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Sample records for air temperature sat

  1. CloudSat Preps for Launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The CloudSat spacecraft sits encapsulated within its Boeing Delta launch vehicle dual payload attach fitting at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. CloudSat will share its ride to orbit late next month with NASA's CALIPSO spacecraft. The two spacecraft are designed to reveal the secrets of clouds and aerosols.

  2. CubeSat constellation design for air traffic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph L.; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2016-11-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring. It thereby provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data were obtained from NASA's Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool, for the Alaskan airspace over one day. The results presented were driven by MATLAB and the satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite Tool. While Ad-hoc and precession spread constellations have been quantitatively evaluated, Walker constellations show the best performance in simulation. Sixteen satellites in two perpendicular orbital planes are shown to provide more than 99% coverage over representative Alaskan airspace and the maximum time gap where any airplane in Alaska is not covered is six minutes, therefore meeting the standard set by the International Civil Aviation Organization to monitor every airplane at least once every fifteen minutes. In spite of the risk of signal collision when multiple packets arrive at the satellite receiver, the proposed constellation shows 99% cumulative probability of reception within four minutes when the airplanes are transmitting every minute, and at 100% reception probability if transmitting every second. Data downlink can be performed using any of the three ground stations of NASA Earth Network in Alaska.

  3. Retrieval of ice cloud microphysical parameters using the CloudSat millimeter-wave radar and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Richard T.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2009-04-01

    A new remote sensing retrieval of ice cloud microphysics has been developed for use with millimeter-wave radar from ground-, air-, or space-based sensors. Developed from an earlier retrieval that used measurements of radar reflectivity factor together with a priori information about the likely cloud targets, the new retrieval includes temperature information as well to assist in determining the correct region of state space, particularly for those size distribution parameters that are less constrained by the radar measurements. These algorithms have served as the ice cloud retrieval algorithms in Releases 3 and 4 of the CloudSat 2B-CWC-RO Standard Data Product. Several comparison studies have been performed on the previous and current retrieval algorithms: some involving tests of the algorithms on simulated radar data (based on actual cloud probe data or cloud resolving models) and others featuring statistical comparisons of the R04 2B-CWC-RO product (current algorithm) to ice cloud mass retrievals by other spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based instruments or alternative algorithms using the same CloudSat radar data. Comparisons involving simulated radar data based on a database of cloud probe data showed generally good performance, with ice water content (IWC) bias errors estimated to be less than 40%. Comparisons to ice water content and ice water path estimates by other instruments are mixed. When the comparison is restricted to different retrieval approaches using the same CloudSat radar measurements, CloudSat R04 results generally agree with alternative IWC retrievals for IWC < 1000 mg m-3 at altitudes below 12 km but differ at higher ice contents and altitudes, either exceeding other retrievals or falling within a spread of retrieval values. Validation and reconciliation of all these approaches will continue to be a topic for further research.

  4. A 6U CubeSat Constellation for Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Brown, Shannon; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Cofield, Richard; Russell, Damon; Stachnik, Robert; Steinkraus, Joel; Lim, Boon

    2013-01-01

    We are currently developing a 118/183 GHz sensor that will enable observations of temperature and precipitation profiles over land and ocean. The 118/183 GHz system is well suited for a CubeSat deployment as 10cm antenna aperture provides sufficiently small footprint sizes (is approx. 25km). This project will enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U CubeSat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters that are needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We will take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass and low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. The 35 nm InP enabling technology provides significant reduction in power consumption (Low Noise Amplifier + Mixer Block consumes 24 mW). In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder instrument on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, a summary of radiometer calibration and retrieval techniques of the temperature and humidity will be discussed. The successful demonstration of this instrument on the 6U CubeSat would pave the way for the development of a constellation consisting of suite of these instruments. The proposed constellation of these 6U CubeSat radiometers would allow sampling of tropospheric temperature and humidity with fine temporal (on the order of minutes) and spatial resolution (is approx. 25 km).

  5. The Validity of the Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT) Test Battery in Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The Validity of the Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT) Test Battery in Operational Use Dana Broach Cristina L. Byrne Carol A. Manning...7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Broach D, Byrne CL, Manning CA, Pierce L, McCauley D, Bleckley MK 9...variables attenuate predictor- criterion relationships ( Barrett , Caldwell, & Alexander, 1989; Barrett , Alexander, & Doverspike, 1992; Beier

  6. Attribution of precipitation changes on ground-air temperature offset: Granger causality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise

    2016-06-01

    This work examines the causal relationship between the value of the ground-air temperature offset and the precipitation changes for monitored 5-min data series together with their hourly and daily averages obtained at the Sporilov Geophysical Observatory (Prague). Shallow subsurface soil temperatures were monitored under four different land cover types (bare soil, sand, short-cut grass and asphalt). The ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) offset, ΔT(GST-SAT), is defined as the difference between the temperature measured at the depth of 2 cm below the surface and the air temperature measured at 5 cm above the surface. The results of the Granger causality test did not reveal any evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to ground-air temperature offsets on the daily scale of aggregation except for the asphalt pavement. On the contrary, a strong evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to the ground-air temperature offsets was found on the hourly scale of aggregation for all land cover types except for the sand surface cover. All results are sensitive to the lag choice of the autoregressive model. On the whole, obtained results contain valuable information on the delay time of ΔT(GST-SAT) caused by the rainfall events and confirmed the importance of using autoregressive models to understand the ground-air temperature relationship.

  7. Assessment of contribution of greenhouse gases, water vapour and cloudiness to global surface air temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Maria; Karlin, Lev N.

    2013-04-01

    A contribution of the basic greenhouse effect components to the changes of global surface air temperature (SAT) has been assessed. The Earth's energy budget and the longwave energy transformation, in particular, were considered to investigate the mechanism of the influence of greenhouse effect (GHE) on global SAT. As is known, some part of the outgoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4, N2O, water vapour (WV) and cloudiness. The analysis of the changes in global SAT, GHGs and WV concentrations for the period 1984 - 2010 has shown that these parameters have a trend to increase. The research into global cloudiness and the vertical distribution of cloud layers made it possible to trace both positive and negative trends, namely the increase of availability of middle and high clouds has a positive trend while the increase of availability of global clouds and low clouds have a negative trend. Making use of the regression analysis relationships between global SAT and the components of greenhouse effect were obtained. It is shown, that the availability of total clouds and low clouds result in climate cooling, while the availability of middle and high clouds cause the increase of global SAT. The analysis of these parameters made it possible to carry out parameterization of GHE. To identify non-anthropogenic possible reasons of global SAT changes the influence of GHE on global SAT has been analyzed, with El-Nino phenomenon being one of the possible reasons. It has been shown that the GHGs role in global SAT changes is not dominant.

  8. Multiyear predictability of Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature in the Kiel Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Latif, M.; Park, W.

    2016-08-01

    The multiyear predictability of Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature (SAT) is examined in a multi-millennial control integration of the Kiel Climate Model, a coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice general circulation model. A statistical method maximizing average predictability time (APT) is used to identify the most predictable SAT patterns in the model. The two leading APT modes are much localized and the physics are discussed that give rise to the enhanced predictability of SAT in these limited regions. Multiyear SAT predictability exists near the sea ice margin in the North Atlantic and mid-latitude North Pacific sector. Enhanced predictability in the North Atlantic is linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and to the sea ice changes. In the North Pacific, the most predictable SAT pattern is characterized by a zonal band in the western and central mid-latitude Pacific. This pattern is linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which drives sea surface temperature anomalies. The temperature anomalies subduct into deeper ocean layers and re-emerge at the sea surface during the following winters, providing multiyear memory. Results obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ensemble yield similar APT modes. Overall, the results stress the importance of ocean dynamics in enhancing predictability in the atmosphere.

  9. Analysis of surface air temperature variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying

    2016-10-01

    With the surface air temperature (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the air temperature change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean air temperature showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean air temperature presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean air temperature tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean air temperature series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban temperatures always rise faster than rural temperatures on the CYP.

  10. Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface air temperature change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface air temperature (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative temperature existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a warming in temperature began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest temperature increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent warming in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.

  11. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  13. Greenland coastal air temperatures linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2017-03-01

    Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface air temperatures (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of warm air from lower latitudes and local warm air advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. Temperature composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.

  14. A Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Demand Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) demand modeling is a tool that will be useful for decision-makers to analyze SATS demands in both airport and airspace. We constructed a series of models following the general top-down, modular principles in systems engineering. There are three principal models, SATS Airport Demand Model (SATS-ADM), SATS Flight Demand Model (SATS-FDM), and LMINET-SATS. SATS-ADM models SATS operations, by aircraft type, from the forecasts in fleet, configuration and performance, utilization, and traffic mixture. Given the SATS airport operations such as the ones generated by SATS-ADM, SATS-FDM constructs the SATS origin and destination (O&D) traffic flow based on the solution of the gravity model, from which it then generates SATS flights using the Monte Carlo simulation based on the departure time-of-day profile. LMINET-SATS, an extension of LMINET, models SATS demands at airspace and airport by all aircraft operations in US The models use parameters to provide the user with flexibility and ease of use to generate SATS demand for different scenarios. Several case studies are included to illustrate the use of the models, which are useful to identify the need for a new air traffic management system to cope with SATS.

  15. SATS HVO Concept Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Williams, Daniel; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Air Traffic Operations Lab (ATOL) in an effort to comprehensively validate tools and procedures intended to enable the Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept of operations. The SATS HVO procedures were developed to increase the rate of operations at non-towered, non-radar airports in near all-weather conditions. A key element of the design is the establishment of a volume of airspace around designated airports where pilots accept responsibility for self-separation. Flights operating at these airports, are given approach sequencing information computed by a ground based automated system. The SATS HVO validation experiment was conducted in the ATOL during the spring of 2004 in order to determine if a pilot can safely and proficiently fly an airplane while performing SATS HVO procedures. Comparative measures of flight path error, perceived workload and situation awareness were obtained for two types of scenarios. Baseline scenarios were representative of today s system utilizing procedure separation, where air traffic control grants one approach or departure clearance at a time. SATS HVO scenarios represented approaches and departure procedures as described in the SATS HVO concept of operations. Results from the experiment indicate that low time pilots were able to fly SATS HVO procedures and maintain self-separation as safely and proficiently as flying today's procedures.

  16. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  17. The Relationship Between Air Temperature and Stream Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the relationship, both linear and non-linear, between air temperature and stream temperature in order to determine if air temperature can be used as an accurate predictor of stream temperature, if general relationships could be developed that apply to a large number of streams, and how changes in stream temperature associated with climate variability or climate warming might affect the dissolved oxygen level, and thus the quality of life, in some of these streams. Understanding the relationship between air temperature and water temperature is important if we want to predict how stream temperatures are likely to respond to the increase in surface air temperature that is occurring. Data from over 50 streams in 13 countries, mostly gathered by K-12 students in the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment), are examined. Only a few streams display a linear 1:1 air/water temperature trend. The majority of streams instead show an increase in water temperature of about 0.6 to 0.8 degrees for every 1-degree increase in air temperature. At some of these sites, where dissolved oxygen content is already low, an increase in summer stream temperatures of 2-3 degrees could cause the dissolved oxygen levels to fall into a critically low range. At some locations, such as near the source of a stream, water temperature does not change much despite wide ranges in air temperatures. The temperatures at these sites are likely to be least affected by surface warming. More data are needed in warmer climates, where the water temperature already gets above 25oC, in order to better examine the air/water temperature relationship under warmer conditions. Global average surface air temperature is expected to increase by 3-5oC by the middle of this century. Surface water temperature in streams, lakes and wetlands will likely increase as air temperature increases, although the change in water temperature may not be as large as the change in

  18. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas.

  19. Assessment of surface air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in reanalysis and IPCC AR4 model simulations with IABP/POLES observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiping; Zhang, Zhanhai; Hu, Yongyun; Chen, Liqi; Dai, Yongjiu; Ren, Xiaobo

    2008-05-01

    The surface air temperature (SAT) over the Arctic Ocean in reanalyses and global climate model simulations was assessed using the International Arctic Buoy Programme/Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface (IABP/POLES) observations for the period 1979-1999. The reanalyses, including the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis II (NCEP2) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast 40-year Reanalysis (ERA40), show encouraging agreement with the IABP/POLES observations, although some spatiotemporal discrepancies are noteworthy. The reanalyses have warm annual mean biases and underestimate the observed interannual SAT variability in summer. Additionally, NCEP2 shows an excessive warming trend. Most model simulations (coordinated by the International Panel on Climate Change for its Fourth Assessment Report) reproduce the annual mean, seasonal cycle, and trend of the observed SAT reasonably well, particularly the multi-model ensemble mean. However, large discrepancies are found. Some models have the annual mean SAT biases far exceeding the standard deviation of the observed interannul SAT variability and the across-model standard deviation. Spatially, the largest inter-model variance of the annual mean SAT is found over the North Pole, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea and Baffin Bay. Seasonally, a large spread of the simulated SAT among the models is found in winter. The models show interannual variability and decadal trend of various amplitudes, and can not capture the observed dominant SAT mode variability and cooling trend in winter. Further discussions of the possible attributions to the identified SAT errors for some models suggest that the model's performance in the sea ice simulation is an important factor.

  20. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  1. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  2. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  3. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  4. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  5. Assessment of climatic factors influence on interannual changes in the global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, Maria; Karlin, Lev

    2014-05-01

    A model to assess a number of factors such as TSI, albedo, cloudiness and greenhouse gases including water vapour affecting global surface air temperature (SAT) changes has been developed. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere and the other radiation fluxes transformation were investigated. It's a common knowledge that some part of the incoming solar energy is reflected into space by the Earth's surface, aerosol and cloud particles. A contribution of these components to changes in the reflected solar energy was assessed on the basis of developed linear parameterization. During the period of 2001 - 2010, clouds were found to be the basic contributor to the changes in reflected shortwave radiation. Some part of outgoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases, water vapour and cloudiness. A contribution of these components to changes in the absorbed longwave radiation was assessed on the basis of developed linear parameterization. It was estimated that the contribution of water vapour was dominant during the analyzed period. The developed parameterization of global albedo made it possible to assess the contribution of TSI to global SAT changes. Making use of the parameterizations listed above the model has been improved. The model calculations showed that the our projections of global SAT to 2030 were lower than IPCC estimates.

  6. Temperature Tunable Air-Gap Etalon Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experimental measurements of a temperature tuned air-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits temperature dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.

  7. Cross Comparison of Electron Density and Electron Temperature Observations from the DICE CubeSat Langmuir Probes and the Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C.; Erickson, P. J.; Crowley, G.; Pilinski, M.; Barjatya, A.; Fish, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment (DICE) consists of two identical 1.5U CubeSats deployed simultaneously from a single P-POD (Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer) into the same orbit. Several observational campaigns were planned between the DICE CubeSats and the mid-latitude Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) in order to calibrate the DICE measurements of electron density and electron temperature. In this presentation, we compare in-situ observations from the Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment (DICE) and from the Millstone Hill ISR. Both measurements are cross-calibrated against an assimilative model of the global ionospheric electron density. The electron density and electron temperature were obtained for three Millstone Hill DICE overflights (2013-03-12, 2013-03-15, 2013-03-17). We compare the data during quiet and geomagnetically disturbed conditions and find evidence of an storm enhanced density (SED) plume in the topside ionosphere on 2013-03-17 at 19? UTC. During this disturbed interval, American longitude sector high density plasma was convected near 15 SLT towards the noontime cusp. DICE was selected for flight under the NSF "CubeSat-based Science Mission for Space Weather and Atmospheric Research" program. The DICE twin satellites were launched on a Delta II rocket on October 28, 2011. The satellites are flying in a "leader-follower" formation in an elliptical orbit which ranges from 820 to 400 km in altitude. Each satellite carries a fixed-bias DC Langmuir Probe (DCP) to measure in-situ ionospheric plasma densities and a science grade magnetometer to measure DC and AC geomagnetic fields. The purpose of these measurements was to permit accurate identification of storm-time features such as the SED bulge and plume. The mission team combines expertise from ASTRA, Utah State University/Space Dynamics Laboratory (USU/SDL), and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. In this paper we present a comparison of data from DICE and Millstone Hill

  8. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  9. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  10. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  11. Assessing the radiative impacts of precipitating clouds on winter surface air temperatures and land surface properties in general circulation models using observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-L. F.; Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Richardson, Mark; Yu, Jia-Yuh; Suhas, E.; Fetzer, Eric; Lo, Min-Hui; Yue, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Using CloudSat-CALIPSO ice water, cloud fraction, and radiation; Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation; and long-term station-measured surface air temperature (SAT), we identified a substantial underestimation of the total ice water path, total cloud fraction, land surface radiative flux, land surface temperature (LST), and SAT during Northern Hemisphere winter in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. We perform sensitivity experiments with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) in fully coupled modes to identify processes driving these biases. We found that biases in land surface properties are associated with the exclusion of downwelling longwave heating from precipitating ice during Northern Hemisphere winter. The land surface temperature biases introduced by the exclusion of precipitating ice radiative effects in CESM1 and CMIP5 both spatially correlate with winter biases over Eurasia and North America. The underestimated precipitating ice radiative effect leads to colder LST, associated surface energy-budget adjustments, and cooler SAT. This bias also shifts regional soil moisture state from liquid to frozen, increases snow cover, and depresses evapotranspiration (ET) and total leaf area index in Northern Hemisphere winter. The inclusion of the precipitating ice radiative effects largely reduces the model biases of surface radiative fluxes (more than 15 W m-2), SAT (up to 2-4 K), and snow cover and ET (25-30%), compared with those without snow-radiative effects.

  12. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  14. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  15. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  16. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  17. A composite study of the MJO influence on the surface air temperature and precipitation over the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuntai; L'Heureux, Michelle; Weaver, Scott; Kumar, Arun

    2012-04-01

    The influence of the MJO on the continental United States (CONUS) surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation is examined based on 30 years of daily data from 1979-2008. Composites are constructed for each of the eight phases of the Wheeler-Hendon MJO index over 12 overlapping three-month seasons. To ensure that the MJO signal is distinguished from other patterns of climate variability, several steps are taken: (a) only days classified as "MJO events" are used in the composites, (b) statistical significance of associated composites is assessed using a Monte Carlo procedure, and (c) intraseasonal frequencies are matched to the unfiltered data. Composites of other fields are also shown in order to examine how the SAT and precipitation anomalies are associated with large-scale circulations providing a link between the tropics and extratropics. The strongest and most significant MJO effects on SAT are found during the northern winter seasons. When enhanced convection is located over the equatorial Indian Ocean, below-average SAT tends to occur in New England and the Great Lakes region. As enhanced tropical convection shifts over the Maritime continent, above-average SAT appears in the eastern states of the US from Maine to Florida. The MJO influence on precipitation is also significant during northern winter seasons. When enhanced convection is located over the Maritime continent, more precipitation is observed in the central plains of the US. Enhanced precipitation also occurs over the west coast of the US when convective activity is stronger over the Indian Ocean. During the northern summer and fall, the MJO impact on precipitation is mainly significant at lower latitudes, over Mexico and southeastern US.

  18. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  19. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Lithium Reactions with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated temperatures due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated temperatures (298-373 K) when exposed to natural air. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in air, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated temperatures followed a markedly different behavior to that at room temperature. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. temperature and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  1. Variations in Surface Air Temperature Observations in the Arctic, 1979-97.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, Ignatius G.; Colony, Roger L.; Martin, Seelye

    2000-03-01

    The statistics of surface air temperature observations obtained from buoys, manned drifting stations, and meteorological land stations in the Arctic during 1979-97 are analyzed. Although the basic statistics agree with what has been published in various climatologies, the seasonal correlation length scales between the observations are shorter than the annual correlation length scales, especially during summer when the inhomogeneity between the ice-covered ocean and the land is most apparent. During autumn, winter, and spring, the monthly mean correlation length scales are approximately constant at about 1000 km; during summer, the length scales are much shorter, that is, as low as 300 km. These revised scales are particularly important in the optimal interpolation of data on surface air temperature (SAT) and are used in the analysis of an improved SAT dataset called International Arctic Buoy Programme/Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface (IABP/POLES). Compared to observations from land stations and the Russian North Pole drift stations, the IABP/POLES dataset has higher correlations and lower rms errors than previous SAT fields and provides better temperature estimates, especially during summer in the marginal ice zones. In addition, the revised correlation length scales allow data taken at interior land stations to be included in the optimal interpretation analysis without introducing land biases to grid points over the ocean. The new analysis provides 12-h fields of air temperatures on a 100-km rectangular grid for all land and ocean areas of the Arctic region for the years 1979-97.The IABP/POLES dataset is then used to study spatial and temporal variations in SAT. This dataset shows that on average melt begins in the marginal seas by the first week of June and advances rapidly over the Arctic Ocean, reaching the pole by 19 June, 2 weeks later. Freeze begins at the pole on 16 August, and the freeze isotherm advances more slowly than the melt isotherm. Freeze returns

  2. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  4. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  5. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  6. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  7. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  9. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  11. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  12. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  13. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  14. A new multimodel ensemble method using nonlinear genetic algorithm: An application to boreal winter surface air temperature and precipitation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Joonlee

    2016-08-01

    A new multimodel ensemble (MME) method that uses a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed and applied to the prediction of winter surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation. The GA based on the biological process of natural evolution is a nonlinear method which solves nonlinear optimization problems. Hindcast data of winter SAT and precipitation from the six coupled general circulation models participating in the seasonal MME prediction system of the Asia-Pacific Economic Conference Climate Center are used. Three MME methods using GA (MME/GAs) are examined in comparison with a simple composite MME strategy (MS0): MS1 which applies GA to single-model ensembles (SMEs), MS2 which applies GA to each ensemble member and then performs a simple composite method for MME, and MS3 which applies GA to both MME and SME. MS3 shows the highest predictability compared to MS0, MS1, and MS2 for both winter SAT and precipitation. These results indicate that biases of ensemble members of each model and model ensemble are more reduced with MS3 than with other MME/GAs and MS0. The predictability of the MME/GAs shows a greater improvement than that of MS0, particularly in higher-latitude land areas. The reason for the more improved increase of predictability over the land area, particularly in MS3, seems to be the fact that GA is more efficient in finding an optimum solution in a complex region where nonlinear physical properties are evident.

  15. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming.

  16. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  6. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  7. AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the airflow ductwork...

  8. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  9. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  10. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  11. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  12. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  13. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  14. Retrieval of lake water temperature based on LandSat TM imagery: A case study in East Lake of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bo; Kang, Ling; Yang, Shengmei

    2013-10-01

    Lake water temperature is one of the most important parameters determining ecological conditions in lake water. With the recent development of satellite remote sensing, remotely sensed data instead of traditional sampling measurement can be used to retrieve the lake surface temperature. The East Lake located in the Wuhan city was selected as research region in this paper. The mono window algorithm has been applied to retrieve the lake water temperature of East lake basin with Landsat TM data. Through three groups of field survey data, the outcome shows that the retrieval results using the mono window model are quite approximate to the same period of the experimental region historical temperature data. So, it is feasible to utilize the remote sensing method to obtain the lake temperature. Meanwhile, the retrieval results also demonstrate that the East Lake surface temperatures from different years have the similar distribution regularity. Generally speaking, the temperature of the lake center is higher than the surrounding area. The west of lake is mostly higher than the east mainly due to the vegetation density and urbanization distribution condition. This conclusion is important to the further study on monitoring the East Lake temperature particularly in large scale.

  15. SmallSat Lab

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    CubeSat. Mr. Alvarez worked with four students on the PCB layout for the solar panels and the construction of the 6U CubeSat mockup . Support for Mr...Hull and Mr. Alvarez was $49k including fringe benefits. !! Purchases: During this time period a license for MatLab software and the Princeton...Satellite ToolBox was purchased using funds from this award. This software adds tremendous capability to the SmallSat Lab by enabling students to analyze

  16. Finite-Size Scaling in Random K-SAT Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Meesoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Chanil; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-03-01

    We propose a comprehensive view of threshold behaviors in random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problems, in the context of the finite-size scaling (FSS) concept of nonequilibrium absorbing phase transitions using the average SAT (ASAT) algorithm. In particular, we focus on the value of the FSS exponent to characterize the SAT/UNSAT phase transition, which is still debatable. We also discuss the role of the noise (temperature-like) parameter in stochastic local heuristic search algorithms.

  17. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  18. Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon air temperature?

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of air temperature on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment temperatures and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of air temperature between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax temperatures (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax temperature on air temperature of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen temperature excess falling sharply over the same air temperature range. As air temperature increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as air temperature increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on air temperature became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and air temperature for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on air temperature in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax temperature is supported for honeybees in voluntary

  19. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  20. Paraffin Phase Change Material for Maintaining Temperature Stability of IceCube Type of CubeSats in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The MLA and IFA of the instrument on the IceCube require a 20 C temperature and a thermal stability of +/-1 C. The thermal environment of the ISS orbit for the IceCube is very unstable due to solar beta angles in the -75deg to +75deg range. Additionally the instrument is powered off in every eclipse to conserve electrical power. These two factors cause thermal instability to the MLA and IFA. This paper presents a thermal design of using mini paraffin PCM packs to meet the thermal requirements of these instrument components. With a 31 g mass plus a 30% margin of n-hexadecane, the MLA and IFA are powered on for 32.3 minutes in sunlight at a 0deg beta angle to melt the paraffin. The powered-on time increases to 38 minutes at a 75deg (+/-) beta angle. When the MLA and IFA are powered off, the paraffin freezes.

  1. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  2. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  3. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  4. Monitored summer peak attic air temperatures in Florida residences

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has analyzed measured summer attic air temperature data taken for some 21 houses (three with two different roof configurations) over the last several years. The analysis is in support of the calculation within ASHRAE Special Project 152P, which will be used to estimate duct system conductance gains that are exposed to the attic space. Knowledge of prevailing attic thermal conditions are critical to the duct heat transfer calculations for estimation of impacts on residential cooling system sizing. The field data were from a variety of residential monitoring projects that were classified according to intrinsic differences in roofing configurations and characteristics. The sites were occupied homes spread around the state of Florida. There were a variety of different roofing construction types, roof colors, and ventilation configurations. Data at each site were obtained from June 1 to September 30 according to the ASHRAE definition of summer. The attic air temperature and ambient air temperature were used for the data analysis. The attic air temperature was measured with a shielded type-T thermocouple at mid-attic height, halfway between the decking and insulation surface. The ambient air temperature was obtained at each site by thermocouples located inside a shielded exterior enclosure at a 3 to 4 m (10--12 ft) height. The summer 15-minute data from each site were sorted by the average ambient air temperature into the top 2.5% of the observations of the highest temperature. Within this limited group of observations, the average outside air temperature, attic air temperature, and coincident difference were reported.

  5. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  6. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents-Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  7. Associations of endothelial function and air temperature in diabetic subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that air temperature is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...

  9. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...

  10. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... location must be within 10 cm of the engine intake system (i.e., the air cleaner, for most engines.) (b... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19...

  11. Two distinct mechanisms on East Asian surface temperature variability during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Won, Yujin; Yeo, Sae-Rim; Yim, Bo Young

    2016-04-01

    The surface air temperature (SAT) in East Asia was examined in order to find global scale versus local scale factors that affected its variability during the summer (June-July-August). It was found that there exist a distinguished sub-seasonal variation, showing remarkable differences in its variability between early summer (June) and late summer (July and August). In particular, we pay attention to the variability of Korean SAT. This study revealed that Korean SAT during early and late summer is affected by different principal modes of SAT over East Asia domain. In particular, there was a significant warming trend in the Korean SAT during early summer, which was primarily influenced by a global warming trend that manifested in East Asia. Meanwhile, there exists the local scale variability of the Korean SAT, which is independent from the global warming signal. During late summer, on the other hand, the SAT variability in Korea was not significantly influenced by a warming trend, although the warming signal still accounts for majority of the SAT variance over East Asia. Instead, Korean SAT during late summer appears to be closely related to the atmospheric variability originated from the western tropical sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. These results implied that the East Asian SAT variability during early and late summer has different sources.

  12. High Lapse Rates in AIRS Retrieved Temperatures in Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus temperature and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of AIRS provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of AIRS temperature retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low air temperatures, large sea-air temperature differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the AIRS experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold air mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows AIRS to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface air temperatures. The bias in near-surface air temperature is seen to be independent of sea surface temperature, however. AIRS is therefore sensitive to air-sea temperature difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct AIRS near-surface retrieved temperatures, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this air-sea temperature differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to

  13. Florida Tech CubeSat Experiment Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrasmith, William W.; Bucaille, Stephane; Rusovici, Razvan; Platt, Don; Guidry, Todd; Bandar, Deepika; Coots, Everett; Davidson, Russ

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats are a relatively new type of satellite. Smaller than long-term (5+ year life expectancy) satellites, these pico-satellites are comparatively cheap, small (10x10x10 cm), and are very versatile. Universities world-wide are using CubeSats to conduct a variety of experiments in space without the need for a large experimental platform. Today CubeSats are considered to be one of the most effective ways to send a small payload into space and has attracted the attention of many educational and non-profit organizations. As this pico-satellite model continues to gain penetration into the satellite build and launch industry, it is expected that more governmental, educational, and commercial interests will emerge. As an example, more of the space-related items of high interest to the National Science Foundation may be tackled with a CubeSat platform resulting in lower life cycle costs than traditional satellite options. NASA LSP, in cooperation with the Florida Institute of Technology, has initiated a feasibility study to investigate the technical aspects of measuring and transferring vibration, acceleration, temperature, and video data from a CubeSat to NASA Hanger AE on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) a.k.a. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This report provides a technical feasibility analysis to determine whether-or-not a specific set of NASA/LSP requirements can be accomplished. Our approach has been to provide a "notional" component layout to determine the feasibility of the NASA/LSP stakeholder requirements. The notional layout is used to consider component level technical issues such as size, weight, & power (SWaP), bandwidth, and other critical technical parameters. Even though the notional components may satisfy the stated requirements and thereby demonstrate feasibility, the notional layout is NOT considered a design since no component optimization and design trade-off analysis has taken place. This activity should be accomplished in an appropriate

  14. The NASA CloudSat Education Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, D. K.

    2006-05-01

    CloudSat, a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder Mission, will launch into orbit the world's most advanced weather radar designed to measure properties of clouds that are essential for accurate understanding of Earth's weather and climate processes. Providing the first vertical profiles of global measurements of cloud thickness, height, water and ice content and a wide range of precipitation data linked to cloud development, CloudSat measurements will fill a critical gap in understanding how clouds affect climate. Any mission of this nature requires extensive ground-based reference data. The CloudSat Education Network provides the opportunity for schools around the world to partner with the CloudSat Science Team and the NASA-sponsored GLOBE Program. The Network will link together scientists, students, teachers, and their communities to give students meaningful, authentic and contemporary science education experiences. Student activities and learning outcomes are being developed to meet both general education outcomes and specific standards or objectives from school curricula. The main focus of the knowledge development component of the project is to help students better understand long-term climate change and the climatic processes that maintain the Earth's Energy balance. Student research with CloudSat/GLOBE data will be strongly encouraged. Scientists will receive research-quality data in support of the mission and in return will interact with teachers and their students to promote interest in science. Participation in the network throughout the duration of the project will be monitored and schools will be asked to maintain levels of participation in order to give CloudSat scientists a solid consistent base of data to support their research. The preferred base level of participation is the reporting of cloud, temperature and precipitation data according to modified GLOBE protocols approximately every 16 days coinciding with the CloudSat satellite overpass. The

  15. A comparison of surface air temperature variability in three 1000-Yr. coupled ocean-atmosphere model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, R.J.; Hegerl, G.; Tett, S.

    2000-02-01

    This study compares the variability of surface air temperature in three long coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model integrations. It is shown that the annual mean climatology of the surface air temperatures (SAT) in all three models is realistic and the linear trends over the 1,000-yr integrations are small over most areas of the globe. Second, although there are notable differences among the models, the models' SAT variability is fairly realistic on annual to decadal timescales, both in terms of the geographical distribution and of the global mean values. A notable exception is the poor simulation of observed tropical Pacific variability. In the HadCM2 model, the tropical variability is overestimated, while in the GFDL and HAM3L models, it is underestimated. Also, the ENSO-related spectral peak in the globally averaged observed SAT differs from that in any of the models. The relatively low resolution required to integrate models for long time periods inhibits the successful simulation of the variability in this region. On timescales longer than a few decades, the largest variance in the models is generally located near sea ice margins in high latitudes, which are also regions of deep oceanic convection and variability related to variations in the thermohaline circulation. However, the exact geographical location of these maxima varies from model to model. The preferred patterns of interdecadal variability that are common to all three coupled models can be isolated by computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of all model data simultaneously using the common EOF technique. A comparison of the variance each model associated with these common EOF patterns shows that the models generally agree on the most prominent patterns of variability. However, the amplitudes of the dominant models of variability differ to some extent between the models and between the models and observations. For example, two of the models have a mode with relatively large

  16. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  17. Effect of Initial Mixture Temperature on Flame Speed of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial temperature over the temperature range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of temperature on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.

  18. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made either... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...

  19. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  20. Active CryoCubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Active CryoCubeSat project will demonstrate an advanced thermal control system for a 6-Unit (6U) CubeSat platform. A miniature, active thermal control system, in which a fluid is circulated in a closed loop from thermal loads to radiators, will be developed. A miniature cryogenic cooler will be integrated with this system to form a two-stage thermal control system. Key components will be miniaturized by using advanced additive manufacturing techniques resulting in a thermal testbed for proving out these technologies. Previous CubeSat missions have not tackled the problem of active thermal control systems nor have any past or current CubeSat missions included cryogenic instrumentation. This Active CryoCubeSat development effort will provide completely new capacities for CubeSats and constitutes a major advancement over the state-of-the-art in CubeSat thermal control.

  1. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The AIRS temperature profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of AIRS temperature profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of AIRS data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature soundings performs better than assimilation of AIRS observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of AIRS temperature profile performs best

  2. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  3. Temperature effect on titanium nitride nanometer thin film in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Z. H.; Xu, B. X.; Hu, J. F.; Ji, R.; Toh, Y. T.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, Y. F.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a promising alternative plasmonic material to conventional novel metals. For practical plasmonic applications under the influence of air, the temperature-dependent optical properties of TiN thin films in air and its volume variation are essential. Ellipsometric characterizations on a TiN thin film at different increasing temperatures in ambient air were conducted, and optical constants along with film thickness were retrieved. Below 200 °C, the optical properties varied linearly with temperature, in good agreement with other temperature dependent studies of TiN films in vacuum. The thermal expansion coefficient of the TiN thin film was determined to be 10.27  ×  10‑6 °C‑1. At higher temperatures, the TiN thin film gradually loses its metallic characteristics and has weaker optical absorption, impairing its plasmonic performance. In addition, a sharp increase in film thickness was observed at the same time. Changes in the optical properties and film thickness with temperatures above 200 °C were revealed to result from TiN oxidation in air. For the stability of TiN-based plasmonic devices, operation temperatures of lower than 200 °C, or measures to prevent oxidation, are required. The present study is important to fundamental physics and technological applications of TiN thin films.

  4. Soil temperature prediction from air temperature for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, D.; Kundu, D. K.; Pal, Soumen; Pal, Susanto; Chakraborty, A. K.; Jha, A. K.; Mazumdar, S. P.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil temperature is an important factor in biogeochemical processes. On-site monitoring of soil temperature is limited in spatiotemporal scale as compared to air temperature data inventories due to various management difficulties. Therefore, empirical models were developed by taking 30-year long-term (1985-2014) air and soil temperature data for prediction of soil temperatures at three depths (5, 15, 30 cm) in morning (0636 Indian standard time) and afternoon (1336 Indian standard time) for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain. At 5 cm depth, power and exponential regression models were best fitted for daily data in morning and afternoon, respectively, but it was reverse at 15 cm. However, at 30 cm, exponential models were best fitted for both the times. Regression analysis revealed that in morning for all three depths and in afternoon for 30 cm depth, soil temperatures (daily, weekly, and monthly) could be predicted more efficiently with the help of corresponding mean air temperature than that of maximum and minimum. However, in afternoon, prediction of soil temperature at 5 and 15 cm depths were more precised for all the time intervals when maximum air temperature was used, except for weekly soil temperature at 15 cm, where the use of mean air temperature gave better prediction.

  5. Correlation of air temperature above water-air sections with the forecasted low level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with air temperature transformational variations on the sections "water-air" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of air temperature mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of temperature. DT is the differences of initial temperature on section water-air in started area, from contrast temperature of water surface along a trajectory of movement of air masses and from the temperature above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of air temperature at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water temperature in forecasting point and air temperature in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm air masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of air temperature above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of air temperature in

  6. Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina

    Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. Air temperature changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered air temperatures. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of air temperature of 45 (°) СC.

  7. AIRS Sea Surface Temperature and Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of AIRS sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of AIRS data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.

  8. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  9. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  10. Near Earth Network (NEN) CubeSat Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaire, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations, including NASA, commercial, and partner ground stations, that are strategically located to maximize the coverage provided to a variety of orbital and suborbital missions, including those in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit), HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit), lunar and L1-L2 orbits. The NEN's future mission set includes and will continue to include CubeSat missions. The first NEN-supported CubeSat mission will be the Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) launching into LEO in 2017. The majority of the CubeSat missions destined to fly on EM-1, launching in late 2018, many in a lunar orbit, will communicate with ground-based stations via X-band and will utilize the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed IRIS (Satellite Communication for Air Traffic Management) radio. The NEN recognizes the important role CubeSats are beginning to play in carrying out NASAs mission and is therefore investigating the modifications needed to provide IRIS radio compatibility. With modification, the NEN could potentially expand support to the EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1) lunar CubeSats. The NEN could begin providing significant coverage to lunar CubeSat missions utilizing three to four of the NEN's mid-latitude sites. This coverage would supplement coverage provided by the JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The NEN, with smaller apertures than DSN, provides the benefit of a larger beamwidth that could be beneficial in the event of uncertain ephemeris data. In order to realize these benefits the NEN would need to upgrade stations targeted based on coverage ability and current configuration ease of upgrade, to ensure compatibility with the IRIS radio. In addition, the NEN is working with CubeSat radio developers to ensure NEN compatibility with alternative CubeSat radios for Lunar and L1-L2 CubeSats. The NEN has provided NEN compatibility requirements to several radio

  11. Pulsed positive streamer discharges in air at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the temperature range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of temperature on the streamer discharges is studied. When the temperature is increased, the product of applied voltage and temperature VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of temperature. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and temperature, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient temperature is increased.

  12. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-07-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

  13. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  14. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  15. An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and Air Temperatures in Planning an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold air distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures for a cold air distribution system, and that the influence of supply air temperature is larger than that of supply water temperature on the long-term economics.

  16. The TechSAT program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachar, M.; Lapid, P.

    1992-12-01

    The TechSAT project is described which is intended to establish a wide academic infrastructure for the development of new space technologies. A TechSAT satellite will be used for educational purposes by the academic staff and students as well as by radio amateurs. Tech SAT is a microsatellite weighing 50 kg with 45x45x45 cm dimensions. It is based on a Nadir pointing 3D stabilized platform with body mounted solar panels. The TechSAT hardware includes an autonomous attitude control system, a power supply system, and an onboard computer. Command control and telemetry systems will be based on the amateur radio communications payload.

  17. Arctic air may become cleaner as temperatures rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The air in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the air during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the air most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm temperatures, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the air and snow might also become cleaner.

  18. Flame Speeds of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures at Low Initial Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds were determined for methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures at -73 C and for methane-air mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture temperature previously established for the range from room temperature to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture temperature T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial temperatures were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial temperatures. The low-temperature data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-temperature data.

  19. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  20. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  1. Discovery about temperature fluctuations in turbulent air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    The law of spatial fluctuations of temperature in a turbulent flow in the atmosphere was studied. The turbulent movement of air in the atmosphere manifests itself in random changes in wind velocity and in the dispersal of smoke. If a miniature thermometer with sufficient sensitivity and speed of response were placed in a air flow, its readings would fluctuate chaotically against the background of average temperature. This is Characteristic of practically every point of the flow. The temperature field forms as a result of the mixing of the air. A method using the relation of the mean square of the difference in temperatures of two points to the distance between these points as the structural characteristic of this field was proposed. It was found that the dissipation of energy in a flow and the equalization of temperatures are connected with the breaking up of eddies in a turbulent flow into smaller ones. Their energy in turn is converted into heat due to the viscosity of the medium. The law that has been discovered makes for a much broader field of application of physical methods of analyzing atmospheric phenomena.

  2. Assessment of two-temperature kinetic model for ionizing air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul

    1987-01-01

    A two-temperature chemical-kinetic model for air is assessed by comparing theoretical results with existing experimental data obtained in shock-tubes, ballistic ranges, and flight experiments. In the model, named the TTv model, one temperature (T) is assumed to characterize the heavy-particle translational and molecular rotational energies, and another temperature (Tv) to characterize the molecular vibrational, electron translational, and electronic excitation energies. The theoretical results for nonequilibrium air flow in shock tubes are obtained using the computer code STRAP (Shock-Tube Radiation Program), and for flow along the stagnation streamline in the shock layer over spherical bodies using the newly developed code STRAP (Stagnation-Point Radiation Program). Substantial agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental results for relaxation times and radiative heat fluxes. At very high temperatures the spectral calculations need further improvement. The present agreement provides strong evidence that the two-temperature model characterizes principal features of nonequilibrium air flow. New theoretical results using the model are presented for the radiative heat fluxes at the stagnation point of a 6-m-radius sphere, representing an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle, over a range of free-stream conditions. Assumptions, approximations, and limitations of the model are discussed.

  3. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  4. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  5. Microwave temperature profiler for clear air turbulence prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear air prediction using measured potential temperature and determining the vertical gradient of potential temperature, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential temperature, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear air turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.

  6. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  7. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  8. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  9. Requirements for high-temperature air-cooled central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.; Copeland, R. J.

    1983-12-01

    The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the temperature range 540 to 1000(0)C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on air cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost effective thermal transport and thermal storage for air cooled receivers is a critical problem.

  10. Climate change and river temperature sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the July river temperature response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased air temperature during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily air temperatures - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of air temperature increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water temperatures relative to current conditions. In all cases, river temperatures in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water temperature increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the delta case increased the water temperature by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer daytime case increased water temperature by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer nighttime case increased the water temperature by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of temperature was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case

  11. SpinSat Mission Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Nitinol antennae are stowed in a shallow groove along the equator of SpinSat. Each antenna is 7.5” long from the tip to the surface of SpinSat and is...antenna material is made of nitinol , a flexible metal alloy that can maintain a straight shape and can be stowed with tight bends. The antennas will be

  12. Evaluating CMIP5 models using AIRS tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian H.; Teixeira, Joao; Manning, Evan; Hearty, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents the climatological mean features of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) monthly mean tropospheric air temperature (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPs project and compares them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for validation and 16 models from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for CMIP5 model evaluation. MERRA is warmer than AIRS in the free troposphere but colder in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. MERRA is also drier (~10%) than AIRS in the tropical boundary layer but wetter (~30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large MERRA-AIRS specific humidity differences are mainly located in the deep convective cloudy regions indicating that the low sampling of AIRS in the cloudy regions may be the main reason for these differences. In comparison to AIRS and MERRA, the sixteen CMIP5 models can generally reproduce the climatological features of tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity well, but several noticeable biases exist. The models have a tropospheric cold bias (around 2 K), especially in the extratropical upper troposphere, and a double-ITCZ problem in the troposphere from 1000 hPa to 300 hPa, especially in the tropical Pacific. The upper-tropospheric cold bias exists in the most (13 of 16) models, and the double-ITCZ bias is found in all 16 CMIP5 models. Both biases are independent of the reference dataset used (AIRS or MERRA).

  13. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  14. Temperature and Transpiration Resistances of Xanthium Leaves as Affected by Air Temperature, Humidity, and Wind Speed 1

    PubMed Central

    Drake, B. G.; Raschke, K.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1970-01-01

    Transpiration and temperatures of single, attached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were measured in high intensity white light (1.2 calories per square centimeter per minute on a surface normal to the radiation), with abundant water supply, at wind speeds of 90, 225, and 450 centimeters per second, and during exposure to moist and dry air. Partitioning of absorbed radiation between transpiration and convection was determined, and transpiration resistances were computed. Leaf resistances decreased with increasing temperature (down to a minimum of 0.36 seconds per centimeter). Silicone rubber replicas of leaf surfaces proved that the decrease was due to increased stomatal apertures. At constant air temperature, leaf resistances were higher in dry than in moist air with the result that transpiration varied less than would have been predicted on the basis of the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and air. The dependence of stomatal conductance on temperature and moisture content of the air caused the following effects. At air temperatures below 35 C, average leaf temperatures were above air temperature by an amount dependent on wind velocity; increasing wind diminished transpiration. At air temperatures above 35 C, leaf temperatures were below air temperatures, and increasing wind markedly increased transpiration. Leaf temperatures equaled air temperature near 35 C at all wind speeds and in moist as well as in dry air. PMID:16657458

  15. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  16. Temperature Variations Recorded During Interinstitutional Air Shipments of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during air shipments, we recorded temperatures at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high temperatures (greater than 29.4 °C), 14.6% to low temperatures (less than 7.2 °C), and 61% to temperature variations of 11 °C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience temperature extremes and large variations in temperature. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced temperature extremes or variations. Temperature variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight temperature extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low temperatures, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold temperatures that are suitable for rodents, could reduce temperature-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient temperatures during airport stopovers. PMID:18210996

  17. Global surface air temperature variations: 1851-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M.

    1986-11-01

    Many attempts have been made to combine station surface air temperature data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface air temperature anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.

  18. Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface Air Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface air temperature are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher temperatures occurs near full moon and lower temperatures at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean temperature range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.

  19. Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal air temperature relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic temperature and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and air temperature are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-temperature feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the temperature trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of temperature for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer temperatures and with ice leading the winter temperatures. The implication is that summer temperatures predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.

  20. NASA Facts: SporeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Tomko, David

    2013-01-01

    SporeSat is an autonomous, free-flying three-unit (3U) spacecraft that will be used to conduct scientific experiments to gain a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of plant cell gravity sensing. SporeSat is being developed through a partnership between NASAs Ames Research Center and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. Amani Salim and Jenna L. Rickus are the Purdue University Principal Investigators. The SporeSat mission will be flown using a 3U nanosatellite weighing approximately 12 pounds and measuring 14 inches long by 4 inches wide by 4 inches tall. SporeSat will utilize flight-proven spacecraft technologies demonstrated on prior Ames nanosatellite missions such as PharmaSat and OrganismOrganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) as well as upgrades that increase the hardware integration capabilities with SporeSat science instrumentation. In addition, the SporeSat science payload will serve as a technology platform to evaluate new microsensor technologies for enabling future fundamental biology missions.

  1. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  2. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  3. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  4. Air-sea interactions in sea surface temperature frontal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Representation of air-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of air-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface temperatures (SST) on air-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the air-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.

  5. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  6. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  11. Uncertain Ground: Mapping Errors through the POM-SAT Model of Paleoclimatic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about the ground surface temperatures (GST) history of a locale and can be useful in climate change detection and quantification. The borehole method of climate reconstruction assumes that the dominant heat transport mechanism in the upper few hundred meters of the earth's crust is conduction; mathematically, conduction is a compressive (information losing) mapping from the space of GST to the temperature-depth profile (T-z). Because the mapping is compressive, multiple GST histories can map into the same T-z profile; the solution suffers from non-uniqueness. One means of dealing with the non-uniqueness problem is to limit the number of parameters sought in the solution space. However, even when only a single parameter (the pre-observation mean GST, or POM) is sought in the inversion, a certain amount of a priori information must be introduced including the surface-air temperature history (SAT), the thermal parameterization of the ground medium, and the background (non-climatic) heat flux. I perform a set of Monte Carlo analyses to investigate how uncertainties in these a priori model parameters are mapped into the solution space of the POM-SAT method of climate reconstruction from borehole data. Results indicate that uncertainties in the SAT time series and thermal parameterization of the ground are generally reduced by an order of magnitude, though a significant non-linearity is introduced by the model which can lead to erroneous solutions for large magnitudes of actual warming or cooling. More problematically, uncertainties in the background (non-climatic) thermal regime are magnified by an order of magnitude in the solution-space. These results suggest a degree of prudence should be exercised in interpreting surface temperature histories from borehole data.

  12. Pd-modified Reactive Air Braze for Increased Melting Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Darsell, Jens T.

    2005-03-01

    Complex high temperature devices such as planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks often require a two-step sealing process. For example, in pSOFC stacks the oxide ceramic fuel cell plates might be sealed into metallic support frames in one step. Then the frames with the fuel plates sealed to them would be joined together in a separate sealing step to form the fuel cell stack. In this case, the initial seal should have a sufficiently high solidus temperature that it will not begin to remelt at the sealing temperature of the material used for the subsequent sealing step. Previous experience has indicated that, when heated at a rate of 10°C/min, Ag-CuO reactive air braze (RAB) compositions have solidus and liquidus temperatures in the approximate range of 925 to 955°C. Therefore, compositionally modifying the original Ag-CuO braze with Pd-additions such that the solidus temperature of the new braze is between 1025 and 1050°C would provide two RAB compositions with a difference in melting points large enough to allow reactive air brazing of both sets of seals in the fuel cell stack. This study determines the appropriate ratio of Pd to Ag in RAB required to achieve a solidus in the desired range and discusses the wettability of the resulting Pd-Ag-CuO brazes on YSZ substrates. The interfacial microstructures and flexural strengths of Pd-Ag-CuO joints in YSZ will also be presented.

  13. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of air temperature over the 20th century. The analysed data are global air temperature values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of air temperature over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ

  14. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  15. DDT in fuel air mixtures at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, J.; Rival, D.; Ciccarelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in fuel air mixtures at initial temperatures up to 573 K and pressures up to 2 atm. The fuels investigated include hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene and JP-10 aviation fuel. The experiments were performed in a 3.1-m long, 10-cm inner-diameter heated detonation tube equipped with equally spaced orifice plates. Ionization probes were used to measure the flame time-of-arrival from which the average flame velocity versus propagation distance could be obtained. The DDT composition limits and the distance required for the flame to transition to detonation were obtained from this flame velocity data. The correlation developed by Veser et al. (run-up distance to supersonic flames in obstacle-laden tubes. In the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, France (2002)) for the flame choking distance proved to work very well for correlating the detonation run-up distance measured in the present study. The only exception was for the hydrogen air data at elevated initial temperatures which tended to fall outside the scatter of the hydrocarbon mixture data. The DDT limits obtained at room temperature were found to follow the classical d/λ = 1 correlation, where d is the orifice plate diameter and λ is the detonation cell size. Deviations found for the high-temperature data could be attributed to the one-dimensional ZND detonation structure model used to predict the detonation cell size for the DDT limit mixtures. This simple model was used in place of actual experimental data not currently available.

  16. Impact of Atlantic sea surface temperatures on the warmest global surface air temperature of 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Riyu

    2005-03-01

    The year 1998 is the warmest year in the record of instrumental measurements. In this study, an atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in this warmth, with a focus on the role of the Atlantic Ocean. The model forced with the observed global SSTs captures the main features of land surface air temperature anomalies in 1998. A sensitivity experiment shows that in comparison with the global SST anomalies, the Atlantic SST anomalies can explain 35% of the global mean surface air temperature (GMAT) anomaly, and 57% of the land surface air temperature anomaly in 1998. The mechanisms through which the Atlantic Ocean influences the GMAT are likely different from season to season. Possible detailed mechanisms involve the impact of SST anomalies on local convection in the tropical Atlantic region, the consequent excitation of a Rossby wave response that propagates into the North Atlantic and the Eurasian continent in winter and spring, and the consequent changes in tropical Walker circulation in summer and autumn that induce changes in convection over the tropical Pacific. This in turn affects climate in Asia and Australia. The important role of the Atlantic Ocean suggests that attention should be paid not only to the tropical Pacific Ocean, but also to the tropical Atlantic Ocean in understanding the GMAT variability and its predictability.

  17. FalconSAT-7: a membrane space solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Geoff; Asmolova, Olha; McHarg, Matthew G.; Quiller, Trey; Maldonado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The US Air Force Academy of Physics has built FalconSAT-7, a membrane solar telescope to be deployed from a 3U CubeSat in LEO. The primary optic is a 0.2m photon sieve - a diffractive element consisting of billions of tiny circular dimples etched into a Kapton sheet. The membrane its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control, recording electronics are packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground. We will present details of the optical configuration, operation and performance of the flight telescope which has been made ready for launch in early 2017.

  18. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E.; Minow, J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP-2K) surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC). The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program for a range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  19. Assessing surface air temperature variability using quantile regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured variables. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example extreme values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface air temperature observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of temperature value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For temperature trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of temperature values, including evolution of extremes.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.

  20. Effectiveness of an air-cooled vest using selected air temperature and humidity combinations.

    PubMed

    Pimental, N A; Cosimini, H M; Sawka, M N; Wenger, C B

    1987-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an air-cooled vest in reducing thermal strain of subjects exercising in the heat (49 degrees C dry bulb (db), 20 degrees C dew point (dp] in chemical protective clothing. Four male subjects attempted 300-min heat exposures at two metabolic rates (175 and 315 W) with six cooling combinations--control (no vest) and five different db and dp combinations. Air supplied to the vest at 15 scfm ranged from 20-27 degrees C db, 7-18 degrees C dp; theoretical cooling capacities were 498-687 W. Without the vest, endurance times were 118 min (175 W) and 73 min (315 W). Endurance times with the vest were 300 min (175 W) and 242-300 min (315 W). The five cooling combinations were similarly effective in reducing thermal strain and extending endurance time, although there was a trend for the vest to be more effective when supplied with air at the lower dry bulb temperature. At 175 W, subjects maintained a constant body temperature; at 315 W, the vest's ability to extend endurance is limited to about 5 hours.

  1. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  2. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  3. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  4. Cyclic Oxidation of High-Temperature Alloy Wires in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature alloy wires are proposed for use in seal applications for future re-useable space vehicles. These alloys offer the potential for improved wear resistance of the seals. The wires must withstand the high temperature environments the seals are subjected to as well as maintain their oxidation resistance during the heating and cooling cycles of vehicle re-entry. To model this, the wires were subjected to cyclic oxidation in stagnant air. of this layer formation is dependent on temperature. Slow growing oxides such as chromia and alumina are desirable. Once the oxide is formed it can prevent the metal from further reacting with its environment. Cyclic oxidation models the changes in temperature these wires will undergo in application. Cycling the temperature introduces thermal stresses which can cause the oxide layer to break off. Re-growth of the oxide layer consumes more metal and therefore reduces the properties and durability of the material. were used for cyclic oxidation testing. The baseline material, Haynes 188, has a Co base and is a chromia former while the other two alloys, Kanthal A1 and PM2000, both have a Fe base and are alumina formers. Haynes 188 and Kanthal A1 wires are 250 pm in diameter and PM2000 wires are 150 pm in diameter. The coiled wire has a total surface area of 3 to 5 sq cm. The wires were oxidized for 11 cycles at 1204 C, each cycle containing a 1 hour heating time and a minimum 20 minute cooling time. Weights were taken between cycles. After 11 cycles, one wire of each composition was removed for analysis. The other wire continued testing for 70 cycles. Post-test analysis includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for phase identification and morphology.

  5. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  6. Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased temperature and air humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machablishvili, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal state of women during the effect of high air temperature and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower air temperatures and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower air temperature than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.

  7. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  8. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J.

    2010-01-01

    Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface air temperatures. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms. PMID:20921371

  9. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J

    2010-10-19

    Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface air temperatures. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms.

  10. DebriSat Project Update and Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.

  11. EMC Test Report: StangSat - CubeSat Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmody, Lynne M.; Aragona, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I testing performed on the StangSat; the unit under test (UUT). Testing was per the requirements of MIL STD-461F. The UUT was characterized and passed the radiated emissions (RE102 limit for Spacecraft) testing.

  12. NPS CubeSat Launcher Program Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    the United States; NASA’s GeneSat-1 launched on a Minotaur -1 out of Wallops Island, VA in December 2006. As of the date of this thesis, only four...CubeSats have been launched from the U.S. this year: PharmaSat, CP6, AeroCube-3, HawkSat-1, also on a Minotaur -I out of Wallops Island. This is

  13. Forecasting Evaluation of WindSat in the Coastal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas F.; Bettenhausen, Mike H.; Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; Richardson, Kim; Jedlovec, Gary; Smith, Matt

    2012-01-01

    WindSat has demonstrated that measurements from polarimetric space-based microwave radiometers can be used to retrieve global ocean surface vector winds. Since the date of launch in 2003, substantial incremental improvements have been made to WindSat data processing, calibration, and retrieval algorithms. The retrievals now have higher resolution, improved wind vector ambiguity removal, and enhanced capability to represent high winds. Utilization of WindSat retrievals (wind vectors, total precipitable water, rainrate and sea surface temperature) will be demonstrated in the context of operational weather forecasting applications, especially the monitoring of topographically-forced winds. Examples will be presented from various parts of the world, including inland seas, midlatitude oceans, the tropics, and the United States. We will illustrate retrievals in extreme high- and extreme low-wind regimes, both of which can be problematic. Rain contamination will be addressed. We will include a comparison of WindSat vector maps to corresponding maps from the QuikScat scatterometer. We will discuss how near-realtime data from WindSat is being transitioned to specific offices within the National Weather Service.

  14. Combustion and gasification characteristics of pulverized coal using high-temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Hanaoka, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kiga, T.; Kosaka, H.; Iwahashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Mochida, S.

    1998-07-01

    In order to confirm performance of high-temperature-air combusting of pulverized coal, laboratory-scale combustion and gasification tests of coal were conducted changing air temperature and oxygen concentration in the air. Theses were conducted in a drop tube furnace of 200mm in inside diameter and 2,000mm in length. The furnace was heated by ceramic heater up to 1,300 C. A high-temperature air preheater utilizing the HRS (High Cycle Regenerative Combustion System) was used to obtain high-temperature combustion air. As the results, NOx emission was reduced when pulverized coal was fired with high-temperature-air. On the other hand, by lower oxygen concentration in combustion air diluted by nitrogen, NOx emission slightly decreased while became higher under staging condition.

  15. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  16. Beating the SAT: Playing the Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted workshop for high school seniors, 50 of whom had taken Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) and 50 of whom had taken Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). After completion of six-hour program on application of game-playing strategies to SAT, both retakers and first-time takers of SAT (who had previously taken PSAT) raised their scores…

  17. WindSat Global Soil Moisture Retrieval and Validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physically based six-channel land algorithm is developed to simultaneously retrieve the global soil moisture, vegetation water content and land surface temperature. The algorithm is based on a maximum-likelihood estimation and uses WindSat passive microwave data at 10, 18.7 and 37 GHz. The global ...

  18. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index.

  19. Topographic and spatial impacts of temperature inversions on air quality using mobile air pollution surveys.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julie; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the spatial and topographic effects of temperature inversions on air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, located at the western tip of Lake Ontario, Canada. The city is divided by a 90-m high topographic scarp, the Niagara Escarpment, and dissected by valleys which open towards Lake Ontario. Temperature inversions occur frequently in the cooler seasons, exacerbating the impact of emissions from industry and traffic. This study used pollution data gathered from mobile monitoring surveys conducted over a 3-year period, to investigate whether the effects of the inversions varied across the city. Temperature inversions were identified with vertical temperature data from a meteorological tower located within the study area. We divided the study area into an upper and lower zone separated by the Escarpment and further into six zones, based on location with respect to the Escarpment and industrial and residential areas, to explore variations across the city. The results identified clear differences in the responses of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to temperature inversions, based on the topographic and spatial criteria. We found that pollution levels increased as the inversion strengthened, in the lower city. However, the results also suggested that temperature inversions identified in the lower city were not necessarily experienced in the upper city with the same intensity. Further, pollution levels in the upper city appeared to decrease as the inversion deepened in the lower city, probably because of an associated change in prevailing wind direction and lower wind speeds, leading to decreased long-range transport of pollutants.

  20. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  1. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R2=0.946 and R2=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. PMID:22721687

  2. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses.

  3. Computer Coaching for the SAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Three computer software packages from Krell, Borg-Warner, and Edu-ware are reviewed in terms of their improving users' vocabulary, verbal analogy, and mathematical skills in preparation for the SATs. Students benefitting most are those who know the subject but do poorly on tests. (MBR)

  4. Independent Schools and the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, when the College Board released its average SAT scores for the 2015 graduating class, two details stood out for many educators: (1) the record participation and diversity numbers (close to 1.7 million students took the test, with 50 percent being students of color); and (2) the test's lower average scores compared with previous…

  5. SAT Future: Alignment to Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief architects of the Common Core State Standards was named the next president of the College Board and said one of his top priorities is to reshape the organization's influential college-admissions test, the SAT, to better reflect the new standards. David Coleman will assume his new duties on Oct. 15, replacing Gaston Caperton, who…

  6. Tensor Network Contractions for #SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biamonte, Jacob D.; Morton, Jason; Turner, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    The computational cost of counting the number of solutions satisfying a Boolean formula, which is a problem instance of #SAT, has proven subtle to quantify. Even when finding individual satisfying solutions is computationally easy (e.g. 2-SAT, which is in ), determining the number of solutions can be #-hard. Recently, computational methods simulating quantum systems experienced advancements due to the development of tensor network algorithms and associated quantum physics-inspired techniques. By these methods, we give an algorithm using an axiomatic tensor contraction language for n-variable #SAT instances with complexity where c is the number of COPY-tensors, g is the number of gates, and d is the maximal degree of any COPY-tensor. Thus, n-variable counting problems can be solved efficiently when their tensor network expression has at most COPY-tensors and polynomial fan-out. This framework also admits an intuitive proof of a variant of the Tovey conjecture (the r,1-SAT instance of the Dubois-Tovey theorem). This study increases the theory, expressiveness and application of tensor based algorithmic tools and provides an alternative insight on these problems which have a long history in statistical physics and computer science.

  7. Guidelines for Improving SAT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Scott; DeLeonibus, Nancy

    The National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) identified 34 high schools whose students maintained or improved their SAT scores from 1973 to 1976 or whose mean scores in 1973 were approximately the same as in 1965. In an open-ended questionnaire, the principals of these schools were asked to identify success factors. Their…

  8. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  9. Simultaneous Measurement of Air Temperature and Humidity Based on Sound Velocity and Attenuation Using Ultrasonic Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motegi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an acoustic technique for air temperature and humidity measurement in moist air is described. The previous ultrasonic probe can enable the estimation of temperature from sound velocity in dry air by making use of the relationship between sound velocity and temperature. However, temperature measurement using the previous ultrasonic probe is not suitable in moist air because sound velocity also depends on humidity, and the temperature estimated from the sound velocity measured in moist air must be adjusted. Moreover, a method of humidity measurement by using only an ultrasonic probe has not been established. Thus, we focus on sound attenuation, which depends on temperature and humidity. Our proposed technique utilizes two parameters, sound velocity and attenuation, and can measure both temperature and humidity simultaneously. The acoustic technique for temperature and humidity measurement has the advantages that instantaneous temperature and humidity can be measured, and the measurement is not affected by thermal radiation because air itself is used as a sensing element. As an experiment, temperature and humidity are measured in a chamber, and compared with the reference values. The experimental results indicate the achievement of a practical temperature measurement accuracy of within +/-0.5 K in moist air, of which the temperature is 293-308 K and relative humidity (RH) is 50-90% RH, and the simultaneous measurement of temperature and humidity.

  10. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  11. Mars Moons Prospector Mission with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Nayak, Mikey; Allen, Brett; Bourke, Justin; Casariego, Gabriela; Gosselin, Steven; Hiester, Evan; Maier, Margaret; Melchert, Jeanmarie; Patel, Chitrang; Reis, Leslie; Smith, Gregory; Snow, Travis; Williams, Sarah; Franquiz, Francsico

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary design of a low-cost Discovery class mission for prospecting Mars moons Phobos and Deimos is undertaken as capstone senior design class in spacecraft design. The mission design is centred on a mothership that carries a dozen of 12U CubeSats, each of 22x22x34cm in size and 24kg in mass. The mothership is equipped with a set of instruments for the investigation of regolith samples, similar to those with identical functions on the Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rovers. The mothership also serves as a telecommunication hub with Earth. Six of the CubeSats have the role of touching down and picking up soil samples for delivery to the mothership for analysis and the six have the role of visually inspecting the moon at close proximity in visible and near and mid infrared light and deploying instruments on the surface of the moons. A suite of miniaturized instruments are investigated for deployment on the CubeSats. The CubeSats are designed to dock with the mothership to be refueled and they heavily leverage the design of the ARAPAIMA (www.eraucubesat.org) proximity operations 6U CubeSat currently in development at ERAU for the Air Force University Nanosatellite Program. The concept of operations envisions the launch of the mothership as a primary payload on a Mars transfer trajectory. After performing a Mars capture maneuver the mothership undertakes autonomous aerobraking to achieve a highly elliptic orbit with the apoapsis at Deimos altitude of 23,460km. Further maneuvering places the mothership in a relative orbit about Deimos from which the CubeSats are deployed. Once the investigation of Deimos is completed the mothership retrieves its CubeSats and maneuver to achieve a relative orbit about Phobos. An investigation similar to that of Deimos is performed. If the mass margins allow it then an extended mission will attempt to confirm the presence of a dust ring between Phobos and Deimos and conduct multi-point atmospheric investigations with supplemental 3U

  12. University NanoSat Program: AggieSat3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    for Spacecraft Testing Autonomous Rendezvous ) is important to NASA in providing flight data and experience, applicable for the Constellation Program...Nanosat 5 had two distinct stages. The first part was a design and build phase involving approximately 11 Universities, which lasted two years and...advancement toward autonomous rendezvous and docking missions. The AggieSat3 team identified the following mission objectives and was developing

  13. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  14. Rainfall Prediction using Soil and Air Temperature in a Tropical Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Tessy P.; Renuka, G.

    2007-07-01

    An attempt is made to establish a linkage between soil and air temperature and south-west monsoon rainfall at Pillicode (12°12'N,75°10'E) a tropical station in north Kerala. The dependence of monsoon rainfall on pre-monsoon soil temperature decreases as the depth of the soil increases. A regression equation has been developed for the estimation of monsoon rainfall using pre-monsoon soil and air temperature. The results show that sub soil temperature along with air temperature can be used for forecasting the monsoon level.

  15. The COLD-SAT experiment for cryogenic fluid management technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, J. P.; Vento, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft design experiments are described. COLD-SAT will be placed into an initial 1300 km circular orbit by an Atlas commercial launch vehicle. Electric power, experiment control and data management, attitude control, and propulsive accelarations for the experiments will be provided by the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus. To provide data on the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved, low levels of accelaration will be created. The COLD-SAT experiment will be configured into a module. The spacecraft experiment module will include three liquid hydrogen tanks; fluid transfer, pressurization and venting equipment; and instrumentation. Since the largest tank has helium-purged MLI to prevent ingress and freezing of air on the launchpad, it will contain all the liquid hydrogen at the point of launching. The hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas will load and top off this tank. Atlas, with its liquid hydrogen upper stage, large payload fairing, and large launch margin, simplifies COLD-SAT design and integration.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  1. One-Component Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagrams in the Presence of Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Martire, Daniel O.; Donati, Edgardo R.

    2010-01-01

    One-component phase diagrams are good approximations to predict pressure-temperature ("P-T") behavior of a substance in the presence of air, provided air pressure is not much higher than the vapor pressure. However, at any air pressure, and from the conceptual point of view, the use of a traditional "P-T" phase diagram is not strictly correct. In…

  2. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  3. LifeSat - Radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceflight crews will be exposed to levels of radiation which exceed those experienced on the ground. In order to reduce the uncertainty in the evaluation of risks it is necessary to validate the responses of biological systems in space under conditions which simulate exposure levels expected during exploration class missions. The LifeSat system provides the experimental capabilities to satisfy these goals. Specifically, LifeSat is capable of long duration flights of up to 60 days, is able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits, has the ability to provide artificial gravity and imposes fewer restrictions than the STS on the use of hazardous materials such as chemical fixatives. These features along with reference missions and experiments are discussed with respect to radiation research goals.

  4. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  5. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  6. Predicting seed cotton moisture content from changes in drying air temperature - second year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mathematical model was used to predict seed cotton moisture content in the overhead section of a cotton gin. The model took into account the temperature, mass flow, and specific heat of both the air and seed cotton. Air temperatures and mass flows were measured for a second year at a commercial g...

  7. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    As the climate change occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  8. Solitons and SeaSat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    second statement is demonstrated to be false. The% Kadomtsev-.1etviashvile equation relevant to Internal Waves is shown not to have SOliL -solutions. This...more than one space dimension. The second statement is demonstrated to be false. The Kadomtsev-Petviashvile equation relevant to Internal Waves Is...observed by SeaSat has led to suggestions that the phenomena may be related to Internal 0 Wave Solitons. Most observations were made under conditions for

  9. DebriSat Laboratory Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    foam panels. Deposits on the SEM stubs and witness plate assembly are predominantly carbon and consist of agglomerates of nano carbonaceous material...side of the support posts indicating early directional deposition from DebriSat. The coating was carbonaceous (disordered graphite) with nano metal...droplets. Fluorine from Teflon wire insulation was also common in the SEM stub and witness plates deposits. Nano droplets of metallic materials

  10. Prediction of air temperature in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volavý, F.; Fišer, J.; Nöske, I.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the air temperature in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF) located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin temperatures were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. Air temperature in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface temperature and air temperature distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of air temperature from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for temperature prediction is discussed.

  11. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  12. Air temperature "singularities" as a tool for the comprehension of the climate diversity in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzyna, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Air temperature "singularities" were used to study climate diversity in Europe. The basis of analysis were data of mean daily air temperature for 50-years period (1951-2000) from 66 European meteorological stations. Multiyear mean air temperature values were counted for the each day of the year at first (29th February was omitted). Next a theoretical sine curve of annual air temperature course was created with help of the Fourier's analysis for the each station. Differences between theoretical and observed mean vales of daily air temperatures were counted in the next step. The biggest of these differences (below the lower quartile and above the upper quartile) lasting at least 3 days can be treated as thermal "singularities". A cluster analysis was used to find similarities of the singularities occurrence in analyzed stations. As a result 8 clusters were distinguished representing regions with different thermal "singularities" occurrence pattern.

  13. Modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to seasonal snow using air and tree trunk temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Zahner, Franziska; Jonas, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Data collected at three Swiss alpine forested sites over a combined 11 year period were used to evaluate the role of air temperature in modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface. Simulated subcanopy incoming longwave radiation is traditionally partitioned into that from the sky and that from the canopy, i.e., a two-part model. Initial uncertainties in predicting longwave radiation using the two-part model resulted from vertical differences in measured air temperature. Above-canopy (35 m) air temperatures were higher than those within (10 m) and below (2 m) canopy throughout four snow seasons (December-April), demonstrating how the forest canopy can act as a cold sink for air. Lowest model root-mean-square error (RMSE) was using above-canopy air temperature. Further investigation of modeling subcanopy longwave radiation using above-canopy air temperature showed underestimations, particularly during periods of high insolation. In order to explicitly account for canopy temperatures in modeling longwave radiation, the two-part model was improved by incorporating a measured trunk view component and trunk temperature. Trunk temperature measurements were up to 25°C higher than locally measured air temperatures. This three-part model reduced the RMSE by up to 7.7 W m-2 from the two-part air temperature model at all sensor positions across the 2014 snowmelt season and performed particularly well during periods of high insolation when errors from the two-part model were up to 40 W m-2. A parameterization predicting tree trunk temperatures using measured air temperature and incoming shortwave radiation demonstrate a simple method that can be applied to provide input to the three-part model across midlatitude coniferous forests.

  14. Impact of Surface Air Temperature and Snow Cover Depth on the Upper Soil Temperature Variations in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, A. B.; Sherstyukov, B. G.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2007-12-01

    A study of the impact of climate changes during for the last four decades on soil temperatures at depths up to 3.2 meters has been conducted for the territory of Russia. For the 1965-2004 period, we compiled and analyzed data from all Russian meteorological stations with long-term soil temperature observations at depths 80, 160 and 320 cm. Traditionally, these stations also observe a complete set of standard meteorological variables (that include surface air temperature and extensive monitoring of snow cover characteristics). This allowed us to investigate the impact of surface air temperatures and snow depth variations on soil temperatures in the upper soil layer, to quantify it using statistical analyses of multi-dimensional 40-year-long time series at 164 locations throughout the country, and assess the representativeness of the obtained results. Three-dimensional spatial distributions of regression and correlation coefficients were mapped for warm and cold seasons separately as well as for the entire year, and thereafter analyzed. In the permafrost zone we found special features in these fields that distinctively separate the permafrost zone from the remaining territory. In this zone, soil temperatures are practically uncorrelated with surface air temperatures and variations of the snow depth controls soil temperature variations (with R2 up to 0.5) Quantitative estimates of the contribution of mid-annual air temperature and snow cover depth in the long-term changes of mid-annual soil temperatures across the Russia territory were received. We found that the prevailing influence on soil temperature variations in the European part was surface air temperatures and in the Asian part of Russia was snow cover depth. Furthermore, increase of the winter snow depth in the permafrost zone (by preserving the heat accumulated in the warm season) promotes annual soil temperature increase and therefore may foster the further permafrost degradation associated with ongoing

  15. An observed connection between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and weather regime transitions in North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Qingyun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the association between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and the weather regime transitions in North Atlantic on synoptic scale is analyzed by using observational surface air temperature (SAT) data and atmospheric reanalysis data. Daily SAT anomaly and duration time are used in order to define SAT anomaly cases. Differences with regard to the circulation anomalies over the Ural Mountains and the upstream North Atlantic area are evident. It is found that the colder than normal SAT is caused by the enhanced Ural high and associated southward flow over Northwest China. Time-lagged composites reveal possible connections between the SAT anomalies and the different development phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The Ural highs tend to be strengthened during the negative phase of NAO (NAO-) to Atlantic ridge transition, which are closely related to the downstream-propagating Rossby wave activity. The opposite circulation patterns are observed in the warm SAT cases. A cyclonic circulation anomaly is distinctly enhanced over the Urals during the positive phase of NAO (NAO+) to Scandinavian blocking transition, which would cause warmer SAT over Northwest China. Further analyses suggest that the intensified zonal wind over North Atlantic would favor the NAO- to Atlantic ridge transition, while the weakened zonal wind may be responsible for the transition between NAO+ and Scandinavian blocking.

  16. Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin temperatures in the polar oceans: MODIS, AIRS/AMSU, and AIRS only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainties in the satellite-derived Surface Skin Temperature (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) of 2003-2014 were investigated and the three datasets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface Temperature (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AIRS/AMSU), and AIRS only. AIRS only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically up to 1.65 K warmer at the sea ice boundary and up to 2.04 K colder in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the AIRS/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the AIRS only to the AIRS/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the AIRS/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the AIRS only compared to that of the AIRS/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the AIRS retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the AIRS only algorithm utilized a~less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally-varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three datasets (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU and AIRS only) showed significant warming rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high latitude regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic temperature disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting temperature trends.

  17. Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin temperatures in the polar oceans: MODIS, AIRS/AMSU, and AIRS only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties in the satellite-derived surface skin temperature (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) 2003-2014 were investigated and the three data sets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface Temperature (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AIRS/AMSU), and AIRS only. The AIRS only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically warmer up to 1.65 K at the sea ice boundary and colder down to -2.04 K in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the AIRS/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the AIRS only to the AIRS/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the AIRS/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the AIRS only compared to that of the AIRS/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the AIRS retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the AIRS only algorithm utilized a less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three data sets (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU and AIRS only) showed significant warming rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~ 2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic temperature disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting temperature trends.

  18. CryoSat-2 and the CryoSat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, R.; Cullen, R.

    2009-04-01

    CryoSat was chosen as the first of ESA's Earth Explorer Opportunity missions in late 1999, following a competitive selection process. Its goal is the measurement of secular change in the cryosphere, particularly in the elevation of the ice caps and the thickness of sea ice. The required accuracy corresponds to about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry, although the instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of previous altimetry missions, particularly ERS and EnviSat. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along- track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will enable detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular topography which, since the radar ranging is performed to the closest reflector rather than the point directly below, introduces uncertainty into the exactitude of repeat measurements. CryoSat's radar includes a second antenna and receiver chain so that interferometry may be used to determine the arrival angle of the echo and so improve localisation of the reflection. The satellite payload, which includes a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination and a set of star trackers to measure the orientation of the interferometer, is quite complex and demanding. The satellite was launched on 8 October 2005, just less than 6 years after the start of the programme. Unfortunately the launch vehicle, a Rockot launcher derived from the Russian SS-19 ICBM, suffered an anomaly at the end of its second-stage flight, with the result that the satellite was lost, the debris falling close to the North pole. Determination to rebuild

  19. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape.

  20. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  1. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  2. Some Effects of Air and Fuel Oil Temperatures on Spray Penetration and Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1930-01-01

    Presented here are experimental results obtained from a brief investigation of the appearance, penetration, and dispersion of oil sprays injected into a chamber of highly heated air at atmospheric pressure. The development of single sprays injected into a chamber containing air at room temperature and at high temperature was recorded by spray photography equipment. A comparison of spray records showed that with the air at the higher temperature, the spray assumed the appearance of thin, transparent cloud, the greatest part of which rapidly disappeared from view. With the chamber air at room temperature, a compact spray with an opaque core was obtained. Measurements of the records showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in the dispersion of the spray injected into the heated air. No ignition of the fuel injected was observed or recorded until the spray particles came in contact with the much hotter walls of the chamber about 0.3 second after the start of injection.

  3. Multi-fractal scaling comparison of the Air Temperature and the Surface Temperature over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jiping; Liu, Xinwei; Li, Fei

    2016-11-01

    The spatial and temporal multi-scaling behaviors between the daily Air Temperature (AT) and the Surface Temperature (ST) over China are compared in about 60-yr observations by Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) method. The different fractal phenomena and diversity features in the geographic distribution are found for the AT and ST series using MF-DFA. There are more multi-fractal features for the AT records but less for ST. The respective geographic sites show important scaling differences when compared to the multi-fractal signatures of AT with ST. An interval threshold for 95% confidence level is obtained by shuffling the AT records and the ST records. For the AT records, 93% of all observed stations shows the strong multi-fractal behaviors. In addition, the multi-fractal characteristics decrease with increasing latitude in South China and are obviously strong along the coast. The multi-fractal behaviors of the AT records between the Yangtze River and Yellow River basin and in most regions of Northwest China seem to be weak and not significant, even single mono-fractal features. However, for the ST records, the geographical distributions of multi-fractal phenomenon seem to be in disorder which account for 81% of the stations. The weak multi-fractal behaviors of the ST records are concentrated in North China, most regions of Northeast China.

  4. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  5. Investigation of the impact of extreme air temperature on river water temperature: case study of the heat episode 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water temperature of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. Using the extensive data set

  6. Comparison of Near-Surface Air Temperatures and MODIS Ice-Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Mefford, Thomas K.; Schnaubelt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared-derived ice surface temperature (IST) data from Terra for use as a climate quality data record. The availability of climate quality air temperature data (TA) from a NOAA Global Monitoring Division observatory at Greenlands Summit station has enabled this high temporal resolution study of MODIS ISTs. During a 5 year period (July 2008 to August 2013), more than 2500 IST values were compared with 3-minute average TA values derived from the 1-minute data from NOAAs primary 2 m air temperature sensor. These data enabled an expected small offset between air and surface temperatures at this the ice sheet location to be investigated over multiple annual cycles.

  7. Geographical and Geomorphological Effects on Air Temperatures in the Columbia Basin's Signature Vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, L.; Pogue, K. R.; Bader, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon is one of the most productive grape-growing areas in the United States. Wines produced in this region are influenced by their terroir - the amalgamation of physical and cultural elements that influence grapes grown at a particular vineyard site. Of the physical factors, climate, and in particular air temperature, has been recognized as a primary influence on viticulture. Air temperature directly affects ripening in the grapes. Proper fruit ripening, which requires precise and balanced levels of acid and sugar, and the accumulation of pigment in the grape skin, directly correlates with the quality of wine produced. Many features control air temperature within a particular vineyard. Elevation, latitude, slope, and aspect all converge to form complex relationships with air temperatures; however, the relative degree to which these attributes affect temperatures varies between regions and is not well understood. This study examines the influence of geography and geomorphology on air temperatures within the American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) of the Columbia Basin in eastern Washington and Oregon. The premier vineyards within each AVA, which have been recognized for producing high-quality wine, were equipped with air temperature monitoring stations that collected hourly temperature measurements. A variety of temperature statistics were calculated, including daily average, maximum, and minimum temperatures. From these values, average diurnal variation and growing degree-days (10°C) were calculated. A variety of other statistics were computed, including date of first and last frost and time spent below a minimum temperature threshold. These parameters were compared to the vineyard's elevation, latitude, slope, aspect, and local topography using GPS, ArcCatalog, and GIS in an attempt to determine their relative influences on air temperatures. From these statistics, it was possible to delineate two trends of temperature variation

  8. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  9. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  10. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  11. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Yu, H.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change has occurred over east Asia since the 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the observed warming in past decades. In this study, we investigate regional surface temperature change during the boreal cold season using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT contribute 44 and 56 % to the SAT over east Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). Radiatively forced SAT changes have made a major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between the so-called "global warming hiatus" and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  12. Recent and pre-instrumental climatic conditions as reconstructed from temperature logs in wells in western and northern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majorowicz, J.A.; Skinner, W.R.

    1997-11-01

    This study reports a subregional analysis of ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) in Canada. Temperature logs made to depths of up to 300 m in 80 wells in the Canadian Prairie Provinces were compared with SAT in this area. A statistically significant spatial correlation was found between identical grid samples extracted from the 1950-1990 warming maps for SAT and GST warming. The results of modelling of precise temperature logs show evidence of annual warming of GST over the past half century of 2.1 C with a standard deviation of 0.9C. Annual SAT warming in this region for the same period, as derived from historical climatological records, has been 1.5C with a standard deviation of 0.4C. The difference between GST and SAT warming has been close to 40% in the boreal forest ecozone of northern Alberta and less than 10% in the prairie grassland ecozone of southern Alberta. It is hypothesized that a large portion of GST warming is a result of accelerating natural and anthropogenic land clearing through deforestation and farming. If the rate of climatic warming and anthropogenic change to the land surface continues, the southern boundary of the discontinuous permafrost will move northward at a faster rate than predicted from instrumental SAT warming data alone. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Comparison of Vertical Soundings and Sidewall Air Temperature Measurements in a Small Alpine Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, C. David; Eisenbach, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; Steinacker, Reinhold

    2004-11-01

    Tethered balloon soundings from two sites on the floor of a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole in the eastern Alps are compared with pseudovertical temperature “soundings” from three lines of temperature dataloggers on the basin's northwest, southwest, and southeast sidewalls. Under stable nighttime conditions with low background winds, the pseudovertical profiles from all three lines were good proxies for free air temperature soundings over the basin center, with a mean nighttime cold temperature bias of about 0.4°C and a standard deviation of 0.4°C. Cold biases were highest in the upper basin where relatively warm air subsides to replace air that spills out of the basin through the lowest-altitude saddle. On a windy night, standard deviations increased to 1° 2°C. After sunrise, the varying exposures of the dataloggers to sunlight made the pseudovertical profiles less useful as proxies for free air soundings. The good correspondence between sidewall and free air temperatures during high-static-stability conditions suggests that sidewall soundings can be used to monitor temperatures, temperature gradients, and temperature inversion evolution in the sinkhole. Sidewall soundings can produce more frequent profiles at lower cost than can tethersondes or rawinsondes, and extension of these findings to other enclosed or semienclosed topographies may enhance future basic meteorological research or support applications studies in agriculture, forestry, air pollution, and land use planning.


  14. Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High Temperature Air in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is determine the effect of air preheat temperature on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high temperature combustion air under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high temperature combustion air at different equivalence ratio.

  15. Thermal Coupling Between Air and Ground Temperatures in the CMIP5 Historical and Future Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Cuesta-Valero, F. J.; Smerdon, J. E.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal coupling between air and ground temperatures is investigated herein for General Circulation Models (GCMs) that participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For each simulation, we evaluate the regional relationship between air and ground temperatures to study surface energy fluxes and the attenuation of the annual temperature signal across the air-ground interface and into the shallow subsurface for North America. Our results show that the transport of energy across the air-ground interface and into the shallow subsurface is different across GCMs and is dependent on the land surface models that each employs. The variability of the difference between air and ground temperatures is high among simulations and is not dependent on the depth of the bottom boundary of the subsurface soil model. The difference between air and ground temperatures differs significantly from observations. Additionally, while the variability among GCMs can be explained by the physics of the land surface models, the regional variability of the air-ground coupling is associated with the model treatment of soil properties as well as snow and vegetation processes within GCMs. The difference between air and ground temperatures at high latitudes within the majority of the CMIP5 models is directly proportional to the amount of snow on the ground, due to the insulating effect of snow cover. On the other hand, the difference between air and ground temperatures at low latitudes within some of the CMIP5 models is inversely proportional to the vegetation cover (leaf area index), due to changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. The large variability among GCMs and the marked dependency of the results on the choice of the land-surface model illustrates the need for improving the simulation of air-ground coupling in land-surface models towards a robust simulation of near-surface processes, such as permafrost and soil carbon stability within GCMs.

  16. Multichannel temperature controller for hot air solar house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an electronic controller that is optimized to operate a hot air solar system. Thermal information is obtained from copper constantan thermocouples and a wall-type thermostat. The signals from the thermocouples are processed through a single amplifier using a multiplexing scheme. The multiplexing reduces the component count and automatically calibrates the thermocouple amplifier. The processed signals connect to some simple logic that selects one of the four operating modes. This simple, inexpensive, and reliable scheme is well suited to control hot air solar systems.

  17. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

  18. SatR Is a Repressor of Fluoroquinolone Efflux Pump SatAB

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Jose Antonio; San Millan, Alvaro; Montero, Natalia; Gutierrez, Belen; Ovejero, Cristina Martinez; Carrilero, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for high-mortality outbreaks among the human population in China. In this species, the ABC transporter SatAB mediates fluoroquinolone resistance when overexpressed. Here, we describe and characterize satR, an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a MarR superfamily regulator that acts as a repressor of satAB. satR is cotranscribed with satAB, and its interruption entails the overexpression of the pump, leading to a clinically relevant increase in resistance to fluoroquinolones. PMID:23650171

  19. Effect of optimizing supply water temperature and air volume on a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Ito, Koichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    1999-07-01

    An optimal planning method is proposed for an air conditioning system composed of heat pump chillers and variable air volume (VAV) units. Supply water temperature, supply air volume, and thickness of heat insulation material are determined optimally so as to minimize the annual total cost of the system in consideration of equipment capacities and annual operation for the cooling load varying through a year. Through a numerical study on the system planned for an office building, influences of supply water/air temperatures and air volume on the system are investigated from the viewpoint of long-term economics. As a result, it is shown that the annual energy charge of the optimal VAV system can be reduced considerably in comparison with that of the optimal constant air volume (CAV) system, and that the effect of the energy conservation of the former system is large enough.

  20. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  1. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  2. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  3. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  4. WindSat On-Orbit Warm Load Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    scheme was selected to solve the finite difference equations derived from the thermal network . This numerical scheme averaged the temperature derivatives...WindSat. I. INTRODUCTION WINDSAT is a satellite- based multifrequency polari-metric microwave radiometer developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for the...every 1.89 s) by using a two-point calibration method based on the heritage design of other spaceborne imaging radiometer systems such as the Special

  5. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  6. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

  7. Preliminary verification of instantaneous air temperature estimation for clear sky conditions based on SEBAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhou, Chuxuan; Zhang, Guixin; Zhang, Hailong; Hua, Junwei

    2017-02-01

    Spatially distributed near surface air temperature at the height of 2 m is an important input parameter for the land surface models. It is of great significance in both theoretical research and practical applications to retrieve instantaneous air temperature data from remote sensing observations. An approach based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to retrieve air temperature under clear sky conditions is presented. Taking the meteorological measurement data at one station as the reference and remotely sensed data as the model input, the research estimates the air temperature by using an iterative computation. The method was applied to the area of Jiangsu province for nine scenes by using MODIS data products, as well as part of Fujian province, China based on four scenes of Landsat 8 imagery. Comparing the air temperature estimated from the proposed method with that of the meteorological station measurement, results show that the root mean square error is 1.7 and 2.6 °C at 1000 and 30 m spatial resolution respectively. Sensitivity analysis of influencing factors reveals that land surface temperature is the most sensitive to the estimation precision. Research results indicate that the method has great potentiality to be used to estimate instantaneous air temperature distribution under clear sky conditions.

  8. A Review of the Thermodynamic, Transport, and Chemical Reaction Rate Properties of High-temperature Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C Frederick; Heims, Steve P

    1958-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of high temperature air, and the reaction rates for the important chemical processes which occur in air, are reviewed. Semiempirical, analytic expressions are presented for thermodynamic and transport properties of air. Examples are given illustrating the use of these properties to evaluate (1) equilibrium conditions following shock waves, (2) stagnation region heat flux to a blunt high-speed body, and (3) some chemical relaxation lengths in stagnation region flow.

  9. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  10. Is the SAT a 'Wealth Test'?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Discuss whether high scores on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) are associated with high student socioeconomic status, including high family income, particularly in California. Concludes that the SAT is no more a "wealth test" than is every other measure of student achievement such as grades. Describes other factors influencing…

  11. The SAT: An Essay in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlodinow, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the release of the most comprehensive study of SAT exams. The headline on the Web site of the College Board, the maker of the test, was, "SAT Studies Show Test's Strength in Predicting College Success." At the same time, a headline on the Web site of the group FairTest, a 23-year-old, nonprofit…

  12. Assessing the Potential of the AIRS Retrieved Surface Temperature for 6-Hour Average Temperature Forecast in River Forecast Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Hearty, T. J.; Esfandiari, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    Producing timely and accurate water forecast and information is the mission of National Weather Service River Forecast Centers (NWS RFCs) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The river forecast system in RFCs requires average surface temperature in the fixed 6-hour period 000-0600, 0600-1200, 1200-1800, and 1200-0000 UTC. The current logic of RFC temperature forecast relies on ingest of point values of daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperature. Meanwhile, the mean temperature for the 6-hour period is estimated from a weighted average of daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperature. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in the first high spectral resolution infrared sounder on board the Aqua satellite which was launched in May 2002 and follows a Sun-synchronous polar orbit. It is aimed to produce high resolution atmospheric profile and surface atmospheric parameters. As Aqua crosses the equator at about 1330 and 0130 local time, the AIRS retrieved surface temperature may represent daytime maximum and nighttime minimum value. Comparing to point observation from surface weather stations which are often sparse over the less-populated area and are unevenly distributed, satellite may obtain better area averaged observation. This test study assesses the potential of using AIRS retrieved surface temperature to forecast 6-hour average temperature for NWS RFCs. The California Nevada RFC is selected due to the poor coverage of surface observation in the mountainous region and spring snow melting. The study focuses on the March to May spring season when water from snowpack melting often plays important role in flood. AIRS retrieved temperature and surface weather station data set will be used to derive statistical weighting coefficient for 6-hour average temperature forecast. The resulting forecast biases and errors will be the main indicators of the potential usage. All study results will be presented in the meeting.

  13. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  14. Transport properties of high-temperature air in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C.; Giordano, D.

    2011-01-15

    Transport properties of equilibrium air plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the temperature is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.

  15. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  16. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  17. High-temperature stabilization by air of a pyrophoric catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Krylova, A.V.; Ustimenko, G.A.

    1982-12-01

    The reaction of a catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia with air at 480 to 520/sup 0/C leads to the formation on the surface of a thin protective oxide structure that eliminates its pyrophoric character. High-temperature stabilization by air is a considerably faster process than passivation and leads to the production of catalysts with increased resistance to oxidation.

  18. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  19. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled AIRS Temperature Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  20. Improving forecast skill by assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals under partially cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2008-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite is now recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  1. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Nadja Lynge; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-02-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = -ΔH/RT + a(0), where changes in steady-state air concentrations in relation to temperature, was tested. The model was valid for PCB-28, PCB-52 and PCB-101; the four other congeners were sporadic or non-detected. For each congener, the model described a large proportion (R(2)>94%) of the variation in indoor air PCB levels. The results showed that one measured concentration of PCB at a known steady-state temperature can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations at other temperatures under circumstances where e.g. direct sunlight does not influence temperatures and the air exchange rate is constant. The model was also tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln(P) vs. 1/T, at varying temperature between 16.3 and 28.2 °C, even though the measurements were carried out under uncontrolled environmental condition.

  2. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  3. Increasing influence of air temperature on upper Colorado River streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2016-03-01

    This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, temperature appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer temperatures that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of warm years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued warming temperatures will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.

  4. Rate constants for chemical reactions in high-temperature nonequilibrium air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    In the nonequilibrium atmospheric chemistry regime that will be encountered by the proposed Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle in the upper atmosphere, where air density is too low for thermal and chemical equilibrium to be maintained, the detailed high temperature air chemistry plays a critical role in defining radiative and convective heating loads. Although vibrational and electronic temperatures remain low (less than 15,000 K), rotational and translational temperatures may reach 50,000 K. Attention is presently given to the effects of multiple temperatures on the magnitudes of various chemical reaction rate constants, for the cases of both bimolecular exchange reactions and collisional excitation and dissociation reactions.

  5. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, D. J.; Gilbert, C.; Thierry, A.-M.; Currie, J.; Le Maho, Y.; Ancel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40′ S 140° 01′ E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate. PMID:23466479

  6. Cavity Ring Down Absorption of Oxygen in Air as a Temperature Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares, Carlos; Nyaupane, Parashu R.

    2016-06-01

    The A-band of oxygen has been measured at low resolution at temperatures between 90 K and 373 K using the phase shift cavity ring down (PS-CRD) technique. For temperatures between 90 K and 295 K, the PS-CRD technique presented here involves an optical cavity attached to a cryostat. The static cell and mirrors of the optical cavity are all inside a vacuum chamber at the same temperature of the cryostat. The temperature of the cell can be changed between 77 K and 295 K. For temperatures above 295 K, a hollow glass cylindrical tube without windows has been inserted inside an optical cavity to measure the temperature of air flowing through the tube. The cavity consists of two highly reflective mirrors which are mounted parallel to each other and separated by a distance of 93 cm. In this experiment, air is passed through a heated tube. The temperature of the air flowing through the tube is determined by measuring the intensity of the oxygen absorption as a function of the wavenumber. The A-band of oxygen is measured between 298 K and 373 K, with several air flow rates. Accuracy of the temperature measurement is determined by comparing the calculated temperature from the spectra with the temperature obtained from a calibrated thermocouple inserted at the center of the tube.

  7. Statistical temperature profile retrievals in clear-air using passive 118-GHz O2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, A. J.; Johnson, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The clean-air temperature profile accuracy yielded by a localized linear statistical retrieval operator applied to passive aircraft-based 118-GHz spectra is demonstrated. A comparison of the statistically and physically derived correlation coefficients of antenna temperature and kinetic temperature furnishes a physical justification of the statistical retrieval technique. The atmospheric temperature mean and covariance significantly depend on such geophysical parameters as latitude, longitude, local season, and time, as well as the prevailing meteorological state and orographic effects.

  8. An Air Temperature Cloud Height Precipitation Phase Determination Scheme for Surface Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiccabrino, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many hydrological and ecological models use simple surface temperature threshold equations rather than coupling with a complex meteorological model to determine if precipitation is rain or snow. Some comparative studies have found, the most common rain/snow threshold variable, air temperature to have more precipitation phase error than dew-point or wet-bulb temperature, which account for the important secondary role of humidity in the melting and sublimation processes. However, just like surface air temperature, surface humidity is often effected by soil conditions and vegetation and is therefore not always representative of the atmospheric humidity precipitation falls through. A viable alternative to using surface humidity as a proxy for atmospheric moisture would be to adjust the rain snow threshold for changes in cloud height. The height of a cloud base above the ground gives the depth of an unsaturated layer. An unsaturated atmospheric layer should have much different melting and sublimation rates than a saturated cloud layer. Therefore, rain and snow percentages at a given surface air temperature should change with the height of the lowest cloud base. This study uses hourly observations from 12 U.S. manually augmented meteorological stations located in the Great Plains and Midwest upwind or away from major water bodies in relatively flat areas in an attempt to limit geographical influences. The surface air temperature threshold for the ground to 200 feet (under 100m) was 0.0°C, 0.6°C for 300-600 feet (100-200m), 1.1°C for 700-1200 feet (300-400m), 1.7°C for 1300-2000 feet (500-600m), and 2.2°C for 2100-3300 feet (700-1000m). Total precipitation error for these cloud height air temperature thresholds reduced the error from the single air temperature threshold 1.1°C by 15% from 14% to 12% total error between -2.2°C and 3.9°C. These air temperature cloud height thresholds resulted in 1.5% less total error than the dew-point temperature threshold 0.0

  9. Data Assimilation Experiments Using Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains a number of significant improvements over Version 4. Two very significant improvements are described briefly below. 1) The AIRS Science Team Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) has now been upgraded to accurately account for effects of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium on the AIRS observations. This allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval algorithm during both day and night. Following theoretical considerations, tropospheric temperature profile information is obtained almost exclusively from clear column radiances in the 4.3 micron CO2 band in the AIRS Version 5 temperature profile retrieval step. These clear column radiances are a derived product that are indicative of radiances AIRS channels would have seen if the field of view were completely clear. Clear column radiances for all channels are determined using tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations. This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of clear column radiances and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. These error estimates are used for quality control of the retrieved products. Based on error estimate thresholds, each temperature profiles is assigned a characteristic pressure, pg, down to which the profile is characterized as good for use for data assimilation purposes. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS quality controlled temperature profiles using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system, consisting of the NCEP GSI analysis coupled with the

  10. Two major volcanic cooling episodes derived from global marine air temperature, AD 1807-1827

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Michael

    A new data set of global marine air temperature data for the years 1807-1827 is used to show the impact of volcanic eruptions in ˜ 1809 (unlocated) and 1815 (Tambora, Indonesia). Both eruptions produced cooling exceeding that after Krakatoa, Indonesia (1883) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991). The ˜1809 eruption is dated to March-June 1808 based on a sudden cooling in Malaysian temperature data and maximum cooling of marine air temperature in 1809. Two large-scale calibrated proxy temperature records, one from tree-ring-density data, the other using multi-proxy sources are compared to the marine air temperature data. Correlation is highest with maximum latewood density data and lowest with the multi-proxy data.

  11. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E. M.; Minow, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the electromagnetic interaction of a satellite in low Earth, high inclination orbit with the space plasma environment and identifying viable charging mitigation strategies is a critical mission design task. High inclination orbits expose the vehicle to auroral charging environments that can potentially charge surfaces to kilovolt potentials and electric thruster propulsion systems will interact with the ambient plasma environment throughout the orbit. NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We will first present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (Nascap) -2k surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of auroral charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) with inputs from Nascap-2k. The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program to better understand how their spacecraft will interact with the space plasma environment in the range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  12. Comparison of Vertical Soundings and Sidewall Air Temperature Measurements in a Small Alpine Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, Charles D.; Eisenbach, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; Steinacker, Reinhold

    2004-11-01

    Tethered balloon soundings from two sites on the floor of a 1-km diameter limestone sinkhole in the Eastern Alps are compared with pseudo-vertical temperature ‘soundings’ from three lines of temperature data loggers on the basin’s northwest, southwest and southeast sidewalls. Under stable nighttime conditions with low background winds, the pseudo-vertical profiles from all three lines were good proxies for free air temperature soundings over the basin center, with a mean nighttime cold temperature bias of about 0.4°C and a standard deviation of 0.4°C. Cold biases were highest in the upper basin where relatively warm air subsides to replace air that spills out of the basin through the lowest altitude saddle. On a windy night, standard deviations increased to 1 - 2°C. After sunrise, the varying exposures of the data loggers to sunlight made the pseudo-vertical profiles less useful as proxies for free air soundings. The good correspondence between sidewall and free air temperatures during high static stability conditions suggests that sidewall soundings will prove useful in monitoring temperatures and vertical temperature gradients in the sinkhole. The sidewall soundings can produce more frequent profiles at less cost than tethersondes or rawinsondes, and provide valuable advantages for some types of meteorological analyses.

  13. Air temperature distribution over a debris covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicciotti, Francesca; Petersen, Lene; Wicki, Simon; Carenzo, Marco; Immerzeel, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Air temperature is a key control in the exchange of energy fluxes at the glacier-atmosphere interface and also the main input variable in many of the melt models (both energy balance or temperature-index type of models) currently used to predict glacier melt across a variety of scales. The commonly used approach to derive distributed temperature inputs is extrapolation from point measurements, often located outside the glacier surface, with a lapse rate that is assumed to be constant in time and uniform in space. Previous work for debris free glaciers has shown that lapse rates depend on several factors such as katabatic wind, humidity and the presence of clouds and that they vary in space and time. A dominant control however seems to be the presence of katabatic wind. For debris covered glaciers, the driving forces of air temperature are likely to be different but little is known because of the scarcity of field observations. Few preliminary studies have suggested that there is a strong coupling between surface and 2 m air temperature, while strong katabatic wind does not develop on debris covered tongues. In this study, we examine the variability in air temperature and lapse rates, as well as its atmospheric controls under different meteorological settings for the debris covered Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas. We use a recently collected data set of air and surface temperature at a network of locations on the glacier tongue during the pre-monsoon season and the entire monsoon season of 2012. Additionally an AWS was installed on the glacier allowing the collection of meteorological observations. We investigate differences in air temperature during different climatic conditions (monsoon vs. dry period, upvalley vs. downvalley wind, cloudy vs. clear-sky, etc.). We identify the main controls on temperature and discuss how appropriate the application of a temperature lapse rate is over a debris covered glacier by investigating the correlation between

  14. Dependence of radon levels in Postojna Cave on outside air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorič, A.; Zidanšek, A.; Vaupotič, J.

    2011-05-01

    Postojna Cave is the largest of 21 show caves in Slovenia. The radon concentration there was measured continuously in the Great Mountain hall from July 2005 to October 2009 and ranged from about 200 Bq m-3 in winter to about 3 kBq m-3 in summer. The observed seasonal pattern of radon concentration is governed by air movement due to the difference in external and internal air densities, controlled mainly by air temperature. The cave behaves as a large chimney and in the cold period, the warmer cave air is released vertically through cracks and fissures to the colder outside atmosphere, enabling the inflow of fresh air with low radon levels. In summer the ventilation is minimal or reversed and the air flows from the higher to the lower openings of the cave. Our calculations have shown that the effect of the difference between outside and cave air temperatures on radon concentration is delayed for four days, presumably because of the distance of the measurement point from the lower entrance (ca. 2 km). A model developed for predicting radon concentration on the basis of outside air temperature has been checked and found to be successful.

  15. Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T R; Boss, W H; Chapman, J N

    1992-03-01

    Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

  16. Thermal Coupling between Air and Ground Temperatures in the CMIP5 Historical and Future Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Almudena; José Cuesta-Valero, Francisco; Beltrami, Hugo; Smerdon, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The decadal-scale thermal coupling between air and ground temperatures across North America is examined for 32 General Circulation Models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). For each simulation, we evaluate the relationship between air and ground temperatures. Our results show that the transport of energy across the air-ground interface differs from observations, and among GCMs depending on each model's land-surface component. While the decadal variability among GCMs can be explained by the physics and parameterizations of each land-surface model, the spatial variability of the air-ground coupling for the historical and future simulations is associated with model treatment of the soil thermal properties as well as with processes associated with snow and vegetation cover within GCMs. The difference between air and ground temperatures at high latitudes within the majority of the CMIP5 models is related to the insulating effect of snow cover. On the other hand, the difference between air and ground temperatures at low latitudes within some of the CMIP5 models is inversely proportional to the leaf area index, due to changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. The large variability among GCMs and the marked dependency of the results on the choice of the land-surface model illustrates the need for improving the simulation of air-ground coupling in land-surface models towards a robust simulation of near-surface processes, such as permafrost and soil carbon stability within GCMs.

  17. Characteristics of Gaseous Diffusion Flames with High Temperature Combustion Air in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaderi, M.; Gupta, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of gaseous diffusion flames have been obtained using high temperature combustion air under microgravity conditions. The time resolved flame images under free fall microgravity conditions were obtained from the video images obtained. The tests results reported here were conducted using propane as the fuel and about 1000 C combustion air. The burner included a 0.686 mm diameter central fuel jet injected into the surrounding high temperature combustion air. The fuel jet exit Reynolds number was 63. Several measurements were taken at different air preheats and fuel jet exit Reynolds number. The resulting hybrid color flame was found to be blue at the base of the flame followed by a yellow color flame. The length and width of flame during the entire free fall conditions has been examined. Also the relative flame length and width for blue and yellow portion of the flame has been examined under microgravity conditions. The results show that the flame length decreases and width increases with high air preheats in microgravity condition. In microgravity conditions the flame length is larger with normal temperature combustion air than high temperature air.

  18. Influence of intake air temperature on internal combustion engine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Raţiu, S.; Hepuţ, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three methods for reduce thermal losses in the intake system with improvement of airflow and thermal protection. In the experiment are involved two patented devices conceived by the author and one PhD theme device: 1- Dynamic device for air transfer, 2-Integrated thermal deflector, and, 3-Advanced thermal protection. The tests were carried on different vehicle running in real traffic and in the Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, within the specialization “Road vehicle” belonging to the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, component of Politehnica University of Timişoara. The results have been processed and compared whit the ones obtained without these devices.

  19. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels: The AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002 together with ASMU-A and HSB to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmosphere sounding system (Pagano et al 2003). The theoretical approach used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds in the AIRS Science Team Version 3 at-launch algorithm, and that used in the Version 4 post-launch algorithm, have been published previously. Significant theoretical and practical improvements have been made in the analysis of AIRS/AMSU data since the Version 4 algorithm. Most of these have already been incorporated in the AIRS Science Team Version 5 algorithm (Susskind et al 2010), now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains three significant improvements over Version 4. Improved physics in Version 5 allowed for use of AIRS clear column radiances (R(sub i)) in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations were used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances (R(sub i)) for all channels. This new approach allowed for the generation of accurate Quality Controlled values of R(sub i) and T(p) under more stressing cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contained a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 contained for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Susskind et al 2010 shows that Version 5 AIRS Only sounding are only slightly degraded from the AIRS/AMSU soundings, even at large fractional cloud

  20. Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air Temperature Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a Variable Inlet/Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air temperature a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a variable inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured temperature, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in temperature value using at least one temperature measurement and prior temperature measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air temperature value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle, determining an air temperature at the vehicle from prior air temperature measurements, determining a change in temperature value using the air temperature at the vehicle and the at least one air temperature measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in temperature value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow temperature changes within the inlet.

  1. Analysis of nocturnal air temperature in districts using mobile measurements and a cooling indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, François; Bouyer, Julien; Claverie, Rémy; Pétrissans, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The urban heat island phenomenon is generally defined as an air temperature difference between a city center and the non-urbanized rural areas nearby. However, this description does not encompass the intra-urban temperature differences that exist between neighborhoods in a city. This study investigates the air temperature dynamics of neighborhoods for meteorological conditions that lead to important urban heat island amplitude. Local climate zones (LCZs) have been determined in Nancy, France, and mobile screen-height air temperature measurements are performed using an instrumented vehicle. Initially, hourly measurements are performed within four different LCZs. These results show that air temperature within LCZ demonstrates a nocturnal cooling in two phases, i.e., a first phase between 1 to 3 h before sunset and 3 to 5 h after sunset, and a second phase from 3 to 5 h after sunset to sunrise. During phase 1, neighborhoods exhibit different cooling rate values and air temperature gaps develop between districts, while during phase 2, cooling rates tend to be analogous. Then, a larger meteorological data set is used to investigate these two phases for a selection of 13 LCZs. Normalized cooling rates are calculated between daytime measures and nighttime measures in order to quantify the air temperature dynamics of the studied areas during phase 1. Considering this indicator, three groups are emerging: LCZ compact midrise and open midrise with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.09 h -1 LCZ large lowrise and open lowrise/sparsely built with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.011 h -1 LCZ low plants with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.014 h -1 Results indicate that the relative position of LCZ within the conurbation does not drive air temperature dynamics during phase 1. In addition, measures performed during phase 2 tend to illustrate that cooling rates are similar to all LCZ during this period.

  2. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18°C, 22°C or 26°C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s(-1) and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to just maintain overall thermal comfort, at rest or when cycling (60 W, 60 rpm). During the 30 min of the experiments, skin and rectal temperatures were continuously recorded. We hypothesized that mean body temperature should be maintained stable and the intensity of the radiant heat and the mean skin temperatures would be lower when cycling. In all conditions, mean body temperature was lower when facing winds of 3 m s(-1) than during the first 5 min, without wind. When facing winds, in all but the 26°C air, the radiant heat was statistically higher at rest than when exercising. In 26°C air mean skin temperature was lower at rest than when exercising. No other significant difference was observed. In all air temperatures, high correlation coefficients were observed between the air velocity and the radiant heat load. Other factors that we did not measure may have contributed to the constant overall thermal comfort status despite dropping mean skin and body temperatures. It is suggested that the allowance to behaviourally adjust the thermal environment increases the tolerance of cold discomfort.

  3. Periodically Launched, Dedicated CubeSats/SmallSats for Space Situational Awareness Through NASA Communications Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, E. M.; Shaw, H.; Estabrook, P.; Neilsen, T. L.; Gunther, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Schaire, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is an area where spaceflight activities and missions can directly influence the quality of life on earth. The combination of space weather, near earth orbiting objects, atmospheric conditions at the space boundary, and other phenomena can have significant short-term and long-term implications for the inhabitants of this planet. The importance of SSA has led to increased activity in this area from both space and ground based platforms. The emerging capability of CubeSats and SmallSats provides an opportunity for these low-cost, versatile platforms to augment the SSA infrastructure. The CubeSats and SmallSats can be launched opportunistically with shorter lead times than larger missions. They can be organized both as constellations or individual sensor elements. Combining CubeSats and SmallSats with the existing NASA communications networks (TDRS Space Network, Deep Space Network and the Near Earth Network) provide a backbone structure for SSA which can be tied to a SSA portal for data distribution and management. In this poster we will describe the instruments and sensors needed for CubeSat and SmallSat SSA missions. We will describe the architecture and concept of operations for a set of opportunistic, periodically launched, SSA CubeSats and SmallSats. We will also describe the integrated communications infrastructure to support end-to-end data delivery and management to a SSA portal.

  4. CloudSat First Image of a Warm Front Storm Over the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    CloudSat's first image, of a warm front storm over the Norwegian Sea, was obtained on May 20, 2006. In this horizontal cross-section of clouds, warm air is seen rising over colder air as the satellite travels from right to left. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water droplets (or rain) or larger ice crystals (or snow), while the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The blue line below the Cloud Profiling Radar image indicates that the data were taken over water. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared image taken at nearly the same time.

  5. BOREAS RSS-17 Stem, Soil, and Air Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Reiner; McDonald, Kyle C.; Way, JoBea; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-17 team collected several data sets in support of its research in monitoring and analyzing environmental and phenological states using radar data. This data set consists of tree bole and soil temperature measurements from various BOREAS flux tower sites. Temperatures were measured with thermistors implanted in the hydroconductive tissue of the trunks of several trees at each site and at various depths in the soil. Data were stored on a data logger at intervals of either 1 or 2 hours. The majority of the data were acquired between early 1994 and early 1995. The primary product of this data set is the diurnal stem temperature measurements acquired for selected trees at five BOREAS tower sites. The data are provided in tabular ASCII format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  7. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  8. Summertime Temperatures in Buildings Without Air-Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.

    Many modern buildings become uncomfortably warm during sunny spells in the summer, and until recently there was no simple, reliable method of assessing at the design stage whether a building would become overheated. This paper describes a method of calculating summertime temperatures which was developed at the Building Research Station, and gives…

  9. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  10. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  11. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.

    2012-01-01

    DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.

  12. [Verification of exhaled air temperature and heat flux in respiratory diseases as useful biomarker].

    PubMed

    Ito, Wataru; Chihara, Junichi

    2008-12-01

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diffuse panbronchiolitis are syndromes associated with chronic airway inflammation. In the conventional definition of inflammation, local pyrexia at the site of inflammation should be observed. However, there are very few reports that have evaluated the "heat" in inflammatory respiratory diseases. We considered that the evaluation of allergic airway inflammation such as asthma might be possible by measuring the exhaled air temperature, and devised an original device that stabilizes the flow rate, which is a very important factor for the direct measurement of heat. Moreover, an expiratory heat flux meter, which can detect a change in air temperature more precisely and immediately, was also incorporated into our original device. As a result, we succeeded in the measurement and evaluation of the heat flux and air temperature in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients, and, further, the air temperature was straightforwardly evaluated by a portable spirometer including a temperature sensor. These findings suggest that the heat flux and temperature of exhaled air can be used to objectively monitor airway inflammation noninvasively, and assist in the diagnosis/monitoring of inflammatory respiratory diseases, including asthma.

  13. Effects of ambient room temperature on cold air cooling during laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ram, Ramin; Rosenbach, Alan

    2007-09-01

    Forced air cooling is a well-established technique that protects the epidermis during laser heating of deeper structures, thereby allowing for increased laser fluences. The goal of this prospective study was to identify whether an elevation in ambient room temperature influences the efficacy of forced air cooling. Skin surface temperatures were measured on 24 sites (12 subjects) during cold air exposure in examination rooms with ambient temperatures of 72 degrees F (22.2 degrees C) and 82 degrees F (27.8 degrees C), respectively. Before cooling, mean skin surface temperature was 9 degrees F (5 degrees C) higher in the warmer room (P < 0.01). Immediately after exposure to forced air cooling (within 1 s), the skin surface temperature remained considerably higher (10.75 degrees F, or 5.8 degrees C, P < 0.01) in the warmer room. We conclude that forced air cooling in a room with an ambient temperature of 82 degrees F (27.8 degrees C) is not as effective as in a room that is at 72 degrees F (22.2 degrees C).

  14. Natural and forced air temperature variability in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of Labrador air temperatures over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate variability and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of variability and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air temperature variability for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate variability in Labrador air temperature. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the variability in annual Labrador air temperatures over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air temperature response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.

  15. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  16. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASAs PhoneSat project will test whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately three pounds. Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  17. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    NASA's PhoneSat project tests whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately 1 kg (2.2 pounds). Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.

  18. The temperature fields measurement of air in the car cabin by infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešek, M.

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the temperature fields measurement of air using the Jenoptic Variocam infrared camera inside the car Škoda Octavia Combi II. The temperature fields with the use of auxiliary material with a high emissivity value were visualized. The measurements through the viewing window with a high transmissivity value were performed. The viewing windows on the side car door were placed. In the rear car area, the temperature fields of air on the spacious sheet of auxiliary material were visualized which is a suitable method for 2D airstreams. In the front car area, the temperature fields in the air were measured with the use of the measuring net which is suitable for 3D airstreams measuring.

  19. Uncooled emissive infrared imagers for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Masini, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon's fourth generation uncooled microbolometer array technology with digital output, High Definition (HD) 1920 × 1200 format and 12 μm cell size enables uncooled thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imagers with the sensitivity and spatial sampling needed for a variety of Earth observation missions in LEO, GEO and HEO. A powerful combination of small detector cell size, fast optics and high sensitivity achieved without cryogenic cooling leads to instruments that are much smaller than current TIR systems, while still offering the capability to meet challenging measurement requirements for Earth observation missions. To consider how this technology could be implemented for Earth observation missions, we extend our previous studies with visible wavelength CubeSat imagers for environmental observations from LEO and examine whether small thermal infrared imagers based on fourth generation uncooled technology could be made small enough to fit onboard a 3U CubeSat and still meet challenging requirements for legacy missions. We found that moderate spatial resolution (~200 m) high sensitivity cloud and surface temperature observations meeting legacy MODIS/VIIRS requirements could be collected successfully with CubeSat-sized imagers but that multiple imagers are needed to cover the full swath for these missions. Higher spatial resolution land imagers are more challenging to fit into the CubeSat form factor, but it may be possible to do so for systems that require roughly 100 m spatial resolution. Regardless of whether it can fit into a CubeSat or not, uncooled land imagers meeting candidate TIR requirements can be implemented with a much smaller instrument than previous imagers. Even though this technology appears to be very promising, more work is needed to qualify this newly available uncooled infrared technology for use in space. If these new devices prove to be as space worthy as the first generation arrays that Raytheon qualified and built into the THEMIS imager

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. The upper explosion limit of lower alkanes and alkenes in air at elevated pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Verplaetsen, F

    2006-01-16

    The upper explosion limit (UEL) of ethane-air, propane-air, n-butane-air, ethylene-air and propylene-air mixtures is determined experimentally at initial pressures up to 30 bar and temperatures up to 250 degrees C. The experiments are performed in a closed spherical vessel with an internal diameter of 200 mm. The mixtures are ignited by fusing a coiled tungsten wire, placed at the centre of the vessel, by electric current. Flame propagation is said to have taken place if there is a pressure rise of at least 1% of the initial pressure after ignition of the mixture. In the pressure-temperature range investigated, a linear dependence of UEL on temperature and a bilinear dependence on pressure are found except in the vicinity of the auto-ignition range. A comparison of the UEL data of the lower alkanes shows that the UEL expressed as equivalence ratio (the actual fuel/air ratio divided by the stoichiometric fuel/air ratio) increases with increasing carbon number in the homologous series of alkanes.

  2. Prospects of using Bayesian model averaging for the calibration of one-month forecasts of surface air temperature over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chansoo; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the prospect of calibrating probabilistic forecasts of surface air temperature (SAT) over South Korea by using Bayesian model averaging (BMA). We used 63 months of simulation results from four regional climate models (RCMs) with two boundary conditions (NCEP-DOE and ERA-interim) over the CORDEX East Asia. Rank histograms and residual quantile-quantile (R-Q-Q) plots showed that the simulation skills of the RCMs differ according to season and geographic location, but the RCMs show a systematic cold bias irrespective of season and geographic location. As a result, the BMA weights are clearly dependent on geographic location, season, and correlations among the models. The one-month equal weighted ensemble (EWE) outputs for the 59 stations over South Korea were calibrated using the BMA method for 48 monthly time periods based on BMA weights obtained from the previous 15 months of training data. The predictive density function was calibrated using BMA and the individual forecasts were weighted according to their performance. The raw ensemble forecasts were assessed using the flatness of the rank histogram and the R-Q-Q plot. The results showed that BMA improves the calibration of the EWE and the other weighted ensemble forecasts irrespective of season, simulation skill of the RCM, and geographic location. In addition, deterministic-style BMA forecasts usually perform better than the deterministic forecast of the single best member.

  3. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains two significant improvements over Version 4: 1) Improved physics allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profile T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of cloud cleared radiances R(sub i). This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by-channel error estimates for R(sub i). These error estimates are used for Quality Control of the retrieved products. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS temperature profiles with different levels of Quality Control using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system. Assimilation of Quality Controlled T(p) resulted in significantly improved forecast skill compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP, except for AIRS data, is assimilated. We also conducted an experiment assimilating AIRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, as done operationally by ECMWF and NCEP. Forecast resulting from assimilated AIRS radiances were of poorer quality than those obtained assimilating AIRS temperatures.

  4. Data Assimilation Experiments using Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SUsskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains two significant improvements over Version 4: 1) Improved physics allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 pm C02 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profile T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 pm C02 observations are now used primarily in the generation of cloud cleared radiances Ri. This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of Ri and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by- channel error estimates for Ri. These error estimates are used for quality control of the retrieved products. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS temperature profiles with different levels of quality control using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system. Assimilation of quality controlled T(p) resulted in significantly improved forecast skill compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP, except for AIRS data, is assimilated. We also conducted an experiment assimilating AIRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, as done Operationally by ECMWF and NCEP. Forecasts resulting from assimilated AIRS radiances were of poorer quality than those obtained assimilating AIRS temperatures.

  5. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects.

  6. Fault diagnosis and temperature sensor recovery for an air-handling unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.Y.; Shin, D.R.; House, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    The presence of faults and the influence they have on system operation is a real concern in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) community. A fault can be defined as an inadmissible or unacceptable property of a system or a component. Unless corrected, faults can lead to increased energy use, shorter equipment life, and uncomfortable and/or unhealthy conditions for building occupants. This paper describes the use of a two-stage artificial neural network for fault diagnosis in a simulated air-handling unit. The stage one neural network is trained to identify the subsystem in which a fault occurs. The stage two neural network is trained to diagnose the specific cause of a fault at the subsystem level. Regression equations for the supply and mixed-air temperatures are obtained from simulation data and are used to compute input parameters to the neutral networks. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate that, after a successful diagnosis of a supply air temperature sensor fault, the recovered estimate of the supply air temperature obtained from the regression equation can be used in a feedback control loop to bring the supply air temperature back to the setpoint value. Results are also presented that illustrate the evolution of the diagnosis of the two-stage artificial neural network from normal operation to various fault modes of operation.

  7. An ultrasonic air temperature measurement system with self-correction function for humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Liao, Teh-Lu

    2005-02-01

    This paper proposes an ultrasonic measurement system for air temperature with high accuracy and instant response. It can measure the average temperature of the environmental air by detecting the changes of the speed of the ultrasound in the air. The changes of speed of sound are computed from combining variations of time-of-flight (TOF) from a binary frequency shift-keyed (BFSK) ultrasonic signal and phase shift from continuous waves [11]. In addition, another proposed technique for the ultrasonic air temperature measurement is the self-correction functionality within a highly humid environment. It utilizes a relative humidity/water vapour sensor and applies the theory of how sound speed changes in a humid environment. The proposed new ultrasonic air temperature measurement has the capability of self-correction for the environment variable of humidity. Especially under the operational environment with high fluctuations of various humidity levels, the proposed system can accurately self-correct the errors on the conventional ultrasonic thermometer caused by the changing density of the vapours in the air. Including the high humidity effect, a proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that in dry air (relative humidity, RH = 10%) without humidity correction, it is accurate to ±0.4 °C from 0 °C to 80 °C, while in highly humid air (relative humidity, RH = 90%) with self-correction functionality, it is accurate to ±0.3 °C from 0 °C to 80 °C with 0.05% resolution and temperature changes are instantly reflected within 100 ms.

  8. Global circuit response to seasonal variations in global surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Earle R.

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons are made between the seasonal behavior of the global electrical circuit and the surface air temperature for the Tropics and for the globe. Positive correlations between global circuit parameters and temperature are identified on both semiannual and annual timescales. Lightning is the global circuit quantity found most responsive to temperature, with a sensitivity of the order of 10% per 1 C. These findings lend further validity to the use of global circuit measurements as a diagnostic for global change.

  9. Identifying anthropogenic anomalies in air, surface and groundwater temperatures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Benz, Susanne A; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-04-15

    Human activity directly influences ambient air, surface and groundwater temperatures. The most prominent phenomenon is the urban heat island effect, which has been investigated particularly in large and densely populated cities. This study explores the anthropogenic impact on the thermal regime not only in selected urban areas, but on a countrywide scale for mean annual temperature datasets in Germany in three different compartments: measured surface air temperature, measured groundwater temperature, and satellite-derived land surface temperature. Taking nighttime lights as an indicator of rural areas, the anthropogenic heat intensity is introduced. It is applicable to each data set and provides the difference between measured local temperature and median rural background temperature. This concept is analogous to the well-established urban heat island intensity, but applicable to each measurement point or pixel of a large, even global, study area. For all three analyzed temperature datasets, anthropogenic heat intensity grows with increasing nighttime lights and declines with increasing vegetation, whereas population density has only minor effects. While surface anthropogenic heat intensity cannot be linked to specific land cover types in the studied resolution (1km×1km) and classification system, both air and groundwater show increased heat intensities for artificial surfaces. Overall, groundwater temperature appears most vulnerable to human activity, albeit the different compartments are partially influenced through unrelated processes; unlike land surface temperature and surface air temperature, groundwater temperatures are elevated in cultivated areas as well. At the surface of Germany, the highest anthropogenic heat intensity with 4.5K is found at an open-pit lignite mine near Jülich, followed by three large cities (Munich, Düsseldorf and Nuremberg) with annual mean anthropogenic heat intensities >4K. Overall, surface anthropogenic heat intensities >0K and

  10. Impact of Surface Air Temperature and Snow Cover Depth on the Upper Soil Temperature Variations in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Sherstyukov, A. B.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2008-12-01

    For the 1965-2004 period, data from all Russian meteorological stations with long-term soil temperature observations at depths 80, 160 and 320 cm were compiled and analyzed. It was found that the prevailing influence on soil temperature variations in the European part of Russia was surface air temperature and in the Asian part of Russia - snow cover depth. By preserving the heat accumulated in the warm season, an observed increase of the winter snow depth in the permafrost zone (cf., Bulygina et al. 2007) promotes annual soil temperature increase and therefore may foster the further permafrost degradation associated with ongoing regional warming. The impact of long-term changes in surface air temperatures on soil temperatures in the central regions of the permafrost zone is weak throughout the year. However, in the regions with intermittent permafrost, this impact is substantial. The impact of snow depth on soil temperatures is observed throughout the entire permafrost zone of Russia. Reference cited: Bulygina O.N., N.N. Korshunova, and V.N. Razuvaev, 2007: Variations in snow characteristics over the Russian territory in the recent decades. Transactions of RIHMI-WDC, 173, 41-46.

  11. Effect of green roofs on air temperature; measurement study of well-watered and dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solcerova, Anna; van de Ven, Frans; Wang, Mengyu; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing number and duration of heat waves poses a need for understanding urban climate and ways to mitigate extremely high temperatures. One of repeatedly suggested and often investigated methods to moderate the so called urban heat island are green roofs. This study investigates several extensive green roofs in Utrecht (NL) and their effect on air temperature right above the roof surface. Air temperature was measured 15 and 30 cm above the roof surface and also in the substrate. We show that under normal condition is air above green roof, compared to white gravel roof, colder at night and warmer during day. This suggest that green roofs might help decrease air temperatures at night, when the urban heat island is strongest, but possibly contribute to high temperatures during daytime. We also measured situation when the green roofs wilted and dried out. Under such conditions green roof exhibits more similar behavior to conventional white gravel roof. Interestingly, pattern of soil temperature remains almost the same for both dry and well-prospering green roof, colder during day and warmer at night. As such, green roof works as a buffer of diurnal temperature changes.

  12. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B; Monje, O; Tanner, B

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  13. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jinping; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Yang, Changyuan; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in the present-day PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0-21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0-3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs.

  14. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  15. SAT-Solving Based on Boundary Point Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Eugene; Manolios, Panagiotis

    We study the problem of building structure-aware SAT-solvers based on resolution. In this study, we use the idea of treating a resolution proof as a process of Boundary Point Elimination (BPE). We identify two problems of using SAT-algorithms with Conflict Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) for structure-aware SAT-solving. We introduce a template of resolution based SAT-solvers called BPE-SAT that is based on a few generic implications of the BPE concept. BPE-SAT can be viewed as a generalization of CDCL SAT-solvers and is meant for building new structure-aware SAT-algorithms. We give experimental results substantiating the ideas of the BPE approach. In particular, to show the importance of structural information we compare an implementation of BPE-SAT and state-of-the-art SAT-solvers on narrow CNF formulas.

  16. Influence of metallic vapours on thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe

    2016-09-01

    The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.

  17. Measuring centimeter-resolution air temperature profiles above land and water using fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Armin; Pfister, Lena; Olesch, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2016-04-01

    The precise determination of near-surface air temperature profiles is of special importance for the characterization of airflows (e.g. cold air) and the quantification of sensible heat fluxes according to the flux-gradient similarity approach. In contrast to conventional multi-sensor techniques, measuring temperature profiles using fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) provides thousands of measurements referenced to a single calibration standard at much reduced costs. The aim of this work was to enhance the vertical resolution of Raman scatter DTS measurements up to the centimeter-scale using a novel approach for atmospheric applications: the optical fiber was helically coiled around a meshed fabric. In addition to testing the new fiber geometry, we quantified the measurement uncertainty and demonstrated the benefits of the enhanced-resolution profiles. The fiber-optic cable was coiled around a hollow column consisting of white reinforcing fabric supported by plexiglass rings every meter. Data from two columns of this type were collected for 47 days to measure air temperature vertically over 3.0 and 5.1 m over a gently inclined meadow and over and in a small lake, respectively. Both profiles had a vertical resolution of 1 cm in the lower section near the surface and 5 cm in the upper section with an along-fiber instrument-specific averaging of 1.0 m and a temporal resolution of 30 s. Measurement uncertainties, especially from conduction between reinforcing fabric and fiber-optic cable, were estimated by modeling the fiber temperature via a detailed energy balance approach. Air temperature, wind velocity and radiation components were needed as input data and measured separately. The temperature profiles revealed valuable details, especially in the lowest 1 m above surface. This was best demonstrated for nighttime observations when artefacts due to solar heating did not occur. For example, the dynamics of a cold air layer was detected in a clear night

  18. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Profiles using the NCEP GFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using AIRS Version-5 quality controlled temperature profiles as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The data assimilation and forecast system we used was the Goddard Earth Observing System Model , Version-5 (GEOS-5) Data Assimilation System (DAS), which represents a combination of the NASA GEOS-5 forecast model with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational Grid Point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) global analysis scheme. All analyses and forecasts were run at a 0.5deg x 0.625deg spatial resolution. Data assimilation experiments were conducted in four different seasons, each in a different year. Three different sets of data assimilation experiments were run during each time period: Control; AIRS T(p); and AIRS Radiance. In the "Control" analysis, all the data used operationally by NCEP was assimilated, but no AIRS data was assimilated. Radiances from the Aqua AMSU-A instrument were also assimilated operationally by NCEP and are included in the "Control". The AIRS Radiance assimilation adds AIRS observed radiance observations for a select set of channels to the data set being assimilated, as done operationally by NCEP. In the AIRS T(p) assimilation, all information used in the Control was assimilated as well as Quality Controlled AIRS Version-5 temperature profiles, i.e., AIRS T(p) information was substituted for AIRS radiance information. The AIRS Version-5 temperature profiles were presented to the GSI analysis as rawinsonde profiles, assimilated down to a case-by-case appropriate pressure level p(sub best) determined using the Quality Control procedure. Version-5 also determines case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates of the temperature profiles, which were used as the uncertainty of each temperature measurement. These experiments using GEOS-5 have shown that forecasts

  19. HaloSat- A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    We propose to develop, build, and fly HaloSat, a CubeSat capable of measuring the oxygen line emission from the hot Galactic halo. A dedicated CubeSat enables an instrument design and observing strategy to maximize the halo signal while minimizing foregrounds from solar wind charge exchange interactions within the solar system. We will use HaloSat to map the distribution of hot gas in the Milky Way and determine whether it fills an extended, and thus massive halo, or whether the halo is compact, and thus does not contribute significantly to the total mass of the Milky Way. HaloSat can be accomplished at modest cost using a CubeSat, a novel platform for space astrophysics missions. We will use a commercially available CubeSat bus and commercially available X-ray detectors to reduce development risk and minimize overall mission cost. HaloSat builds on the initiatives of GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in the development of CubeSats for low cost access to space and relies on the technical expertise of WFF personnel for spacecraft and mission design and operations. The team, from University of Iowa (UI), GSFC, Johns Hopkins, and CNRS (France), contains experts in X-ray detector development and data analysis and the astrophysics of hot plasmas and Galactic structure. The UI team will include a number of junior researchers (undergraduates, graduate students, and a postdoc) and help train them for future leadership roles on NASA space flight missions.

  20. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  1. Quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate - Air and ground temperature tracking from Emigrant Pass Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperatures histories and provide a useful complement to proxy indicators of climate change. An inherent assumption in borehole temperature reconstructions is that air and ground temperatures are coupled through heat diffusion track each other at annual and longer periods. The Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO), located in the Grouse Creek Mountains of northwestern Utah, is designed to test ground-air temperature tracking. Analyses of 10 years of observations at EPO demonstrate the following: 1) Ground temperatures track air temperatures at annual and longer periods exceptionally well at the site. Divergence between the observed temperatures at 1 m in the subsurface and air temperatures modeled as a boundary layer forcing is less than 0.04 K per annum. 2) Seasonal variations in incident solar radiation are ~200 Wm-2 leading to an average annual difference between ground and air temperatures, Δ Tg-a, of 2.55 K (±0.01) from 1993-2003. The temperature difference varies from -5 K to +10 K when averaged over a diurnal cycle, and from 2.50 K to 2.60 K over an annual cycle. However, inter-annual variations in insulation are less than 1 Wm-2; consequently, solar radiation is not observed to affect the inter-annual tracking at the site. 3) Model studies snow-ground thermal interactions at EPO demonstrate that seasonal snow cover can either warm or cool the ground relative to the annual mean air temperature and that the winter snow effect is an order of magnitude smaller than the summer radiation effect at the site. 4) Temperature observations at various depths within the granite and soils at the site allow us to make estimates of in-situ thermal diffusivity and its changes with time. The "apparent" thermal diffusivity of the upper meter of granite at EPO ranges from 0.88-0.98 x 10-6 m2s-1 while the soil varies from 0.57-0.68 x 10-6 m2s-1. The accumulation of data at EPO leads to a quantitative

  2. CloudSat View of Flossie

    NASA Video Gallery

    CloudSat passed directly over Tropical Storm Flossie on July 29 and showed cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in northern Hawaii and cumulonimbus clouds over the southern part. Large amounts of liqui...

  3. Score Trends, SAT Validity and Subgroup Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Presented at the Summer Institute on College Admissions at Harvard in June 2008. The presentation explores whether the SAT validity has changed with the test changes and if those changes affect specific subgroups.

  4. Answering when opportunity knocks - SATS goes global.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Chris

    2012-02-23

    One local doctor, by grasping random overlapping educational opportunities, has become the catalyst for 'Doctors without Borders' (MSF) wanting to adopt the South African Triage Scale (SATS) as its standard emergency protocol for resource-poor countries world-wide.

  5. PhoneSat - The Smartphone Nanosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, Deborah; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    PhoneSat 2.4, carried into space on November 19, 2013 aboard a Minotaur I rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, is the first of the PhoneSat family to use a two-way S-band radio to allow engineers to command the satellite from Earth. This mission also serves as a technology demonstration for a novel attitude determination and control system (ADCS) that establishes and stabilizes the satellites attitude relative to Earth. Unlike the earlier PhoneSats that used a Nexus One, PhoneSat 2.4 uses the Nexus S smartphone, which runs Googles Android operating system, and is made by Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon, So. Korea. The smartphone provides many of the functions needed by the satellite such as a central computer, data memory, ready-made interfaces for communications, navigation and power all pre-assembled in a rugged electronics package.

  6. Space Environment NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) - A New Frontier in Operational Space Environmental Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamaroff, K. I.; Thompson, D. C.; Cooke, D. L.; Gentile, L. C.; Bonito, N. A.; La Tour, P.; Sondecker, G.; Bishop, R. L.; Nicholas, A. C.; Doe, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Space Environmental NanoSat Experiment (SENSE) program is a rapid development effort of the USAF Space and Missiles Center Development Planning Directorate (SMC/XR) which will demonstrate the capability of NanoSats to perform space missions in an affordable and resilient manner. The three primary objectives for the SENSE mission are: 1) to develop best practices for operational CubeSat/NanoSat procurement, development, test, and operations; 2) to mature CubeSat bus and sensor component technology readiness levels; and 3) to demonstrate the operational utility of CubeSat measurements by flowing validated, low-latency data into operational space weather models. SENSE consists of two 3-U CubeSats built by Boeing Phantom Works. Both satellites are 3-axis stabilized with star cameras for attitude determination and are equipped with a Compact Total Electron Density Sensor (CTECS) to provide radio occultation measurements of total electron content and L-band scintillation. One satellite has a Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (CTIP) monitoring 135.6 nm photons produced by the recombination of O+ ions and electrons. The other satellite has a Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (WINCS) to acquire simultaneous co-located, in situ measurements of atmospheric and ionospheric density, composition, temperature and winds/drifts. Mission data will be used to improve current and future space weather models and demonstrate the utility of data from CubeSats for operational weather requirements. Launch is scheduled for November 2013, and we will discuss the first 30 days of on-orbit operations.

  7. Autonomous planning and scheduling on the TechSat 21 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting.

  8. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  9. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  10. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study.

  11. The comparative performance of an aviation engine at normal and high inlet air temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W; Schey, Oscar W

    1928-01-01

    This report presents some results obtained during an investigation to determine the effect of high inlet air temperature on the performance of a Liberty 12 aviation engine. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain, for normal service carburetor adjustments and a fixed ignition advance, the relation between power and temperature for the range of carburetor air temperatures that may be encountered when supercharging to sea level pressure at altitudes of over 20,000 feet and without intercooling when using plain aviation gasoline and mixtures of benzol and gasoline. The results show that for the conditions of test, both the brake and indicated power decrease with increase in air temperature at a faster rate than given by the theoretical assumption that power varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature. On a brake basis, the order of the difference in power for a temperature difference of 120 degrees F. Is 3 to 5 per cent. The observed relation between power and temperature when using the 30-70 blend was found to be linear. But, although these differences are noted, the above theoretical assumption may be considered as generally applicable except where greater precision over a wide range of temperatures is desired, in which case it appears necessary to test the particular engine under the given conditions. (author)

  12. Photosynthesis of young apple trees in response to low sink demand under different air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pei G; Li, Lian S; Duan, Wei; Li, Wei D; Li, Shao H

    2010-03-01

    Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic end products and related enzymes in source leaves in response to low sink demand after girdling to remove the root sink were assessed in young apple trees (Malus pumila) grown in two greenhouses with different air temperatures for 5 days. Compared with the non-girdled control in the low-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature <32 degrees C), low sink demand resulted in lower net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) but higher leaf temperature on Day 5, while in the high-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature >36 degrees C), P(n), g(s) and E declined from Day 3 onwards. Moreover, gas exchange responded more to low sink demand in the high-temperature greenhouse than in the low-temperature greenhouse. Decreased P(n) at low sink demand was accompanied by lower intercellular CO(2) concentrations in the low-temperature greenhouse. However, decreased maximal photochemical efficiency, potential activity, efficiency of excitation capture, actual efficiency and photochemical quenching, with increased minimal fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II (PSII), were observed in low sink demand leaves only in the high-temperature greenhouse. In addition, low sink demand increased leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate content in both greenhouses but did not result in lower activity of enzymes involved in metabolism. Thus, decreased P(n) under low sink demand was independent of a direct effect of end-product feedback but rather depended on a high temperature threshold. The lower P(n) was likely due to stomatal limitation in the low-temperature greenhouse, but mainly due to non-stomatal limitation in the high-temperature greenhouse.

  13. Short-term effects of air temperature on mortality and effect modification by air pollution in three cities of Bavaria, Germany: A time-series analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Air temperature has been shown to be associated with mortality; however, only very few studies have been conducted in Germany. This study examined the association between daily air temperature and cause-specific mortality in Bavaria, Southern Germany. Moreover, we inv...

  14. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people in outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2007-05-01

    Current thermal comfort indices do not take into account the effects of wind and body movement on the thermal resistance and vapor resistance of clothing. This may cause public health problem, e.g. cold-related mortality. Based on the energy balance equation and heat exchanges between a clothed body and the outdoor environment, a mathematical model was developed to determine the air temperature at which an average adult, wearing a specific outdoor clothing and engaging in a given activity, attains thermal comfort under outdoor environment condition. The results indicated low clothing insulation, less physical activity and high wind speed lead to high air temperature prediction for thermal comfort. More accurate air temperature prediction is able to prevent wearers from hypothermia under cold conditions.

  15. Local air temperature tolerance: a sensible basis for estimating climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärner, Olavi; Post, Piia

    2016-11-01

    The customary representation of climate using sample moments is generally biased due to the noticeably nonstationary behaviour of many climate series. In this study, we introduce a moment-free climate representation based on a statistical model fitted to a long-term daily air temperature anomaly series. This model allows us to separate the climate and weather scale variability in the series. As a result, the climate scale can be characterized using the mean annual cycle of series and local air temperature tolerance, where the latter is computed using the fitted model. The representation of weather scale variability is specified using the frequency and the range of outliers based on the tolerance. The scheme is illustrated using five long-term air temperature records observed by different European meteorological stations.

  16. The effect of air temperature on the sappan wood extract drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Triyastuti, M. S.; Asiah, N.; Annisa, A. N.; Novita, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The sappan wood extract contain natural colour called brazilin that can be used as a food colouring and antioxidant. The product is commonly found as a dry extract powder for consummer convenience. The spray dryer with air dehumidification can be an option to retain the colour and antioxidant agent. This paper discusses the effect of air temperature on sappan wood extract drying that was mixed with maltodextrin. As responses, the particle size, final moisture content, and extract solubility degradation were observed. In all cases, the process conducted in temperature ranging 90 - 110°C can retain the brazilin quality as seen in solubility and particle size. In addition, the sappan wood extract can be fully dried with moisture content below 2%. Moreover, with the increase of air temperature, the particle size of dry extract can be smaller.

  17. [Environment of high temperature or air particle matter pollution, and health promotion of exercise].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie-xiu; Xu, Min-xiao; Wu, Zhao-zhao

    2014-10-01

    It is important to keep human health in special environment, since the special environment has different effects on health. In this review, we focused on high temperature and air particle matter environment, and health promotion of exercise. Exercise and high temperature are the main non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions of insulin resistance (IR). PGC-1α is key regulatory factor in health promotion of exercise and high temperature. The novel hormone Irisin might be the important pathway through which heat and exercise could have positive function on IR. Air particle matter (PM) is associated with onset of many respiratory diseases and negative effects of exerciser performance. However, regular exercise plays an important role in improving health of respiratory system and lowering the risk induced by PM. Furthermore, free radicals and inflammatory pathways are included in the possible mechanisms of positive physiological effects induced by exercise in air particle matter environment.

  18. Design and Development of an air-cooled Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.

    2003-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no wearing parts. This paper discusses the design features of a TSAC hardware that uses air as the cooling medium and has Space Station application.

  19. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  20. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  1. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  2. Impact of aerosol on air temperature in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, I.

    2010-08-01

    This work uses MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data observed over Kuwait during the 7-year interval 2000-2007. The values of AOT and the Ångström wavelength exponent ( α) show a clear annual cycle. These data are categorized into two catalogues in terms of the values of the AOT of the 870 nm channel ( τ870). One catalogue (71 days) includes days with high values of AOT ( τ870 ≥ 0.75). The most probable "modal" value of α for these days is 0.52. The other catalogue (1162 days) consists of the background days with a modal value ~ 1.1 for the exponent α. This analysis is extended to include water vapor content (WVC), surface wind speed (V), visibility (Vis) and the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Chree's method of superposed-epoch analysis is applied to these parameters in order to compare the variation in the daily averages during days with high AOT values with respect to background days. The high values of AOT during the 71 days are positively correlated with aerosol size, near-surface winds and poor visibility. This concludes that the aerosol particles during these days were mostly dust. The mean daily value of the DTR (Δ T) and visibility reduced significantly during these days. This reduction on DTR is a direct result of increasing the atmospheric opacity due to the presence of dust.

  3. Near Decade Long Tropospheric Air Temperature and Specific Humidity Records from AIRS for CMIP5 Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Fetzer, E.; Kahn, B. H.; Teixeira, J.; Manning, E.; Hearty, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The peer-reviewed analyses of multi-model outputs from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments will be the most important basis for the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report (AR5). To increase the fidelity of the IPCC AR5, an Obs4MIPs project has been initiated to collect some well-established and well-documented datasets, to organize them according to the CMIP5 model output requirements, and makes them available to the science community for CMIP5 model evaluation. The NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) project has produced monthly mean tropospheric air temperature (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPS project. In this paper, we first describe these two AIRS datasets in terms of data description, origin, validation and caveats for model-observation comparison. We then document the climatological mean features of these two AIRS datasets and compare them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for AIRS data validation and CMIP5 model simulations for CMIP5 model evaluation. As expected, the 9-year AIRS data show several well-known climatological features of tropospheric ta and hus, such as the strong meridional and vertical gradients of tropospheric ta and hus and strong zonal gradient of tropospheric hus. AIRS data also show the strong connections between the tropospheric hus, atmospheric circulation and deep convection. In comparison to MERRA, AIRS seems to be colder in the free troposphere but warmer in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. AIRS is wetter (~10%) in the tropical boundary layer but drier (around 30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large AIRS-MERRA hus differences are mainly located in the cloudy regions, such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the

  4. Thermal Analysis of Iodine Satellite (iSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauro, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.

  5. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Margaret Torn

    2015-01-14

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  6. Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

  7. Estimating daily air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau by dynamically integrating MODIS LST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Ming; Che, Tao; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) data have been used to estimate air temperatures because of the sparseness of station measurements in remote mountainous areas. Due to the availability and accuracy of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data, the use of a single term or a fixed combination of terms (e.g., Terra/Aqua night and Terra/Aqua day), as used in previous estimation methods, provides only limited practical application. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy may be affected by different combinations and variable data quality among the MODIS LST terms and models. This study presents a method that dynamically integrates the available LST terms to estimate the daily mean air temperature and simultaneously considers model selection, data quality, and estimation accuracy. The results indicate that the differences in model performance are related to the combinations of LST terms and their data quality. The spatially averaged cloud cover of 14% for the developed product between 2003 and 2010 is much lower than the 35-54% for single LST terms. The average cross-validation root-mean-square difference values are approximately 2°C. This study identifies the best LST combinations and statistical models and provides an efficient method for daily air temperature estimation with low cloud blockage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The developed data set and the method proposed in this study can help alleviate the problem of sparse air temperature data over the TP.

  8. Development of a high-temperature air-blown gasification system.

    PubMed

    Pian, C C; Yoshikawa, K

    2001-09-01

    Current status of high-temperature air-blown gasification technology development is reviewed. This advanced gasification system utilizes preheated air to convert coal and waste-derived fuels into synthetic fuel gas and value-added byproducts. A series of demonstrated, independent technologies are combined to form the core of this gasification system. A high-temperature, rapid devolatilization process is used to enhance the volatile yields from the fuel and to improve the gasification efficiency. A high-temperature pebble bed filter is used to remove to the slag and particulates from the synthetic fuel gas. Finally, a novel regenerative heater is used to supply the high-temperature air for the gasifier. Component development tests have shown that higher gasification efficiencies can be obtained at more fuel-rich operating conditions when high-temperature air is used as the gasification agent. Test results also demonstrated the flex-fuel capabilities of the gasifier design. Potential uses of this technology range from large-scale integrated gasification power plants to small-scale waste-to-energy applications.

  9. Long-term air temperature variation in the Karkonosze mountains according to atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migała, Krzysztof; Urban, Grzegorz; Tomczyński, Karol

    2016-07-01

    The results of meteorological measurements carried out continuously on Mt Śnieżka in Karkonosze mountains since 1880 well document the warming observed on a global scale. Data analysis indicates warming expressed by an increase in the mean annual air temperature of 0.8 °C/100 years. A much higher temperature increase was recorded in the last two decades at the turn of the twenty-first century. Mean decade air temperatures increased from -0.1 to 1.5 °C. It has been shown that there are relationships between air temperature at Mt Śnieżka and global mechanisms of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Thermal conditions of the Karkonosze (Mt Śnieżka) accurately reflect global climate trends and impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, macrotypes of atmospheric circulation in Europe (GWL) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The increase in air temperature during the 1989-2012 solar magnetic cycle may reveal a synergy effect to which astrophysical effects and atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects contribute, modified by constantly increasing anthropogenic factors.

  10. First light of the UV-Detector of the ATMOSUV-CanSat (Atmospheric Thunderstorms's Monitor Optical Signal & UV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro González, Javier; Calvo Diaz-Aldagalán, David; Connell, Paul; Montanya, Joan; Fabró, Ferran; Carrió, Fernando; Blay, Pere; Espinós Morato, Hector; Eyles, Chris; Reglero, Víctor

    2015-04-01

    The ATMOSUV-CanSat is a proposal of small instrument aimed to study the Optical and UV counterpart emission from upper atmosphere high-energy phenomena like TGF (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash) process. It could be used also as a complementary ground monitor facility in the study of thunderstorms at high altitude in the atmosphere. The main goal is to perform complementary observations to that of the MXGS/ASIM (Modular X-ray and Gamma-ray Sensor in the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) mission, at ISS (International Space Station). The detector is planed to be flight during severe thunderstorms and take measurements of air conditions and to perform fast imaging with high temporal accuracy. We expect to measure UV emission and optical signal, complementary temperature, pressure, and accurate 3D location could be obtained also. Here we present preliminary results of a prototype of the UV-Detector ATMOSUVCanSat. The prototype detector has been used for high-speed directional ultraviolet detection from controlled electrical discharges up to 1MV.

  11. Global Distribution and Variability of Surface Skin and Surface Air Temperatures as Depicted in the AIRS Version-6 Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will briefly describe the significant improvements made in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm, especially as to how they affect retrieved surface skin and surface air temperatures. The global distribution of seasonal 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM local time 12 year climatologies of Ts,a will be presented for the first time. We will also present the spatial distribution of short term 12 year anomaly trends of Ts,a at 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM, as well as the spatial distribution of temporal correlations of Ts,a with the El Nino Index. It will be shown that there are significant differences between the behavior of 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM Ts,a anomalies in some arid land areas.

  12. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  13. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  14. An Experimental Investigation Into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. The temperature profile was collected by instrumenting a foil bearing with nine, type K thermocouples arranged in the center and along the bearing s edges in order to measure local temperatures and estimate thermal gradients in the axial and circumferential directions. To facilitate the measurement of maximum temperatures from viscous shearing in the air film, the thermocouples were tack welded to the backside of the bumps that were in direct contact with the top foil. The mating journal was coated with a high temperature solid lubricant that, together with the bearing, underwent high temperature start-stop cycles to produce a smooth, steady-state run-in surface. Tests were conducted at speeds from 20 to 50 krpm and loads ranging from 9 to 222 N. The results indicate that, over the conditions tested, both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. The temperature distribution was nearly symmetric about the bearing center at 20 and 30 krpm but became slightly skewed toward one side at 40 and 50 krpm. Surprisingly, the maximum temperatures did not occur at the bearing edge where the minimum film thickness is expected but rather in the middle of the bearing where analytical investigations have predicted the air film to be much thicker. Thermal gradients were common during testing and were strongest in the axial direction from the middle of the bearing to its edges, reaching 3.78 8C/mm. The temperature profile indicated the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible.

  15. Retrieval of surface temperature by remote sensing. [of earth surface using brightness temperature of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, S. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    A simple procedure and computer program were developed for retrieving the surface temperature from the measurement of upwelling infrared radiance in a single spectral region in the atmosphere. The program evaluates the total upwelling radiance at any altitude in the region of the CO fundamental band (2070-2220 1/cm) for several values of surface temperature. Actual surface temperature is inferred by interpolation of the measured upwelling radiance between the computed values of radiance for the same altitude. Sensitivity calculations were made to determine the effect of uncertainty in various surface, atmospheric and experimental parameters on the inferred value of surface temperature. It is found that the uncertainties in water vapor concentration and surface emittance are the most important factors affecting the accuracy of the inferred value of surface temperature.

  16. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review (CDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Selby, Michael; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Byrne, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of Small Satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy (i.e. high pressure vessels). These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The project formally began in FY15 as a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is in final preparation of the Critical Design Review prior to initiating the fabrication and integration phase of the project. The iSat project is on schedule for a launch opportunity in November 2017.

  17. The Iodine Satellite (iSat) Project Development Towards Critical Design Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Szabo, James; Byrne, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of small satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy. These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U (cubesat units) configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The mission is a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is working towards the critical design review in the final design and fabrication phase of the project. The current design shows positive technical performance margins in all areas. The iSat project is planned for launch readiness in the spring of 2017.

  18. SIRS: An Experiment to Measure the Free Air Temperature from a Satellite.

    PubMed

    Wark, D Q

    1970-08-01

    The Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) on the Nimbus III satellite was designed to measure the earth's spectral radiances in the 15-microm band of carbon dioxide. From simultaneous measurements of spectral radiances it is possible to obtain the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere. The measurements are approximated by the integral equation of radiative transfer, modified by one or two layers of clouds. A solution requires that the surface radiative temperature and the surface air temperature be known. By iteration, a solution based upon the statistical behavior of the atmosphere is obtained for the free air temperature and the cloud heights and amounts. Examples are presented, comparing the SIRS soundings with coincident radiosonde soundings. The results from this experiment indicate that the technique can be applied as a routine observing tool for meteorological use.

  19. A new approach for highly resolved air temperature measurements in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttstädt, M.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Merbitz, H.; Schneider, C.

    2011-02-01

    In different fields of applied local climate investigation, highly resolved data of air temperature are of great importance. As a part of the research programme entitled City2020+, which deals with future climate conditions in agglomerations, this study focuses on increasing the quantity of urban air temperature data intended for the analysis of their spatial distribution. A new measurement approach using local transport buses as "riding thermometers" is presented. By this means, temperature data with a very high temporal and spatial resolution could be collected during scheduled bus rides. The data obtained provide the basis for the identification of thermally affected areas and for the investigation of factors in urban structure which influence the thermal conditions. Initial results from the ongoing study, which show the temperature distribution along different traverses through the city of Aachen, are presented.

  20. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  1. Cool Roofs in Guangzhou, China: Outdoor Air Temperature Reductions during Heat Waves and Typical Summer Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meichun; Rosado, Pablo; Lin, Zhaohui; Levinson, Ronnen; Millstein, Dev

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we simulate temperature reductions during heat-wave events and during typical summer conditions from the installation of highly reflective "cool" roofs in the Chinese megacity of Guangzhou. We simulate temperature reductions during six of the strongest historical heat-wave events over the past decade, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 1.2 °C. In comparison, we simulate 25 typical summer weeks between 2004 and 2008, finding average urban midday temperature reductions of 0.8 °C, indicating that air temperature sensitivity to urban albedo in Guangzhou varies with meteorological conditions. We find that roughly three-fourths of the variance in air temperature reductions across all episodes can be accounted for by a linear regression, including only three basic properties related to the meteorological conditions: mean daytime temperature, humidity, and ventilation to the greater Guangzhou urban area. While these results highlight the potential for cool roofs to mitigate peak temperatures during heat waves, the temperature reductions reported here are based on the upper bound case, which increases albedos of all roofs (but does not modify road albedo or wall albedo).

  2. Equatorial range limits of an intertidal ectotherm are more linked to water than air temperature.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S; Santos, António M; Gomes, Filipa; Lima, Fernando P

    2016-10-01

    As climate change is expected to impose increasing thermal stress on intertidal organisms, understanding the mechanisms by which body temperatures translate into major biogeographic patterns is of paramount importance. We exposed individuals of the limpet Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, to realistic experimental treatments aimed at disentangling the contribution of water and air temperature for the buildup of thermal stress. Treatments were designed based on temperature data collected at the microhabitat level, from 15 shores along the Atlantic European coast spanning nearly 20° of latitude. Cardiac activity data indicated that thermal stress levels in P. vulgata are directly linked to elevated water temperature, while high air temperature is only stressful if water temperature is also high. In addition, the analysis of the link between population densities and thermal regimes at the studied locations suggests that the occurrence of elevated water temperature may represent a threshold P. vulgata is unable to tolerate. By combining projected temperatures with the temperature threshold identified, we show that climate change will likely result in the westward expansion of the historical distribution gap in the Bay of Biscay (southwest France), and northward contraction of the southern range limit in south Portugal. These findings suggest that even a minor relaxing of the upwelling off northwest Iberia could lead to a dramatic increase in thermal stress, with major consequences for the structure and functioning of the intertidal communities along Iberian rocky shores.

  3. Spatial distribution of air temperature in Toruń (Central Poland) and its causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna; Araźny, Andrzej; Kejna, Marek; Kunz, Mieczysław; Maszewski, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the results of an investigation into the air temperature pattern and development (including the urban heat island (UHI)) in Toruń (central Poland) are presented. For the analysis, daily mean temperature (Ti) as well as daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures for 2012 gathered for 20 sites, evenly distributed in the area of city, have been taken as source data. Additionally, in order to provide more extensive characteristics of the diversity of the air temperature in the study area, the diurnal temperature range (DTR) and the number of the so-called characteristic days were calculated as well. The impact of weather conditions (cloudiness and wind speed), atmospheric circulation, urban morphological parameters and land cover on the UHI in the study area was investigated. In Toruń, according to the present study, the average UHI intensity in 2012 was equal to 1.0 °C. The rise of cloudiness and wind speed led to a decrease of the magnitude of the UHI. Generally, in most cases, anticyclonic situations favour increased thermal contrast between rural and city areas, particularly in summer. Warm western circulation types significantly reduced temperature differences in the western side of the city and enlarged them in the eastern side of the city. Eastern cold types also have a similar influence on air temperature differences. Positive and statistically significant correlations have been found between the percentage of built-up areas (sealing factor) and air temperature. Conversely, sky view factor (SVF) reveals negative correlations which are statistically significant only for Tmin.

  4. [Effects of sudden air temperature and pressure changes on mortality in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Plavcová, E; Kyselý, J

    2009-04-01

    We have developed an algorithm for identifying sudden changes in air pressure and temperature over the Czech Republic. Such events were retrieved from the data covering in 1986-2005 and were matched with the daily numbers of all-cause deaths and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases from the national database, separately for the whole population and that aged 70 years and over. Excess daily mortality was determined by calculating deviations of the observed number of deaths from the expected number of deaths for each day in the respective groups. The relative deviation of the mortality the mean was calculated as the ratio of the excess mortality to the expected number of deaths. We used 3-hour air pressure data from 10 meteorological stations and hourly air temperature data from 9 stations representative of the Czech Republic. Pressure changes were evaluated on time scales of 3, 6 and 12 hours, separately for summer and winter time. Temperature changes were evaluated on a 24-hour time scale, separately for summer and winter season. Events characterized by pressure or temperature changes above the critical threshold and recorded within 24 hours at more than 50% of meteorological stations were retrieved. The critical thresholds were defined separately for each station using quantiles of distributions of air pressure and temperature changes. Relative mortality deviations for days D-2 (2 days before the change) to D+7 (7 days after the change) were averaged over the retrieved events. Statistical significance of the mean relative deviation was tested using the Monte Carlo method. Increased mortality followed large temperature increases and large pressure drops both in summer and winter months. Decreased mortality was observed after large pressure increases and large temperature drops in summer. Mortality variations are usually more pronounced in the population aged 70 years and over, and cardiovascular diseases account for most deaths after sudden temperature changes.

  5. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  6. Effects of light intensity light quality and air velocity on temperature in plant reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Excess temperature increase in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmata could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions in closed plant growth facilities There is a possibility that the aberration was caused by an excess increase in temperatures of reproductive organs in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space The fundamental study was conducted to know the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by light intensity light quality and air velocity on the earth and to estimate the excess temperature increase in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities in space Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 10 r C The temperatures in flowers at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under the lights from red LEDs white LEDs blue LEDs fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps increased by 1 4 1 7 1 9 6 0 and 25 3 r C respectively for rice and by 2 8 3 4 4 1 7 8 and 43 4 r C respectively for strawberry The flower temperatures increased with increasing PPFD levels The temperatures in petals anthers and stigmas of strawberry at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under incandescent lamps increased by 32 7 29 0 and 26 6 r C respectively at 0 1 m s -1 air velocity and by 20 6 18 5 and 15 9 r C respectively at 0 8 m s -1 air velocity The temperatures of reproductive organs decreased with increasing

  7. Heat Exchange with Air and Temperature Profile of a Moving Oversize Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in a tire with account for the deformation energy dissipation and heat exchange of a moving tire with air has been developed. The mean temperature profiles are calculated and transition to a stationary thermal regime is considered. The influence of the rate of energy dissipation and of effective thermal conductivity of rubber on the temperature field is investigated quantitatively.

  8. Elevation of nasal mucosal temperature increases the ability of the nose to warm and humidify air.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D J; Baroody, F M; Naureckas, E; Naclerio, R M

    2001-01-01

    The nose functions to warm and humidify inspired air. The factors that influence these functions have been studied to a limited degree. We have developed a method for measuring the temperature and relative humidity of the air before and after nasal conditioning to study nasal function. In this experiment we studied the effects of raising the mucosal surface temperature by immersion of the feet in warm water. Six subjects (avg. age = 27.0 years) were randomized to immersion of the feet in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C water. The nasal mucosal temperature increased significantly from the 32.2+/-1.3 degrees C during immersion in the 30 degrees C water to the 33.1+/-1.2 degrees C during immersion in 40 degrees water (p < 0.05). No significant difference in nasal volume was noted between the 30 degrees (17.8+/-4.5 cc) and the 40 degrees (17.7+/-5.3 cc) immersions. There was a significant increase in the conditioning capacity of the nose (as measured by total water content of inspired air) in response to cold-air challenge during the 40 degrees immersion (1669+/-312 mg water) when compared to the 30 degrees immersion (1324+/-152 mg water). From these data we deduce that warming of the nasal mucosa improves the ability of the nose to condition inspired air without a significant change in the volume of the nasal cavity.

  9. Regional change in snow water equivalent-surface air temperature relationship over Eurasia during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Present study investigates local relationship between surface air temperature and snow water equivalent (SWE) change over mid- and high-latitudes of Eurasia during boreal spring. Positive correlation is generally observed around the periphery of snow covered region, indicative of an effect of snow on surface temperature change. In contrast, negative correlation is usually found over large snow amount area, implying a response of snow change to wind-induced surface temperature anomalies. With the seasonal retreat of snow covered region, region of positive correlation between SWE and surface air temperature shifts northeastward from March to May. A diagnosis of surface heat flux anomalies in April suggests that the snow impact on surface air temperature is dominant in east Europe and west Siberia through modulating surface shortwave radiation. In contrast, atmospheric effect on SWE is important in Siberia and Russia Far East through wind-induced surface sensible heat flux change. Further analysis reveals that atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with snowmelt over east Siberia may be partly attributed to sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic and the atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern associated with snowmelt over Russia Far East has a close association with the Arctic Oscillation.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Radiation Error of Surface Air Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qing-Quan; Ding, Ren-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Due to solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a naturally ventilated radiation shield may produce a measurement error that is 0.8 K or higher. To improve air temperature observation accuracy and correct historical temperature of weather stations, a radiation error correction method is proposed. The correction method is based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and a genetic algorithm (GA) method. The CFD method is implemented to obtain the radiation error of the naturally ventilated radiation shield under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using the GA method. To verify the performance of the correction equation, the naturally ventilated radiation shield and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated temperature measurement platform serves as an air temperature reference. The mean radiation error given by the intercomparison experiments is 0.23 K, and the mean radiation error given by the correction equation is 0.2 K. This radiation error correction method allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 87 %. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error between the radiation errors given by the correction equation and the radiation errors given by the experiments are 0.036 K and 0.045 K, respectively.

  11. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

  12. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  13. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  14. Response of sugarcane to carbon dioxide enrichment and elevated air temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four sugarcane cultivars (CP 72-2086, CP 73-1547, CP 88-1508, and CP 80-1827) were grown in elongated temperature-gradient greenhouses (TGG) at ambient or elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) of 360 or 720 µmol CO2 mol-1 air (ppm, mole fraction basis), respectively. Elevated CO2 was maintained by injection...

  15. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; Reza, Khan Mamun; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Kumar, Mukesh; Khatiwada, Devendra; Darling, Seth; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

  16. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; ...

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours inmore » ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.« less

  17. Cloud-induced uncertainties in AIRS and ECMWF temperature and specific humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Schreier, Mathias; Manipon, Gerald; Fishbein, Evan F.; Kahn, Brian H.; Yue, Qing; Irion, Fredrick W.

    2015-03-01

    The uncertainties of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 2 version 6 specific humidity (q) and temperature (T) retrievals are quantified as functions of cloud types by comparison against Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive radiosonde measurements. The cloud types contained in an AIRS/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit footprint are identified by collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer retrieved cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud top pressure. We also report results of similar validation of q and T from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasts (EC) and retrievals from the AIRS Neural Network (NNW), which are used as the initial state for AIRS V6 physical retrievals. Differences caused by the variation in the measurement locations and times are estimated using EC, and all the comparisons of data sets against radiosonde measurements are corrected by these estimated differences. We report in detail the validation results for AIRS GOOD quality control, which is used for the AIRS Level 3 climate products. AIRS GOOD quality q reduces the dry biases inherited from the NNW in the middle troposphere under thin clouds but enhances dry biases in thick clouds throughout the troposphere (reaching -30% at 850 hPa near deep convective clouds), likely because the information contained in AIRS retrievals is obtained in cloud-cleared areas or above clouds within the field of regard. EC has small moist biases (~5-10%), which are within the uncertainty of radiosonde measurements, in thin and high clouds. Temperature biases of all data are within ±1 K at altitudes above the 700 hPa level but increase with decreasing altitude. Cloud-cleared retrievals lead to large AIRS cold biases (reaching about -2 K) in the lower troposphere for large COD, enhancing the cold biases inherited from the NNW. Consequently, AIRS GOOD quality T root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) are slightly smaller than the NNW errors in thin clouds (1.5-2.5 K) but

  18. Using Satellite-Based Spatiotemporal Resolved Air Temperature Exposure to Study the Association between Ambient Air Temperature and Birth Outcomes in Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Melly, Steven J.; Coull, Brent A.; Nordio, Francesco; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies looking at air temperature (Ta) and birth outcomes are rare. Objectives We investigated the association between birth outcomes and daily Ta during various prenatal exposure periods in Massachusetts (USA) using both traditional Ta stations and modeled addresses. Methods We evaluated birth outcomes and average daily Ta during various prenatal exposure periods in Massachusetts (USA) using both traditional Ta stations and modeled address Ta. We used linear and logistic mixed models and accelerated failure time models to estimate associations between Ta and the following outcomes among live births > 22 weeks: term birth weight (≥ 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW; < 2,500 g at term), gestational age, and preterm delivery (PT; < 37 weeks). Models were adjusted for individual-level socioeconomic status, traffic density, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), random intercept for census tract, and mother’s health. Results Predicted Ta during multiple time windows before birth was negatively associated with birth weight: Average birth weight was 16.7 g lower (95% CI: –29.7, –3.7) in association with an interquartile range increase (8.4°C) in Ta during the last trimester. Ta over the entire pregnancy was positively associated with PT [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05] and LBW (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.13). Conclusions Ta during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestational age in our study population. Citation Kloog I, Melly SJ, Coull BA, Nordio F, Schwartz JD. 2015. Using satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved air temperature exposure to study the association between ambient air temperature and birth outcomes in Massachusetts. Environ Health Perspect 123:1053–1058; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308075 PMID:25850104

  19. KidSat: Image User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, JoBea; Andres, Paul; Baker, John; Goodson, Greg; Marshall, William; McGuire, John; Rackley, Kathleen; Stork, Elizabeth Jones; Yiu, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    The goal of KidSat was to provide young students with the opportunity to participate directly in the NASA space program and to enhance learning in the process. The KidSat pilot project was focused on using a color digital camera, mounted on the space shuttle, to take pictures of the Earth. These could be used to enhance middle school curricula. The project not only benefited middle school students, who were essentially the Science Team, responsible for deciding where to take pictures, but it also benefited high school students and undergraduates, who were essentially the Project Team, responsible for the development and implementation of the project. KidSat flew on three missions as part of the pilot project: STS-76, STS-81, and STS-86. This document describes the goals, project elements, results, and data for the three KidSat missions that made up the pilot program. It serves as a record for this pilot project and may be used as a reference for similar projects. It can also be a too] in using the data to its fullest extent. The KidSat Web page remains on-line at http://kidsat.jpl.nasa.gov/kidsat, and the images may be downloaded in their full resolution.

  20. Temperature differences in the air layer close to a road surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogren, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Torbjörn; Karlsson, Maria

    2001-12-01

    In this study, profiles of temperature and humidity (<250 cm above the road and 5 m into the surroundings) have been used to examine the development of temperature differences in the air layer close to the road. Temperature, humidity and wind profiles were measured, together with net radiation and observations of road surface state, at a test site at Road 45, Surte, Sweden. Measured temperature differences were compared with present weather, preceding weather, surface status, wind direction and other parameters thought to be important for the development of temperature differences. The results showed that large temperature differences (1-3 °C between 250 cm and 10 cm above the road) occurred when there was a high risk of slipperiness caused by hoarfrost, snow or ice on the road. The temperature differences between different levels were associated with the exchange of humidity and temperature between the air layer and the road surface. The 10 cm level reflected the surface processes well. Higher levels were influenced by the surroundings because of turbulence and advection. This study emphasises the need for measurements to be taken at a height and place that reflects the processes at the road surface.

  1. Laminar Flame Velocity and Temperature Exponent of Diluted DME-Air Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseer Mohammed, Abdul; Anwar, Muzammil; Juhany, Khalid A.; Mohammad, Akram

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the laminar flame velocity and temperature exponent diluted dimethyl ether (DME) air mixtures are reported. Laminar premixed mixture of DME-air with volumetric dilutions of carbon dioxides (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) are considered. Experiments were conducted using a preheated mesoscale high aspect-ratio diverging channel with inlet dimensions of 25 mm × 2 mm. In this method, flame velocities are extracted from planar flames that were stabilized near adiabatic conditions inside the channel. The flame velocities are then plotted against the ratio of mixture temperature and the initial reference temperature. A non-linear power law regression is observed suitable. This regression analysis gives the laminar flame velocity at the initial reference temperature and temperature exponent. Decrease in the laminar flame velocity and increase in temperature exponent is observed for CO2 and N2 diluted mixtures. The addition of CO2 has profound influence when compared to N2 addition on both flame velocity and temperature exponent. Numerical prediction of the similar mixture using a detailed reaction mechanism is obtained. The computational mechanism predicts higher magnitudes for laminar flame velocity and smaller magnitudes of temperature exponent compared to experimental data.

  2. Advances in Fast-response Acoustically Derived Air-temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, I.; Jacobsen, L.; Horst, T. W.; Conrad, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity.The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  3. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Sari, Tugrul; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The neodymium/yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd/YAG) laser has been suggested to repair broken prostheses in the mouth. This study investigated the effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Three intact human maxillary molars were prepared for full-veneer crown. For each tooth, dentin thicknesses in mesiobuccal cusp was 2, 3, or 4 mm. Twenty dies were duplicated from each of the prepared teeth. For metal copings with 0.5-mm thickness, wax patterns were prepared with dip wax technique directly onto each of dies. All patterns were sprued and invested. The castings were made using a nickel-chromium alloy (Nicromed Premium, Neodontics). A hole with 0.5-mm diameter was prepared on the mesiobuccal cusp of each crown. The Nd/YAG laser (9.85 W; 1 Hz repetition rate; fluence, 1.230 J/cm(2); Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona) was used for welding with or without air cooling (n = 10). The temperature rise was measured in pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Differences between start and highest temperature reading were taken, and temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Pulpal temperature rise varied significantly depending on the dentin thickness and air cooling (p < 0.05). The non-air cooling group induced significantly the highest temperature increases. There were no significant differences between 2- and 3-mm dentin thicknesses groups (p > 0.05); however, pulpal temperature rise was the lowest for 4-mm dentin thickness group (p < 0.05). The highest values of thermal increase were found in the pulp chamber (6.8°C) when no air cooling was used in 2-mm dentin thickness group. Laser welding on base metal castings with Nd/YAG laser can be applied with air cooling to avoid temperature rises known to adversely affect pulpal health when dentin thickness is 2 or 3 mm.

  4. STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh

    2011-03-01

    An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air

  5. Temperature measurements in hypersonic air flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Gabriel; Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation is reported of the use of laser-induced fluorescence on oxygen for the measurement of air temperature and its fluctuations owing to turbulence in hypersonic wind tunnel flows. The results show that for temperatures higher than 60 K and densities higher than 0.01 amagat, the uncertainty in the temperature measurement can be less than 2 percent if it is limited by photon-statistical noise. The measurement is unaffected by collisional quenching and, if the laser fluence is kept below 1.5 J/sq cm, it is also unaffected by nonlinear effects which are associated with depletion of the absorbing states.

  6. Neutral air density and temperature measurements by the TOTAL instrument aboard the ROSE payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friker, A.; Luebken, F.-J.

    1992-06-01

    Four ROSE payloads, launched from November 1988 to February 1989 from northern Scandinavia, carried ionization gauges ('TOTAL' instruments) for neutral air density measurements in the altitude range 90-105 km. Temperature profiles are derived by integrating the number density profiles. Density and temperature data are presented. The limitations of the measurement technique as well as instrumental errors are discussed. In one of the flights (F1) a significant temperature enhancement was observed at an altitude where plasma instabilities were detected by independent measurements.

  7. Measurement of temperature and velocity fields in a convective fluid flow in air using schlieren images.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, A; Moreno-Hernández, D; Guerrero-Viramontes, J A

    2013-08-01

    A convective fluid flow in air could be regulated if the physical process were better understood. Temperature and velocity measurements are required in order to obtain a proper characterization of a convective fluid flow. In this study, we show that a classical schlieren system can be used for simultaneous measurements of temperature and velocity in a convective fluid flow in air. The schlieren technique allows measurement of the average fluid temperature and velocity integrated in the direction of the test beam. Therefore, in our experiments we considered surfaces with isothermal conditions. Temperature measurements are made by relating the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the schlieren system. The same schlieren images were also used to measure the velocity of the fluid flow by using optical flow techniques. The algorithm implemented analyzes motion between consecutive schlieren frames to obtain a tracked sequence and finally velocity fields. The proposed technique was applied to measure the temperature and velocity fields in natural convection of air due to unconfined and confined heated rectangular plates.

  8. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  9. Effects of light intensity and air velocity on air temperature, water vapor pressure, and CO2 concentration inside a plant canopy under an artificial lighting condition.

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Y; Shibuya, T; Kozai, T; Kubota, C

    1998-01-01

    In order to characterize environmental variables inside a plant canopy under artificial lighting in the CELSS, we investigated the effects of light intensity and air velocity on air temperature, water vapor pressure, and CO2 concentration inside a plant canopy. Under a PPF of 500 micromoles m-2 s-1, air temperature was 2-3 degrees C higher, water vapor pressure was 0.6 kPa higher, and CO2 concentration was 25-35 micromoles mol-1 lower at heights ranging from 0 to 30 mm below the canopy than at a height 60 mm above the canopy. Increasing the PPF increased air temperature and water vapor pressure and decreased CO2 concentration inside the canopy. The air temperature was lower and the CO2 concentration was higher inside the canopy at an air velocity of 0.3 m s-1 than at an air velocity of 0.1 m s-1. The environmental variables inside the canopy under a high light intensity were characterized by higher air temperature, higher vapor pressure, and lower CO2 concentration than those outside the canopy.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF A NOVEL AIR BRAZING COMPOSITION FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE, OXIDATION-RESISTANT CERAMIC JOINING

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.

    2004-01-30

    One of the challenges in developing a useful ceramic joining technique is in producing a joint that offers good strength under high temperature and highly oxidizing operating conditions. Unfortunately many of the commercially available active metal ceramic brazing alloys exhibit oxidation behaviors which are unacceptable for use in a high temperature application. We have developed a new approach to ceramic brazing, referred to as air brazing, that employs an oxide wetting agent dissolved in a molten noble metal solvent, in this case CuO in Ag, such that acceptable wetting behavior occurs on a number of ceramic substrates. In an effort to explore how to increase the operating temperature of this type of braze, we have investigated the effect of ternary palladium additions on the wetting characteristics of our standard Ag-CuO air braze composition

  11. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  12. Precipitation and Air Temperature Impact on Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitola, Ilva; Vircavs, Valdis; Abramenko, Kaspars; Lauva, Didzis; Veinbergs, Arturs

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify seasonal effects of precipitation and temperature on groundwater level changes in monitoring stations of the Latvia University of Agriculture - Mellupīte, Bērze and Auce. Groundwater regime and level fluctuations depend on climatic conditions such as precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, surface runoff and drainage, as well as other hydrological factors. The relationship between precipitation, air temperature and groundwater level fluctuations could also lead and give different perspective of possible changes in groundwater quality. Using mathematical statistics and graphic-analytic methods it is concluded that autumn and winter precipitation has the dominant impact on groundwater level fluctuations, whereas spring and summer season fluctuations are more dependent on the air temperature.

  13. Impact of air velocity, temperature, humidity, and air on long-term voc emissions from building products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    The emissions of two volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of concern from five building products (BPs) were measured in the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) up to 250 d. The BPs (VOCs selected on the basis of abundance and low human odor thresholds) were: nylon carpet with latex backing (2-ethylhexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene), PVC flooring (2-ethylhexanol, phenol), floor varnish on pretreated beechwood parquet (butyl acetate, N-methylpyrrolidone), sealant (hexane, dimethyloctanols), and waterborne wall paint on gypsum board (1,2-propandiol, Texanol). Ten different climate conditions were tested: four different air velocities from ca. 1 cm s -1 to ca. 9 cm s -1, three different temperatures (23, 35, and 60°C), two different relative humidities (0% and 50% RH), and pure nitrogen instead of clean air supply. Additionally, two sample specimen and two different batches were compared for repeatability and homogeneity. The VOCs were sampled on Tenax TA and determined by thermal desorption and gas chromatography (FID). Quantification was carried out by individual calibration of each VOC of concern. Concentration/time profiles of the selected VOCs (i.e. their concentration decay curves over time) in a standard room were used for comparison. Primary source emissions were not affected by the air velocity after a few days to any great extent. Both the temperature and relative humidity affected the emission rates, but depended strongly on the type of BP and type of VOC. Secondary (oxidative) source emissions were only observed for the PVC and for dimethyloctanols from the sealant. The time to reach a given concentration (emission rate) appears to be a good approach for future interlaboratory comparisons of BP's VOC emissions.

  14. CryoSat Quality Control- Sensitivity Study of CryoSat Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Amanda; Mannan, Rubinder; Webb, Erica; Bouffard, Jerome; Femenias, Pierre; Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Parameters and geophysical corrections provided in L1, L2I and L2 CryoSat Ice products are currently checked using the Quality Control for CryoSat (QCC) tool integrated at PDGS. This tool provides configurable quality control for CryoSat data products according to a predefined Test Definition File (TDF). A detailed analysis has recently been performed to tune these thresholds, as the current thresholds were defined at the start of the CryoSat mission. The study was extended to the recently released CryoSat Ocean Products: IOP and GOP. The updated test thresholds have now been approved and the new version of the QCC tool will be implemented to operationally screen all CryoSat Baseline-C Ice and Ocean products. This paper presents the threshold updates resulting from this analysis, a summary of statistical results and an overview of the trends of two CryoSat variables, including plots of temporal changes in operational Baseline-C data.

  15. TemperSAT: A new efficient fair-sampling random k-SAT solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    The set membership problem is of great importance to many applications and, in particular, database searches for target groups. Recently, an approach to speed up set membership searches based on the NP-hard constraint-satisfaction problem (random k-SAT) has been developed. However, the bottleneck of the approach lies in finding the solution to a large SAT formula efficiently and, in particular, a large number of independent solutions is needed to reduce the probability of false positives. Unfortunately, traditional random k-SAT solvers such as WalkSAT are biased when seeking solutions to the Boolean formulas. By porting parallel tempering Monte Carlo to the sampling of binary optimization problems, we introduce a new algorithm (TemperSAT) whose performance is comparable to current state-of-the-art SAT solvers for large k with the added benefit that theoretically it can find many independent solutions quickly. We illustrate our results by comparing to the currently fastest implementation of WalkSAT, WalkSATlm.

  16. Influence of Air Temperature Difference on the Snow Melting Simulation of SWAT Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YAN, Y.; Onishi, T.

    2013-12-01

    The temperature-index models are commonly used to simulate the snowmelt process in mountain areas because of its good performance, low data requirements, and computational simplicity. Widely used distributed hydrological model: Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is also using a temperature-index module. However, the lack of monitoring air temperature data still involves uncertainties and errors in its simulation performance especially in data sparse area. Thus, to evaluate the different air temperature data influence on the snow melt of the SWAT model, five different air temperature data are applied in two different Russia basins (Birobidjan basin and Malinovka basin). The data include the monitoring air temperature data (TM), NCEP reanalysis data (TNCEP), the dataset created by inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW) method (TIDW), the dataset created by improved IDW method considering the elevation influence (TIDWEle), and the dataset created by using linear regression and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data (TLST). Among these data, the TLST , the TIDW and TIDWEle data have the higher spatial density, while the TNCEP and TM DATA have the most valid monitoring value for daily scale. The daily simulation results during the snow melting seasons (March, April and May) showed reasonable results in both test basins for all air temperature data. While R2 and NSE in Birobidjan basin are around 0.6, these values in Malinovka basin are over 0.75. Two methods: Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) and Sequential Uncertainty Fitting, version. 2 (SUFI-2) were used for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The evolution index is p-factor which means the percentage of measured data bracketed by the 95% Prediction Uncertainty (95PPU). The TLST dataset always obtained the best results in both basins compared with other datasets. On the other hand, the two IDW based method get the worst results among all the scenarios. Totally, the

  17. Data Assimilation Experiments using Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AlRS data. Version 5 contains accurate case-by-case error estimates for most derived products, which are also used for quality control. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AlRS quality controlled temperature profiles using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system, consisting of the NCEP GSI analysis coupled with the NASA FVGCM. Assimilation of quality controlled temperature profiles resulted in significantly improved forecast skill in both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere Extra-Tropics, compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP except for AlRS data is assimilated. Experiments using different Quality Control thresholds for assimilation of AlRS temperature retrievals showed that a medium quality control threshold performed better than a tighter threshold, which provided better overall sounding accuracy; or a looser threshold, which provided better spatial coverage of accepted soundings. We are conducting more experiments to further optimize this balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy from the data assimilation perspective. In all cases, temperature soundings were assimilated well below cloud level in partially cloudy cases. The positive impact of assimilating AlRS derived atmospheric temperatures all but vanished when only AIRS stratospheric temperatures were assimilated. Forecast skill resulting from assimilation of AlRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, instead of AlRS temperature soundings, was only slightly better than that resulting from assimilation of only stratospheric AlRS temperatures. This reduction in forecast skill is most likely the result of significant loss of tropospheric information when only AIRS radiances unaffected by clouds are used in the data assimilation process.

  18. The signatures of large-scale patterns of atmospheric variability in Antarctic surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Gareth J.; Thompson, David W. J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the impact that the four principal large-scale patterns of Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation variability have on Antarctic surface air temperature (SAT): (1) the southern baroclinic annular mode (BAM), which is associated with variations in extratropical storm amplitude; (2) the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), associated with latitudinal shifts in the midlatitude jet; and (3) the two Pacific-South American patterns (PSA1 and PSA2), which are characterized by wave trains originating in the tropical Pacific that extend across the SH extratropics. A key aspect is the use of 35 years of daily observations and reanalysis data, which affords a sufficiently large sample size to assess the signatures of the circulation patterns in both the mean and variability of daily mean SAT anomalies. The BAM exerts the weakest influence on Antarctic SAT, albeit it is still important over select regions. Consistent with previous studies, the SAM is shown to influence SAT across most of the continent throughout the year. The PSA1 also affects SAT across almost all of Antarctica. Regionally, both PSA patterns can exert a greater impact on SAT than the SAM but also have a significantly weaker influence during summer, reflecting the seasonality of the SH response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The SAM and PSA patterns have distinct signatures in daily SAT variance that are physically consistent with their signatures in extratropical dynamic variability. The broad-scale climate linkages identified here provide benchmarks for interpreting the Antarctic climate response to future changes in tropical sea surface temperatures, ozone recovery, and greenhouse gas increases.

  19. Air temperature evolution during dry spells and its relation to prevailing soil moisture regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-04-01

    The complex interplay between land and atmosphere makes accurate climate predictions very challenging, in particular with respect to extreme events. More detailed investigations of the underlying dynamics, such as the identification of the drivers regulating the energy exchange at the land surface and the quantification of fluxes between soil and atmosphere over different land types, are thus necessary. The recently started DROUGHT-HEAT project (funded by the European Research Council) aims to provide better understanding of the processes governing the land-atmosphere exchange. In the first phase of the project, different datasets and methods are used to investigate major drivers of land-atmosphere dynamics leading to droughts and heatwaves. In the second phase, these findings will be used for reducing uncertainties and biases in earth system models. Finally, the third part of the project will focus on the application of the previous findings and use them for the attribution of extreme events to land processes and possible mitigation through land geoengineering. One of the major questions in land-atmosphere exchange is the relationship between air temperature and soil moisture. Different studies show that especially during dry spells soil moisture has a strong impact on air temperature and the amplification of hot extremes. Whereas in dry and wet soil moisture regimes variations in latent heat flux during rain-free periods are expected to be small, this is not the case in transitional soil moisture regimes: Due to decreasing soil moisture content latent heat flux reduces with time, which causes in turn an increase in sensible heat flux and, subsequently, higher air temperatures. The investigation of air temperature evolution during dry spells can thus help to detect different soil moisture regimes and to provide insights on the effect of different soil moisture levels on air temperature. Here we assess the underlying relationships using different observational and

  20. Partitioning SAT Instances for Distributed Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Antti E. J.; Junttila, Tommi; Niemelä, Ilkka

    In this paper we study the problem of solving hard propositional satisfiability problem (SAT) instances in a computing grid or cloud, where run times and communication between parallel running computations are limited.We study analytically an approach where the instance is partitioned iteratively into a tree of subproblems and each node in the tree is solved in parallel.We present new methods for constructing partitions which combine clause learning and lookahead. The methods are incorporated into the iterative approach and its performance is demonstrated with an extensive comparison against the best sequential solvers in the SAT competition 2009 as well as against two efficient parallel solvers.

  1. Dynamic Stiffness and Damping Characteristics of a High-Temperature Air Foil Journal Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Heshmat, Hooshang

    2001-01-01

    Using a high-temperature optically based displacement measurement system, a foil air bearing's stiffness and damping characteristics were experimentally determined. Results were obtained over a range of modified Sommerfeld Number from 1.5E6 to 1.5E7, and at temperatures from 25 to 538 C. An Experimental procedure was developed comparing the error in two curve fitting functions to reveal different modes of physical behavior throughout the operating domain. The maximum change in dimensionless stiffness was 3.0E-2 to 6.5E-2 over the Sommerfeld Number range tested. Stiffness decreased with temperature by as much as a factor of two from 25 to 538 C. Dimensionless damping was a stronger function of Sommerfeld Number ranging from 20 to 300. The temperature effect on damping being more qualitative, showed the damping mechanism shifted from viscous type damping to frictional type as temperature increased.

  2. Impacts of rainfall and air temperature variations due to climate change upon hydrological characteristics: a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall and air temperature variations resulting from climate change are important driving forces to alter hydrologic processes in watershed ecosystems. This study investigated impacts of past and potential future rainfall and air temperature variations upon water discharge, water outflow (from th...

  3. Short-term Effects of Air Temperature on Blood Markers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Potentially Susceptible Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. We investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen act...

  4. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions.

  5. Air pollution, lagged effects of temperature, and mortality: The Netherlands 1979-87.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, J P; Looman, C W; Kunst, A E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of air pollution could be the result of confounding. DESIGN--The associations between mortality and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were analysed taking into account potential confounding factors. SETTING--The Netherlands, 1979-87. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The number of deaths listed by the day on which the death occurred and by the cause of death were obtained from the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. Mortality from all causes and mortality from four large groups of causes (neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and external causes) were related to the daily levels of SO2 air pollution and potential confounders (available from various sources) using log-linear regression analysis. Variables considered as potential confounders were: average temperature; difference between maximum and minimum temperatures; amount of precipitation; air humidity; wind speed; influenza incidence; and calendar year, month, and weekday. Both lagged and unlagged effects of the meteorological and influenza variables were considered. Average temperature was represented by two variables--'cold', temperatures below 16.5 degrees C, and 'warm', those above 16.5 degrees C--to allow for the V shaped relation between temperature and mortality. The positive regression coefficient for the univariate effect of SO2 density on mortality from all causes dwindles to close to zero when all potential confounding variables are taken into account. The most important of these represents the lagged (one to five days) effect of low temperatures. Low temperatures have strong lagged effects on mortality, and often precede relatively high SO2 densities in the Netherlands. Results were similar for separate causes of death. While univariate associations suggest an effect of air pollution on mortality in all four cause of death groups, multivariate analyses show these effects, including that on mortality from

  6. On The Suitability of Air Temperature as a Predictive Tool for Lake Surface Temperature in a Changing Climate: A Case Study for Lake Tahoe, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, N.; Piccolroaz, S.; Hook, S. J.; Toffolon, M.; Lenters, J. D.; Schladow, G.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to predict surface water temperature is essential toward understanding how future climate scenarios will impact inland water bodies such as lakes. Numerous predictive models have been developed to perform this task although many require inputs whose future model prediction is usually associated with large uncertainties, such as e.g., precipitation, cloudiness, wind and radiative fluxes. Conversely, air temperature is one of the most widely available variables in projections from Global Climate Models (GCMs). The predictive model air2water relies solely on air temperature data to predict lake surface temperature. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that air2water can be used as a predictive tool for climate change scenarios through a case study focused on Lake Tahoe, CA/NV, USA. Lake Tahoe has been selected due to extensive historical in-situ measurements that have been collected at that location since 1967 which we utilize to calibrate and validate air2water, and evaluate its performance. For model runs, we utilize different sources of air temperature data (buoys, land-based weather stations, GCMs) to establish how robustly air2water performs. We employ air temperature data from a combination of global gridded datasets including Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS3.21 (historical), and GCM output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) model (future) with representative concentration pathways of 4.5 and 8.5. Here, we present results from air2water predictions of the relationship between air and water temperature that demonstrate how this model is able to replicate trends on seasonal and interannual timescales. This finding shows promise toward understanding the impacts of future climate change on lakes and to expanding our study to lake surface temperatures globally.

  7. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  8. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662

  9. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  10. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  11. Variable air temperature response of gas-phase atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls near a former manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, Mark H; Scholten, Cheryl A; Compher, Kevin

    2003-09-15

    Many investigations of gas-phase atmospheric PCB show a strong relationship between concentration and air temperature, especially near PCB sources. Comparative gas-phase atmospheric PCB trends during an annual temperature regime at two sites near a former PCB manufacturing plant and nearby PCB landfills in Anniston, AL, indicate a departure from this trend. The Mars Hill sampling site, located closest to the plant and landfills, shows an annual average sigmaPCB concentration of 27 ng m(-3) (ranging from 8.7 to 82 ng m(-3)) three times the average at Carter, 1.5 km away (9 ng m(-3), ranging from 1.1 to 39). However, total PCB and congener concentrations vary more with air temperature at Carter where PCB are evaporating from surfaces during warmer weather. The slopes of the Clausius-Clapeyron plots of 18 of the most concentrated congeners representing dichloro- through heptachlorobiphenyl homologues are significantly higher at the Carter site. While some of the atmospheric PCB at Mars Hill is derived from ground surface evaporation, the source of much of it apparently is the material buried in the landfills, which has different thermal properties than surface materials and is not in equilibrium with air temperature.

  12. An improved method for correction of air temperature measured using different radiation shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing

    2014-11-01

    The variation of air temperature measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most air temperature values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the air temperature errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the temperature error is considered and extreme errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.

  13. Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the Daily Air Temperature in the Casablanca City, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Air temperature is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a daily monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface temperatures from MODIS data and the daily measurements of air temperature acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air temperature from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.

  14. Detecting and adjusting temporal inhomogeneity in Chinese mean surface air temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingxiang; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhang, Hongzheng; Thomas C., Peterson; David R., Easterling

    2004-04-01

    Adopting the Easterling-Peterson (EP) techniques and considering the reality of Chinese meteorological observations, this paper designed several tests and tested for inhomogeneities in all Chinese historical surface air temperature series from 1951 to 2001. The result shows that the time series have been widely impacted by inhomogeneities resulting from the relocation of stations and changes in local environment such as urbanization or some other factors. Among these factors, station relocations caused the largest magnitude of abrupt changes in the time series, and other factors also resulted in inhomogeneities to some extent. According to the amplitude of change of the difference series and the monthly distribution features of surface air temperatures, discontinuities identified by applying both the E-P technique and supported by China’s station history records, or by comparison with other approaches, have been adjusted. Based on the above processing, the most significant temporal inhomogeneities were eliminated, and China’s most homogeneous surface air temperature series has thus been created. Results show that the inhomogeneity testing captured well the most important change of the stations, and the adjusted dataset is more reliable than ever. This suggests that the adjusted temperature dataset has great value of decreasing the uncertaities in the study of observed climate change in China.

  15. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  16. Trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation time series over Greece: 1955-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marougianni, G.; Melas, D.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Anandranistakis, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a database of air temperature and precipitation time series from the network of Hellenic National Meteorological Service has been developed in the framework of the project GEOCLIMA, co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009. Initially, a quality test was applied to the raw data and then missing observations have been imputed with a regularized, spatial-temporal expectation - maximization algorithm to complete the climatic record. Next, a quantile - matching algorithm was applied in order to verify the homogeneity of the data. The processed time series were used for the calculation of temporal annual and seasonal trends of air temperature and precipitation. Monthly maximum and minimum surface air temperature and precipitation means at all available stations in Greece were analyzed for temporal trends and spatial variation patterns for the longest common time period of homogenous data (1955 - 2010), applying the Mann-Kendall test. The majority of the examined stations showed a significant increase in the summer maximum and minimum temperatures; this could be possibly physically linked to the Etesian winds, because of the less frequent expansion of the low over the southeastern Mediterranean. Summer minimum temperatures have been increasing at a faster rate than that of summer maximum temperatures, reflecting an asymmetric change of extreme temperature distributions. Total annual precipitation has been significantly decreased at the stations located in western Greece, as well as in the southeast, while the remaining areas exhibit a non-significant negative trend. This reduction is very likely linked to the positive phase of the NAO that resulted in an increase in the frequency and persistence of anticyclones over the Mediterranean.

  17. The EUSTACE break-detection algorithm for a global air temperature dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Yuri; Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperature for All Corners of Earth) is an EU-funded project that has started in 2015; its goal is to produce daily estimates of surface air temperature since 1850 across the globe for the first time by combining surface and satellite data using novel statistical techniques. For land surface data (LSAT), we assembled a global dataset of ca. 35000 stations where daily maximum and minimum air temperature observations are available, taking advantage of the most recent data rescue initiatives. Beside quantity, data quality also plays an important role for the success of the project; in particular, the assessment of the homogeneity of the temperature series is crucial in order to obtain a product suitable for the study of climate change. This poster describes a fully automatic state-of-the-art break-detection algorithm that we developed for the global LSAT dataset. We evaluate the performance of the method using artificial benchmarks and present various statistics related to frequency and amplitude of the inhomogeneities detected in the real data. We show in particular that long-term temperature trends calculated from raw data are more often underestimated than overestimated and that this behaviour is mostly related to inhomogeneities affecting maximum temperatures.

  18. The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2014-01-01

    Environmental temperatures that exceed body temperature (Tb) force endothermic animals to rely solely on evaporative cooling to dissipate heat. However, evaporative heat dissipation can be drastically reduced by environmental humidity, imposing a thermoregulatory challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of humidity on the thermoregulation of desert birds and to compare the sensitivity of cutaneous and respiratory evaporation to reduced vapor density gradients. Rates of evaporative water loss, metabolic rate, and Tb were measured in birds exposed to humidities ranging from ∼2 to 30 g H2O m(-3) (0%-100% relative humidity at 30°C) at air temperatures between 44° and 56°C. In sociable weavers, a species that dissipates heat primarily through panting, rates of evaporative water loss were inhibited by as much as 36% by high humidity at 48°C, and these birds showed a high degree of hyperthermia. At lower temperatures (40°-44°C), evaporative water loss was largely unaffected by humidity in this species. In Namaqua doves, which primarily use cutaneous evaporation, increasing humidity reduced rates of evaporative water loss, but overall rates of water loss were lower than those observed in sociable weavers. Our data suggest that cutaneous evaporation is more efficient than panting, requiring less water to maintain Tb at a given temperature, but panting appears less sensitive to humidity over the air temperature range investigated here.

  19. Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-air deflagrations.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru

    2010-02-15

    An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial temperatures (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial temperature and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial temperature. Such correlations are extremely useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated temperatures and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available.

  20. Effect of posture on body temperature of young men in cold air.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G C; Scarborough, M; Mridha, K; Whelan, L; Caunce, M; Keatinge, W R

    1996-01-01

    We studied eight young adult men to see whether a supine posture caused a fall in body core temperature in the cold, as it does in thermoneutral conditions. In air at 31 degrees C (thermoneutral), a supine posture for 3 h reduced mean aural, gastric, oesophageal and rectal temperatures by 0.2-0.4 degree C, compared to upright and increased femoral artery blood flow from 278 (SEM 42)ml.min-1 whilst upright to 437 (SEM 42) ml.min-1 whilst supine. In cold air (8 degrees C) the supine posture failed to reduce these temperatures [corrected] significantly, or to increase femoral blood flow: it reduced heart rate, and increased arterial systolic and pulse pressures adjusted to carotid sinus level, less than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the behaviour of core temperature at the four sites was significantly nonuniform between the two postures in the cold, mainly because the supine posture tended to reduce rectal temperature. It may have done so by reducing heat production in the muscles of the pelvis, since it reduced overall metabolic rate from 105 (SEM 8) to 87 (SEM 4) W.m-2 in the cold. In other respects the results indicated that posture ceased to have an important effect on body core temperatures during cold stress.

  1. The spatial and temporal behavior of brightness temperature in Tel-Aviv and its application to air temperature monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pelta, Ran; Chudnovsky, A. Alexandra; Schwarts, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study applies remote sensing technology to assess and examine the spatial and temporal Brightness Temperature (BT) profile in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel over the last 30 years using Landsat imagery. The location of warmest and coldest zones are constant over the studied period. Distinct diurnal and temporal BT behavior divide the city into four different segments. As an example of future application, we applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to correlate Landsat BT data with monitored air temperature (Tair) measurements using 14 images for 1989–2014. Our preliminary results show a good model performance with R2 = 0.81. Furthermore, based on the model’s results, we analyzed the spatial profile of Tair within the study domain for representative days. PMID:26499933

  2. SAT Participation and Performance for the Class of 2014. Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    SAT participation and performance are milestones on the path to college and career readiness. This report provides the results for SAT participation and performance in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) for the class of 2014. Analysis of postsecondary outcomes for MCPS graduates indicates that graduates who took the SAT were more…

  3. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  4. Two CubeSats Deployed from the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a CubeSat deployment from the International Space Station shows a compilation of photos taken by astronauts on May 16, 2016. The bottom-most CubeSat is the NASA-funded MinXSS CubeSat,...

  5. Overestimation Bias in Self-Reported SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew T.; Campbell, Julie; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Knight, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed self-reported SAT scores and actual SAT scores for five different samples of college students (N = 650). Students overestimated their actual SAT scores by an average of 25 points (SD = 81, d = 0.31), with 10% under-reporting, 51% reporting accurately, and 39% over-reporting, indicating a systematic bias towards over-reporting.…

  6. Analysis of the WindSat Receiver Frequency Passbands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-12

    Unclassified Unlimited 17 Michael H. Bettenhausen (202) 767-8278 The WindSat instrument is the primary payload for the Coriolis mission which was launched...INTRODUCTION The WindSat instrument is the primary payload for the Coriolis mission which was launched on 6 Jan- uary 2003. WindSat is a 22-channel

  7. Integrating BalloonSAT and Atmospheric Dynamic Concepts into the Secondary Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, B. N.; Kennon, J. T.; Roberts, E.

    2016-05-01

    Arkansas BalloonSAT is an educational outreach and scientific research program that is part of Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, AR. The following is a unit of instruction to incorporate BalloonSAT measurements into secondary science classes. Students interpret graphs and identify several atmospheric trends and properties of a typical balloon flight. Students engage critical thinking skills in developing and answering their own questions relevant to the BalloonSAT program. Prerequisite concepts students should know are how to interpret graphs and unit conversions. Students should have a basic understanding of gravity, units of temperature and distance, and error in measurements. The unit is designed for one week after end-of-course exams and before the end of school. The unit may take two to five 50-minute periods, depending on how many activities are completed.

  8. Dynamics of Air Temperature, Velocity and Ammonia Emissions in Enclosed and Conventional Pig Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. I.; Park, K.-H.; Jeon, J. H.; Choi, H. L.; Barroga, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig’s growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05). These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to

  9. [Temperature differences of air-rice plant under different irrigated water depths at spiking stage].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zheng, Jian-chu; Huang, Shan; Tian, Yun-lu; Peng, Lan; Bian, Xin-min; Zhang, Wei-jian

    2008-01-01

    With rice cultivars Yangdao 6, Yangjing 9538 and Wuxiangjing 14 as test materials, field experiment was conducted to study the effects of 3 irrigated water depths (0 cm, 2-4 cm, and > 10 cm) on the temperature of different parts of rice plant at spiking stage. The results showed that from 10:30 to 15:00 on sunny days, irrigated water depth on paddy field had significant effects on the temperature of field surface, middle part of rice plant, and rice spike. The higher the water depth on field surface, the lower the temperature of rice plant and rice spike. At the water level > 10 cm, the average temperature differences between air and the rice spike, middle part of rice plant and field surface of these three cultivars were 1.37, 2.98 and 4.12 degrees C higher than those at the water depth of 0 cm, and 0.67, 1.59 and 2.17 degrees C higher than those at the water depth of 2-4 cm, respectively. In addition, the temperature differences were 0.71, 1.39 and 1.95 degrees C higher at the water depth of 2-4 cm than those at the water depth of 0 cm, respectively. Obvious temperature differences of air-rice plant were also observed among the three rice varieties under different irrigated water depths. The analysis of the characteristics of temperature transfer among field surface, middle part of plant and rice spike indicated that the temperature transfer patterns under all test water management regimes accorded with the principles of energy transfer, suggesting that keeping proper water depth on the field surface at rice spiking stage contributed great to the decrease of rice spike temperature and the alleviation of rice heat injury.

  10. Kinetic mechanism of molecular energy transfer and chemical reactions in low-temperature air-fuel plasmas.

    PubMed

    Adamovich, Igor V; Li, Ting; Lempert, Walter R

    2015-08-13

    This work describes the kinetic mechanism of coupled molecular energy transfer and chemical reactions in low-temperature air, H2-air and hydrocarbon-air plasmas sustained by nanosecond pulse discharges (single-pulse or repetitive pulse burst). The model incorporates electron impact processes, state-specific N(2) vibrational energy transfer, reactions of excited electronic species of N(2), O(2), N and O, and 'conventional' chemical reactions (Konnov mechanism). Effects of diffusion and conduction heat transfer, energy coupled to the cathode layer and gasdynamic compression/expansion are incorporated as quasi-zero-dimensional corrections. The model is exercised using a combination of freeware (Bolsig+) and commercial software (ChemKin-Pro). The model predictions are validated using time-resolved measurements of temperature and N(2) vibrational level populations in nanosecond pulse discharges in air in plane-to-plane and sphere-to-sphere geometry; temperature and OH number density after nanosecond pulse burst discharges in lean H(2)-air, CH(4)-air and C(2)H(4)-air mixtures; and temperature after the nanosecond pulse discharge burst during plasma-assisted ignition of lean H2-mixtures, showing good agreement with the data. The model predictions for OH number density in lean C(3)H(8)-air mixtures differ from the experimental results, over-predicting its absolute value and failing to predict transient OH rise and decay after the discharge burst. The agreement with the data for C(3)H(8)-air is improved considerably if a different conventional hydrocarbon chemistry reaction set (LLNL methane-n-butane flame mechanism) is used. The results of mechanism validation demonstrate its applicability for analysis of plasma chemical oxidation and ignition of low-temperature H(2)-air, CH(4)-air and C(2)H(4)-air mixtures using nanosecond pulse discharges. Kinetic modelling of low-temperature plasma excited propane-air mixtures demonstrates the need for development of a more accurate

  11. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  12. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the baryons observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  13. Comparative evaluation of air cell and eggshell temperature measurement methodologies used in broiler hatching eggs during late incubation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-07-01

    The current study was conducted to compare and contrast the uses of 2 devices (temperature transponder or infrared thermometer) and their locations (inner air cell membrane or outer eggshell surface) in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. The air cells of 14 embryonated and 10 nonembryonated eggs were implanted with temperature transponders on d 13.5 of incubation. Likewise, for these same eggs, eggshell surface temperature was detected with the use of transponders and an infrared thermometer. Temperatures were recorded every 12 h between 14.5 and 18 d of incubation, and graphs and corresponding regression values were used to track the temperatures over these time periods. The temperature readings using all methods in embryonated and nonembryonated eggs were positively correlated. In nonembryonated eggs, temperatures in the air cell and on the eggshell surface using transponders were higher than those on the eggshell surface using an infrared thermometer. Mean air cell temperature readings of embryonated eggs using transponders were higher than those of the eggshell, as determined with the use of transponders or an infrared thermometer. Furthermore, the differences in air cell temperature using transponders and eggshell temperature using an infrared thermometer in embryonated eggs increased with embryonic age. These readings confirmed increased embryo heat production during the incubational period examined. It was further concluded that when compared with actual embryo body temperatures determined in previous studies, the use of transponders in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs detected a higher and closer temperature than eggshell surface temperature. It is suggested that the air cell transponders in embryonated eggs circumvented the confounding effects of the thermal barrier properties of the eggshell and the flow of air across its surface.

  14. The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin temperature retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  15. The First Air-Temperature Measurements for the Purposes of Battlefield Operations?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgré, S.; Neumann, J.

    1986-03-01

    Close to the end of the severe winter 1808/09, a Russian force crossed the ice-bound Gulf of Bothnia from Finland to Sweden with the purpose of forcing Sweden to desist from taking sides with Great Britain against Napoléon. General major von Berg, one of the commanders of the force, took meteorological observations, including air-temperature measurements, during the crossing, a record of which he left behind in a journal. These air-temperature measurements appear to be the first of their kind in the history of land-based military forces.In the discussion of the meteorological conditions of the above-mentioned harsh winter, use is made of unpublished meteorological measurements at Umcaå, Sweden, and at Ylitomio (Över-Torneå), Finland. The latter were conducted by Johan Portin, a pioneer of meteorological observations near the Arctic Circle.

  16. Instructions for observing air temperature, humidity, and direction and force of wind

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1892-01-01

    Description of instruments.-The temperature and humidity of the air are obtained from the simultaneous observation of a pair of mercurial thermometers termed the dry and the wet bulb. The air temperature is given by the dry-bulb thermometer, and the humidity is obtained from the combined readings of both. The wet-bulb thermometer differs from the dry-bulb thermometer only in having its bulb covered with thin muslin, which is wetted in pure water at each observation.The two thermometers are fastened in a light metal 'or wooden frame. To this frame is to be attached a stout cord for the whirling of the thermometers, which is an essential part of every observation.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses on Very High Temperature Reactor Air Ingress

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang

    2009-07-01

    A preliminary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to understand density-gradient-induced stratified flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) air-ingress accident. Various parameters were taken into consideration, including turbulence model, core temperature, initial air mole-fraction, and flow resistance in the core. The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) 600 MWt was selected as the reference reactor and it was simplified to be 2-D geometry in modeling. The core and the lower plenum were assumed to be porous bodies. Following the preliminary CFD results, the analysis of the air-ingress accident has been performed by two different codes: GAMMA code (system analysis code, Oh et al. 2006) and FLUENT CFD code (Fluent 2007). Eventually, the analysis results showed that the actual onset time of natural convection (~160 sec) would be significantly earlier than the previous predictions (~150 hours) calculated based on the molecular diffusion air-ingress mechanism. This leads to the conclusion that the consequences of this accident will be much more serious than previously expected.

  18. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  19. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  20. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.

  1. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  2. Pre- to Post- CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, J.

    2015-12-01

    CubeSats sprung from a formative picosatellite effort at a university in the heart of Silicon Valley, took root in a university-led university environment, and have grown into complex-shaped explorers in both near and soon-to-be deep space. Private citizens, businesses, government are building and launching a variety of science, technology demonstration, and service missions. A new generation of space explorers is gaining first hand experience in space missions at all educational levels. There is new life and new energy in the space program. However, space is still difficult. The environment is harsh. Funding is sparse. This talk explores this history and the future of CubeSats from the context of a university-centric laboratory that emphasizes teaching, research, and entrepreneurial impact. It will explore the following questions: What sparked the CubeSat innovation? What are longer lasting lessons of this community? Where are places we can go next? What does it take to get there? The talk will draw on lessons learned from building over six on-orbit CubeSat missions and training hundreds of space engineers.

  3. Investigating SATS-36 for a Matriculation Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Saras; Idris, Noraini

    2015-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards statistics have been more often negative due to many factors such as initial perception of the subject, low ability in mathematics and lack of motivation to study statistics. Studies involving SATS-36 included investigation of the different factors in relation to students' attitude towards statistics. Other studies have…

  4. SAT Scores at NAIS Member Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    Between March and June 2014, more than 1.67 million students from the 2014 graduating class took the SAT, marking a new participation record for the test. At the request of the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), the College Board created a special report that allows the association to compare how independent school students fared…

  5. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities,"…

  6. The RadioSat (sm) network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noreen, Gary K.

    1991-01-01

    The RadioSat network under development by radio Satellite Corporation will use mobile satellite (MSAT) technology to provide diverse personal communications, broadcast, and navigation services. The network will support these services simultaneously for integrated mobile radios throughout Canada and the United States. The RadioSat network takes advantage of several technological breakthroughs, all coming to fruition by the time the first MSAT satellite is launched in 1994. The most important of these breakthroughs is the enormous radiated power of each MSAT spacecraft - orders of magnitude greater than the radiated power of previous L-band spacecraft. Another important breakthrough is the development of advanced digital audio compression algorithms, enabling the transmission of broadcast quality music at moderate data rates. Finally, continuing dramatic increases in VLSI capabilities permit the production of complex, multi-function mobile satellite radios in very large quantities at prices little more than those of conventional car radios. In addition to performance breakthroughs and their economic implications to RadioSat, the design of the RadioSat network is reviewed.

  7. SAT Scores, Journalism and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Philip

    1993-01-01

    The two symposium articles extend "USA Today" SAT state ranking efforts by examining which states have the highest achievers, add the most value to enrolled students, and use resources most effectively. Dynarski and Gleason show that this test measures educational achievement more than innate ability. Graham and Husted adjust rankings…

  8. Unique, clean-air, continuous-flow, high-stagnation-temperature facility for supersonic combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.; Scott, J. E., Jr.; Whitehurst, R. B., III; Segal, C.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, spatially-resolved measurements can be conducted of a model supersonic combustor in a clean air/continuous flow supersonic combustion facility whose long run times will allow not only the point-by-point mapping of flow field variables with laser diagnostics but facilitate the simulation of steady-state combustor conditions. The facility will provide a Mach 2 freestream with static pressures in the 1 to 1/6 atm range, and stagnation temperatures of up to 2000 K.

  9. Temperature Measurements in an Ethylene-Air-Opposed Flow Diffusion Flame

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Temperature Measurements in an Ethylene-Air-Opposed Flow Diffusion Flame by Matthew S. Kurman, John M. Densmore, Chol -Bum M. Kweon, and...Oak Ridge Associated Universities John M. Densmore Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chol -Bum M. Kweon Vehicle Technology Directorate... Chol -Bum M. Kweon, and Kevin L. McNesby 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1VP2J1 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  10. Optical refractive index of air: dependence on pressure, temperature and composition.

    PubMed

    Owens, J C

    1967-01-01

    The theoretical background and present status of formulas for the refractive index of air are reviewed. In supplement to Edlén's recently revised formula for relative refractivity, the density dependence of refractive index is reanalyzed. New formulas are presented for both phase and group refractive index which are more useful over a wide range of pressure, temperature, and composition than any presently available. The application of the new formulas to optical distance measuring is briefly discussed.

  11. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory - that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings.

  12. Integrated LTCC Pressure/Flow/Temperature Multisensor for Compressed Air Diagnostics†

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues. PMID:22163518

  13. Transient performance and temperature field of a natural convection air dehumidifier loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazilati, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Ahmad; Alemrajabi, Ali-Akbar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, transient performance of the previously introduced natural convection heat and mass transfer loop is investigated for an air dehumidifier system. The performance of the loop is studied in different conditions of heat source/heat sink temperature and different startup desiccant concentrations. Unlike conventional loops, it is observed that natural convection of the fluid originates from the heat sink towards the heat source. The proper operation of the cycle is highly dependent on the heat sink/heat source temperatures. To reduce the time constant of the system, a proper desiccant concentration should be adopted for charge of the loop.

  14. Integrated LTCC pressure/flow/temperature multisensor for compressed air diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Yannick; Maeder, Thomas; Boutinard-Rouelle, Grégoire; Barras, Aurélie; Craquelin, Nicolas; Ryser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a multisensor designed for industrial compressed air diagnostics and combining the measurement of pressure, flow, and temperature, integrated with the corresponding signal conditioning electronics in a single low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package. The developed sensor may be soldered onto an integrated electro-fluidic platform by using standard surface mount device (SMD) technology, e.g., as a standard electronic component would be on a printed circuit board, obviating the need for both wires and tubes and thus paving the road towards low-cost integrated electro-fluidic systems. Several performance aspects of this device are presented and discussed, together with electronics design issues.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.

  16. High Temperature Tensile Properties of Unidirectional Hi-Nicalon/Celsian Composites In Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature tensile properties of unidirectional BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced celsian matrix composites have been measured from room temperature to 1200 C (2190 F) in air. Young's modulus, the first matrix cracking stress, and the ultimate strength decreased from room temperature to 1200 C (2190 F). The applicability of various micromechanical models, in predicting room temperature values of various mechanical properties for this CMC, has also been investigated. The simple rule of mixtures produced an accurate estimate of the primary composite modulus. The first matrix cracking stress estimated from ACK theory was in good agreement with the experimental value. The modified fiber bundle failure theory of Evans gave a good estimate of the ultimate strength.

  17. Regression analysis in modeling of air surface temperature and factors affecting its value in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-10-01

    This study encompasses air surface temperature (AST) modeling in the lower atmosphere. Data of four atmosphere pollutant gases (CO, O3, CH4, and H2O) dataset, retrieved from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), from 2003 to 2008 was employed to develop a model to predict AST value in the Malaysian peninsula using the multiple regression method. For the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R=0.821) with predicted AST. Comparisons among five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season, within 1.3 K, and for in situ data, within 1 to 2 K. The validation results of AST with AST from AIRS showed high correlation coefficient (R=0.845 to 0.918), indicating the model's efficiency and accuracy. Statistical analysis in terms of β showed that H2O (0.565 to 1.746) tended to contribute significantly to high AST values during the northeast monsoon season. Generally, these results clearly indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis study to investigate the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases on AST over the Malaysian peninsula. A model was developed that is capable of retrieving the Malaysian peninsulan AST in all weather conditions, with total uncertainties ranging between 1 and 2 K.

  18. The potential for reducing urban air temperatures and energy consumption through vegetative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurn, D.M.; Bretz, S.E.; Huang, B.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-01

    A network of 23 weather stations was used to detect existing oases in Southern California. Four stations, separated from one another by 15--25 miles (24--40 km), were closely examined. Data were strongly affected by the distance of the stations from the Pacific Ocean. This and other city-scale effects made the network inadequate for detection of urban oases. We also conducted traverse measurements of temperature and humidity in the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in Los Angeles County on September 8--10, 1993. Near-surface air temperatures over vegetated areas were 1--2{degrees}C lower than background air temperatures. We estimate that vegetation may lower urban temperatures by 1{degrees}C, while the establishment of vegetative canopies may lower local temperatures by an additional 2{degrees}C. An increase in vegetation in residential neighborhoods may reduce peak loads in the Los Angeles area by 0.3 GW, and reduce energy consumption by 0.2 BkWh/year, saving $20 million annually. Large additional savings would result from regional cooling.

  19. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  20. Pattern recognition techniques for visualizing the biotropic waveform of air temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozheredov, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that long periods of adverse weather have a negative effect on the human cardiovascular system. A number of studies have set a lower limit of around 5 days for the duration of these periods. However, the specific features of the negative dynamics of the main weather characteristics—air temperature and atmospheric pressure—remained open. To address this problem, the present paper proposes a conjunctive method of the theory of pattern recognition. It is shown that this method approaches a globally optimal (in the sense of recognition errors) Neumann critical region and can be used to solve various problems in heliobiology. To illustrate the efficiency of this method, we show that some quickly relaxing short sequences of temperature and pressure time series (the so-called temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes) increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and can lead to serious organic lesions (particularly myocardial infarction). It is established that the temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes increase the average morbidity rate of myocardial infarction by 90% and 110%, respectively. Atmospheric pressure turned out to be a more biotropic factor than air temperature.

  1. Study on Air Temperature Estimation and Snowmelt Modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Hongbo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation and melting of snow are important hydrological processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Accurate and reasonable simulation of snowmelt is useful for water resources management and planning. This study firstly developed a product of daily mean air temperatures over the TP by comprehensively integrating satellite data and field observations. Accumulation and melting of snow over TP was then simulated and analyzed using a distributed degree-day model based on the air temperature data. The proposed air temperature estimation method can reduce the cloud blockage dramatically by integrating all the available MODIS land surface data (LST) at four pass times dynamically and in the meantime keep relatively high estimating accuracies. Through zonal calibration and validation for snow cover modeling, the daily processes of snow accumulation and melting over TP can be successfully simulated. The results indicate that (1) during 2005-2010, annual precipitation over TP was ~442 mm/yr among which ~88 mm/yr was snow fall with approximately 56 mm/yr melted; (2) snow melt mostly happened in spring over TP, with spring snow melt dominating and accounting for about 53% of the full-year snow melts; and (3) the locations with higher snow melt were mainly in south and east TP and the spatial pattern of snow melts is basically in accordance with that of precipitation.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in convective air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Daniel; Bosbach, Johannes; Wagner, Claus

    2014-03-01

    Thermal convective air flows are of great relevance in fundamental studies and technical applications such as heat exchangers or indoor ventilation. Since these kinds of flow are driven by temperature gradients, simultaneous measurements of instantaneous velocity and temperature fields are highly desirable. A possible solution is the combination of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle image thermography (PIT) using thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as tracer particles. While combined PIV and PIT is already state of the art for measurements in liquids, this is not yet the case for gas flows. In this study we address the adaptation of the measuring technique to gaseous fluids with respect to the generation of the tracer particles, the particle illumination and the image filtering process. Results of the simultaneous PIV/PIT stemming from application to a fluid system with continuous air exchange are presented. The measurements were conducted in a cuboidal convection sample with air in- and outlet at a Rayleigh number Ra ≈ 9.0 × 107. They prove the feasibility of the method by providing absolute and relative temperature accuracies of σT = 0.19 K and σΔT = 0.06 K, respectively. Further open issues that have to be addressed in order to mature the technique are identified.

  3. Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

  4. The variability of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface air temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface temperature anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air temperature at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface temperature at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface temperature variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures. Summer daytime temperature fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-temperature associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.

  5. Using Machine learning method to estimate Air Temperature from MODIS over Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzban, F.; Preusker, R.; Sodoudi, S.; Taheri, H.; Allahbakhshi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is defined as the temperature of the interface between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere and thus it is a critical variable to understand land-atmosphere interactions and a key parameter in meteorological and hydrological studies, which is involved in energy fluxes. Air temperature (Tair) is one of the most important input variables in different spatially distributed hydrological, ecological models. The estimation of near surface air temperature is useful for a wide range of applications. Some applications from traffic or energy management, require Tair data in high spatial and temporal resolution at two meters height above the ground (T2m), sometimes in near-real-time. Thus, a parameterization based on boundary layer physical principles was developed that determines the air temperature from remote sensing data (MODIS). Tair is commonly obtained from synoptic measurements in weather stations. However, the derivation of near surface air temperature from the LST derived from satellite is far from straight forward. T2m is not driven directly by the sun, but indirectly by LST, thus T2m can be parameterized from the LST and other variables such as Albedo, NDVI, Water vapor and etc. Most of the previous studies have focused on estimating T2m based on simple and advanced statistical approaches, Temperature-Vegetation index and energy-balance approaches but the main objective of this research is to explore the relationships between T2m and LST in Berlin by using Artificial intelligence method with the aim of studying key variables to allow us establishing suitable techniques to obtain Tair from satellite Products and ground data. Secondly, an attempt was explored to identify an individual mix of attributes that reveals a particular pattern to better understanding variation of T2m during day and nighttime over the different area of Berlin. For this reason, a three layer Feedforward neural networks is considered with LMA algorithm

  6. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sharovsky, R; César, L A M; Ramires, J A F

    2004-11-01

    An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure), air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate), and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6 degrees C. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05) for each 10 microg/m(3) increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  7. Development rates of two Xenopsylla flea species in relation to air temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, B R; Khokhlova, I S; Fielden, L J; Burdelova, N V

    2001-09-01

    The rate of development of immature fleas, Xenopsylla conformis Wagner and Xenopsylla ramesis Rothschild (Siphonaptera: Xenopsyllidae) was studied in the laboratory at 25 degrees C and 28 degrees C with 40, 55, 75 and 92% relative humidity (RH). These fleas are separately associated with the host jird Meriones crassus Sundevall in different microhabitats of the Ramon erosion cirque, Negev Highlands, Israel. This study of basic climatic factors in relation to flea bionomics provides the basis for ecological investigations to interpret reasons for paratopic local distributions of these two species of congeneric fleas on the same host. Both air temperature and RH were positively correlated with duration of egg and larval stages in both species. Change of humidity between egg and larval environments did not affect duration of larval development at any temperature. At each temperature and RH, the eggs and larvae of X. ramesis did not differ between males and females in the duration of their development, whereas female eggs and larvae of X. conformis usually developed significantly faster than those of males. For both species, male pupae developed slower than female pupae at the same air temperature and RH. Air temperature, but not RH, affected the duration of pupal development. At each humidity, duration of the pupal stage was significantly longer at 25 degrees C than at 28 degrees C: 15.3+/-1.7 vs. 11.7+/-1.2 days in X. conformis; 14.1+/-2.0 vs. 11.5+/-1.7 days in X. ramesis, with a significantly shorter pupal period of the latter species at 25 degrees C. These limited interspecific bionomic contrasts in relation to basic climatic factors appear insufficient to explain the differential habitat distributions of X. conformis and X. ramesis.

  8. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Observations of Cooling Summer Daytime Temperatures (1948-2005) in Growing Urban Coastal California Air Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June- August). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily maximum temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a 'reverse-reaction' to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. The coastal cooling thus resulted as urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would be even stronger. The cooling or warming trends at several pairs of nearby urban and non- urban sites were compared in an effort to separate out the urban heat island (UHI) and global warming components of the trend. Average temperatures from global circulation models show warming that decreases from inland areas of California to its coastal areas. Such large scale models, however, cannot resolve these smaller scale topographic and coastal effects. Meso-scale modeling on a 4 km grid is thus being carried out to evaluate the contributions from GHG global-warming and land-use changes, including UHI development, to the observed trends. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed reverse-reaction to GHG- warming; possible beneficial effects include decreased maximum: O3 levels, human thermal-stress, and per- capita energy requirements for cooling.

  10. An analysis of surface air temperature trends and variability along the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franquist, Eric S.

    Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine temperature trends in this region as rises in surface air temperature are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the temperatures increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air temperature from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler temperatures at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station temperatures were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station temperature trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of

  11. CubeSat evolution: Analyzing CubeSat capabilities for conducting science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Golkar, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the space industry produced large and sophisticated spacecraft handcrafted by large teams of engineers and budgets within the reach of only a few large government-backed institutions. However, over the last decade, the space industry experienced an increased interest towards smaller missions and recent advances in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology miniaturization spurred the development of small spacecraft missions based on the CubeSat standard. CubeSats were initially envisioned primarily as educational tools or low cost technology demonstration platforms that could be developed and launched within one or two years. Recently, however, more advanced CubeSat missions have been developed and proposed, indicating that CubeSats clearly started to transition from being solely educational and technology demonstration platforms to offer opportunities for low-cost real science missions with potential high value in terms of science return and commercial revenue. Despite the significant progress made in CubeSat research and development over the last decade, some fundamental questions still habitually arise about the CubeSat capabilities, limitations, and ultimately about their scientific and commercial value. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the state of the art CubeSat capabilities with a special focus on advanced scientific missions and a goal of assessing the potential of CubeSat platforms as capable spacecraft. A total of over 1200 launched and proposed missions have been analyzed from various sources including peer-reviewed journal publications, conference proceedings, mission webpages as well as other publicly available satellite databases and about 130 relatively high performance missions were downselected and categorized into six groups based on the primary mission objectives including "Earth Science and Spaceborne Applications", "Deep Space Exploration", "Heliophysics: Space Weather", "Astrophysics", "Spaceborne In Situ

  12. Achievements and Future Plan of Interplanetary CubeSats and Micro-Sats in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces Japanese achievements and future plans of CubeSats and Micro-Sats for deep space exploration. As the first step toward deep space mission by such tiny spacecraft, University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) developed the world's first deep space micro-spacecraft PROCYON (Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation). Its mission objective is to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. PROCYON was launched into the Earth departure trajectory on December 3, 2014 together with Japanese asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa-2. PROCYON successfully completed the bus system demonstration mission in its interplanetary flight. Currently, Japan is not only pursuing the improvement and utilization of the demonstrated micro-sat deep space bus system with a weight of tens of kg or more for more practical scientific deep space missions, but also trying to develop smaller spacecraft with a weight of less than tens of kg, namely CubeSats, for deep space exploration. We are proposing a self-contained 6U CubeSat mission for the rideshare opportunity on the USA's SLS EM-1 mission, which will fly to a libration orbit around Earth-Moon L2 point and perform scientific observations of the Earth and the Moon. We are also seeking the possibility of CubeSats which is carried by a larger spacecraft to the destination and supports the mission by taking advantage of its low-cost and risk-tolerable feature. As an example of such style of CubeSat missions, we are studying a CubeSat for close observations of an asteroid, which will be carried to the target asteroid by a larger mother spacecraft. This CubeSat is released from the mother spacecraft to make a close flyby for scientific observations, which is difficult to be performed by the mother spacecraft if we consider the risk of the collision to the target asteroid or dust particles ejected

  13. Measurement of OH density and gas temperature in incipient spark-ignited hydrogen-air flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2008-01-15

    To investigate the electrostatic ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures, the density of OH radicals and the gas temperature are measured in an incipient spark-ignited hydrogen-air flame using laser-induced predissociation fluorescence (LIPF). The assessment of the electrostatic hazard of hydrogen is necessary for developing hydrogen-based energy systems in which hydrogen is used in fuel cells. The spark discharge occurs across a 2-mm gap with pulse duration approximately 10 ns. First, a hydrogen (50%)-air mixture is ignited by spark discharge with E=1.35E{sub -}, where E is the spark energy and E{sub -} is the minimum ignition energy. In this mixture, OH density decreases after spark discharge. It is 3 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} at t=0{mu}s and 4 x 10{sup 15}cm{sup -3} at t=100{mu}s, where t is the postdischarge time. On the other hand, the gas temperature increases after spark discharge. It is 900 K at t=30{mu}s and 1400 K at t=200{mu}s. Next, a stoichiometric (hydrogen (30%)-air) mixture is ignited by spark discharge with E=1.25E{sub -}. In this mixture, OH density is approximately constant at 4 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} for 150 {mu}s after spark discharge, and the gas temperature increases from 1000 K (t=0{mu}s) to 1800 K (t=150{mu}s). (author)

  14. Seasonality of viral respiratory infections in southeast of Brazil: the influence of temperature and air humidity

    PubMed Central

    Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Marques Simas, Paulo Vitor; Salomão, João Batista; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Zanetta Trevisan, Dirce Maria; Cordeiro, José Antonio; Lacerda, Mauricio Nogueira; Rahal, Paula; de Souz, Fátima Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in childhood and the main viruses involved are Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV), Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV), Influenzavirus A and B (FLUA and FLUB), Human Parainfluenza Virus 1, 2 and 3 (HPIV1, 2 and 3) and Human Rhinovirus (HRV). The purposes of this study were to detect respiratory viruses in hospitalized children younger than six years and identify the influence of temperature and relative air humidity on the detected viruses. Samples of nasopharyngeal washes were collected from hospitalized children between May/2004 and September/2005. Methods of viral detection were RT-PCR, PCR and HRV amplicons were confirmed by hybridization. Results showed 54% (148/272) of viral positivity. HRSV was detected in 29% (79/272) of the samples; HRV in 23.1% (63/272); HPIV3 in 5.1% (14/272); HMPV in 3.3% (9/272); HPIV1 in 2.9% (8/272); FLUB in 1.4% (4/272), FLUA in 1.1% (3/272), and HPIV2 in 0.3% (1/272). The highest detection rates occurred mainly in the spring 2004 and in the autumn 2005. It was observed that viral respiratory infections tend to increase as the relative air humidity decreases, showing significant association with monthly averages of minimal temperature and minimal relative air humidity. In conclusion, viral respiratory infections vary according to temperature and relative air humidity and viral respiratory infections present major incidences it coldest and driest periods. PMID:24031808

  15. SAT2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structurally modified for increased thermostability.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katherine A; Kotecha, Abhay; Seago, Julian; Ren, Jingshan; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Maree, Francois F

    2017-03-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is notoriously unstable, particularly the O and SAT serotypes. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of poor duration immunity and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In-silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the inter-pentameric interface supporting increased stability. We assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant viruses for their growth kinetics; antigenicity; plaque morphology; genetic stability; temperature, ionic and pH stability using the thermofluor and inactivation assays, in order to evaluate potential SAT2 vaccine candidates with improved stability. The most stable mutation was the single mutant S2093Y for temperature and pH stability, whilst other promising single mutants were E3198A, L2094V,S2093H and the triple mutant F2062Y-H2087M-H3143V. Although the S2093Y mutant had the greatest stability it exhibited smaller plaques; a reduced growth rate; a change in a monoclonal antibody footprint, and poor genetic stability properties compared to the wild-type virus. However, these factors affecting production can be overcome. The addition of 1M NaCl salt was found to further increase the stability of the SAT2 panel of viruses. The S2093Y and S2093H mutants were selected for future use in stabilising SAT2 vaccines.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife. The control of the disease by vaccination is essential, especially at livestock-wildlife interfaces. The instability of serotypes such as SAT2 affects the quality of the vaccine and therefore the duration of immunity. We have shown that by mutating residues at the capsid interface through predictive modelling we can improve the stability of SAT2 viruses. This is an important finding for the potential use of such mutants in improving the

  16. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-03-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with an uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 (standard error) and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard-error uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the Global Positioning System, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that the new laser air-motion sensor, combined with parametrized fits to correction factors for the measured dynamic and ambient pressure, provides a measurement of temperature that is independent of any other temperature sensor.

  18. Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface air temperature cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev

    2013-01-01

    A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.

  19. [Effects of air temperature and soil moisture on flavonoids accumulation in Ginkgo biloba leaves].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Guo, Xu-Qin; Chang, Li; Cao, Fu-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Taking the 2-year old Ginkgo biloba seedlings as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber to study the effects of air temperature and soil moisture on the flavonoids accumulation in leaves. Three levels of air temperature (15/5 degrees C, 25/15 degrees C, and 35/25 degrees C day/night) and three levels of soil moisture (55%-60%, 40%-45%, and 30%-35% of field capacity) were installed, yielding nine temperature-soil moisture combinations. Under the three levels of soil moisture, the quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and total flavonoids contents in the leaves were higher at 15/5 degrees C than at 25/15 degrees C and 35/25 degrees C. Soil moisture had minor effects on the flavonoids accumulation. The leaf kaempferol content was the highest, followed by quercetin and isorhamnetin. The total flavonoids yield per plant at 35/25 degrees C was higher than that at 15/5 degrees C and 25/15 degrees C. It was suggested that to adopt appropriate soil covering and watering before harvesting to decrease the ambient temperature could benefit the enhancement of leaf flavonoids content and the improvement of per unit area flavonoids production in G. biloba leaf-harvesting plantation.

  20. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old mallards and a standard operative temperature scale.

    PubMed

    Bakken, G S; Reynolds, P S; Kenow, K P; Korschgen, C E; Boysen, A F

    1999-01-01

    Most duckling mortality occurs during the week following hatching and is often associated with cold, windy, wet weather and scattering of the brood. We estimated the thermoregulatory demands imposed by cold, windy weather on isolated 1-d-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings resting in cover. We measured O2 consumption and evaporative water loss at air temperatures from 5 degrees to 25 degrees C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 m/s. Metabolic heat production increased as wind increased or temperature decreased but was less sensitive to wind than that of either adult passerines or small mammals. Evaporative heat loss ranged from 5% to 17% of heat production. Evaporative heat loss and the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production was significantly lower in rest phase. These data were used to define a standard operative temperature (Tes) scale for night or heavy overcast conditions. An increase of wind speed from 0.1 to 1 m/s decreased Tes by 3 degrees -5 degrees C.

  1. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old mallards and a standard operative temperature scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Most duckling mortality occurs during the week following hatching and is often associated with cold, windy, wet weather and scattering of the brood. We estimated the thermoregulatory demands imposed by cold, windy weather on isolated 1-d-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings resting in cover. We measured O-2 consumption and evaporative water loss at air temperatures from 5 degrees to 25 degrees C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mis. Metabolic heat production increased as wind increased or temperature decreased but was less sensitive to wind than that of either adult passerines or small mammals. Evaporative heat loss ranged from 5% to 17% of heat production. Evaporative heal loss and the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production was significantly lower in rest phase. These data were used to define a standard operative temperature (T-es) scale for night or heavy overcast conditions. An increase of wind speed from 0.1 to 1 mis decreased T-es by 3 degrees-5 degrees C.

  2. Impact of autumn SST in the Japan Sea on winter rainfall and air temperature in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Sun, Jilin; Wu, Dexing; Yi, Li; Wei, Dongni

    2015-08-01

    We studied the impact of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the Japan Sea and the sea area east of Japan on the winter rainfall and air temperature in Northeast (NE) China using the singular value decomposition (SVD) and empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The monthly-mean rainfall data observed at 160 stations in China, monthly-mean sea surface temperature (SST) of the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research and monthly-mean air temperature from the NCEP reanalysis during 1960-2011 were used. Correlation analysis indicates that the SSTAs in the Japan Sea in September may last for three or four months and are an important index for forecasting the winter rainfall and air temperature in NE China. Positive SSTAs in the central Japan Sea and in the sea area east of Tokyo correspond to positive rainfall anomaly and negative air temperature anomaly in NE China. With the rise of SST in the Japan Sea, a weak cyclone appears over the Japan Sea. The northeasterly wind transports water vapor from the Okhotsk to NE China, resulting in more rainfall and lower air temperature. Negative SSTA years are accompanied by warmer air temperature and less snow in NE China. The 1000 hPa geopotential height anomaly and wind anomaly fields are simulated by IAP-9L model, which supports the analysis results.

  3. Measurement approach and design of the CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Rider, David; Rud, Mayer; Ting, David; Yee, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) will measure upwelling infrared radiation of the Earth in the MWIR region of the spectrum from space on a CubeSat. The observed radiances have information of potential value to weather forecasting agencies and can be used to retrieve lower tropospheric temperature and water vapor globally for weather and climate science investigations. Multiple units can be flown to improve temporal coverage or in formation to provide new data products including 3D atmospheric motion vector winds. CIRAS incorporates key new instrument technologies including a 2D array of High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector (HOT-BIRD) material, selected for its high uniformity, low cost, low noise and higher operating temperatures than traditional materials. The detectors are hybridized to a commercial ROIC and commercial camera electronics. The second key technology is an MWIR Grating Spectrometer (MGS) designed to provide imaging spectroscopy for atmospheric sounding in a CubeSat volume. The MGS has no moving parts and includes an immersion grating to reduce the volume and reduce distortion. The third key technology is an infrared blackbody fabricated with black silicon to have very high emissivity in a flat plate construction. JPL will also develop the mechanical, electronic and thermal subsystems for CIRAS, while the spacecraft will be a commercially available CubeSat. The integrated system will be a complete 6U CubeSat capable of measuring temperature and water vapor profiles with good lower tropospheric sensitivity. The CIRAS is the first step towards the development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite Infrared (EON-IR) capable of operational readiness to mitigate a potential loss of CrIS on JPSS or complement the current observing system with different orbit crossing times.

  4. Simulation and projection of summer surface air temperature over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface air temperature changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The air temperature indices used in this study included tmx (daily maximum temperature), t2m (daily average temperature) and tmn (daily minimum temperature), and extreme high-temperature events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (warm days) and WSDI (warm spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface air temperature and extreme high-temperature events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface air temperature were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface air temperature over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three temperature indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-temperature events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface air temperature; Extreme high-temperature events; Regional climate model; Climate change

  5. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind,Joel

    2009-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used by the AIRS Science Team in preparation for the AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both

  6. Use of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Soundings to Improve Forecast Skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. Also included are the clear column radiances used to derive these products which are representative of the radiances AIRS would have seen if there were no clouds in the field of view. All products also have error estimates. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 90 percent effective cloud cover. The products are designed for data assimilation purposes for the improvement of numerical weather prediction, as well as for the study of climate and meteorological processes. With regard to data assimilation, one can use either the products themselves or the clear column radiances from which the products were derived. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates for retrieved quantities and clear column radiances, and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. The temperature profile error estimates are used to determine a case-by-case characteristic pressure pbest, down to which the profile is considered acceptable for data assimilation purposes. The characteristic pressure p(sub best) is determined by comparing the case dependent error estimate (delta)T(p) to the threshold values (Delta)T(p). The AIRS Version 5 data set provides error estimates of T(p) at all levels, and also profile dependent values of pbest based

  7. Temperature lapse rates at restricted thermodynamic equilibrium. Part II: Saturated air and further discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnbom, Pehr

    2016-03-01

    In the first part of this work equilibrium temperature profiles in fluid columns with ideal gas or ideal liquid were obtained by numerically minimizing the column energy at constant entropy, equivalent to maximizing column entropy at constant energy. A minimum in internal plus potential energy for an isothermal temperature profile was obtained in line with Gibbs' classical equilibrium criterion. However, a minimum in internal energy alone for adiabatic temperature profiles was also obtained. This led to a hypothesis that the adiabatic lapse rate corresponds to a restricted equilibrium state, a type of state in fact discussed already by Gibbs. In this paper similar numerical results for a fluid column with saturated air suggest that also the saturated adiabatic lapse rate corresponds to a restricted equilibrium state. The proposed hypothesis is further discussed and amended based on the previous and the present numerical results and a theoretical analysis based on Gibbs' equilibrium theory.

  8. Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehe, C. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Davidson, K. L.; Rogers, D. P.; Large, W. G.; Stage, S. A.; Crescenti, G. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Greenhut, G. K.; Li, F.

    1991-01-01

    The observed effects of sharp changes in sea surface temperature (SST) on the air-sea fluxes, surface roughness, and the turbulence structure in the surface layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In situ flux and turbulence observations were carried out from three aircraft and two ships within the FASINEX framework. Three other aircraft used remote sensors to measure waves, microwave backscatter, and lidar signatures of cloud tops. Descriptions of the techniques, intercomparison of aircraft and ship flux data, and use of different methods for analyzing the fluxes from the aircraft data are described. Changing synoptic weather on three successive days yielded cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface temperature front. For the wind perpendicular to the front, wind over both cold-to-warm and warm-to-cold surface temperatures occurred. Model results consistent with the observations suggest that an internal boundary layer forms at the SST.

  9. BOREAS TE-6 1994 Soil and Air Temperatures in the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Norman, John; Wilson, Tim

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-6 team collected several data sets to examine the influence of vegetation, climate, and their interactions on the major carbon fluxes for boreal forest species. This data set contains measurements of the air temperature at a single height and soil temperature at several depths in the NSA from 25-May to 08-Oct- 1994. Chromel-Constantan thermocouple wires run by a miniprogrammable data logger (Model 21X, Campbell Scientific, Inc., Logan, UT) provided direct measurements of temperature. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Two decades of temperature-time monitoring experiment: air - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Long-term observations (1994-2013) of air and shallow ground temperatures at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-air temperature offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a daily scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, air & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).

  11. Outdoor air temperature and mortality in The Netherlands: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Kunst, A E; Looman, C W; Mackenbach, J P

    1993-02-01

    Death rates become progressively higher when outdoor air temperature rises above or falls below 20-25 degrees C. This study addresses the question of whether this relation is largely attributable to the direct effects of exposure to heat and cold on the human body in general, and on the circulatory system in particular. The association between daily mortality and daily temperatures in the Netherlands in the period 1979-1987 was examined by controlling for influenza incidence, air pollution, and "season"; distinguishing lag periods; examining effect modification by wind speed and relative humidity; and distinguishing causes of death. Important direct effects of exposure to cold and heat on mortality were suggested by the following findings: 1) control for influenza incidence reduced cold-related mortality by only 34% and reduced heat-related mortality by 23% (the role of air pollution and "season" was negligible); 2) 62% of the "unexplained" cold-related mortality, and all heat-related mortality, occurred within 1 week; and 3) effect modification by wind speed was in the expected direction. The finding that 57% of "unexplained" cold-related mortality and 26% of the "unexplained" heat-related mortality was attributable to cardiovascular diseases suggests that direct effects are only in part the result of increased stress on the circulatory system. For heat-related mortality, direct effects on the respiratory system are probably more important. For cold-related mortality, the analysis yielded evidence of an important indirect effect involving increased incidence of influenza and other respiratory infections.

  12. Solar Cycle and Anthropogenic Forcing of Surface-Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of 10-yr moving average (yma) values of Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface-air temperatures with selected solar cycle indices (sunspot number (SSN) and the Aa geomagnetic index (Aa)), sea-surface temperatures in the Nino 3.4 region, and Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) (MLCO2) atmospheric concentration measurements reveals a strong correlation (r = 0.686) between the Armagh temperatures and Aa, especially, prior to about 1980 (r = 0.762 over the interval of 1873-1980). For the more recent interval 1963-2003, the strongest correlation (r = 0.877) is between Armagh temperatures and MLCO2 measurements. A bivariate fit using both Aa and Mauna Loa values results in a very strong fit (r = 0.948) for the interval 1963-2003, and a trivariate fit using Aa, SSN, and Mauna Loa values results in a slightly stronger fit (r = 0.952). Atmospheric CO2 concentration now appears to be the stronger driver of Armagh surface-air temperatures. An increase of 2 C above the long-term mean (9.2 C) at Armagh seems inevitable unless unabated increases in anthropogenic atmospheric gases can be curtailed. The present growth in 10-yma Armagh temperatures is about 0.05 C per yr since 1982. The present growth in MLCO2 is about 0.002 ppmv, based on an exponential fit using 10-yma values, although the growth appears to be steepening, thus, increasing the likelihood of deleterious effects attributed to global warming.

  13. Long-term dynamics of atmospheric circulation over Siberia and its relationship with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podnebesnykh, N. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study is the investigation of cyclone characteristics variability in the region bounded by the coordinates 50°-70° N, 60°-110° W which includes Western Siberia and the part of Eastern Siberia for the time interval 1976-2006, as well as the establishment of statistical relationships between the temperature conditions and the atmospheric circulation. For the dynamics of the climatic characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones over Siberia surface synoptic maps were used, and to study the trends of air temperature daily data from 169 ground-based meteorological stations and posts located in the study area were analyzed. During the period of the modern warming the territory of Siberia was characterized by rapidly temperature increase: average annual value was 0.36°C/10 years, and average monthly value was 0.83°C/10 years. The positive trend of temperature increasing is shown for all months except November. The total number of cyclones over the territory of under study for the period of 1976-2006 has decreased at a rate of 1.4 cyclone/10 years. For further analysis all cyclones were divided into three groups, according to their directions: north, west and south. It was found the number of south and west cyclones decreased, whole the number of cyclone from north directions increased. Such multidirectional dynamics of cyclones from different directions can be associated with the processes of strengthening and weakening of the Polar and Arctic fronts in the Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. Among characteristics of vortex activity the pressure in the centers of cyclones and anticyclones has the greatest influence on the air temperature and the total number of cyclones has the smallest. Multiple regression models have shown that in different months of a year the circulation can describe from 54% to 82% of temperature variability.

  14. Experiments on the transition from the steady to the oscillatory marangoni convection of a floating-zone under various cold wall temperatures and various ambient air temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selver, Ramazan

    2005-12-01

    The transition from the steady to the oscillatory Marangoni convection of a floating-zone under various cold wall temperatures and various ambient air temperature effects have been investigated experimentally by heating the sample from above (opposite direction of Marangoni convection and buoyant forces). The heat transfer takes place mainly through conduction as well as the natural convection of the air around the cylindrical liquid bridge. The ambient airflow in the present work is varied by varying the cold wall temperature and ambient air temperature. In this study, the transition from the steady to the oscillatory Marangoni convection flow of a high Prandtl number fluid in a floating half-zone is visualized by means of the already proven method of the "light-cut-technique". The test fluid zone is held in ambient air at +4 °C, +10 °C, +16 °C, +23 °C, and +28 °C. The onset of oscillations, the oscillation level, and oscillation pattern are investigated under various conditions. It is found that the critical temperature difference (ΔTCr) varies substantially when the cold wall temperature and the ambient air temperature are varied.

  15. Simulation of air and ground temperatures in PMIP3/CMIP5 last millennium simulations: implications for climate reconstructions from borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Cuesta-Valero, F. J.; Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2016-04-01

    For climate models to simulate the continental energy storage of the Earth’s energy budget they must capture the processes that partition energy across the land-atmosphere boundary. We evaluate herein the thermal consequences of these processes as simulated by models in the third phase of the paleoclimate modelling intercomparison project and the fifth phase of the coupled model intercomparison project (PMIP3/CMIP5). We examine air and ground temperature tracking at decadal and centennial time-scales within PMIP3 last-millennium simulations concatenated to historical simulations from the CMIP5 archive. We find a strong coupling between air and ground temperatures during the summer from 850 to 2005 CE. During the winter, the insulating effect of snow and latent heat exchanges produce a decoupling between the two temperatures in the northern high latitudes. Additionally, we use the simulated ground surface temperatures as an upper boundary condition to drive a one-dimensional conductive model in order to derive synthetic temperature-depth profiles for each PMIP3/CMIP5 simulation. Inversion of these subsurface profiles yields temperature trends that retain the low-frequency variations in surface air temperatures over the last millennium for all the PMIP3/CMIP5 simulations regardless of the presence of seasonal decoupling in the simulations. These results demonstrate the robustness of surface temperature reconstructions from terrestrial borehole data and their interpretation as indicators of past surface air temperature trends and continental energy storage.

  16. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  17. Relationship between alpine tourism demand and hot summer air temperatures associated with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebetez, M.; Serquet, G.

    2010-09-01

    We quantified the impacts of hot summer air temperatures on tourism in the Swiss Alps by analyzing the relationship between temperature and overnight stays in 40 Alpine resorts. Several temperature and insolation thresholds were tested to detect their relationship to summer tourism. Our results reveal significant correlations between the number of nights spent in mountain resorts and hot temperatures at lower elevations. Alpine resorts nearest to cities are most sensitive to hot temperatures. This is probably because reactions to hot episodes take place on a short-term basis as heat waves remain relatively rare. The correlation in June is stronger compared to the other months, probably because school holiday