum (TN) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TX) observed by the China Meteorological Administration at 143 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), a suite of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, with a primary focus on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, were computed and analyzed for the period of 1960-2012 for this area. The results show widespread significant changes in all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices associated with warming in the YRB during 1960-2012. On the whole, cold-related indices, i.e., cold nights, cold days, frost days, icing days and cold spell duration index significantly decreased by - 3.45, - 1.03, - 3.04, - 0.42 and - 1.6 days/decade, respectively. In contrast, warm-related indices such as warm nights, warm days, summer days, tropical nights and warm spell duration index significantly increased by 2.95, 1.71, 2.16, 1.05 and 0.73 days/decade. Minimum TN, maximum TN, minimum TX and maximum TX increased significantly by 0.42, 0.18, 0.19 and 0.14 °C/decade. Because of a faster increase in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) exhibited a significant decreasing trend of - 0.09 °C/decade for the whole YRB during 1960-2012. However, the decreasing trends all occurred in 1960-1985, while increasing trends though insignificant were found in all sub-regions and the whole YRB during 1986-2012. Geographically, stations in the eastern Tibet Plateau and northeastern YRB showed stronger trends in almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. Time series analysis indicated that the YRB was dominated by a general cooling trend before the mid-1980s, but a warming trend afterwards. In general, the overall warming in the YRB was mainly due to the warming in 1986</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904954','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3904954"><span id="translatedtitle">Straw Mulching Reduces the Harmful Effects of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Hydrological and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions in Citrus Orchards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather conditions. PMID:24489844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489844"><span id="translatedtitle">Straw mulching reduces the harmful effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hydrological and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in citrus orchards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather conditions. PMID:24489844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6554D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6554D"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Carpathians since AD 1961</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Magdalena Micu, Dana; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Carpathians are the largest, longest, most twisted and fragmented segment of the Alpine system, stretching between latitudes 44°N and 50°N, and longitudes 17°E and 27°E. This European mountain range is a climatically transitional region between major atmospheric circulation source areas of the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and continental Europe. The region is a European biodiversity hotspot, containing over one third of all European plant species. It is acknowledged that the mountain regions are particularly sensitive and vulnerable to climate change than any other regions located at the same latitudes. Observational studies on the variability and trends of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events suggest an overall consensus towards a significant increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in most of these regions, including the Carpathians. 15 core indices, defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), were computed in order to investigate the changes in annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, based on their known relevance for the infrastructure, human health and tourism activities in these mountains. The indices were computed from gridded daily datasets of minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation at 0.1° resolution (~10 km), available online within the framework of the project CarpatClim (www.carpatclim-eu.org) for the period 1961-2010. Changes in the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the last five decades have been identified with the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, at the 90% significance level (two-tail test). The results show decreasing trends in cold-related thermal indices, especially in the number of frost days, and increasing trends in warm-related ones. No consistent trend in precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> has been found. There is a generally uniform signal of significant increasing trends in the frequency of summer days across the Carpathians, with no obvious differences between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41I1285H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41I1285H"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Spatio-temporal variations of rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hari, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> implemented. The results from this study exhibit the observable changes in the rainfall <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events that occurred over India in past century. The country experienced large spatial heterogeneity of all the four rainfall variables, even in the meteorologically homogeneous regions. The correlation analyses show that the maximum grids are having positive correlation, however for the duration-frequency, a significant correlation is observed in few grids, with most of the grids showing no correlation. The spatial variation of RL shows spatial heterogeneity and trend analyses exhibit lack of uniformity throughout India. The change in RL shows significant positive change in mainly during past 50 years. The possible reason could be urbanization and change in climate variables. Hence for further investigation, this analysis will be associated with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> data throughout India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23C1149L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23C1149L"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and Attribution of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Drought using an Analogue-Based Dynamical Adjustment Technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehner, F.; Deser, C.; Terray, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies highlight the importance of internal variability in decadal trends and variability of regional-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. We use constructed circulation analogues for dynamical adjustment and apply it to the CESM Large Ensemble and long preindustrial control simulation to dissect regional-scale variability and trends into dynamic and thermodynamic, as well as forced and internal components. This allows us to diagnose contributing factors to specific events and to the general statistics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and drought in presence of a climate change signal. Further, we will discuss impacts of heat and drought in the framework of human exposure based on projected population distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7426T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7426T"><span id="translatedtitle">Tendencies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values on rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its relationship with teleconnection patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taboada, J. J.; Cabrejo, A.; Guarin, D.; Ramos, A. M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is now very well established that yearly averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. Rainfall does not show a clear tendency in its yearly accumulated values. The aim of this work is to study different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices of rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> analysing variability and possible trends associated to climate change. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). The definition of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices was taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values to simplify intercomparison of data from different regions of the world. For the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are reverse: fewer nights with minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 10th percentile, and more with minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. This trend is expected to continue in the next decades because of anthropogenic climate change. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) has also some relationship with these tendencies, but only related with cold days and nights in winter. Rainfall index do not show any clear tendency on the annual scale. Nevertheless, the count of days when precipitation is greater than 20mm (R20</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..495S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..495S"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over an Alpine Glacier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, Thomas; Brock, Ben; Ayala, Álvaro; Rutter, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Near surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) is one of the most important controls on energy exchange between a glacier surface and the overlying atmosphere. However, not enough detail is known about the controls on Ta across a glacier due to sparse data availability. Recent work has provided insights into variability of Ta along glacier centre-lines in different parts of the world, yet there is still a limited understanding of off-centreline variability in Ta and how best to estimate it from distant off-glacier locations. We present a new dataset of distributed 2m Ta records for the Tsanteleina Glacier in Northwest Italy from July-September, 2015. Data provide detailed information of lateral (across-glacier) and centre-line variations in Ta, with ~20,000 hourly observations from 17 locations. The suitability of different vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients (VTGs) in estimating <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered under a range of meteorological conditions and from different forcing locations. A key finding is that local VTGs account for a lot of Ta variability under a broad range of climatic conditions. However, across-glacier variability is found to be significant, particularly for high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and for localised topographic depressions. The relationship of spatial Ta patterns with regional-scale reanalysis data and alternative Ta estimation methodologies are also presented. This work improves the knowledge of local scale Ta variations and their importance to melt modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013550','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20013550"><span id="translatedtitle">High efficiency power generation from coal and wastes utilizing high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion technology (Part 2: Thermal performance of compact high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheater and MEET boiler)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Iwahashi, Takashi; Kosaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Nobuhiro</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>The compact high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheater and the MEET boiler, which are critical components of the MEET system, are the direct evolutions of the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> combustion technology. Innovative hardware concept for a compact high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheater has been proposed, and preliminary experiment using the MEET-I high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> preheater based on this concept successfully demonstrated continuous high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> generation with almost no <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation. A preliminary heat transfer calculation for the MEET boiler showed that regenerative combustion using high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> is quite effective for radiative heat transfer augmentation in a boiler, which will lead to significant downsizing of a boiler. The heat transfer characteristics in the MEET boiler were experimentally measured and the heat transfer promotion effect and the uniform heat transfer field were confirmed. Moreover, it was understood that excellent combustion with the low BTU gas of about 3,000 kcal/m{sup 3} was done.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...515715J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NatSR...515715J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Although increases in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622076','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4622076"><span id="translatedtitle">Increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although increases in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects. PMID:26502826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26278070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26278070"><span id="translatedtitle">Responsive Stabilization of Nanoparticles for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Salinity and High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Reservoir Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ranka, Mikhil; Brown, Paul; Hatton, T Alan</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Colloidal stabilization of nanoparticles under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> salinity and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions is a key challenge in the development of next generation technologies for subsurface reservoir characterization and oil recovery. Polyelectrolytes have been investigated as nanoparticle stabilizers, but typically fail at high ionic strengths and elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to excessive charge screening and dehydration. We report an approach to nanoparticle stabilization that overcomes these limitations, and exploits the antipolyelectrolyte phenomenon, in which screening of intrachain electrostatic interactions causes a polyzwitterion chain to undergo a structural transition from a collapsed globule to a more open coil-like regime with increases in ionic strength and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Small-angle neutron scattering on a model zwitterionic polymer in solution indicated an increase in both radius of gyration and excluded volume parameter of the polymer with increases in ionic strength and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The model zwitterion was subsequently incorporated within a polymeric stabilizer for nanoparticles under harsh reservoir conditions, and used to functionalize hydrophilic (silica) as well as hydrophobic (polystyrene) nanoparticles. Long-term colloidal stability was achieved at salt concentrations up to 120,000 mg/dm3 at 90 °C, approximately twice the stability limit previously reported in the literature. The approach can be broadly generalized to a large class of synthetic polyzwitterions, and can be adapted to a wide variety of other colloidal systems in which demands placed by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions must be met. PMID:26278070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830016162','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830016162"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral photometry of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars: Ultraviolet fluxes and effective <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Drilling, J. S.; Schoenberner, D.; Heber, U.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet flux distributions are presented for the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> helium rich stars BD +10 deg 2179, HD 124448, LSS 3378, BD -9 deg 4395, LSE 78, HD 160641, LSIV -1 deg 2, BD 1 deg 3438, HD 168476, MV Sgr, LS IV-14 deg 109 (CD -35 deg 11760), LSII +33 deg 5 and BD +1 deg 4381 (LSIV +2 deg 13) obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Broad band photometry and a newly computed grid of line blanketed model atmospheres were used to determine accurate angular diameters and total stellar fluxes. The resultant effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are in most cases in satisfactory agreement with those based on broad band photometry and/or high resolution spectroscopy in the visible. For two objects, LSII +33 deg 5 and LSE 78, disagreement was found between the IUE observations and broadband photometry: the colors predict <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around 20,000 K, whereas the UV spectra indicate much lower photospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 14,000 to 15,000 K. The new <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scale for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> helium stars extends to lower effective <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than that of Heber and Schoenberner (1981) and covers the range from 8,500 K to 32,000 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502826"><span id="translatedtitle">Increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> likely facilitate invasive herbivore outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ju, Rui-Ting; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although increases in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT + EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The increases in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects. PMID:26502826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100041298','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100041298"><span id="translatedtitle">Operation of a Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) Digital Isolator, Type IL510, Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Panko, Scott</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A relatively new type of signal isolation based on Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) technology was investigated for potential use in harsh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments. Operational characteristics of the 2Mbps single channel, IL510-Series commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) digital isolator chip was obtained under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure and thermal cycling in the range of -190 C to +120 C. The isolator was evaluated in terms of its output signal delivery and stability, output rise (t(sub r)) and fall times (t(sub f)), and propagation delays at 50% level between input and output during low to high (t(sub PLH)) and high to low (t(sub PHL)) transitions. The device performed very well throughout the entire test <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range as no significant changes occurred either in its function or in its output signal timing characteristics. The limited thermal cycling, which comprised of 12 cycles between -190 C and +120 C, also had no influence on its performance. In addition, the device packaging underwent no structural damage due to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure. These preliminary results indicate that this semiconductor chip has the potential for use in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range that extends beyond its specified regime. Additional and more comprehensive testing, however, is required to establish its operation and reliability and to determine its suitability for long-term use in space exploration missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.1753M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.1753M"><span id="translatedtitle">Storm type effects on super Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of intense rainstorm properties with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molnar, P.; Fatichi, S.; Gaál, L.; Szolgay, J.; Burlando, P.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation is thought to increase with warming at rates similar to or greater than the water vapour holding capacity of the <span class="hlt">air</span> at ~ 7% °C-1, the so-called Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate. We present an empirical study of the variability in the rates of increase in precipitation intensity with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using 30 years of 10 min and 1 h data from 59 stations in Switzerland. The analysis is conducted on storm events rather than fixed interval data, and divided into storm type subsets based on the presence of lightning which is expected to indicate convection. The average rates of increase in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (95th percentile) of mean event intensity computed from 10 min data are 6.5% °C-1 (no-lightning events), 8.9% °C-1 (lightning events) and 10.7% °C-1 (all events combined). For peak 10 min intensities during an event the rates are 6.9% °C-1 (no-lightning events), 9.3% °C-1 (lightning events) and 13.0% °C-1 (all events combined). Mixing of the two storm types exaggerates the relations to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Doubled CC rates reported by other studies are an exception in our data set, even in convective rain. The large spatial variability in scaling rates across Switzerland suggests that both local (orographic) and regional effects limit moisture supply and availability in Alpine environments, especially in mountain valleys. The estimated number of convective events has increased across Switzerland in the last 30 years, with 30% of the stations showing statistically significant changes. The changes in intense convective storms with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may be relevant for hydrological risk connected with those events in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378206','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378206"><span id="translatedtitle">USING HINODE/<span class="hlt">EXTREME</span>-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER TO CONFIRM A SEISMOLOGICALLY INFERRED CORONAL <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W.</p> <p>2009-11-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the HINODE satellite is used to examine the loop system described in Marsh et al. by applying spectroscopic diagnostic methods. A simple isothermal mapping algorithm is applied to determine where the assumption of isothermal plasma may be valid, and the emission measure locii technique is used to determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile along the base of the loop system. It is found that, along the base, the loop has a uniform <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0.89 +- 0.09 MK which is in agreement with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determined seismologically in Marsh et al., using observations interpreted as the slow magnetoacoustic mode. The results further strengthen the slow mode interpretation, propagation at a uniform sound speed, and the analysis method applied in Marsh et al. It is found that it is not possible to discriminate between the slow mode phase speed and the sound speed within the precision of the present observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511721L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511721L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimation from Land Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar Radiation parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lazzarini, Michele; Eissa, Yehia; Marpu, Prashanth; Ghedira, Hosni</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (<span class="hlt">Air</span>T) is a fundamental parameter in a wide range of applications such as climate change studies, weather forecast, energy balance modeling, efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, etc. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are generally obtained through regular measurements from meteorological stations. The distribution of these stations is normally sparse, so the spatial pattern of this parameter cannot be accurately estimated by interpolation methods. This work investigated the relationship between <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> measured at meteorological stations and spatially contiguous measurements derived from Remote Sensing techniques, such as Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LST) maps, emissivity maps and shortwave radiation maps with the aim of creating a continuous map of <span class="hlt">Air</span>T. For LST and emissivity, MSG-SEVIRI LST product from Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA-SAF) has been used. For shortwave radiation maps, an Artificial Neural Networks ensemble model has been developed and previously tested to create continuous maps from Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) point measurements, utilizing six thermal channels of MSG-SEVIRI. The testing sites corresponded to three meteorological stations located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where in situ measurements of <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> were available. From the starting parameters, energy fluxes and net radiation have been calculated, in order to have information on the incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation and the incoming short-wave radiation. The preliminary analysis (day and Night measurements, cloud free) showed a strong negative correlation (0.92) between Outgoing long-wave radiation - GHI and LST- <span class="hlt">Air</span>T, with a RMSE of 1.84 K in the <span class="hlt">Air</span>T estimation from the initial parameters. Regression coefficients have been determined and tested on all the ground stations. The analysis also demonstrated the predominant impact of the incoming short-wave radiation in the <span class="hlt">Air</span>T hourly variation, while the incoming</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51E1137H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC51E1137H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of New England Stream <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> to <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Under Projected Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38.1325S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38.1325S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking geomagnetic activity and polar surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seppala, Annika</p> <p></p> <p>ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data sets from 1957 to 2006 were used to examine polar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the Ap index. Previous modelling work has suggested that NOx produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in polar SATs. We find that during winter months, ERA-40 and ECMWF polar SATs in years with high Ap index are different than in years with low Ap index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, de-pending on location. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings are excluded. Solar irradiance variations were taken into account in the analysis. Although using the re-analysis and operational data sets it was not possible to conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating polar wintertime surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns. The SAT results were tested against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode n (SAM). The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and we could not robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variability and geomagnetic activity. Examining the physical link between geomagnetic activity and polar surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability patterns using atmospheric models is an ongoing task.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..531.1129F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..531.1129F"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined effects of precipitation and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on soil moisture in different land covers in a humid basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Huihui; Liu, Yuanbo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrological processes. Although the combined effects of multiple climatic factors in different land cover conditions are highly valuable for water resource management, a complete understanding of these effects remains unclear. This study used a cluster analysis approach to investigate the combined effects of precipitation and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, rather than a single factor, in different land covers for an area over the Poyang Lake Basin in China from 2003 to 2009. Specifically, monthly soil moisture was classified into eight clusters according to the change in precipitation and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; the clusters describe a range of climates from the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> of wet-hot to that of dry-cold. For an individual climate factor, our results showed that the contribution of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to soil moisture is greater than that of precipitation, and the effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more sensitive in different land covers. When considering the combined effects of precipitation and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, soil moisture varies with land cover; however, the variation in a normal climate cluster is greater than in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate cluster. This indicated that land cover is the dominant factor in soil moisture variation in normal climatic conditions, whereas climate is the dominant factor in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. As climate shifts from the wet-hot to the dry-cold cluster, soil moisture decreases for all land covers, with the minimum rate occurring in forest conditions. Meanwhile, soil moisture deficit and saturation are more likely to occur in grassland and forest areas, indicating that forest cover might mitigate drought. The results of this study provide an effective approach to investigate the combined effects of climate factors on soil moisture for various land covers in humid areas. This study also supports the management of water resources in changing climates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1023513"><span id="translatedtitle">STUDY ON <span class="hlt">AIR</span> INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang H. Oh</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, <span class="hlt">air</span> will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic <span class="hlt">air</span>-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing <span class="hlt">air</span> ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient; (6) preventing high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various <span class="hlt">air</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..473F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.123..473F"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent changes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Italy: an index-based analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fioravanti, Guido; Piervitali, Emanuela; Desiato, Franco</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The assessment of climate change impacts requires updated estimates of the tendencies in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. With the objective of studying recent variations in frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over Italy, a collection of daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series was selected for the calculation of a set of indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The trend of each index was investigated through a non-parametric statistical analysis over the last half-century (1961-2011), and its spatial variability was illustrated through trend maps. Mean national-scale trends were also assessed at annual and seasonal level. The results show that mean annual series exhibit a general warming tendency from 1961 to 2011, with significant trends for summer days, tropical nights, heat waves, and percentile-based indices at most stations, with warming trends more pronounced in summer and spring and weaker in winter and autumn. As a changepoint was identified in 1977 for the minimum ( T min) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ( T max) Italian annual series, the trend analysis was also performed for the two sub-periods 1961-1977 and 1978-2011. Non-significant "cooling" trends characterize the sub-period 1961-1977, while significant "warming" trends were identified over the period 1978-2011. This study updates previous research in the extent of time series, in the number of indices and in the approach followed for their analysis, providing useful information for evaluating the impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the context of a changing climate in Italy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma for food processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in <span class="hlt">air</span> and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4367L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4367L"><span id="translatedtitle">The Trends of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change Associated with <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in Korea from 1973 to 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Bo-Hyun; Park, Byeong-Hak; Koh, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kang-Kun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Examining long-term trends of the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can contribute to assessing subsurface thermal environment. The recent 40-year (1973-2012) meteorological data from 14 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations was analyzed in this study to estimate the temporal variations of <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (at depths 0.5 and 1.0m) in Korea and their relations. The information on regional characteristics of study sites was also collected to investigate the local and regional features influencing the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The long-term increasing trends of both <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were estimated by using simple linear regression analysis. The <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise were compared for every site to reveal the relation between <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. In most sites, the proportion of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise was nearly one to one except a few sites. The difference between the <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends at those sites may be attributed to the combined effect of soil properties such as thermal diffusivity and soil moisture content. The impact of urbanization on the <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was also investigated in this study. Establishment of the relationship between the <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can help predicting the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in a region where no soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data is obtained by using <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. For rigorous establishment of the relationship between soil and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, more thorough investigation on the soil thermal properties is necessary through additional monitoring and accompanied validation of the proposed relations. Keywords : Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Cross-correlation analysis, Soil thermal diffusivity, Urbanization effect Acknowledgement This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)" in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090019021&hterms=Flip&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFlip','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090019021&hterms=Flip&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFlip"><span id="translatedtitle">Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Cold <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (-190 and -120 C)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and at various intervals as a function of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC34A..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC34A..06R"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Modes of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Variability Using <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> channel at 2388 1/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking in the mid-troposphere (400 mb) and the matching sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from NCEP (Aumann et al., 2007). Taking into account the nonlinear and non- stationary behavior of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) to better separate modes of variability. All-sky (cloudy) and clear sky, day and night data are analyzed. In addition to the dominant annual variation, which is nonlinear and latitude dependent, we identified the modes with higher frequency and inter-annual modes. Some trends are visible and we apply stringent criteria to test their statistical significance. References: Aumann, H. H., D. T. Gregorich, S. E. Broberg, and D. A. Elliott, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15813, doi:10.1029/2006GL029191, 2007. Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31A1168F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31A1168F"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical Circulation Regimes and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the Contemporary and 21st Century Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present updated results of how changing climate affects dynamical circulation regimes, which has implications on the future of Arctic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We use a fully coupled Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) that includes the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW), Parallel Ocean Program (POP), Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE5), and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with the NCAR CESM CPL7 coupler. RASM simulates a pan-Arctic domain with a 50-km horizontal atmospheric resolution. The simulation uses atmospheric boundary conditions provided by the NCAR CCSM4. Additionally, part of the ocean domain also uses as boundary conditions daily values of SST and SSS from the NCAR CCSM4. Previous results suggest that as sea-ice cover wanes there is a tendency for increased persistent 1-regime (as opposed to 2-regime) behavior in Arctic atmospheric circulation. Using RASM, we extend the analysis to understand the development of persistent dynamical regimes in the 21st Century. Results from a multi-decadal simulation using RASM will be presented and will focus on the susceptibility of present and future persistent dynamical circulation regimes to producing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Results suggest that identification of when persistent 1- and 2-regime behavior occurs is useful for ascertaining the future of the Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009315"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Annual Data to Estimate the Public Health Impact of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goggins, William B; Yang, Chunyuh; Hokama, Tomiko; Law, Lewis S K; Chan, Emily Y Y</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Short-term associations between both hot and cold ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and higher mortality have been found worldwide. Few studies have examined these associations on longer time scales. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated for 1976-2012 for Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, defining "annual" time periods in 2 ways: from May through April of the following year and from November through October. Annual frequency and severity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were summarized by using a degree-days approach with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat expressed as annual degree-days >29.3°C and cold as annual degree-days <27.5°C. For example, a day with a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 25.0°C contributes 2.5 cold degree-days to the annual total. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the association between annual hot and cold degree-days and the ASMR, with adjustment for long-term trends. Increases of 10 hot or 200 cold degree-days in an annual period, the approximate interquartile ranges for these variables, were significantly (all P's ≤ 0.011) associated with 1.9% or 3.1% increases, respectively, in the annual ASMR for the May-April analyses and with 2.2% or 2.8% increases, respectively, in the November-October analyses. Associations were stronger for noncancer and elderly mortality. Mortality increases associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are not simply due to short-term forward displacement of deaths that would have occurred anyway within a few weeks. PMID:26009315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000778','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000778"><span id="translatedtitle">Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array Interconnect Packages Under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A paper describes advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packaging interconnects technology test objects that were subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycles. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring boards (PWBs) of polyimide were assembled, inspected nondestructively, and, subsequently, subjected to ex - treme-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermal cycling to assess reliability for future deep-space, short- and long-term, <span class="hlt">extreme-temperature</span> missions. The test hardware consisted of two CCGA717 packages with each package divided into four daisy-chained sections, for a total of eight daisy chains to be monitored. The package is 33 33 mm with a 27 27 array of 80%/20% Pb/Sn columns on a 1.27-mm pitch. The change in resistance of the daisy-chained CCGA interconnects was measured as a function of the increasing number of thermal cycles. Several catastrophic failures were observed after 137 <span class="hlt">extreme-temperature</span> thermal cycles, as per electrical resistance measurements, and then the tests were continued through 1,058 thermal cycles to corroborate and understand the test results. X-ray and optical inspection have been made after thermal cycling. Optical inspections were also conducted on the CCGA vs. thermal cycles. The optical inspections were conclusive; the x-ray images were not. Process qualification and assembly is required to optimize the CCGA assembly, which is very clear from the x-rays. Six daisy chains were open out of seven daisy chains, as per experimental test data reported. The daisy chains are open during the cold cycle, and then recover during the hot cycle, though some of them also opened during the hot thermal cycle..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015439&hterms=river&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Driver','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015439&hterms=river&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Driver"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Impact on Analysis and Forecast of an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall Event (Indus River Valley 2010) with a Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reale, O.; Lau, W. K.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A set of data assimilation and forecast experiments are performed with the NASA Global data assimilation and forecast system GEOS-5, to compare the impact of different approaches towards assimilation of Advanced Infrared Spectrometer (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) data on the precipitation analysis and forecast skill. The event chosen is an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall episode which occurred in late July 11 2010 in Pakistan, causing massive floods along the Indus River Valley. Results show that the assimilation of quality-controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals obtained under partly cloudy conditions produce better precipitation analyses, and substantially better 7-day forecasts, than assimilation of clear-sky radiances. The improvement of precipitation forecast skill up to 7 day is very significant in the tropics, and is caused by an improved representation, attributed to cloudy retrieval assimilation, of two contributing mechanisms: the low-level moisture advection, and the concentration of moisture over the area in the days preceding the precipitation peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551669"><span id="translatedtitle">Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rates of exercise-induced core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(pill)) was compared with the rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(re)) and esophageal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(es)). T(pill) corresponded well to T(re) during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T(es) during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT(pill)-T(re) and ΔT(pill)-T(es) were 0.13 ± 0.26 and -0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were similar for T(pill) and T(re.) T(es) responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T(pill). In conclusion, also during considerable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes at a very high rate, T(pill) is still a representative of T(re). The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T(pill) and T(es) (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T(pill) is unsuited to evaluate central blood <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> change rapidly. PMID:22551669</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.124..959F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.124..959F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in indices of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitations <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.2423W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1558.2423W"><span id="translatedtitle">Equation of state density models for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark A.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The necessity of exploring ultradeep reservoirs requires the accurate prediction of hydrocarbon density data at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures. In this study, three equations of state (EoS) models, Peng-Robinson (PR), high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> high-pressure volume-translated PR (HTHP VT-PR), and perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS are used to predict the density data for hydrocarbons in ultradeep reservoirs at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to 523 K and pressures to 275 MPa. The calculated values are compared with experimental data. The results show that the HTHP VT-PR EoS and PC-SAFT EoS always perform better than the regular PR EoS for all the investigated hydrocarbons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1025441','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1025441"><span id="translatedtitle">Composite Materials under <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Radiation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simos, N.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated <span class="hlt">extreme</span> states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of flux and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10631693T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10631693T"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal power in land <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: Is it statistically significant?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thejll, Peter A.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The geographical distribution and properties of the well-known 10-11 year signal in terrestrial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records is investigated. By analyzing the Global Historical Climate Network data for surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> we verify that the signal is strongest in North America and is similar in nature to that reported earlier by R. G. Currie. The decadal signal is statistically significant for individual stations, but it is not possible to show that the signal is statistically significant globally, using strict tests. In North America, during the twentieth century, the decadal variability in the solar activity cycle is associated with the decadal part of the North Atlantic Oscillation index series in such a way that both of these signals correspond to the same spatial pattern of cooling and warming. A method for testing statistical results with Monte Carlo trials on data fields with specified temporal structure and specific spatial correlation retained is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PolSc...6..226M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PolSc...6..226M"><span id="translatedtitle">A new approach to quantifying soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to changing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow cover</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mackiewicz, Michael C.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Seasonal snow cover provides an effective insulating barrier, separating shallow soil (0.25 m) from direct localized meteorological conditions. The effectiveness of this barrier is evident in a lag in the soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to changing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The causal relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is largely because of the presence or absence of snow cover, and is frequently characterized using linear regression analysis. However, the magnitude of the dampening effect of snow cover on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response in shallow soils is obscured in linear regressions. In this study the author used multiple linear regression (MLR) with dummy predictor variables to quantify the degree of dampening between <span class="hlt">air</span> and shallow soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the presence and absence of snow cover at four Greenland sites. The dummy variables defining snow cover conditions were z = 0 for the absence of snow and z = 1 for the presence of snow cover. The MLR was reduced to two simple linear equations that were analyzed relative to z = 0 and z = 1 to enable validation of the selected equations. Compared with ordinary linear regression of the datasets, the MLR analysis yielded stronger coefficients of multiple determination and less variation in the estimated regression variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ems..confE.161T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009ems..confE.161T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Actual and future trends of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the NW Iberian Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>It is now very well established that yearly averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are reverse: less nights with minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 10th percentile, and more with minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=249128&keyword=Project+AND+Management+AND+Institute&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64250096&CFTOKEN=20878221','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=249128&keyword=Project+AND+Management+AND+Institute&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64250096&CFTOKEN=20878221"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AIR</span> QUALITY IMPACTS OF <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> WEATHER EVENTS: HISTORICAL ANALYSIS AND FUTURE PROJECTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p> This research will improve the fundamental understanding of EWEs and their impacts on <span class="hlt">air</span> quality. The ensemble climate projections for <span class="hlt">air</span> quality will link <span class="hlt">air</span> quality projections directly to climate model outputs used by the IPCC assessment report. Furthermore, we will p...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...272..457F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPS...272..457F"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of large format lithium ion battery exposed to <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Xuning; Sun, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; He, Xiangming; Lu, Languang; Han, Xuebing; Fang, Mou; Peng, Huei</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This paper provides a study on the characterizations of large format lithium ion battery cells exposed to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but without thermal runaway. A unique test is set up: an extended volume-accelerating rate calorimetry (EV-ARC) test is terminated at a specific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before thermal runaway happens in the battery. The battery was cooled down after an EV-ARC test with early termination. The performances of the battery before and after the EV-ARC test are investigated in detail. The results show that (a) the melting point of the separator dictates the reusability of the 25 Ah NCM battery after a near-runaway event. The battery cannot be reused after being heated to 140 °C or higher because of the exponential rise in ohmic resistance; (b) a battery can lose up to 20% of its capacity after being heated to 120 °C just one time; (c) if a battery is cycled after a thermal event, its lost capacity may be recovered partially. Furthermore, the fading and recovery mechanisms are analyzed by incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and a prognostic/mechanistic model. Model analysis confirms that the capacity loss at <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is caused by the increase of the resistance, the loss of lithium ion (LLI) at the anode and the loss of active material (LAM) at the cathode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090042583"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of SOI AND Gate, Type CHT-7408, for Operation in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dones, Keishla Rivera</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are finding widespread applications due to their ability to operate in harsh environments and the benefits they offer as compared to their silicon counterparts. Due to their construction, they are tailored for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> operation and show good tolerance to radiation events. In addition, their inherent design lessens the formation of parasitic junctions, thereby reducing leakage currents, decreasing power consumption, and enhancing speed. These devices are typically rated in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> capability from -55 C to about +225 C, and their characteristics over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range are documented in data sheets. Since electronics in some of NASA space exploration missions are required to operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions, both cold and hot, their characteristic behavior within the full <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spectrum must be determined to establish suitability for use in space applications. The effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure on the performance of a new commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) SOI AND gate device were evaluated in this work. The high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, quad 2-inputs AND gate device, which was recently introduced by CISSOID, is fabricated using a CMOS SOI process. Some of the specifications of the CHT-7408 chip are listed in a table. By supplying a constant DC voltage to one gate input and a 10 kHz square wave into the other associated gate input, the chip was evaluated in terms of output response, output rise (t(sub r)) and fall times (tf), and propagation delays (using a 50% level between input and output during low to high (tPLH) and high to low (tPHL) transitions). The supply current of the gate circuit was also obtained. These parameters were recorded at various test <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between -195 C and +250 C using a Sun Systems environmental chamber programmed at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rate of change of 10 C/min. In addition, the effects of thermal cycling on this chip were determined by exposing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.119..523Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.119..523Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative analysis of the characteristics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes between cities and mountains in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zong, Shengwei; Wu, Zhengfang; Xu, Jiawei; Du, Haibo; Meng, Xiangjun; Wang, Lei</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>More than half of the world's population is living in towns and cities according to the United Nations Population Fund (http://www.unfpa.org/pds/urbanization.htm). The rapid urbanization, especially in China, has significantly influenced the climate at least at a local scale. The increasing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ET) occurrence in urban areas prompts us to examine the historical and current situation of ET occurrence in cities by comparing them with that in mountains which provide a relatively natural record of the earth's climate because they are far away from cities and it is not influenced by urbanization effects. The ET occurrence was determined by multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), a well-accepted method aiming at finding the ET thresholds according to the characteristics of the data themselves. Warming trends in the city and mountain sites and the frequencies, intensities, and severities of ET occurrence were compared using climatic data between 1959 and 2011. The results show that the warming amplitude of the cities is not higher than that of the mountain regions, even with urbanization effect. The <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (ELT) in the cities occurred significantly lower in frequency and severity compared with that in the mountain sites. However, the intensity of ELT is generally higher than that in the mountains. Only the cities at low latitudes in China have experienced more frequent and severe <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (EHT) occurrence than the mountain sites in recent decades. But the intensity was not as high as that in the mountain sites. We conclude that the current situation of ET occurrence in the cities is not very serious if we consider the ET occurrence of the mountains as the "new norm." However, it is highly possible that the frequency of ET, especially the EHT, in the cities would increase and will be even more than that of the mountains. Moreover, the changes of ET occurrences before and after 1980 are distinguishable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.160...91S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmRe.160...91S"><span id="translatedtitle">Change point analysis of mean annual <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirvani, A.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The existence of change point in the mean of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...820L..10J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...820L..10J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and Refractive Substructure in 3C273 with RadioAstron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Michael D.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Gwinn, Carl R.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Narayan, Ramesh; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Jauncey, David L.; Voitsik, Peter A.; Anderson, James M.; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Earth-space interferometry with RadioAstron provides the highest direct angular resolution ever achieved in astronomy at any wavelength. RadioAstron detections of the classic quasar 3C 273 on interferometric baselines up to 171,000 km suggest brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeding expected limits from the “inverse-Compton catastrophe” by two orders of magnitude. We show that at 18 cm, these estimates most likely arise from refractive substructure introduced by scattering in the interstellar medium. We use the scattering properties to estimate an intrinsic brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 7× {10}12 {{K}}, which is consistent with expected theoretical limits, but which is ˜15 times lower than estimates that neglect substructure. At 6.2 cm, the substructure influences the measured values appreciably but gives an estimated brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that is comparable to models that do not account for the substructure. At 1.35 {{cm}}, the substructure does not affect the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high inferred brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in excess of {10}13 {{K}}. We also demonstrate that for a source having a Gaussian surface brightness profile, a single long-baseline estimate of refractive substructure determines an absolute minimum brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, if the scattering properties along a given line of sight are known, and that this minimum accurately approximates the apparent brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over a wide range of total flux densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ApJ...757...73K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ApJ...757...73K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-ultraviolet Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These <span class="hlt">temperature</span> substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254388-non-stationary-return-levels-cmip5-multi-model-temperature-extremes','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254388-non-stationary-return-levels-cmip5-multi-model-temperature-extremes"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-stationary Return Levels of CMIP5 Multi-model <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Cheng, L.; Phillips, T. J.; AghaKouchak, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to evaluate to what extent the CMIP5 climate model simulations of the climate of the twentieth century can represent observed warm monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under a changing environment. The biases and spatial patterns of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-year return levels of the annual maxima of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereafter, annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima) from CMIP5 simulations are compared with those of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observational data considered under a non-stationary assumption. The results show that CMIP5 climate models collectively underestimate the mean annual maxima over arid and semi-arid regions that are mostmore » subject to severe heat waves and droughts. Furthermore, the results indicate that most climate models tend to underestimate the historical annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima over the United States and Greenland, while generally disagreeing in their simulations over cold regions. Return level analysis shows that with respect to the spatial patterns of the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima, there are good agreements between the CRU observations and most CMIP5 simulations. However, the magnitudes of the simulated annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima differ substantially across individual models. Discrepancies are generally larger over higher latitudes and cold regions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092267"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> AND <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span>-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kucera, T. A.; Tripathi, D.</p> <p>2012-09-20</p> <p>We analyze the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These <span class="hlt">temperature</span> substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7198E..1FF','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7198E..1FF"><span id="translatedtitle">High-power QCW arrays for operation over wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feeler, Ryan; Junghans, Jeremy; Stephens, Ed</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>A family of laser diode arrays has been developed for QCW operation in adverse environmental conditions. The arrays contain expansion-matched heatsinks, hard solder, and are built using a process that minimizes the packaging-induced strain on the laser diode bars. The arrays are rated for operation at 200 Watts/bar under normal operating conditions. This work contains test results for these arrays when run under a variety of harsh operating conditions. The conditions were chosen to mimic those required by many military and aerospace laser programs. Life test results are presented over a range of operating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> common to military specifications (-40 °C to + 70 °C) at a power level of approximately 215 Watts/bar. The arrays experienced no measurable degradation over the course of the life test. Operation at the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> did not introduce any additional detectable failure mechanisms. Also presented are results of characterization and reliability tests conducted at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Diode arrays have been subjected to repeated cycles in rapid succession between room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 77 K with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp rates up to 100 K/minute. Pre- and post- thermal cycle P-I-V data are compared. The results demonstrate the suitability of these arrays for operation at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254388','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254388"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-stationary Return Levels of CMIP5 Multi-model <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheng, L.; Phillips, T. J.; AghaKouchak, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to evaluate to what extent the CMIP5 climate model simulations of the climate of the twentieth century can represent observed warm monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under a changing environment. The biases and spatial patterns of 2-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-year return levels of the annual maxima of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereafter, annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima) from CMIP5 simulations are compared with those of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observational data considered under a non-stationary assumption. The results show that CMIP5 climate models collectively underestimate the mean annual maxima over arid and semi-arid regions that are most subject to severe heat waves and droughts. Furthermore, the results indicate that most climate models tend to underestimate the historical annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima over the United States and Greenland, while generally disagreeing in their simulations over cold regions. Return level analysis shows that with respect to the spatial patterns of the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima, there are good agreements between the CRU observations and most CMIP5 simulations. However, the magnitudes of the simulated annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima differ substantially across individual models. Discrepancies are generally larger over higher latitudes and cold regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048258&hterms=TGS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTGS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048258&hterms=TGS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTGS"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and luminosities using multiple <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-ultraviolet and X-ray filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We carefully examine the techniques used to infer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of stellar coronal plasmas from the count rates of several broadband instruments in the X-ray and <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-ultraviolet spectral ranges. In particular, we determine to what extent <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be constrained and the corresponding uncertainties in the luminosities and emission measures lowered by fitting simultaneously count rates from the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC), the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), the ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) (both filters), and the EXOSAT Low Energy Telescope (LET) with the 3-Lex filter. We use published plasma emissivities with solar photospheric abundances. Since it has been found that single-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> plasmas do not fit IPC data well, we assume a two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> plasma model. We find that, even with count rates from all of the above filters and overly optimistic error estimates, it is still not possible to determine a unique two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> solution. However, since the use of count rates from many filters can reduce substantially the number of possible solutions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> solutions determined by other means can be tested. We carry out such an analysis on a set of 18 nearby late-type stars to determine possible two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> solutions using multifilter photometry, and we compare these results with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> solutions derived by Schmitt et al. (1990) using IPC spectral data. In general, the two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> fits derived from the IPC spectral data are inconsistent with our results, with our data implying that, for many stars, the two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived by the IPC may be too low by about a factor of 2. The EXOSAT transmission grating Spectrometer (TGS) spectra of capella and sigma(exp 2) CrB support this conclusion. For Procyon and 70 Oph, though, the presence of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> component cooler than a million degress (not detected by the IPC) is deduced. While our analysis suggests the existence of more than one <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390728"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.</p> <p>2014-12-04</p> <p>We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044219"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Ambient Design <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Cooled Binary Plant Output</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dan Wendt; Greg Mines</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Air</span>-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Nominally this <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the annual mean or average <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has on power generation for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fluctuating ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320425','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320425"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Changes in Deep Muscles of Humans During Upper and Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wirth, Valerie J.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Mistry, Dilaawar; Saliba, Ethan; McCue, Frank C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To examine the effect of 15 minutes of upper and lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> exercise on raising intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the triceps surae to 39 ° C to 45 ° C (the therapeutic range). Design and Setting: Intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured 5 cm deep in the triceps surae using a 23-gauge thermistor needle microprobe connected to a monitor. Each subject was tested under 3 conditions: 15 minutes of rest, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill, and 15 minutes of handpedaling an upper-body ergometer. Exercise bouts were performed at 70% of each subject's maximum heart rate. Subjects: Six males, either sedentary or recreational athletes (age = 21.3 ± 2.9 years; ht = 176.8 ± 6.0 cm; wt = 72.7 ± 11.6 kg; resting heart rate = 57.8 ± 6.74 bpm; target heart rate = 156.5 ± 3.0 bpm), volunteered to participate in this experiment. Measurements: Intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured at a depth of 5 cm before and after each test condition. Results: Data analyses consisted of analyses of variance with repeated measures and a Tukey post hoc test (P < .05). The results showed a significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase over baseline after exercise on the treadmill (2.2 ° C ± 0.63 ° C); however, it did not yield <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases ≥ 39 ° C. No significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change occurred after exercise on the upper-body ergometer (-0.45 ° C ± 0.80 ° C). Conclusions: Active exercise increased intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in working muscles but did not affect intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in nonworking muscles. In addition, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill at 70% of maximum heart rate was not sufficient to raise intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 39 ° C to 45 ° C. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0896B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0896B"><span id="translatedtitle">Does the shift to higher capacities for isoprene emission at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in some oak species reflect acclimation to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> drought and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barta, C.; Gramann, J. H.; White, S. L.; Schade, G. W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> decrease of 40% in the sensitive species. As opposed to 2011, the above average precipitation in the first months of 2012, allowed for recovery in both studied species. Photosynthesis rates were maintained at optimum levels throughout the summer of 2012, while standard isoprene emission rates completely recovered in the resistant Q.stellata. Photosynthesis and isoprene emission of the sensitive Q. nigra recovered only partially. Isoprene emission response to increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Q. stellata indicated a shift to higher capacities for isoprene emission at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, exceeding current model predictions during all three years, possibly reflecting an adaptation to the local climate. Additionally, in 2012 and 2013 we recorded a further shift of 3-5°C in the optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for isoprene emission in this species. We hypothesize, that these responses are due to the evolution of a more thermo-tolerant isoprene synthase enzyme in this species. For comparison, the sensitive species' emissions decreased above 40°C, as predicted by models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920070"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> modifies the association between particulate <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality: A multi-city study in South Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Satbyul Estella; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Substantial epidemiologic literature has demonstrated the effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on mortality. However, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modification effect on acute mortality due to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution. Herein, we investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the relationship between <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory death in seven cities in South Korea. We applied stratified time-series models to the data sets in order to examine whether the effects of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10) on mortality were modified by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The effect of PM10 on daily mortality was first quantified within different ranges of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at each location using a time-series model, and then the estimates were pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis using the maximum likelihood method. From all the data sets, 828,787 non-accidental deaths were registered from 2000-2009. The highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot days (daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: >99th percentile) in individuals aged <65 years. In those aged ≥65 years, the highest overall risk between PM10 and non-accidental or cardiovascular mortality was observed on very hot days and not on <span class="hlt">extremely</span> hot days (daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: 95-99th percentile). There were strong harmful effects from PM10 on non-accidental mortality with the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (>99th percentile) in men, with a very high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (95-99th percentile) in women. Our findings showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can affect the relationship between the PM10 levels and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age and sex groups. PMID:25920070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815548S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815548S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> sensitivity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scaling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Evidence on historical <span class="hlt">extremely</span> heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1993R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1993R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Air</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using <span class="hlt">Airs</span> Data Over Peninsular Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the <span class="hlt">air</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048032"><span id="translatedtitle">SiC JFET Transistor Circuit Model for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neudeck, Philip G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A technique for simulating <span class="hlt">extreme-temperature</span> operation of integrated circuits that incorporate silicon carbide (SiC) junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) has been developed. The technique involves modification of NGSPICE, which is an open-source version of the popular Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) general-purpose analog-integrated-circuit-simulating software. NGSPICE in its unmodified form is used for simulating and designing circuits made from silicon-based transistors that operate at or near room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Two rapid modifications of NGSPICE source code enable SiC JFETs to be simulated to 500 C using the well-known Level 1 model for silicon metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). First, the default value of the MOSFET surface potential must be changed. In the unmodified source code, this parameter has a value of 0.6, which corresponds to slightly more than half the bandgap of silicon. In NGSPICE modified to simulate SiC JFETs, this parameter is changed to a value of 1.6, corresponding to slightly more than half the bandgap of SiC. The second modification consists of changing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of MOSFET transconductance and saturation parameters. The unmodified NGSPICE source code implements a T(sup -1.5) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence for these parameters. In order to mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior of experimental SiC JFETs, a T(sup -1.3) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence must be implemented in the NGSPICE source code. Following these two simple modifications, the Level 1 MOSFET model of the NGSPICE circuit simulation program reasonably approximates the measured high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> behavior of experimental SiC JFETs properly operated with zero or reverse bias applied to the gate terminal. Modification of additional silicon parameters in the NGSPICE source code was not necessary to model experimental SiC JFET current-voltage performance across the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 25 to 500 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8640E..0RF&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013SPIE.8640E..0RF&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-insensitive continuous-wave broadband quantum cascade lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujita, Kazuue; Yamanishi, Masamichi; Furuta, Shinichi; Dougakiuchi, Tatsuo; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Edamura, Tadataka</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are promising light sources for many chemical sensing applications in the mid-infrared spectral range. For industrial applications, broadband wavelength tuning of external-cavity QC lasers with very broad gain-width has been demonstrated. QC lasers based on anti-crossed dual-upper-state (DAU) designs are one of the promising candidates because of its broad bandwidth as well as high device performances. In fact, wide wavelength tuning of external cavity QC lasers with the anti-crossed DAU designs has been exhibited in several wavelengths: the tuning range of ~25% in pulsed mode and <17% in cw mode at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Here we report conspicuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> performances of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with broad gain bandwidths. The lasers with the anti-crossed DAU designs, characterized by strong super-linear current-light output curves, exhibit the <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high characteristic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for threshold current density, T0~750 K above room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In addition, its slope efficiency is growing with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (negative T1-value). For the pulsed operation of a short 1 mm length laser, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient reaches the surprisingly high value of 1085 K over 340-380 K <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The distinctive characteristics of the DAU lasers are attributable to the optical absorption quenching which has been clarified to take place in indirect pumped QC lasers. Such high characteristic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the DAU-QC lasers provide great advantages for practical applications, in addition to its potential of broadband tuning.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.653a2080K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.653a2080K"><span id="translatedtitle">Equations of state of novel solids synthesized under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurakevych, O. O.; Le Godec, Y.; Solozhenko, V. L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The pressure-volume-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> equations of state have been constructed by combining experimental data and semiempirical estimations for a number of compounds recently synthesized under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. The solids with various bonding types were considered: covalent hard and superhard boron-rich and diamond-like compounds (e.g. B6O, B13N2, BP, c-BC5, and nano-cBN), ionic semiconductors (e.g. Mg2C and Mg2C3), as well as intercalation compounds (e.g. clathrates Na4Si24 and Na24+xSi136), and simple substances (e.g. boron allotropes γ-B28 and t'-B52, and open-framework silicon allotrope o-Si24 with quasi-direct bandgap). We also showed how the reliable p-V-T equations of state may be constructed using different types of data available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017962&hterms=180-c&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D180-c','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017962&hterms=180-c&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D180-c"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-Adaptive System based on Field Programmable Gate Array for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Electronics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo; Rajeshuni, Ramesham; Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas; Graves, Sharon; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this work, we report the implementation of a self-adaptive system using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and data converters. The self-adaptive system can autonomously recover the lost functionality of a reconfigurable analog array (RAA) integrated circuit (IC) [3]. Both the RAA IC and the self-adaptive system are operating in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (from 120 C down to -180 C). The RAA IC consists of reconfigurable analog blocks interconnected by several switches and programmable by bias voltages. It implements filters/amplifiers with bandwidth up to 20 MHz. The self-adaptive system controls the RAA IC and is realized on Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts. It implements a basic compensation algorithm that corrects a RAA IC in less than a few milliseconds. Experimental results for the cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment (down to -180 C) demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5434G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5434G"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeophysical effects of afforestation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - case studies for Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galos, B.; Sieck, K.; Rechid, D.; Haensler, A.; Teichmann, C.; Kindermann, G.; Matyas, Cs.; Jacob, D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Europe is the only continent with a significant increase of forest cover in recent times. In the last two decades the annual area of natural forestation and forest planting amounted to an average of 0.78 million hectares/year[1]. As large-scale forest cover changes influence regional atmospheric circulation, regional-scale sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change for Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg), the projected <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation tendencies have been analyzed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been investigated, whether the potential forest cover change would reduce or enhance the effects of emission change. The magnitude of the biogeophysical feedbacks of afforestation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation means has been determined relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal. Based on the simulation results a significant climate change mitigating effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15-20 % of the climate change signal for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and more than 50 % for precipitation. The analysis of the impacts on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is focusing on regional differences within Europe, based on the following research questions: · Does the increased forest cover induce any changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and in the climate variability? · How big are the land cover change feedbacks compared to the projected climate change signal? · What are the differences by bioclimatic regions, which regions show the largest effect on the simulated climate through forest cover increase? Results may help to identify regions, where forest cover increase has the most favourable effect and should be supported to reduce the projected climate change. Data provide an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC41D0615M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC41D0615M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> - Will They Transform Structure of Avian Assemblages in the Desert Southwest?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiibwa, D.; Albright, T. P.; Wolf, B. O.; Mckechnie, A. E.; Gerson, A. R.; Talbot, W. A.; Sadoti, G.; O'Neill, J.; Smith, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can alter ecosystem structure and function and have caused mass mortality events in animals. With climate change, high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are increasing in frequency and magnitude. To better understand the consequences of climate change, scientists have frequently employed correlative models based on species occurrence records. However, these approaches may be of limited utility in the context of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, as these are often outside historical ranges and may involve strong non-linear responses. Here we describe work linking physiological response informed by experimental data to geospatial climate datasets in order to mechanistically model the dynamics of dehydration risk to dessert passerine birds. Specifically, we modeled and mapped the occurrence of current (1980-2013) high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and evaporative water loss rates for eight species of passerine birds ranging in size from 6.5-75g in the US Southwest portion of their range. We then explored the implications of a 4° C warming scenario. Evaporative water loss (EWL) across a range of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was measured in heat-acclimated birds captured in the field. We used the North American Land Data Assimilation System 2 dataset to obtain hourly estimates of EWL with a 14-km spatial grain. Assuming lethal dehydration occurs when water loss reaches 15% of body weight, we then produced maps of total daily EWL and time to lethal dehydration based on both current data and future scenarios. We found that milder events capable of producing dehydration in passerine birds over four or more hours were not uncommon over the Southwest, but rapid dehydration conditions (<3 hours) were rare. Under the warming scenario, the frequency and extent of dehydration events expanded greatly, often affecting areas several times larger than in present-day climate. Dehydration risk was especially high among smaller bodied passerines due to their higher mass-specific rates of water loss. Even after</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MAP...tmp...40L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MAP...tmp...40L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A new mean-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> vector for the trends of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation over China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyra, G. B.; Oliveira-Júnior, J. F.; Gois, G.; Cunha-Zeri, G.; Zeri, M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A mean-<span class="hlt">extreme</span> (M-E) vector is defined to combine the changes of climate means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The direction of the vertical axis represents changes in means, whereas the direction of the horizontal axis represents changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Therefore, the M-E vector can clearly reflect both the amplitude and direction of changes in climate means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Nine types of M-E vectors are defined. They are named as MuEu, MuEd, MuEz, MdEu, MdEd, MdEz, MzEu, MzEd, and MzEz. Here M and E stand for climate means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, respectively, whereas u, d, and z indicate an upward, downward trend and no trend, respectively. Both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days are consistently increased (MuEu) in nearly whole China throughout four seasons. However, the MuEd-type vector dominates in some regions. The MuEd-type vector appears over the Huang Huai river basin in spring, summer and winter. For the M-E vector of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and <span class="hlt">extremely</span> low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days, the MuEd-type spreads the entire China for all seasons. The M-E vector for precipitation mean and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation days possesses identical trends (MuEu or MdEd) despite of seasons. The MuEu-type dominates in northeastern China and west of 105°E in spring, northwestern and central/southern China in summer, west of 100°E and northeastern China in autumn, and nearly whole China in winter. Precipitation mean and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation days are all decreased (MdEd) in the rest of China for all reasons. The trends relationship in means and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over China presented herein could provide a scientific foundation to predict change of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> using change of mean as the predictor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20395634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20395634"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute response of airway muscle to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> includes disruption of actin-myosin interaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dyrda, Peter; Tazzeo, Tracy; DoHarris, Lindsay; Nilius, Berndt; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Aziz, Tariq; Lukic, Dusan; Janssen, Luke J</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Despite the emerging use of bronchial thermoplasty in asthma therapy, the response of airway smooth muscle (ASM) to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is unknown. We investigated the immediate effects of exposing ASM to supraphysiologic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Isometric contractions were studied in bovine ASM before and after exposure to various thermal loads and/or pharmacologic interventions. Actin-myosin interactions were investigated using a standard in vitro motility assay. We found steep thermal sensitivity for isometric contractions evoked by acetylcholine, with threshold and complete inhibition at less than 50°C and greater than 55°C, respectively. Contractile responses to serotonin or KCl were similarly affected, whereas isometric relaxations evoked by the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosyl-N-acetylpenicillamine or the β-agonist isoproterenol were unaffected. This thermal sensitivity developed within 15 minutes, but did not evolve further over the course of several days (such a rapid time-course rules out heat shock proteins, apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). Although heat-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRPV2) channels and the calmodulin-dependent (Cam) kinase-II-induced inactivation of myosin light chain kinase are both acutely thermally sensitive, with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> producing half-maximal effect (T(1/2)) of 52.5°C, the phenomenon we describe was not prevented by blockers of TRPV2 channels (e.g., ruthenium red, gadolinium, zero-Ca(2+) or zero-Na(+)/zero-Ca(2+) media, and cromakalim) or of Cam kinase-II (e.g., W7, trifluoperazine, and KN-93). However, direct measurements of actin-myosin interactions showed the same steep thermal profile. The functional changes preceded any histologic evidence of necrosis or apoptosis. We conclude that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (such as those used in bronchial thermoplasty) directly disrupt actin-myosin interactions, likely through a denaturation of the motor protein, leading to an immediate loss of ASM cell function. PMID:20395634</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.4704R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..39.4704R"><span id="translatedtitle">Long tails in regional surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability distributions with implications for <span class="hlt">extremes</span> under global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruff, Tyler W.; Neelin, J. David</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Prior work has shown that probability distributions of column water vapor and several passive tropospheric chemical tracers exhibit longer-than-Gaussian (approximately exponential) tails. The tracer-advection prototypes explaining the formation of these long-tailed distributions motivate exploration of observed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions for non-Gaussian tails. Stations with long records in various climate regimes in National Climatic Data Center Global Surface Summary of Day observations are used to examine tail characteristics for daily average, maximum and minimum surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability distributions. Each is examined for departures from a Gaussian fit to the core (here approximated as the portion of the distribution exceeding 30% of the maximum). While the core conforms to Gaussian for most distributions, roughly half the cases exhibit non-Gaussian tails in both winter and summer seasons. Most of these are asymmetric, with a long, roughly exponential, tail on only one side. The shape of the tail has substantial implications for potential changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event occurrences under global warming. Here the change in the probability of exceeding a given threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is quantified in the simplest case of a shift in the present-day observed distribution. Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions with long tails have a much smaller change in threshold exceedances (smaller increases for high-side and smaller decreases for low-side exceedances relative to exceedances in current climate) under a given warming than do near-Gaussian distributions. This implies that models used to estimate changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event occurrences due to global warming should be verified regionally for accuracy of simulations of probability distribution tails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..131W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ThApC.tmp..131W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the Loess Plateau Region of China, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Qi-xiang; Wang, Meng-ben; Fan, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Shi-zhong; Zhao, Tian-liang</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The spatial and temporal trends of 11 (7) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (precipitation) <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices are examined for the Loess Plateau Region (LPR) and its southeast and northwest sub-regions based on daily observations at 214 meteorological stations. Results show widespread significant warming trends for all the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> except for the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) and the lowest daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each year (TXn) during 1961-2010. When regionally averaged, a significant warming trend is detected for all the indices except for DTR and TXn in the past 50 years. Compared with the entire LPR, a significant warming trend is detected for all the indices except for DTR and TXn over the southeast sub-region of LPR; while it is observed for all the indices over the northwest. The trends for these indices are generally stronger in the northwest than in the southeast in the past 50 years. In contrast, for precipitation indices, only a small percentage of areas show significant drying or wetting trends and, when regionally averaged, none of them displays significant trends during the past 50 years. On the sub-regional scale, however, a larger percentage of areas show significant drying trends for precipitation indices generally over the southeast relative to the entire LPR, and noticeably, the sub-regional average heavy precipitation (R10mm) and wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT) display significant decreasing trends during the past 50 years; whereas only a slightly larger percentage of areas show significant wetting trends for these indices over the northwest compared with the entire LPR, and when sub-regionally averaged, none of the indices have significant trends during the past 50 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27168568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27168568"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Oxygen Concentrators and Chemical Oxygen Generators at Altitude and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Britton, Tyler J; Johannigman, Jay A; Petro, Michael C; Branson, Richard D</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Oxygen cylinders are heavy and present a number of hazards, and liquid oxygen is too heavy and cumbersome to be used in far forward environments. Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) and chemical oxygen generators (COGs) have been proposed as a solution. We evaluated 3 commercially available POCs and 3 COGs in a laboratory setting. Altitude testing was done at sea level and 8,000, 16,000, and 22,000 ft. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> testing was performed after storing devices at 60°C and -35°C for 24 hours. Mean FIO2 decreased after storage at -35°C with Eclipse and iGo POCs and also at the higher volumes after storage at 60°C with the Eclipse. The iGo ceased to operate at 16,000 ft, but the Eclipse and Saros were unaffected by altitude. Oxygen flow, duration of operation, and total oxygen volume varied between COGs and within the same device type. Output decreased after storage at -35°C, but increased at each altitude as compared to sea level. This study showed significant differences in the performance of POCs and COGs after storage at <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and with the COGs at altitude. Clinicians must understand the performance characteristics of devices in all potential environments. PMID:27168568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186586&hterms=energy-dispersive+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Denergy-dispersive%2Bspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050186586&hterms=energy-dispersive+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Denergy-dispersive%2Bspectroscopy"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic Oxidation of High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Alloy Wires in <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reigel, Marissa M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>High-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> alloy wires are proposed for use in seal applications for future re-useable space vehicles. These alloys offer the potential for improved wear resistance of the seals. The wires must withstand the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments the seals are subjected to as well as maintain their oxidation resistance during the heating and cooling cycles of vehicle re-entry. To model this, the wires were subjected to cyclic oxidation in stagnant <span class="hlt">air</span>. of this layer formation is dependent on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Slow growing oxides such as chromia and alumina are desirable. Once the oxide is formed it can prevent the metal from further reacting with its environment. Cyclic oxidation models the changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> these wires will undergo in application. Cycling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> introduces thermal stresses which can cause the oxide layer to break off. Re-growth of the oxide layer consumes more metal and therefore reduces the properties and durability of the material. were used for cyclic oxidation testing. The baseline material, Haynes 188, has a Co base and is a chromia former while the other two alloys, Kanthal A1 and PM2000, both have a Fe base and are alumina formers. Haynes 188 and Kanthal A1 wires are 250 pm in diameter and PM2000 wires are 150 pm in diameter. The coiled wire has a total surface area of 3 to 5 sq cm. The wires were oxidized for 11 cycles at 1204 C, each cycle containing a 1 hour heating time and a minimum 20 minute cooling time. Weights were taken between cycles. After 11 cycles, one wire of each composition was removed for analysis. The other wire continued testing for 70 cycles. Post-test analysis includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for phase identification and morphology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209910"><span id="translatedtitle">In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Profile in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Skliar, Mikhail</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>A gasifier’s <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......226L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......226L"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of atmospheric circulation patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over North America in observations and climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loikith, Paul C.</p> <p></p> <p>Motivated by a desire to understand the physical mechanisms involved in future anthropogenic changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events, the key atmospheric circulation patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over North America in the current climate are identified. Several novel metrics are used to systematically identify and describe these patterns for the entire continent. The orientation, physical characteristics, and spatial scale of these circulation patterns vary based on latitude, season, and proximity to important geographic features (i.e., mountains, coastlines). The anomaly patterns associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> cold events tend to be similar to, but opposite in sign of, those associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> warm events, especially within the westerlies, and tend to scale with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the same locations. The influence of the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days and months shows that associations between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the PNA and NAM are stronger than associations with ENSO. In general, the association with <span class="hlt">extremes</span> tends to be stronger on monthly than daily time scales. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with the PNA and NAM in locations typically influenced by these circulation patterns; however many <span class="hlt">extremes</span> still occur on days when the amplitude and polarity of these patterns do not favor their occurrence. In winter, synoptic-scale, transient weather disturbances are important drivers of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> days; however these smaller-scale events are often concurrent with amplified PNA or NAM patterns. Associations are weaker in summer when other physical mechanisms affecting the surface energy balance, such as anomalous soil moisture content, are associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Analysis of historical runs from seventeen climate models from the CMIP5 database suggests that most models simulate realistic circulation patterns</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930089403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930089403"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of Ram-<span class="hlt">air</span> Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-<span class="hlt">air</span> weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram <span class="hlt">air</span> was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-<span class="hlt">air</span> weight flows were considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090017608','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090017608"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Using Only Shortwave <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind,Joel</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This procedure is now being used by the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Science Team in preparation for the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41A0015W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41A0015W"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily Cycle of <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Stone Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered