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Sample records for air temperature significantly

  1. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2016-04-01

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (Tm) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depends on the calculation methods of Tm. Existing global analyses calculated Tm from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using Tm calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  2. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-01-01

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2. PMID:26198976

  3. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-07-22

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  4. Significance of High-Speed Air Temperature Measurements in the Sampling Cell of a Closed-Path Gas Analyzer with a Short Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathilankal, James; Fratini, Gerardo; Burba, George

    2015-04-01

    Eddy covariance gas analyzers measure gas content in a known volume, thus essentially measuring gas density. The fundamental flux equation, however, is based on the dry mole fraction. The relationship between dry mole fraction and density is regulated by the ideal gas law describing the processes of temperature- and pressure-related expansions and contractions, and by the law of partial pressures, describing the process of dilution. As a result, this relationship depends on water vapor content, temperature and pressure of the air sample. If the instrument is able to output precise high-speed dry mole fraction, the flux processing is significantly simplified and WPL density terms accounting for the air density fluctuations are no longer required. This should also lead to the reduction in uncertainties associated with the density terms resulting from the eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes used in these terms. In this framework, three main measurement approaches may be considered: Open-path approach Outputting correct high-speed dry mole fraction from the open-path instrument is difficult because of complexities with maintaining reliable fast temperature measurements integrated over the entire measuring path, and also because of extraordinary challenges with accurate measurements of fast pressure in the open air flow. Classical long-tube closed-path approach For instruments utilizing traditional long-tube closed-path design, with tube length 1000 or more times the tube diameter, the fast dry mole fraction can be used successfully when instantaneous fluctuations in the air temperature of the sampled air are effectively dampened to negligible levels, instantaneous pressure fluctuations are regulated or negligible, and water vapor is measured simultaneously with gas or the air sample is dried. Short-tube closed-path approach, the enclosed design For instruments with a short-tube enclosed design, most - but not all - of the temperature

  5. No significant increase in long-term CH4 emissions on North Slope of Alaska despite significant increase in air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Colm; Dlugokencky, Edward; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven; Karion, Anna; Dinardo, Steve; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, John B.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crotwell, Andrew M.; Newberger, Tim; McKain, Kathryn; Stone, Robert S.; Wolter, Sonja E.; Lang, Patricia E.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-06-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4) mole fractions measured by NOAA's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network in Barrow, AK (BRW), show strong enhancements above background values when winds come from the land sector from July to December from 1986 to 2015, indicating that emissions from arctic tundra continue through autumn and into early winter. Twenty-nine years of measurements show little change in seasonal mean land sector CH4 enhancements, despite an increase in annual mean temperatures of 1.2 ± 0.8°C/decade (2σ). The record does reveal small increases in CH4 enhancements in November and December after 2010 due to increased late-season emissions. The lack of significant long-term trends suggests that more complex biogeochemical processes are counteracting the observed short-term (monthly) temperature sensitivity of 5.0 ± 3.6 ppb CH4/°C. Our results suggest that even the observed short-term temperature sensitivity from the Arctic will have little impact on the global atmospheric CH4 budget in the long term if future trajectories evolve with the same temperature sensitivity.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  19. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  20. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  4. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections...

  12. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Comparison of Air Temperature Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, M.; Anagnostou, M.; Bartolo, J.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Bergerud, R. A.; Bojkovski, J.; Böse, N.; Dinu, C.; Smorgon, D.; Flakiewicz, K.; Martin, M. J.; Nedialkov, S.; Nielsen, M. B.; Oğuz Aytekin, S.; Otych, J.; Pedersen, M.; Rujan, M.; Testa, N.; Turzó-András, E.; Vilbaste, M.; White, M.

    2014-07-01

    European national metrology institutes use calibration systems of various types for calibrating thermometers in air. These were compared to each other for the first time in a project organized by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). This EURAMET P1061 comparison project had two main objectives: (1) to study the equivalence of calibrations performed by different laboratories and (2) to investigate correlations between calibration methods and achievable uncertainties. The comparison was realized using a pair of 100 platinum resistance thermometer probes connected to a digital thermometer bridge as the transfer standard. The probes had different dimensions and surface properties. The measurements covered the temperature range between and , but each laboratory chose a subrange most relevant to its scope and performed measurements at five nominal temperature points covering the subrange. To enable comparison between the laboratories, comparison reference functions were determined using weighted least-squares fitting. Various effects related to variations in heat transfer conditions were demonstrated but clear correlations to specific characteristics of calibration system were not identified. Calibrations in air and liquid agreed typically within at and . Expanded uncertainties determined by the participants ranged from to and they were shown to be realistic in most cases.

  4. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  6. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality rules identified in paragraph (a) of this section, and the Lane Regional Air Pollution...

  9. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  11. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  12. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  13. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  14. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  15. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  16. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  17. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  1. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  2. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  5. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  6. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  7. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2922 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2922 Section 52.2922 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Northern Mariana Islands § 52.2922 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of... procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  20. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  7. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  9. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  11. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  15. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  17. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  20. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  2. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  8. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  9. TRP channels and temperature in airway disease-clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Temperatures above and below what is generally regarded as "comfortable" for the human being have long been known to induce various airway symptoms, especially in combination with exercise in cold climate with temperatures below 0°C, which is naturally since exercise is followed by enhanced ventilation and thus greater amounts of inhaled cold air. The aim was to highlight the knowledge we have today on symptoms from the airways (here also including the eyes) arisen from various temperatures; the mechanisms, the pathophysiology and their clinical significance. The most common eye and airway conditions related to temperature changes are dry eye disease, rhinitis, laryngeal dysfunction, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic cough. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are probably involved in all temperature induced airway symptoms but via different pathways, which are now beginning to be mapped out. In asthma, the most persuasive hypothesis today is that cold-induced asthmatic bronchoconstriction is induced by dehydration of the airway mucosa, from which it follows that provocations with osmotic stimuli like hypertonic saline and mannitol can be used as a surrogate for exercise provocation as well as dry air inhalation. In chronic unexplained cough there seems to be a direct influence of cold air on the TRP ion channels followed by coughing and increased cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. Revelations in the last decades of the ability of several airway TRP ion channels to sense and react to ambient air temperature have opened new windows for the understanding of the pathogenesis in a diversity of airway reactions appearing in many common respiratory diseases. PMID:27227021

  10. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  11. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  12. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2303 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the...) December 11, 1985 (as adopted by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) on July 26, 1985). (ii) October...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2303 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the...) December 11, 1985 (as adopted by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) on July 26, 1985). (ii) October...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2303 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the...) December 11, 1985 (as adopted by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) on July 26, 1985). (ii) October...

  15. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  16. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  17. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  18. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Free Fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-02-01

    In introductory physics laboratories, students who experiment with freely falling objects frequently attribute any error in their experimental results to the presence of air resistance. It is, therefore, important to realize when and at what point during a free fall air resistance begins to play a significant role in the motion of the falling object. In this paper we address this question, and we show that blaming air resistance for errors in free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories is almost never justified.

  19. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  4. Influence of temperature changes on ambient air NOx chemiluminescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, Marta Doval; Ferradás, Enrique González; Martínez, Francisco J Marzal

    2012-09-01

    Users of automatic air pollution monitors are largely unaware of how certain parameters, like temperature, can affect readings. The present work examines the influence of temperature changes on chemiluminescence NO(x) measurements made with a Thermo Scientific 42i analyzer, a model widely used in air monitoring networks and air pollution studies. These changes are grouped into two categories according to European Standard EN 14211: (1) changes in the air surrounding the analyzers and (2) changes in the sampled air. First, the sensitivity tests described in Standard EN 14211 were performed to determine whether the analyzer performance was adapted to the requirements of the standard. The analyzer met the performance criteria of both tests; however, some differences were detected in readings with temperature changes even though the temperature compensator was on. Sample temperature changes were studied more deeply as they were the most critical (they cannot be controlled and differences of several tens of degrees can be present in a single day). Significant differences in readings were obtained when changing sample temperature; however, maximum deviations were around 3% for temperature ranges of 15°C. If other possible uncertainty contributions are controlled and temperature variations with respect to the calibration temperature are not higher than 15°C, the effect of temperature changes could be acceptable and no data correction should have to be applied. PMID:21964932

  5. Lessons Learned from AIRS: Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of shortwave channels available to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to improve the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. The AIRS instrument is compared with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board the MetOp-A satellite. The objectives of the AIRS/AMSU were to (1) provide real time observations to improve numerical weather prediction via data assimilation, (2) Provide observations to measure and explain interannual variability and trends and (3) Use of AIRS product error estimates allows for QC optimized for each application. Successive versions in the AIRS retrieval methodology have shown significant improvement.

  6. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  7. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.530 Significant... incorporated into this chapter, for power plants subject to the Florida Power Plant Siting Act. (b) Pursuant to part C, subpart 1 of the Clean Air Act, EPA is approving a December 19, 2013 SIP revision submitted...

  8. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environmental Management, 105 South Meridian Street, P.O. Box 6015, Indianapolis, IN 46206. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  9. Heliotropic leaf movements in common beans controlled by air temperature.

    PubMed

    Fu, Q A; Ehleringer, J R

    1989-11-01

    Heliotropic leaf movements were examined in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv Blue Lake Bush) under outdoor and laboratory conditions. Heliotropic leaf movements in well-watered plants were partly controlled by temperature, and appeared to be independent of atmospheric humidity and CO(2) concentration. When environmental conditions were held constant in the laboratory, increased air temperature caused bean leaves to orient more obliquely to a light source. Ambient CO(2), intercellular CO(2), and net photosynthesis were not correlated with the temperature-induced changes in heliotropic movements, nor did they significantly affect these movements directly. The effect of air temperature on leaf movements need not be mediated through a change in leaf water potential, transpiration, or leaf conductance. Air temperature modified laminar orientation in light through its effect on tissue temperature in the pulvinal region, not that of the lamina or petiole. However, under darkness the temperature effects on leaf movements were not expressed. Active heliotropic movements in response to air temperature allowed lamina temperature to remain close to the thermal optimum of photosynthesis. This temperature effect underlies a commonly observed pattern of leaf movements under well-watered conditions: a tendency for leaves to face the sun more obliquely on hot days than cool days. PMID:16667127

  10. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  11. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  14. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  15. Urban soil moisture affecting local air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Sarah; Ament, Felix; Eschenbach, Annette

    2015-04-01

    of urban land use is not found to be definite. Air temperature (Ta) anomalies of the suburban sites from the inner city site are analysed for several periods and seasons. During daytime a significant annual mean deviation is observed above unsealed, vegetated surfaces from a sealed site during selected relevant days. Remarkably, about a fifth of the variance of the diurnal Ta span, i.e. increase of Ta during the day, is found to be explained by normalized Θ for selected meteorological situations. In this contribution this observed relation between topsoil moisture and air temperature increase during daytime at suburban sites will be presented after describing the local conditions and soil hydrological heterogeneities at the observed urban sites.

  16. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  17. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  18. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The AIRS temperature profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of AIRS temperature profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of AIRS data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature soundings performs better than assimilation of AIRS observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of AIRS temperature profile performs best

  19. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for...

  20. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  1. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501

  2. Trends in Surface Temperature from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land temperature but not for the ocean temperature. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Temperature gradients and clear-air turbulence probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, M. A.; Panofsky, H. A.; Peslen, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    In order to forecast clear-air turbulence (CAT) in jet aircraft flights, a study was conducted in which the data from a special-purpose instrument aboard a Boeing 747 jet airliner were compared with satellite-derived radiance gradients, conventional temperature gradients from analyzed maps, and temperature gradients obtained from a total air temperature sensor on the plane. The advantage of making use of satellite-derived data is that they are available worldwide without the need for radiosonde observations, which are scarce in many parts of the world. Major conclusions are that CAT probabilities are significantly higher over mountains than flat terrain, and that satellite radiance gradients appear to discriminate between CAT and no CAT better than conventional temperature gradients over flat lands, whereas the reverse is true over mountains, the differences between the two techniques being not large over mountains.

  4. Geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A.; Randall, C. E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Rozanov, E.; Rodger, C. J.

    2009-10-01

    Here we use the ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature data sets from 1957 to 2006 to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the A p index. Previous modeling work has suggested that NO x produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in surface air temperatures (SATs). We find that during winter months, polar SATs in years with high A p index are different than in years with low A p index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, depending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are excluded. We take into account solar irradiance variations, unlike previous analyses of geomagnetic effects in ERA-40 and operational data. Although we cannot conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating wintertime surface air temperatures. We tested our SAT results against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode, and we cannot robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature variability and geomagnetic activity.

  5. Significant Advances in the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. The Goddard DISC has analyzed AIRS/AMSU observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, using the AIRS Science Team Version-S retrieval algorithm. These products have been used by many researchers to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval, which will become operation in mid-20l2, contains many significant theoretical and practical improvements compared to Version-5 which should further enhance the utility of AIRS products for both climate and weather applications. In particular, major changes have been made with regard to the algOrithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the retrieval procedure; 3) compute Outgoing Longwave Radiation; and 4) determine Quality Control. This paper will describe these advances found in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm and demonstrate the improvement of AIRS Version-6 products compared to those obtained using Version-5,

  6. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  7. Historical changes in air temperature are evident in temperature fluxes measured in the sub-soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Fiona; McCormick, Benjamin; Hallett, Paul; Wookey, Philip; Hopkins, David

    2013-04-01

    Warming trends in soil temperature have implications for a plethora of soil processes, including exacerbated climate change through the net release of greenhouse gases. Whereas long-term datasets of air temperature changes are abundant, a search of scientific literature reveals a lack of information on soil temperature changes and their specific consequences. We analysed five long-term data series collected in the UK (Dundee and Armagh) and Canada (Charlottetown, Ottawa and Swift Current). They show that the temperatures of soils at 5 - 20 cm depth, and sub-soils at 30 - 150 cm depth, increased in line with air temperature changes over the period 1958 - 2003. Differences were found, however, between soil and air temperatures when data were sub-divided into seasons. In spring, soil temperature warming ranged from 0.19°C at 30 cm in Armagh to 4.30°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. In summer, however, the difference was smaller and ranged from 0.21°C at 10 cm in Ottawa to 3.70°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. Winter temperatures were warmer in soil and ranged from 0.45°C at 5 cm in Charlottetown to 3.76°C at 150 cm in Charlottetown. There were significant trends in changes to soil temperature over time, whereas air temperature trends tended only to be significant in winter (changes range from 1.27°C in Armagh to 3.35°C in Swift Current). Differences in the seasonal warming patterns between air and soil temperatures have potential implications for the parameterization of models of biogeochemical cycling.

  8. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  9. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  11. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  12. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  13. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air temperature control for each engine....

  15. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  16. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  17. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  18. An empirical technique for estimating near-surface air temperature trends in central Greenland from SSM/I brightness temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, C.A.; Alley, R.B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Stearns, C.R.

    1995-02-01

    In central Greenland, near-surface air temperatures can be estimated from long-term satellite passive microwave brightness temperatures supported by limited air-temperature data from automatic weather stations. In this region, brightness temperature depends on snow emissivity, which varies slowly over time, and on snow temperature, which varies more rapidly and is controlled by air temperature. The air temperature and brightness temperature data define an emissivity trend which can be modeled as an annual sinusoid. An air temperature trend can then be derived from the brightness temperature and modeled emissivity information. The estimated air temperature values represent an integrated near-surface value that defines the overall temperature trend at the Greenland Summit. The modeled emissivity cycle allows daily-average air temperatures to be estimated across significant gaps in weather station records, as well as quality control of their temperature data. The technique also generates annual trends of emissivity which can be used to evaluate radiative transfer models of microwave emissivity from dry firn.

  19. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The State of Colorado has clarified the generalized language contained in the Colorado Air Quality... PSD permits reviewed by the Division will use the revised modeling guideline mentioned above for... for reviewing modeling for PSD permits....

  20. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The State of Colorado has clarified the generalized language contained in the Colorado Air Quality... PSD permits reviewed by the Division will use the revised modeling guideline mentioned above for... for reviewing modeling for PSD permits....

  1. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  2. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor air temperature controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air temperature controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls. There must be a separate carburetor air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... greenhouse gases in the pollutant GHGs, by the gas's associated global warming potential published at Table A-1 to subpart A of 40 CFR part 98—Global Warming Potentials. (B) Sum the resultant value from... greenhouse gas shall mean the air pollutant defined in 40 CFR 86.1818-12(a) as the aggregate group of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... greenhouse gases in the pollutant GHGs, by the gas's associated global warming potential published at Table A-1 to subpart A of 40 CFR part 98—Global Warming Potentials. (B) Sum the resultant value from... greenhouse gas shall mean the air pollutant defined in 40 CFR 86.1818-12(a) as the aggregate group of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... greenhouse gases in the pollutant GHGs, by the gas's associated global warming potential published at Table A-1 to subpart A of 40 CFR part 98—Global Warming Potentials. (B) Sum the resultant value from... greenhouse gas shall mean the air pollutant defined in 40 CFR 86.1818-12(a) as the aggregate group of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... greenhouse gases in the pollutant GHGs, by the gas's associated global warming potential published at Table A-1 to subpart A of 40 CFR part 98—Global Warming Potentials. (B) Sum the resultant value from... greenhouse gas shall mean the air pollutant defined in 40 CFR 86.1818-12(a) as the aggregate group of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... under § 52.21 and which would either have stacks taller than 65 meters or would use “dispersion... than 65 meters or would use “dispersion techniques” as defined in § 51.1. (iii) Sources for which...

  17. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation” in 40 CFR 52.21(b)(49) for the purpose of greenhouse gases only. (b) The requirements of sections... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The introductory paragraph to 18 AAC 50.040(h) as in effect on December 9, 2010...

  18. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulation” in 40 CFR 52.21(b)(49) for the purpose of greenhouse gases only. (b) The requirements of sections... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The introductory paragraph to 18 AAC 50.040(h) as in effect on December 9, 2010...

  19. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The following regulations as in effect on April 1, 2010, are also approved as... with respect to the incorporation by reference of 40 CFR part 50, Appendix P; 18 AAC...

  20. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The following regulations as in effect on April 1, 2010, are also approved as... with respect to the incorporation by reference of 40 CFR part 50, Appendix P; 18 AAC...

  1. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  2. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  3. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  4. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  5. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  6. Brief anesthesia, but not voluntary locomotion, significantly alters cortical temperature

    PubMed Central

    Shirey, Michael J.; Kudlik, D'Anne E.; Huo, Bing-Xing; Greene, Stephanie E.; Drew, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in brain temperature can alter electrical properties of neurons and cause changes in behavior. However, it is not well understood how behaviors, like locomotion, or experimental manipulations, like anesthesia, alter brain temperature. We implanted thermocouples in sensorimotor cortex of mice to understand how cortical temperature was affected by locomotion, as well as by brief and prolonged anesthesia. Voluntary locomotion induced small (∼0.1°C) but reliable increases in cortical temperature that could be described using a linear convolution model. In contrast, brief (90-s) exposure to isoflurane anesthesia depressed cortical temperature by ∼2°C, which lasted for up to 30 min after the cessation of anesthesia. Cortical temperature decreases were not accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the γ-band local field potential power, multiunit firing rate, or locomotion behavior, which all returned to baseline within a few minutes after the cessation of anesthesia. In anesthetized animals where core body temperature was kept constant, cortical temperature was still >1°C lower than in the awake animal. Thermocouples implanted in the subcortex showed similar temperature changes under anesthesia, suggesting these responses occur throughout the brain. Two-photon microscopy of individual blood vessel dynamics following brief isoflurane exposure revealed a large increase in vessel diameter that ceased before the brain temperature significantly decreased, indicating cerebral heat loss was not due to increased cerebral blood vessel dilation. These data should be considered in experimental designs recording in anesthetized preparations, computational models relating temperature and neural activity, and awake-behaving methods that require brief anesthesia before experimental procedures. PMID:25972579

  7. Linking geomagnetic activity and polar surface air temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppala, Annika

    ERA-40 and ECMWF operational surface level air temperature (SAT) data sets from 1957 to 2006 were used to examine polar temperature variations during years with different levels of geomagnetic activity, as defined by the Ap index. Previous modelling work has suggested that NOx produced at high latitudes by energetic particle precipitation can eventually lead to detectable changes in polar SATs. We find that during winter months, ERA-40 and ECMWF polar SATs in years with high Ap index are different than in years with low Ap index; the differences are statistically significant at the 2-sigma level and range up to about ±4.5 K, de-pending on location. The temperature differences are larger when years with wintertime Sudden Stratospheric Warmings are excluded. Solar irradiance variations were taken into account in the analysis. Although using the re-analysis and operational data sets it was not possible to conclusively show that the polar SAT patterns are physically linked by geomagnetic activity, we conclude that geomagnetic activity likely plays a role in modulating polar wintertime surface air temperature patterns. The SAT results were tested against variation in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode n (SAM). The results suggested that these were not driving the observed polar SAT variability. However, significant uncertainty is introduced by the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and we could not robustly exclude a chance linkage between sea surface temperature (SST) variability and geomagnetic activity. Examining the physical link between geomagnetic activity and polar surface temperature variability patterns using atmospheric models is an ongoing task.

  8. Controls of air temperature variability over an Alpine Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Thomas; Brock, Ben; Ayala, Álvaro; Rutter, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Near surface air temperature (Ta) is one of the most important controls on energy exchange between a glacier surface and the overlying atmosphere. However, not enough detail is known about the controls on Ta across a glacier due to sparse data availability. Recent work has provided insights into variability of Ta along glacier centre-lines in different parts of the world, yet there is still a limited understanding of off-centreline variability in Ta and how best to estimate it from distant off-glacier locations. We present a new dataset of distributed 2m Ta records for the Tsanteleina Glacier in Northwest Italy from July-September, 2015. Data provide detailed information of lateral (across-glacier) and centre-line variations in Ta, with ~20,000 hourly observations from 17 locations. The suitability of different vertical temperature gradients (VTGs) in estimating air temperature is considered under a range of meteorological conditions and from different forcing locations. A key finding is that local VTGs account for a lot of Ta variability under a broad range of climatic conditions. However, across-glacier variability is found to be significant, particularly for high ambient temperatures and for localised topographic depressions. The relationship of spatial Ta patterns with regional-scale reanalysis data and alternative Ta estimation methodologies are also presented. This work improves the knowledge of local scale Ta variations and their importance to melt modelling.

  9. Evidence for interaction between air pollution and high temperature in the causation of excess mortality.

    PubMed

    Katsouyanni, K; Pantazopoulou, A; Touloumi, G; Tselepidaki, I; Moustris, K; Asimakopoulos, D; Poulopoulou, G; Trichopoulos, D

    1993-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated repeatedly that air pollution in Athens is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in mortality. Extremely high air temperatures can also cause excess mortality. This study investigated whether air pollution and air temperature have synergistic effects on excess mortality in Athens. Data concerning the increased number of deaths in July 1987 (when a major "heat wave" hit Greece) were compared to the deaths in July of the 6 previous years. This comparison revealed a greater increase in the number of deaths in Athens (97%), compared to all other urban areas (33%) and to all non-urban areas (27%). Data on the daily levels of smoke, sulfur dioxide, and ozone; the number of deaths that occurred daily; and meteorological variables were collected for a 5-y period. The daily value of Thom's discomfort index was calculated. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate main and interactive effects of air temperature and Thom's discomfort index and air pollution indices. The daily number of deaths increased by more than 40 when the mean 24-h air temperature exceeded 30 degrees C. The main effects of an air pollution index are not statistically significant, but the interaction between high levels of air pollution and high temperature (> or = 30 degrees C) are statistically significant (p < .05) for sulfur dioxide and are suggestive (p < .20) for ozone and smoke. Similar results were obtained when the discomfort index was used, instead of temperature in the models. PMID:8357272

  10. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as submitted...) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The Wyoming plan, as submitted, does...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as submitted...) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The Wyoming plan, as submitted, does...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as submitted... significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a)(1) are...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1829 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.1829 Section 52.1829 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dakota § 52.1829 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The North Dakota plan, as... of significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a)(1)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as submitted... significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a)(1) are...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.530 Significant... incorporated into this chapter, for power plants subject to the Florida Power Plant Siting Act. (b) (c) All..., rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  19. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.530 Significant... incorporated into this chapter, for power plants subject to the Florida Power Plant Siting Act. (b) (c) All..., rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  20. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.530 Significant... incorporated into this chapter, for power plants subject to the Florida Power Plant Siting Act. (b) (c) All..., rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  1. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.530 Significant... incorporated into this chapter, for power plants subject to the Florida Power Plant Siting Act. (b) (c) All..., rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  2. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  3. Low temperature air with high IAQ for dry climates

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, C.M. ); Des Champs, N.H. )

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how low temperature supply air and air-to-air heat exchangers can furnish 100% outdoor air with reduced peak energy demands. The use of low temperature supply air systems in arid climates greatly simplifies the air-conditioning design. Risks associated with moisture migration and sweating of duct and terminal equipment are reduced. Insulation and vapor barrier design requirements are not nearly as critical as they are in the humid, ambient conditions that exist in the eastern United States. The introduction of outdoor air to meet ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 becomes far less taxing on the mechanical cooling equipment because of the lower enthalpy levels of the dry western climate. Energy costs to assure indoor air quality (IAQ) are lower than for more tropical climates. In arid regions, maintaining acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH) levels becomes a major IAQ concern. For the western United States, coupling an air-to-air heat exchanger to direct (adiabatic) evaporative coolers can greatly reduce low temperature supply air refrigeration energy requirements and winter humidification costs while ensuring proper ventilation.

  4. Identifying Modes of Temperature Variability Using AIRS Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.; Yung, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data obtained on Aqua spacecraft to study mid-tropospheric temperature variability between 2002-2007. The analysis is focused on daily zonal means of the AIRS channel at 2388 1/cm in the CO2 R-branch and the AMSU channel #5 in the 57 GHz Oxygen band, both with weighting function peaking in the mid-troposphere (400 mb) and the matching sea surface temperature from NCEP (Aumann et al., 2007). Taking into account the nonlinear and non- stationary behavior of the temperature we apply the Empirical Mode Decomposition (Huang et al., 1998) to better separate modes of variability. All-sky (cloudy) and clear sky, day and night data are analyzed. In addition to the dominant annual variation, which is nonlinear and latitude dependent, we identified the modes with higher frequency and inter-annual modes. Some trends are visible and we apply stringent criteria to test their statistical significance. References: Aumann, H. H., D. T. Gregorich, S. E. Broberg, and D. A. Elliott, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15813, doi:10.1029/2006GL029191, 2007. Huang, N. E. Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H. Shih, Q. Zheng, N.-C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 454, 903-995, 1998.

  5. Coastal Greenland air temperature extremes 1890-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Hanna, Edward; Cappelen, John

    2013-04-01

    We use observed air temperature data series from fourteen meteorological stations in coastal Greenland (located all around the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS)) for 1960-2010, where long-term records for five of the stations extend back to 1890, to illustrate the annual and monthly temporal and spatial distribution of temperature extremes. We find that the 2000s (2001-2010) had the highest number of mean annual air temperature (MAAT) warm extremes, and the 1890s (1891-1900) the highest number of cold extremes. For the 2000s the number of warm extremes was significantly higher by around 50% than the number in the 1940s (the Early Twentieth Century Warm Period): the decade with the second highest occurrence of MAAT warm extremes. Since 1960, based on MAAT the number of cold extremes has decreased on the decadal timescale, while warm extremes have increased leading to a higher occurrence of extremes (cold plus warm extremes): an almost similar pattern occurred on mean monthly and on monthly mean daily maximum and minimum scales. Further, a division of Greenland into east and west sectors shows that the occurrence of cold (warm) extremes was more pronounced in the East than in the West in the 1960s and 1970s (mid-1980s to the 2000s).

  6. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  7. Quantification and control of the spatiotemporal gradients of air speed and air temperature in an incubator.

    PubMed

    Van Brecht, A; Aerts, J M; Degraeve, P; Berckmans, D

    2003-11-01

    Around the optimal incubator air temperature only small spatiotemporal deviations are allowed. However, air speed and air temperature are not uniformly distributed in the total volume of the incubator due to obstruction of the eggs and egg trays. The objectives of this research were (1) to quantify the spatiotemporal gradients in temperature and velocity and (2) to develop and validate a control algorithm to increase the uniformity in temperature during the entire incubation process. To improve the uniformity of air temperature, the airflow pattern and the air quality need to be controlled more optimally. These data show that the air temperature between the eggs at a certain position in a large incubator is the result of (1) the mean air temperature of the incubator; (2) the exchange of heat between the egg and its micro-environment, which is affected by the air speed at that certain position; (3) the time-variable heat production of the embryo; and (4) the heat influx or efflux as a result from the movement of hot or cold air in the incubator toward that position, which is affected by the airflow pattern. This implies that the airflow pattern needs to be controlled in a more optimal way. To maximize the uniformity of air temperature, an active and adaptive control of the three-dimensional (3-D) airflow pattern has been developed and tested. It was found to improve the spatiotemporal temperature distribution. The chance of having a temperature reading in the interval from 37.5 to 38.1 degrees C increased by 3% compared to normal operating conditions.

  8. Comparison of MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis

    2014-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-temperature-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local air temperatures. Air-temperature-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily air temperatures, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural temperatures and to stratify the sampling for LST and air temperatures. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed air temperature during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum air temperature analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum air temperature is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and air temperatures difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.

  9. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  10. Associations of endothelial function and air temperature in diabetic subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that air temperature is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...

  11. High Lapse Rates in AIRS Retrieved Temperatures in Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus temperature and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of AIRS provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of AIRS temperature retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low air temperatures, large sea-air temperature differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the AIRS experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold air mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows AIRS to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface air temperatures. The bias in near-surface air temperature is seen to be independent of sea surface temperature, however. AIRS is therefore sensitive to air-sea temperature difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct AIRS near-surface retrieved temperatures, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this air-sea temperature differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to

  12. Change point analysis of mean annual air temperature in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of change point in the mean of air temperature is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual Air Temperature Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.

  13. A 217-year record of summer air temperature reconstructed from freshwater pearl mussels ( M. margarifitera, Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Dunca, Elena; Mutvei, Harry; Norlund, Ulf

    2004-09-01

    Variations in annual shell growth of the freshwater pearl mussel Margritifera margritifera (L.) were utilized to reconstruct summer (June-August) air temperatures for each year over the period AD 1777-1993. Our study is based on 60 live-collected specimens with overlapping life-spans from six different Swedish rivers. Individual age-detrended and standardized chronologies ranging from 10 to 127 years in length were strung together to form one master chronology (AD 1777-1993) and three regional mean chronologies (Stensele, Uppsala, and Karlshamn). Standardized annual growth rates and air temperature (river water covaries with water temperature) exhibit a significant positive correlation and high running similarity confirming previous experimental findings. Up to 55% in the variability of annual shell growth is explained by temperature changes. From north to south this correlation slightly decreases. We establish a growth-temperature model capable of reconstructing summer air temperature from annual shell growth increments with a precision error of ±0.6-0.9°C (2SD). The validity of the model was tested against instrumentally determined air temperatures and proxy temperatures derived from tree rings. Our study demonstrates that freshwater pearl mussels provide an independent measure for past (i.e., prior to the 20th century greenhouse forcing) changes in air temperature. It can be used to test and verify other air temperature proxies and thus improve climate models.

  14. Assessing surface air temperature variability using quantile regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, A. A.; Sterin, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Many researches in climate change currently involve linear trends, based on measured variables. And many of them only consider trends in mean values, whereas it is clear, that not only means, but also whole shape of distribution changes over time and requires careful assessment. For example extreme values including outliers may get bigger, while median has zero slope.Quantile regression provides a convenient tool, that enables detailed analysis of changes in full range of distribution by producing a vector of quantile trends for any given set of quantiles.We have applied quantile regression to surface air temperature observations made at over 600 weather stations across Russian Federation during last four decades. The results demonstrate well pronounced regions with similar values of significant trends in different parts of temperature value distribution (left tail, middle part, right tail). The uncertainties of quantile trend estimations for several spatial patterns of trends over Russia are estimated and analyzed for each of four seasons.For temperature trend estimation over vast territories, quantile regression is an effort consuming approach, but is more informative than traditional instrument, to assess decadal evolution of temperature values, including evolution of extremes.Partial support of ERA NET RUS ACPCA joint project between EU and RBRF 12-05-91656-ЭРА-А is highly appreciated.

  15. Effect of Initial Mixture Temperature on Flame Speed of Methane-Air, Propane-Air, and Ethylene-Air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugger, Gordon L

    1952-01-01

    Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial temperature over the temperature range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of temperature on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.

  16. 40 CFR 52.1829 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1829 Section 52.1829 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dakota § 52.1829 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The North Dakota plan,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as...

  19. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  20. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J.

    2010-01-01

    Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface air temperatures. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms. PMID:20921371

  1. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  2. Temperature and concentration transients in the aluminum-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Homsy, R.V.

    1981-08-26

    Coupled conservation equations of heat and mass transfer are solved, that predict temperature and concentration of the electrolyte of an aluminum-air battery system upon start-up and shutdown. Results of recent laboratory studies investigating the crystallization kinetics and solubility of the caustic-aluminate electrolyte system are used in the predictions. Temperature and concentration start-up transients are short, while during standby conditions, temperature increases to a maximum and decreases slowly.

  3. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  4. 76 FR 35380 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Prevention of Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...\\ ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; Final Rule.'' 75 FR 31514... Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act.'' 74 FR... Clean Air Act Permitting Programs.'' 75 FR 17004 (April 2, 2010). \\5\\ ``Light-Duty Vehicle...

  5. Preliminary verification of instantaneous air temperature estimation for clear sky conditions based on SEBAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhou, Chuxuan; Zhang, Guixin; Zhang, Hailong; Hua, Junwei

    2016-03-01

    Spatially distributed near surface air temperature at the height of 2 m is an important input parameter for the land surface models. It is of great significance in both theoretical research and practical applications to retrieve instantaneous air temperature data from remote sensing observations. An approach based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to retrieve air temperature under clear sky conditions is presented. Taking the meteorological measurement data at one station as the reference and remotely sensed data as the model input, the research estimates the air temperature by using an iterative computation. The method was applied to the area of Jiangsu province for nine scenes by using MODIS data products, as well as part of Fujian province, China based on four scenes of Landsat 8 imagery. Comparing the air temperature estimated from the proposed method with that of the meteorological station measurement, results show that the root mean square error is 1.7 and 2.6 °C at 1000 and 30 m spatial resolution respectively. Sensitivity analysis of influencing factors reveals that land surface temperature is the most sensitive to the estimation precision. Research results indicate that the method has great potentiality to be used to estimate instantaneous air temperature distribution under clear sky conditions.

  6. Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina

    Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. Air temperature changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered air temperatures. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of air temperature of 45 (°) СC.

  7. AIRS Sea Surface Temperature and Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of AIRS sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of AIRS data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.

  8. Estimating Air Temperature over the Tibetan Plateau Using MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fangfang; Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming; Li, Maoshan; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Time series of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, combined with digital elevation model (DEM) and meterological data for 2001-2012, were used to estimate and map the spatial distribution of monthly mean air temperature over the Tibatan Plateau (TP). Time series and regression analysis of monthly mean land surface temperature (Ts) and air temperature (Ta) were both conducted by ordinary liner regression (OLR) and geographical weighted regression (GWR) methods. Analysis showed that GWR method had much better result (Adjusted R2 > 0.79, root mean square error (RMSE) is between 0.51° C and 1.12° C) for estimating Ta than OLR method. The GWR model, with MODIS LST, NDVI and altitude as independent variables, was used to estimate Ta over the Tibetan Plateau. All GWR models in each month were tested by F-test with significant level of α=0.01 and the regression coefficients were all tested by T-test with significant level of α=0.01. This illustrated that Ts, NDVI and altitude play an important role on estimating Ta over the Tibetan Plateau. Finally, the major conclusions are as follows: (1) GWR method has higher accuracy for estimating Ta than OLR (Adjusted R2=0.40˜0.78, RMSE=1.60˜4.38° C), and the Ta control precision can be up to 1.12° C. (2) Over the Northern TP, the range of Ta variation in January is -29.28 ˜ -5.0° C, and that in July is -0.53 ˜ 14.0° C. Ta in summer half year (from May to October) is between -15.92 ˜ 14.0° C. From October on, 0° C isothermal level is gradually declining from the altitude of 4˜5 kilometers, and hits the bottom with altitude of 3200 meters in December, and Ta is all under 0° C in January. 10° C isothermal level gradually starts rising from the altitude of 3200 meters from May, and reaches the highest level with altitude of 4˜5 kilometers in July. In addition, Ta in south slope of the Tanggula Mountains is obviously higher than that in the north slope. Ta

  9. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  10. Temperature Measurement in Microhollow Cathode Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Rolf; Toedter, Olaf; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1998-10-01

    By reducing the diameter of the cathode opening in hollow cathode discharge geometry to values on the order of one hundred micrometers we were able to operate the discharges in a direct current mode at atmospheric pressure in air. The possibility to operate microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) in parallel [1] in atmospheric air opens a wide range of applications. At atmospheric pressures, the electric power of a single discharge was measured as 8W. The power density in the microhollow exceeds 1MW/cm^3. This leads to strong thermal loading of the electrodes. In order to study the thermal properties of the discharge we have used a method based on emission spectroscopy. The rotational structure of the emitted lines corresponding to the second positive system of nitrogen contains information on the neutral gas temperature. Taking the apparatus profile into account the temperature of the rotational excited molecules can be estimated by a comparison of simulated and measured data. Measurements on MHCD up to atmospheric pressure show an increase in the neutral gas temperature to values exceeding 1000K. In addition to the gas temperature the electrode temperatures were measured and the thermodynamic behavior of the electrode configuration was calculated. [1] W. Shi, K.H. Schoenbach Parallel Operation of Microhollow Cathode Discharges, ICOPS98, Raleigh, NC, USA, 1998 This work was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) in cooperation with the DDR&E Air Plasma Ramparts MURI program, and by the Department of Energy, Advanced Energy Division.

  11. Pulsed positive streamer discharges in air at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the temperature range of 293 K–1136 K, and the effect of temperature on the streamer discharges is studied. When the temperature is increased, the product of applied voltage and temperature VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of temperature. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and temperature, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient temperature is increased.

  12. Pulsed positive streamer discharges in air at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the temperature range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of temperature on the streamer discharges is studied. When the temperature is increased, the product of applied voltage and temperature VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of temperature. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and temperature, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient temperature is increased.

  13. Air Temperature and Radiation Depressions Associated with a Snow Cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Donald G.; Ruschy, David L.; Skaggs, Richard H.; Wall, David B.

    1992-03-01

    An analysis of air temperature and radiation regimes an days with and without a snow cover at the St. Paul, Minnesota, climatological observatory was made based on a 16 December-15 March 23-yr temperature record and a solar and longwave radiation record for 11 of those 23 years. In addition, an overlapping 41-yr temperature record of the Minneapolis-St. Paul National Weather Service Station (MSP) was analyzed for corroboration of the St. Paul temperature results.It was found that both the average maximum and average minimum air temperatures for winter days with a 10-cm or greater snow cover were 8.4°C lower than on the snow-free days. For days with intermediate-depth snow (>0 and <10 cm deep) the depressions of the maximum and minimum temperatures averaged about 2°C less. The temperature depressions at MSP were about 2°C less than at St. Paul for both snow-cover depths, a difference believed to be due to the more urban surroundings at MSP.A difference in the depression of the winter month temperatures was observed at MSP but not at the St. Paul observatory. The St. Paul results were unexpected, since it has been suggested that a greater maximum temperature depression, due to a higher sun, would occur in March than in December.The air temperature depressions compare favorably with the mean 16 December- 15 March radiometrically determined surface temperatures, which indicated that the intermediate snow depth and the 10-cm snow depth were 1O° and 15°C, respectively, colder than the surface free of snow. The mean longwave radiation loss was 3.94 MJ m2 day1 greater from the snow-free surface than from a 10-cm or greater snow cover.

  14. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-07-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

  15. Temperature variations recorded during interinstitutional air shipments of laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during air shipments, we recorded temperatures at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high temperatures (greater than 29.4 degrees C), 14.6% to low temperatures (less than 7.2 degrees C), and 61% to temperature variations of 11 degrees C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience temperature extremes and large variations in temperature. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced temperature extremes or variations. Temperature variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight temperature extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low temperatures, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold temperatures that are suitable for rodents, could reduce temperature-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient temperatures during airport stopovers.

  16. Near-surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Díaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Muñoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air) and snow skin temperature (T-skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  17. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  18. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui; Zhang, Jue Fang, Jing

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  19. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AIRS data. The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm contains two significant improvements over Version 4: 1) Improved physics allows for use of AIRS observations in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profile T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of cloud cleared radiances R(sub i). This approach allows for the generation of accurate values of R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. 2) Another very significant improvement in Version 5 is the ability to generate accurate case-by-case, level-by-level error estimates for the atmospheric temperature profile, as well as for channel-by-channel error estimates for R(sub i). These error estimates are used for Quality Control of the retrieved products. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS temperature profiles with different levels of Quality Control using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system. Assimilation of Quality Controlled T(p) resulted in significantly improved forecast skill compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP, except for AIRS data, is assimilated. We also conducted an experiment assimilating AIRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, as done operationally by ECMWF and NCEP. Forecast resulting from assimilated AIRS radiances were of poorer quality than those obtained assimilating AIRS temperatures.

  20. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  1. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  2. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  3. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  4. Microwave temperature profiler for clear air turbulence prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear air prediction using measured potential temperature and determining the vertical gradient of potential temperature, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential temperature, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear air turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.

  5. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  6. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097

  7. Spatial interpolation of monthly mean air temperature data for Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Temperature data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily air temperature, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of temperature values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of air temperature data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual temperature gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean temperature values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean temperature.

  8. The relationship between radiant heat, air temperature and thermal comfort at rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present work were to investigate the relationships between radiant heat load, air velocity and body temperatures with or without coincidental exercise to determine the physiological mechanisms that drive thermal comfort and thermoregulatory behaviour. Seven male volunteers wearing swimming trunks in 18°C, 22°C or 26°C air were exposed to increasing air velocities up to 3 m s(-1) and self-adjusted the intensity of the direct radiant heat received on the front of the body to just maintain overall thermal comfort, at rest or when cycling (60 W, 60 rpm). During the 30 min of the experiments, skin and rectal temperatures were continuously recorded. We hypothesized that mean body temperature should be maintained stable and the intensity of the radiant heat and the mean skin temperatures would be lower when cycling. In all conditions, mean body temperature was lower when facing winds of 3 m s(-1) than during the first 5 min, without wind. When facing winds, in all but the 26°C air, the radiant heat was statistically higher at rest than when exercising. In 26°C air mean skin temperature was lower at rest than when exercising. No other significant difference was observed. In all air temperatures, high correlation coefficients were observed between the air velocity and the radiant heat load. Other factors that we did not measure may have contributed to the constant overall thermal comfort status despite dropping mean skin and body temperatures. It is suggested that the allowance to behaviourally adjust the thermal environment increases the tolerance of cold discomfort.

  9. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  10. Nest temperatures in a loggerhead nesting beach in Turkey is more determined by sea surface than air temperature.

    PubMed

    Girondot, Marc; Kaska, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    While climate change is now fully recognised as a reality, its impact on biodiversity is still not completely understood. To predict its impact, proxies coherent with the studied ecosystem or species are thus required. Marine turtles are threatened worldwide (though some populations are recovering) as they are particularly sensitive to temperature throughout their entire life cycle. This is especially true at the embryo stage when temperature affects both growth rates and sex determination. Nest temperature is thus of prime importance to understand the persistence of populations in the context of climate change. We analysed the nest temperature of 21 loggerheads (Caretta caretta) originating from Dalyan Beach in Turkey using day-lagged generalised mixed models with autocorrelation. Surprisingly, the selected model for nest temperature includes an effect for sea surface temperature 4-times higher than for air temperature. We also detected a very significant effect of metabolic heating during development compatible with what is already known about marine turtle nests. Our new methodology allows the prediction of marine turtle nest temperatures with good precision based on a combination of air temperature measured at beach level and sea surface temperature in front of the beach. These data are available in public databases for most of the beaches worldwide.

  11. Nest temperatures in a loggerhead nesting beach in Turkey is more determined by sea surface than air temperature.

    PubMed

    Girondot, Marc; Kaska, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    While climate change is now fully recognised as a reality, its impact on biodiversity is still not completely understood. To predict its impact, proxies coherent with the studied ecosystem or species are thus required. Marine turtles are threatened worldwide (though some populations are recovering) as they are particularly sensitive to temperature throughout their entire life cycle. This is especially true at the embryo stage when temperature affects both growth rates and sex determination. Nest temperature is thus of prime importance to understand the persistence of populations in the context of climate change. We analysed the nest temperature of 21 loggerheads (Caretta caretta) originating from Dalyan Beach in Turkey using day-lagged generalised mixed models with autocorrelation. Surprisingly, the selected model for nest temperature includes an effect for sea surface temperature 4-times higher than for air temperature. We also detected a very significant effect of metabolic heating during development compatible with what is already known about marine turtle nests. Our new methodology allows the prediction of marine turtle nest temperatures with good precision based on a combination of air temperature measured at beach level and sea surface temperature in front of the beach. These data are available in public databases for most of the beaches worldwide. PMID:25526649

  12. Characterizing air temperature changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960-2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (T min) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the T min (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from -0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and T min (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with T min and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960-1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales. PMID:25375648

  13. Characterizing air temperature changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960-2012.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960-2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (T min) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the T min (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from -0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and T min (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with T min and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960-1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales.

  14. Characterizing Air Temperature Changes in the Tarim Basin over 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dongmei; Wang, Xiujun; Zhao, Chenyi; Wu, Xingren; Jiang, Fengqing; Chen, Pengxiang

    2014-01-01

    There has been evidence of warming rate varying largely over space and between seasons. However, little has been done to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China. In this study, we collected daily air temperature from 19 meteorological stations for the period of 1960–2012, and analyzed annual mean temperature (AMT), the annual minimum (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax), and mean temperatures of all twelve months and four seasons and their anomalies. Trend analyses, standard deviation of the detrended anomaly (SDDA) and correlations were carried out to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of various mean air temperatures. Our data showed that increasing trend was much greater in the Tmin (0.55°C/10a) than in the AMT (0.25°C/10a) and Tmax (0.12°C/10a), and the fluctuation followed the same order. There were large spatial variations in the increasing trends of both AMT (from −0.09 to 0.43 °C/10a) and Tmin (from 0.15 to 1.12°C/10a). Correlation analyses indicated that AMT had a significantly linear relationship with Tmin and the mean temperatures of four seasons. There were also pronounced changes in the monthly air temperature from November to March at decadal time scale. The seasonality (i.e., summer and winter difference) of air temperature was stronger during the period of 1960–1979 than over the recent three decades. Our preliminary analyses indicated that local environmental conditions (such as elevation) might be partly responsible for the spatial variability, and large scale climate phenomena might have influences on the temporal variability of air temperature in the Tarim Basin. In particular, there was a significant correlation between index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and air temperature of May (P = 0.004), and between the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and air temperature of July (P = 0.026) over the interannual to decadal time scales. PMID

  15. Air Temperature Estimation over the Third Pole Using MODIS LST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Ye, M.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Third Pole is centered on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which is the highest large plateau around the world with extremely complex terrain and climate conditions, resulting in very scarce meteorological stations especially in the vast west region. For these unobserved areas, the remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) can greatly contribute to air temperature estimation. In our research we utilized the MODIS LST production from both TERRA and AQUA to estimate daily mean air temperature over the TP using multiple statistical models. Other variables used in the models include longitudes, latitudes, Julian day, solar zenith, NDVI and elevation. To select a relatively optimal model, we chose six popular and representative statistical models as candidate models including the multiple linear regression (MLR), the partial least squares regression (PLS), back propagate neural network (BPNN), support vector regression (SVR), random forests (RF) and Cubist regression (CR). The performances of the six models were compared for each possible combination of LSTs at four satellite pass times and two quality situations. Eventually a ranking table consisting of optimal models for each LST combination and quality situation was built up based on the validation results. By this means, the final production is generated providing daily mean air temperature with the least cloud blockage and acceptable accuracy. The average RMSEs of cross validation are mostly around 2℃. Stratified validations were also performed to test the expansibility to unobserved and high-altitude areas of the final models selected.

  16. The effect of air temperature and human thermal indices on mortality in Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    This paper investigates whether there is any association between the daily mortality for the wider region of Athens, Greece and the thermal conditions, for the 10-year period 1992-2001. The daily mortality datasets were acquired from the Hellenic Statistical Service and the daily meteorological datasets, concerning daily maximum and minimum air temperature, from the Hellinikon/Athens meteorological station, established at the headquarters of the Greek Meteorological Service. Besides, the daily values of the thermal indices Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) were evaluated in order to interpret the grade of physiological stress. The first step was the application of Pearson's χ 2 test to the compiled contingency tables, resulting in that the probability of independence is zero ( p = 0.000); namely, mortality is in close relation to the air temperature and PET/UTCI. Furthermore, the findings extracted by the generalized linear models showed that, statistically significant relationships ( p < 0.01) between air temperature, PET, UTCI and mortality exist on the same day. More concretely, on one hand during the cold period (October-March), a 10°C decrease in daily maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, temperature range, PET and UTCI is related with an increase 13%, 15%, 2%, 7% and 6% of the probability having a death, respectively. On the other hand, during the warm period (April-September), a 10°C increase in daily maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, temperature range, PET and UTCI is related with an increase 3%, 1%, 10%, 3% and 5% of the probability having a death, respectively. Taking into consideration the time lag effect of the examined parameters on mortality, it was found that significant effects of 3-day lag during the cold period appears against 1-day lag during the warm period. In spite of the general aspect that cold conditions seem to be favourable factors for daily mortality

  17. Effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement on thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Shinichi; Kimura, Kenichi

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the effects of air temperature, humidity, and air movement on thermal comfort under hot and humid conditions with a view toward energy conservation. Recently, ASHRAE published a new comfort envelope in Standard 55-1992. In that standard, the upper limit of relative humidity (RH) was wet at 60%. In hot and humid regions, humidity levels higher than 60% may often be observed. This upper limit of humidity is discussed based on their subjective data. In addition, the results show that under hot and humid conditions, air movement may be one of the least expensive methods of providing thermal comfort. The effect of air movement is also described in this paper.

  18. [Effect of air temperature and rainfall on wetland ecosystem CO2 exchange in China].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiao-jing; Han, Guang-xuan

    2015-10-01

    Wetland can be a potential efficient sink to reduce global warming due to its higher primary productivity and lower carbon decomposition rate. While there has been a series progress on the influence mechanism of ecosystem CO2 exchange over China' s wetlands, a systematic metaanalysis of data still needs to be improved. We compiled data of ecosystem CO2 exchange of 21 typical wetland vegetation types in China from 29 papers and carried out an integrated analysis of air temperature and precipitation effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), the response of NEE to PAR, and the response of Reco to temperature. The results showed that there were significant responses (P<0.05) of NEE (R2 = 50%, R2=57%), GPP (R2 = 60%, R2 = 50%) Reco (R2 = 44%, R2=50%) with increasing air temperature and enhanced precipitation on the annual scale. On the growing season scale, air temperature accounted for 50% of the spatial variation of NEE, 36% of GPP and 19% of Reco, respectively. Both NEE (R2 = 33%) and GPP (R2 =25%) were correlated positively with precipitation (P<0.05). However, the relationship between Reco and precipitation was not significant (P>0.05). Across different Chinese wetlands, both precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on apparent quantum yield (α) or ecosystem respiration in the daytime (Reco,day, P>0.05). The maximum photosynthesis rate (Amax) was remarkably correlated with precipitation (P <0.01), but not with air temperature. Besides, there was no significant correlation between basal respiration (Rref) and precipitation (P>0.05). Precipitation was negatively correlated with temperature sensitivity of Reco (Q10, P<0.05). Furthermore, temperature accounted for 35% and 46% of the variations in temperature sensitivity of Reco (Q10) and basal respiration (Rref P<0.05), respectively. PMID:26995905

  19. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study. PMID:21665190

  20. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  1. Temperature changes in rheumatoid hand treated with nitrogen vapors and cold air.

    PubMed

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Romanowski, Wojciech; Trafarski, Andrzej

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was the thermovisual comparison of mean temperature of hand surface changes after local cryotherapy with vapors of nitrogen (-160°C) and cold air (-30°C). Forty-seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (39 women and 8 men; average age 56.2 ± 10.5 years) were included in the study. They had the application of topic cryotherapy using nitrogen vapors or cold air on one hand. Main outcome measure was surface temperature of dorsal sides of the cooled and contralateral hands. Thermal images of both hands were taken before and up to 3 h after the treatment. One minute after application, nitrogen vapors induced decrease in surface skin temperature of the cooled hand from 28.9 ± 1.8°C to 17.9 ± 2.2°C, P < 0.05, whereas cold air from 29.4 ± 2.4°C to 23.1 ± 2.2°C, P < 0.05. However, significantly lower temperature was obtained with vapors of nitrogen (P < 0.05). Just after the treatment, a rapid rewarming occurred and hands reached baseline temperature in 15 min in both applications and they did not differ till the end of the procedure. Both nitrogen vapors and cold air induce similar temperature changes in hands with the exclusion of temperature obtained 1 min after the treatment. Changes in non-cooled hands indicate contralateral reaction.

  2. The effect of the solar eclipse on the air temperature near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalowski, Karol

    2002-10-01

    This paper describes the effect of the air temperature decrease in low boundary layer during the solar eclipse with special regard to influence on convectional events. The phenomenon progress was modelled to predict solar radiation flux changes. Then the basic model of local ground and air temperature changes was constructed. The qualitative features of air temperature-time curve during the eclipse were explained. The effect was investigated experimentally on the example of the partial eclipse observed from Szczawnica, Poland on 11th August, 1999. The results of the precise air temperature measurements were presented. The general shape of temperature curve was confirmed. The problem of convection intensity and temporal scales of convectional events was examined. It was observed that the temperature variance decreased over a factor of 2 in the maximum eclipse- centred, 50min long time interval which depicts the reduced convection regime. In addition, the temperature spectrum for long periods obtained for this time range seem to differ significantly from one registered before and after. The convection near the maximum eclipse is characterised by a dominant temporal scale of 22min, while before and after 11-13min scale is the most important.

  3. A review of reaction rates in high temperature air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul

    1989-01-01

    The existing experimental data on the rate coefficients for the chemical reactions in nonequilibrium high temperature air are reviewed and collated, and a selected set of such values is recommended for use in hypersonic flow calculations. For the reactions of neutral species, the recommended values are chosen from the experimental data that existed mostly prior to 1970, and are slightly different from those used previously. For the reactions involving ions, the recommended rate coefficients are newly chosen from the experimental data obtained more recently. The reacting environment is assumed to lack thermal equilibrium, and the rate coefficients are expressed as a function of the controlling temperature, incorporating the recent multitemperature reaction concept.

  4. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory – that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings. PMID:26674418

  5. Numerical analysis of air-flow and temperature field in a passenger car compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed; Kamsah, Nazri; Mohammad Nor, Ahmad Miski

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the temperature field inside a passenger's compartment of a Proton Wira saloon car using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The main goal is to investigate the effects of different glazing types applied onto the front and rear windscreens of the car on the distribution of air-temperature inside the passenger compartment in the steady-state conditions. The air-flow condition in the passenger's compartment is also investigated. Fluent CFD software was used to develop a three-dimensional symmetrical model of the passenger's compartment. Simplified representations of the driver and one rear passenger were incorporated into the CFD model of the passenger's compartment. Two types of glazing were considered namely clear insulated laminated tint (CIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.78 and green insulated laminate tint (GIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.5. Results of the CFD analysis were compared with those obtained when the windscreens are made up of clear glass having a shading coefficient of 0.86. Results of the CFD analysis show that for a given glazing material, the temperature of the air around the driver is slightly lower than the air around the rear passenger. Also, the use of GIL glazing material on both the front and rear windscreens significantly reduces the air temperature inside the passenger's compartment of the car. This contributes to a better thermal comfort condition to the occupants. Swirling air flow condition occurs in the passenger compartment. The air-flow intensity and velocity are higher along the side wall of the passenger's compartment compared to that along the middle section of the compartment. It was also found that the use of glazing materials on both the front and rear windscreen has no significant effects on the air-flow condition inside the passenger's compartment of the car.

  6. Industrial applications of MHD high temperature air heater technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, D. P.; Fenstermacher, J. E.; White, L. R.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-12-01

    The MHD high temperature air heater (HTAH) requires technology beyond the current state-of-the-art of industrial regenerative heaters. Specific aspects of HTAH technology which may find other application include refractory materials and valves resistant to the high temperature, corrosive, slag-bearing gas, materials resistant to cyclic thermal stresses, high temperature support structures for the cored brick bed, regenerative heater operating techniques for preventing accumulation of slag in the heater, and analytical tools for computing regenerative heater size, cost, and performance. Areas where HTAH technology may find application include acetylene/ethylene production processes, flash pyrolysis of coal, high temperature gas reactors, coal gasification processes, various metallurgical processes, waste incineration, and improvements to existing regenerator technology such as blast furnace stoves and glass tank regenerators.

  7. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  8. Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal air temperature relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic temperature and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and air temperature are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-temperature feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the temperature trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of temperature for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer temperatures and with ice leading the winter temperatures. The implication is that summer temperatures predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.

  9. A quantitative assessment of the relationship between precipitation deficits and air temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, B.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, Q. F.; Di, Z. H.

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have reported precipitation deficits related to temperature extremes. However, how and to what extent precipitation deficits affect surface air temperatures is still poorly understood. In this study, the relationship between precipitation deficits and surface temperatures was examined in China from 1960 to 2012 based on monthly temperature and precipitation records from 565 stations. Significant negative correlations were identified in each season, with the strongest relationships in the summer, indicating that higher temperatures usually accompanied water-deficient conditions and lower temperatures usually accompanied wet conditions. The examination of the correlations based on 30 year moving windows suggested that the interaction between the two variables has declined over the past three decades. Further investigation indicated a higher impact of extreme dry conditions on temperature than that of extreme wet conditions. In addition, a new simple index (Dry Temperature Index, DTI) was developed and used to quantitatively describe the relationship between water deficits and air temperature variations. We tested and compared the DTI in the coldest month (January) and the hottest month (July) of the year, station by station. In both months, the number of stations with a DThighI ≥ 50% was greater than those with a DThighI < 50%, indicating that a greater proportion of higher temperatures occurred during dry conditions. Based on the results, we conclude that water deficits in China are usually correlated to high temperatures but not to low temperatures.

  10. An Analytical Solution for Mechanical Responses Induced by Temperature and Air Pressure in a Lined Rock Cavern for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Du, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Ping-Yang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical responses induced by temperature and air pressure significantly affect the stability and durability of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in a lined rock cavern. An analytical solution for evaluating such responses is, thus, proposed in this paper. The lined cavern of interest consists of three layers, namely, a sealing layer, a concrete lining and the host rock. Governing equations for cavern temperature and air pressure, which involve heat transfer between the air and surrounding layers, are established first. Then, Laplace transform and superposition principle are applied to obtain the temperature around the lined cavern and the air pressure during the operational period. Afterwards, a thermo-elastic axisymmetrical model is used to analytically determine the stress and displacement variations induced by temperature and air pressure. The developments of temperature, displacement and stress during a typical operational cycle are discussed on the basis of the proposed approach. The approach is subsequently verified with a coupled compressed air and thermo-mechanical numerical simulation and by a previous study on temperature. Finally, the influence of temperature on total stress and displacement and the impact of the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. This paper shows that the temperature sharply fluctuates only on the sealing layer and the concrete lining. The resulting tensile hoop stresses on the sealing layer and concrete lining are considerably large in comparison with the initial air pressure. Moreover, temperature has a non-negligible effect on the lined cavern for underground compressed air storage. Meanwhile, temperature has a greater effect on hoop and longitudinal stress than on radial stress and displacement. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient affects the cavern stress to a higher degree than the displacement.

  11. 76 FR 59899 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Prevention of Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule.'' 75 FR 25324 (May 7, 2010). \\4\\ ``Prevention of... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Prevention.... The SIP revision modifies Indiana's Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program to...

  12. The interrelationship between air temperature and humidity as applied locally to the skin: The resultant response on skin temperature and blood flow with age differences

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Berk, Lee; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Kodawala, Yusufi; Patel, Dennis; Nevgi, Bhakti; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei Ti; Alshaharani, Mastour; Pathak, Kunal; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Shenoy, Samruddha; Cho, Sungwan; Dave, Bargav; Desai, Rajavi; Malthane, Swapnil; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Most studies of the skin and how it responds to local heat have been conducted with either water, thermodes, or dry heat packs. Very little has been accomplished to look at the interaction between air humidity and temperature on skin temperature and blood flow. With variable air temperatures and humidity’s around the world, this, in many ways, is a more realistic assessment of environmental impact than previous water bath studies. Material/Methods Eight young and 8 older subjects were examined in an extensive series of experiments where on different days, air temperature was 38, 40, or 42°C. and at each temperature, humidity was either 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% humidity. Over a 20 minute period of exposure, the response of the skin in terms of its temperature and blood flow was assessed. Results For both younger and older subjects, for air temperatures of 38 and 40°C., the humidity of the air had no effect on the blood flow response of the skin, while skin temperature at the highest humidity was elevated slightly. However, for air temperatures of 42°C., at 100% humidity, there was a significant elevation in skin blood flow and skin temperature above the other four air humidity’s (p<0.05). In older subjects, the blood flow response was less and the skin temperature was much higher than younger individuals for air at 42°C. and 100% humidity (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus, in older subjects, warm humid air caused a greater rise in skin temperature with less protective effect of blood flow to protect the skin from overheating than is found in younger subjects. PMID:22460091

  13. Eleven years of ground-air temperature tracking over different land cover materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermák, Vladimír; Dedecek, Petr; Bodri, Louise; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed series of air, near surface and shallow ground temperatures under four different land covers, namely bare clayey soil, sand, grass and asphalt, collected between 2002 and 2013, monitored at the Geothermal Climate Change Observatory Sporilov. All obtained temperature series revealed a strong dependence of the subsurface thermal regime on the surface cover material. The ground "skin" temperatures are generally warmer than the surface air temperatures for all monitored surfaces; however they mutually differ significantly reflecting the nature of the land surface. Asphalt shows the highest temperatures, temperatures below the grassy surface are the lowest. A special interest was paid to the assessment of the "temperature offset", the difference between the surface ground temperature and the surface air temperature. Even when its instant value varies dramatically on both, daily and annual scale, by up to 30+ K, on a long time scale it is believed to be generally constant. The characteristic 2003-2013 mean offset values for the individual covers are following: asphalt 4.1 K, sand 1.6 K, clay 1.3 K and grass 0.2-0.3 K. All four surface covers revealed their daily and inter-annual cycles. Incident solar radiation is the primary variable in determining the amount of the temperature offset value and its time changes. A linear relationship between air-ground temperature differences and incident solar radiation was detected. The slope of the linear regression between both variables is clearly surface cover dependent. The greatest value of 3.3 K per 100 W.m-2 was found for asphalt, rates of 1.0 to 1.2 apply for bare soil and sand covers and negative slope of -0.44 K per 100 W.m-2 stands for grass, during the day or year the slope rates may vary extensively reflecting the periodic daily and/or annual cycle as well as the irregular instant deviations in solar radiation.

  14. Multi-fractal scaling comparison of the Air Temperature and the Surface Temperature over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jiping; Liu, Xinwei; Li, Fei

    2016-11-01

    The spatial and temporal multi-scaling behaviors between the daily Air Temperature (AT) and the Surface Temperature (ST) over China are compared in about 60-yr observations by Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) method. The different fractal phenomena and diversity features in the geographic distribution are found for the AT and ST series using MF-DFA. There are more multi-fractal features for the AT records but less for ST. The respective geographic sites show important scaling differences when compared to the multi-fractal signatures of AT with ST. An interval threshold for 95% confidence level is obtained by shuffling the AT records and the ST records. For the AT records, 93% of all observed stations shows the strong multi-fractal behaviors. In addition, the multi-fractal characteristics decrease with increasing latitude in South China and are obviously strong along the coast. The multi-fractal behaviors of the AT records between the Yangtze River and Yellow River basin and in most regions of Northwest China seem to be weak and not significant, even single mono-fractal features. However, for the ST records, the geographical distributions of multi-fractal phenomenon seem to be in disorder which account for 81% of the stations. The weak multi-fractal behaviors of the ST records are concentrated in North China, most regions of Northeast China.

  15. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  16. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  17. Air Temperature estimation from Land Surface temperature and solar Radiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarini, Michele; Eissa, Yehia; Marpu, Prashanth; Ghedira, Hosni

    2013-04-01

    Air Temperature (AirT) is a fundamental parameter in a wide range of applications such as climate change studies, weather forecast, energy balance modeling, efficiency of Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, etc. Air temperature data are generally obtained through regular measurements from meteorological stations. The distribution of these stations is normally sparse, so the spatial pattern of this parameter cannot be accurately estimated by interpolation methods. This work investigated the relationship between Air Temperature measured at meteorological stations and spatially contiguous measurements derived from Remote Sensing techniques, such as Land Surface Temperature (LST) maps, emissivity maps and shortwave radiation maps with the aim of creating a continuous map of AirT. For LST and emissivity, MSG-SEVIRI LST product from Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA-SAF) has been used. For shortwave radiation maps, an Artificial Neural Networks ensemble model has been developed and previously tested to create continuous maps from Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) point measurements, utilizing six thermal channels of MSG-SEVIRI. The testing sites corresponded to three meteorological stations located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where in situ measurements of Air Temperature were available. From the starting parameters, energy fluxes and net radiation have been calculated, in order to have information on the incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation and the incoming short-wave radiation. The preliminary analysis (day and Night measurements, cloud free) showed a strong negative correlation (0.92) between Outgoing long-wave radiation - GHI and LST- AirT, with a RMSE of 1.84 K in the AirT estimation from the initial parameters. Regression coefficients have been determined and tested on all the ground stations. The analysis also demonstrated the predominant impact of the incoming short-wave radiation in the AirT hourly variation, while the incoming

  18. On extreme rainfall intensity increases with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The water vapour holding capacity of air increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with air temperature above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and air temperature are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-air temperature dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be

  19. Distress sounds of thorny catfishes emitted underwater and in air: characteristics and potential significance.

    PubMed

    Knight, Lisa; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-11-15

    Thorny catfishes produce stridulation (SR) sounds using their pectoral fins and drumming (DR) sounds via a swimbladder mechanism in distress situations when hand held in water and in air. It has been argued that SR and DR sounds are aimed at different receivers (predators) in different media. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare sounds emitted in both air and water in order to test different hypotheses on the functional significance of distress sounds. Five representatives of the family Doradidae were investigated. Fish were hand held and sounds emitted in air and underwater were recorded (number of sounds, sound duration, dominant and fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and peak-to-peak amplitudes). All species produced SR sounds in both media, but DR sounds could not be recorded in air for two species. Differences in sound characteristics between media were small and mainly limited to spectral differences in SR. The number of sounds emitted decreased over time, whereas the duration of SR sounds increased. The dominant frequency of SR and the fundamental frequency of DR decreased and sound pressure level of SR increased with body size across species. The hypothesis that catfish produce more SR sounds in air and more DR sounds in water as a result of different predation pressure (birds versus fish) could not be confirmed. It is assumed that SR sounds serve as distress sounds in both media, whereas DR sounds might primarily be used as intraspecific communication signals in water in species possessing both mechanisms.

  20. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  1. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  2. Global Distribution and Variability of Surface Skin and Surface Air Temperatures as Depicted in the AIRS Version-6 Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will briefly describe the significant improvements made in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm, especially as to how they affect retrieved surface skin and surface air temperatures. The global distribution of seasonal 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM local time 12 year climatologies of Ts,a will be presented for the first time. We will also present the spatial distribution of short term 12 year anomaly trends of Ts,a at 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM, as well as the spatial distribution of temporal correlations of Ts,a with the El Nino Index. It will be shown that there are significant differences between the behavior of 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM Ts,a anomalies in some arid land areas.

  3. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  4. Upper-air temperature change trends above arid region of Northwest China during 1960-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Xu, Jianhua; Bai, Ling

    2015-04-01

    This study summarized upper-air temperature change trends based on the monthly datasets of 14 sounding stations in the arid region of Northwest China during 1960-2009. Over the investigated period, the change in upper-air temperature measured at eight standard pressure levels shows that an obvious warming at 850-400 hPa, which decreases with altitude, changes to an apparent cooling at 300-50 hPa. There is a positive correlation between the surface and 850-300-hPa temperatures, but a negative correlation between the surface and 200-50-hPa temperatures. Over the full 1960-2009 record, patterns of statistically significant mid-lower tropospheric warming and upper tropospheric and mid-lower stratospheric cooling are clearly evident. Also, the annual temperature cycle indicates that the peak temperature shifts from July in the troposphere to February in the mid-lower stratosphere, suggesting the importance of seasonal trend analysis. We found that the warming in the mid-lower troposphere is more pronounced during the summer, autumn, and winter, whereas the cooling in the upper troposphere and mid-lower stratosphere is larger during the summer and autumn. Furthermore, there are also many regional differences in the upper-air temperature change, regardless of both season and layer.

  5. Relationships of eggshell, air cell, and cloacal temperatures of embryonated broiler hatching eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Olojede, O C; Collins, K E; Womack, S K; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

    2016-10-01

    The relationships of eggshell, air cell, and embryo cloacal temperatures in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were determined. Twenty eggs were weighed and set on each of 3 tray levels of a single incubator. Eggshell temperature (EST) of the eggs were recorded once in the morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) between 0 and 19 d of incubation (DOI) using an infrared thermometer (IRT). All eggs were candled and a transponder was implanted in the air cell of eggs containing live embryos (12 per tray level) at 12 DOI. At 19 DOI, transponders were implanted in the cloaca of live embryos from those same eggs. Air cell temperature (ACT) and EST readings were recorded once in the AM and PM between 12 and 19 DOI, and ACT and cloaca temperature (CLT) readings were recorded every 6 h between 19 and 21 DOI. The EST and ACT readings between 13 and 19 DOI were positively correlated. However, their respective mean temperatures between 13 and 19 DOI differed. The EST and ACT were not significantly influenced by tray level. Nevertheless, a main effect due to location (eggshell vs. air cell), and an interaction between DOI and time of day (AM and PM) in the 13 to 19 DOI interval were observed. Furthermore, an interaction was observed between location (air cell and cloaca) and the 6 h sequential time periods in the 19 to 21 DOI interval. However, across the entire 19 to 21 DOI interval, mean ACT and CLT were not significantly different, and were positively correlated. These data suggest that ACT readings are higher than those of EST during the last half of incubation, and that between 13 and 19 DOI, ACT readings may have the potential for use as a minimally invasive method by which to more accurately estimate the true core body temperature of broiler embryos. The effects of this method on hatchability and post-hatch performance need determination to better establish its practicality.

  6. Relationships of eggshell, air cell, and cloacal temperatures of embryonated broiler hatching eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Olojede, O C; Collins, K E; Womack, S K; Gerard, P D; Peebles, E D

    2016-10-01

    The relationships of eggshell, air cell, and embryo cloacal temperatures in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs were determined. Twenty eggs were weighed and set on each of 3 tray levels of a single incubator. Eggshell temperature (EST) of the eggs were recorded once in the morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) between 0 and 19 d of incubation (DOI) using an infrared thermometer (IRT). All eggs were candled and a transponder was implanted in the air cell of eggs containing live embryos (12 per tray level) at 12 DOI. At 19 DOI, transponders were implanted in the cloaca of live embryos from those same eggs. Air cell temperature (ACT) and EST readings were recorded once in the AM and PM between 12 and 19 DOI, and ACT and cloaca temperature (CLT) readings were recorded every 6 h between 19 and 21 DOI. The EST and ACT readings between 13 and 19 DOI were positively correlated. However, their respective mean temperatures between 13 and 19 DOI differed. The EST and ACT were not significantly influenced by tray level. Nevertheless, a main effect due to location (eggshell vs. air cell), and an interaction between DOI and time of day (AM and PM) in the 13 to 19 DOI interval were observed. Furthermore, an interaction was observed between location (air cell and cloaca) and the 6 h sequential time periods in the 19 to 21 DOI interval. However, across the entire 19 to 21 DOI interval, mean ACT and CLT were not significantly different, and were positively correlated. These data suggest that ACT readings are higher than those of EST during the last half of incubation, and that between 13 and 19 DOI, ACT readings may have the potential for use as a minimally invasive method by which to more accurately estimate the true core body temperature of broiler embryos. The effects of this method on hatchability and post-hatch performance need determination to better establish its practicality. PMID:27433009

  7. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of air temperature over the 20th century. The analysed data are global air temperature values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of air temperature over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ

  8. Extracting changes in air temperature using acoustic coda phase delays.

    PubMed

    Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Whitaker, Rod; Morton, Emily; Scott Phillips, W

    2014-10-01

    Blast waves produced by 60 high-explosive detonations were recorded at short distances (few hundreds of meters); the corresponding waveforms show charge-configuration independent coda-like features (i.e., similar shapes, amplitudes, and phases) lasting several seconds. These features are modeled as reflected and/or scattered waves by acoustic reflectors/scatters surrounding the explosions. Using explosion pairs, relative coda phase delays are extracted and modeled as changes in sound speed due to changes in air temperature. Measurements from nearby weather towers are used for validation. PMID:25324115

  9. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Sari, Tugrul; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The neodymium/yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd/YAG) laser has been suggested to repair broken prostheses in the mouth. This study investigated the effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Three intact human maxillary molars were prepared for full-veneer crown. For each tooth, dentin thicknesses in mesiobuccal cusp was 2, 3, or 4 mm. Twenty dies were duplicated from each of the prepared teeth. For metal copings with 0.5-mm thickness, wax patterns were prepared with dip wax technique directly onto each of dies. All patterns were sprued and invested. The castings were made using a nickel-chromium alloy (Nicromed Premium, Neodontics). A hole with 0.5-mm diameter was prepared on the mesiobuccal cusp of each crown. The Nd/YAG laser (9.85 W; 1 Hz repetition rate; fluence, 1.230 J/cm(2); Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona) was used for welding with or without air cooling (n = 10). The temperature rise was measured in pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Differences between start and highest temperature reading were taken, and temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Pulpal temperature rise varied significantly depending on the dentin thickness and air cooling (p < 0.05). The non-air cooling group induced significantly the highest temperature increases. There were no significant differences between 2- and 3-mm dentin thicknesses groups (p > 0.05); however, pulpal temperature rise was the lowest for 4-mm dentin thickness group (p < 0.05). The highest values of thermal increase were found in the pulp chamber (6.8°C) when no air cooling was used in 2-mm dentin thickness group. Laser welding on base metal castings with Nd/YAG laser can be applied with air cooling to avoid temperature rises known to adversely affect pulpal health when dentin thickness is 2 or 3 mm.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  15. Protect and enhance: Lowi's juridical democracy and the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Meiburg, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capture of Federal regulatory agencies by the groups they were supposed to be regulating has been a topic of concern in the traditional literature of public administration. In his influential book The End of Liberalism, Professor Theordore Lowi suggested that capture resulted in part from vauge delegations of authority of Congress to regulatory agencies. Lowi argued that democracy would be better served if Congress were more specific in drafting laws, if agencies made greater use of formal rulemaking in implementing them, and if the courts rejected statutes which contained excessively vague delegations of authority - a remedy which he labeled juridicial democracy. This dissertation examines Lowi's theory in light of the experience of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the requirements of the Clean Air Act to prevent the significant deterioration of air quality in areas where air was already relatively clean. The history of the program to develop and carry out these requirements, known as PSD, is described in detail from its inception in the late 1960's through EPA's final regulations in 1980. Special attention is given to the actions taken by EPA after environmental groups successfully used the courts to force EPA to develop a PSD program in 1974, how Congress responded by amending the Clean Air Act in 1977, and the difficulties these amendments and subsequent additional court reviews caused for EPA.

  16. An Experimental Investigation Into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. The temperature profile was collected by instrumenting a foil bearing with nine, type K thermocouples arranged in the center and along the bearing s edges in order to measure local temperatures and estimate thermal gradients in the axial and circumferential directions. To facilitate the measurement of maximum temperatures from viscous shearing in the air film, the thermocouples were tack welded to the backside of the bumps that were in direct contact with the top foil. The mating journal was coated with a high temperature solid lubricant that, together with the bearing, underwent high temperature start-stop cycles to produce a smooth, steady-state run-in surface. Tests were conducted at speeds from 20 to 50 krpm and loads ranging from 9 to 222 N. The results indicate that, over the conditions tested, both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. The temperature distribution was nearly symmetric about the bearing center at 20 and 30 krpm but became slightly skewed toward one side at 40 and 50 krpm. Surprisingly, the maximum temperatures did not occur at the bearing edge where the minimum film thickness is expected but rather in the middle of the bearing where analytical investigations have predicted the air film to be much thicker. Thermal gradients were common during testing and were strongest in the axial direction from the middle of the bearing to its edges, reaching 3.78 8C/mm. The temperature profile indicated the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible.

  17. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  18. Lake Superior summer water temperatures are increasing more rapidly than regional air temperatures: A positive ice-albedo feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Jay A.; Colman, Steven M.

    2007-03-01

    Lake Superior summer (July-September) surface water temperatures have increased approximately 2.5°C over the interval 1979-2006, equivalent to a rate of (11 +/- 6) × 10-2°C yr-1, significantly in excess of regional atmospheric warming. This discrepancy is caused by declining winter ice cover, which is causing the onset of the positively stratified season to occur earlier at a rate of roughly a half day per year. An earlier start of the stratified season significantly increases the period over which the lake warms during the summer months, leading to a stronger trend in mean summer temperatures than would be expected from changes in summer air temperature alone.

  19. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature Over Central and Eastern Eurasia from MODIS Land Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2011-01-01

    Surface air temperature (T(sub a)) is a critical variable in the energy and water cycle of the Earth.atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. This is a preliminary study to evaluate estimation of T(sub a) from satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature (T(sub s)) by using MODIS-Terra data over two Eurasia regions: northern China and fUSSR. High correlations are observed in both regions between station-measured T(sub a) and MODIS T(sub s). The relationships between the maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) depend significantly on land cover types, but the minimum T(sub a) and nighttime T(sub s) have little dependence on the land cover types. The largest difference between maximum T(sub a) and daytime T(sub s) appears over the barren and sparsely vegetated area during the summer time. Using a linear regression method, the daily maximum T(sub a) were estimated from 1 km resolution MODIS T(sub s) under clear-sky conditions with coefficients calculated based on land cover types, while the minimum T(sub a) were estimated without considering land cover types. The uncertainty, mean absolute error (MAE), of the estimated maximum T(sub a) varies from 2.4 C over closed shrublands to 3.2 C over grasslands, and the MAE of the estimated minimum Ta is about 3.0 C.

  20. Simulation and projection of summer surface air temperature over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface air temperature changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The air temperature indices used in this study included tmx (daily maximum temperature), t2m (daily average temperature) and tmn (daily minimum temperature), and extreme high-temperature events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (warm days) and WSDI (warm spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface air temperature and extreme high-temperature events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface air temperature were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface air temperature over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three temperature indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-temperature events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface air temperature; Extreme high-temperature events; Regional climate model; Climate change

  1. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  2. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  3. Air Surface Temperature Correlation with Greenhouse Gases by Using Airs Data Over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop algorithms for calculating the air surface temperature (AST). This study also aims to analyze and investigate the effects of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the AST value in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression is used to achieve the objectives of the study. Peninsular Malaysia has been selected as the research area because it is among the regions of tropical Southeast Asia with the greatest humidity, pockets of heavy pollution, rapid economic growth, and industrialization. The predicted AST was highly correlated ( R = 0.783) with GHGs for the 6-year data (2003-2008). Comparisons of five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the wet season (within 1.3 K). The in situ data ranged from 1 to 2 K. Validation results showed that AST ( R = 0.776-0.878) has values nearly the same as the observed AST from AIRS. We found that O3 during the wet season was indicated by a strongly positive beta coefficient (0.264-0.992) with AST. The CO2 yields a reasonable relationship with temperature with low to moderate beta coefficient (-0.065 to 0.238). The O3, CO2, and environmental variables experienced different seasonal fluctuations that depend on weather conditions and topography. The concentration of gases and pollution were the highest over industrial zones and overcrowded cities, and the dry season was more polluted compared with the wet season. These results indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis to investigate the effect of atmospheric GHGs on AST over Peninsular Malaysia. An algorithm that is capable of retrieving Peninsular Malaysian AST in all weather conditions with total uncertainties ranging from 1 to 2 K was developed.

  4. Trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation time series over Greece: 1955-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marougianni, G.; Melas, D.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Anandranistakis, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a database of air temperature and precipitation time series from the network of Hellenic National Meteorological Service has been developed in the framework of the project GEOCLIMA, co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009. Initially, a quality test was applied to the raw data and then missing observations have been imputed with a regularized, spatial-temporal expectation - maximization algorithm to complete the climatic record. Next, a quantile - matching algorithm was applied in order to verify the homogeneity of the data. The processed time series were used for the calculation of temporal annual and seasonal trends of air temperature and precipitation. Monthly maximum and minimum surface air temperature and precipitation means at all available stations in Greece were analyzed for temporal trends and spatial variation patterns for the longest common time period of homogenous data (1955 - 2010), applying the Mann-Kendall test. The majority of the examined stations showed a significant increase in the summer maximum and minimum temperatures; this could be possibly physically linked to the Etesian winds, because of the less frequent expansion of the low over the southeastern Mediterranean. Summer minimum temperatures have been increasing at a faster rate than that of summer maximum temperatures, reflecting an asymmetric change of extreme temperature distributions. Total annual precipitation has been significantly decreased at the stations located in western Greece, as well as in the southeast, while the remaining areas exhibit a non-significant negative trend. This reduction is very likely linked to the positive phase of the NAO that resulted in an increase in the frequency and persistence of anticyclones over the Mediterranean.

  5. Data Assimilation Experiments using Quality Controlled AIRS Version 5 Temperature Soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm has been finalized and is now operational at the Goddard DAAC in the processing (and reprocessing) of all AlRS data. Version 5 contains accurate case-by-case error estimates for most derived products, which are also used for quality control. We have conducted forecast impact experiments assimilating AlRS quality controlled temperature profiles using the NASA GEOS-5 data assimilation system, consisting of the NCEP GSI analysis coupled with the NASA FVGCM. Assimilation of quality controlled temperature profiles resulted in significantly improved forecast skill in both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere Extra-Tropics, compared to that obtained from analyses obtained when all data used operationally by NCEP except for AlRS data is assimilated. Experiments using different Quality Control thresholds for assimilation of AlRS temperature retrievals showed that a medium quality control threshold performed better than a tighter threshold, which provided better overall sounding accuracy; or a looser threshold, which provided better spatial coverage of accepted soundings. We are conducting more experiments to further optimize this balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy from the data assimilation perspective. In all cases, temperature soundings were assimilated well below cloud level in partially cloudy cases. The positive impact of assimilating AlRS derived atmospheric temperatures all but vanished when only AIRS stratospheric temperatures were assimilated. Forecast skill resulting from assimilation of AlRS radiances uncontaminated by clouds, instead of AlRS temperature soundings, was only slightly better than that resulting from assimilation of only stratospheric AlRS temperatures. This reduction in forecast skill is most likely the result of significant loss of tropospheric information when only AIRS radiances unaffected by clouds are used in the data assimilation process.

  6. Cyclic Oxidation of High-Temperature Alloy Wires in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature alloy wires are proposed for use in seal applications for future re-useable space vehicles. These alloys offer the potential for improved wear resistance of the seals. The wires must withstand the high temperature environments the seals are subjected to as well as maintain their oxidation resistance during the heating and cooling cycles of vehicle re-entry. To model this, the wires were subjected to cyclic oxidation in stagnant air. of this layer formation is dependent on temperature. Slow growing oxides such as chromia and alumina are desirable. Once the oxide is formed it can prevent the metal from further reacting with its environment. Cyclic oxidation models the changes in temperature these wires will undergo in application. Cycling the temperature introduces thermal stresses which can cause the oxide layer to break off. Re-growth of the oxide layer consumes more metal and therefore reduces the properties and durability of the material. were used for cyclic oxidation testing. The baseline material, Haynes 188, has a Co base and is a chromia former while the other two alloys, Kanthal A1 and PM2000, both have a Fe base and are alumina formers. Haynes 188 and Kanthal A1 wires are 250 pm in diameter and PM2000 wires are 150 pm in diameter. The coiled wire has a total surface area of 3 to 5 sq cm. The wires were oxidized for 11 cycles at 1204 C, each cycle containing a 1 hour heating time and a minimum 20 minute cooling time. Weights were taken between cycles. After 11 cycles, one wire of each composition was removed for analysis. The other wire continued testing for 70 cycles. Post-test analysis includes X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for phase identification and morphology.

  7. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  8. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Frances E.; Bell, Thomas G.; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J.; Steinke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMSgas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models. PMID:27796323

  9. Effect of posture on body temperature of young men in cold air.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G C; Scarborough, M; Mridha, K; Whelan, L; Caunce, M; Keatinge, W R

    1996-01-01

    We studied eight young adult men to see whether a supine posture caused a fall in body core temperature in the cold, as it does in thermoneutral conditions. In air at 31 degrees C (thermoneutral), a supine posture for 3 h reduced mean aural, gastric, oesophageal and rectal temperatures by 0.2-0.4 degree C, compared to upright and increased femoral artery blood flow from 278 (SEM 42)ml.min-1 whilst upright to 437 (SEM 42) ml.min-1 whilst supine. In cold air (8 degrees C) the supine posture failed to reduce these temperatures [corrected] significantly, or to increase femoral blood flow: it reduced heart rate, and increased arterial systolic and pulse pressures adjusted to carotid sinus level, less than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the behaviour of core temperature at the four sites was significantly nonuniform between the two postures in the cold, mainly because the supine posture tended to reduce rectal temperature. It may have done so by reducing heat production in the muscles of the pelvis, since it reduced overall metabolic rate from 105 (SEM 8) to 87 (SEM 4) W.m-2 in the cold. In other respects the results indicated that posture ceased to have an important effect on body core temperatures during cold stress.

  10. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  11. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  12. Subseasonal variability of North American wintertime surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai

    2015-09-01

    Using observational pentad data of the recent 34 Northern Hemisphere extended winters, subseasonal variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over North America is analyzed. The four leading modes of subseasonal SAT variability, that are identified with an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, account for about 60% of the total variance. The first (EOF1) and second (EOF2) modes are independent of other modes, and thus are likely controlled by distinct processes. The third (EOF3) and fourth (EOF4) modes, however, tend to have a phase shift to each other in space and time, indicating that part of their variability is related to a common process and represent a propagating pattern over North America. Lagged regression analysis is conducted to identify the precursors of large-scale atmospheric circulation for each mode a few pentads in advance, and to understand the processes that influence the subseasonal SAT variability and the predictability signal sources. EOF1 is found to be closely related to the Pacific-North American (PNA) circulation pattern and at least part of its variability is preceded by the East Asian cold surge. The cold surge leads to low-level convergence and enhanced convection in the tropical central Pacific which in turn induces the PNA. EOF2 tends to oscillate at a period of about 70 days, and is influenced by the low-frequency component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). On the other hand, EOF3 and EOF4 are connected to the high-frequency part of the MJO which has a period range of 30-50 days. These findings would help understanding the mechanisms of subseasonal surface air temperature variability in North America and improving weather predictions on a subseasonal time scale.

  13. Effect of production microclimate on female thermal state with increased temperature and air humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machablishvili, O. G.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal state of women during the effect of high air temperature and relative humidity with a varying degree of physical loads was studied. Parameters for air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement were established. It was established that in women the thermo-regulatory stress occurs at lower air temperatures and with lower physical loads than in men. The accumulation of heat in women was revealed with lower air temperature than in men. It is concluded that to preserve the normal physiological state of the female organism it is necessary to create more favorable microclimate conditions and decrease the physical loads.

  14. Seasonal trends in precipitation and surface air temperature extremes in mainland Portugal, 1941-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Santo, F. E.; Ramos, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Several climate models predict, on a global scale, modifications in climate variables that are expected to have impact on society and the environment. The concern is on changes in the variability of processes, the mean and extreme events (maximum and minimum). To explore recent changes in precipitation and near surface air temperature extremes in mainland Portugal, we have inspected trends in time series of specific indices defined for daily data. These indices were recommended by the Commission for Climatology/Climate Variability and Predictability (CCl/CLIVAR) Working Group on Climate Change Detection, and include threshold indices, probability indices, duration indices and other indices. The precipitation and air temperature data used in this study are from, respectively, 57 and 23 measuring stations scattered across mainland Portugal, and cover the periods 1941-2007, for precipitation, and 1941-2006, for temperature. The study focuses on changes at the seasonal scale. Strong seasonality is one of the main features of climate in mainland Portugal. Intensification of the seasonality signal across the territory, particularly in the more sensitive regions, might contribute to endanger already fragile soil and water resources and ecosystems, and the local environmental and economic sustainability. Thus, the understanding of variations in the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme precipitation and air temperature events at the intra-annual scale is particularly important in this geographical area. Trend analyses were conducted over the full period of the records and for sub-periods, exploring patterns of change. Results show, on the one hand, regional differences in the tendency observed in the time series analysed; and, on the other hand, that although trends in annual indices are in general not statistically significant, there are sometimes significant changes over time in the data at the seasonal scale that point out to an increase in the already existing

  15. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Temperature increases in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions without adequately controlled environments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the temperature of the plant reproductive organs as affected by illumination and air movement under normal gravitational forces on the earth and to make an estimation of the temperature increase in reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under microgravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at air temperatures of 10 11 °C. Compared to the air temperature, temperatures of petals, stigmas and anthers of strawberry increased by 24, 22 and 14 °C, respectively, after 5 min of lighting at an irradiance of 160 W m-2 from incandescent lamps. Temperatures of reproductive organs and leaves of strawberry were significantly higher than those of rice. The temperatures of petals, stigmas, anthers and leaves of strawberry decreased by 13, 12, 13 and 14 °C, respectively, when the air velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1. These results show that air movement is necessary to reduce the temperatures of plant reproductive organs in plant growth facilities.

  16. Topographic and spatial impacts of temperature inversions on air quality using mobile air pollution surveys.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julie; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the spatial and topographic effects of temperature inversions on air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, located at the western tip of Lake Ontario, Canada. The city is divided by a 90-m high topographic scarp, the Niagara Escarpment, and dissected by valleys which open towards Lake Ontario. Temperature inversions occur frequently in the cooler seasons, exacerbating the impact of emissions from industry and traffic. This study used pollution data gathered from mobile monitoring surveys conducted over a 3-year period, to investigate whether the effects of the inversions varied across the city. Temperature inversions were identified with vertical temperature data from a meteorological tower located within the study area. We divided the study area into an upper and lower zone separated by the Escarpment and further into six zones, based on location with respect to the Escarpment and industrial and residential areas, to explore variations across the city. The results identified clear differences in the responses of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to temperature inversions, based on the topographic and spatial criteria. We found that pollution levels increased as the inversion strengthened, in the lower city. However, the results also suggested that temperature inversions identified in the lower city were not necessarily experienced in the upper city with the same intensity. Further, pollution levels in the upper city appeared to decrease as the inversion deepened in the lower city, probably because of an associated change in prevailing wind direction and lower wind speeds, leading to decreased long-range transport of pollutants. PMID:20705328

  17. 76 FR 55799 - Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power Center, LLC To Construct the Avenal Energy Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... decision granting the Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit...

  18. STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh

    2011-03-01

    An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air

  19. A prospective observational study of the association between cabin and outside air temperature, and patient temperature gradient during helicopter transport in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Richmond, C; Ware, S; Habig, K; Burns, B

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothermia in patients following helicopter transport varies widely. Low outside air temperature has been identified as a risk factor. Modern helicopters are insulated and have heating; therefore outside temperature may be unimportant if cabin heat is maintained. We sought to describe the association between outside air, cabin and patient temperature, and having the cabin temperature in the thermoneutral zone (18-36°C) in our helicopter-transported patients. We conducted a prospective observational study over one year. Patient temperature was measured on loading and engines off. Cabin and outside air temperature were recorded for the same time periods for each patient, as well as in-flight. Previously identified risk factors were recorded. Complete data was obtained for 133 patients. Patients' temperature increased by a median of 0.15°C (P=0.013). There was no association between outside air temperature or cabin temperature and patient temperature gradient. The best predictor of patient temperature on landing was patient temperature on loading (R2=0.86) and was not improved significantly when other risk factors were added (P=0.63). Thirty-five percent of patients were hypothermic on loading, including those transferred from district hospitals. No patient loaded normothermic became hypothermic when the cabin temperature was in the thermoneutral zone (P=0.04). A large proportion of patients in our sample were hypothermic at the referring hospital. The best predictor of patient temperature on landing is patient temperature on loading. This has implications for studies that fail to account for pre-flight temperature. PMID:27246941

  20. A prospective observational study of the association between cabin and outside air temperature, and patient temperature gradient during helicopter transport in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Richmond, C; Ware, S; Habig, K; Burns, B

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothermia in patients following helicopter transport varies widely. Low outside air temperature has been identified as a risk factor. Modern helicopters are insulated and have heating; therefore outside temperature may be unimportant if cabin heat is maintained. We sought to describe the association between outside air, cabin and patient temperature, and having the cabin temperature in the thermoneutral zone (18-36°C) in our helicopter-transported patients. We conducted a prospective observational study over one year. Patient temperature was measured on loading and engines off. Cabin and outside air temperature were recorded for the same time periods for each patient, as well as in-flight. Previously identified risk factors were recorded. Complete data was obtained for 133 patients. Patients' temperature increased by a median of 0.15°C (P=0.013). There was no association between outside air temperature or cabin temperature and patient temperature gradient. The best predictor of patient temperature on landing was patient temperature on loading (R2=0.86) and was not improved significantly when other risk factors were added (P=0.63). Thirty-five percent of patients were hypothermic on loading, including those transferred from district hospitals. No patient loaded normothermic became hypothermic when the cabin temperature was in the thermoneutral zone (P=0.04). A large proportion of patients in our sample were hypothermic at the referring hospital. The best predictor of patient temperature on landing is patient temperature on loading. This has implications for studies that fail to account for pre-flight temperature.

  1. Hydrological response to an abrupt shift in surface air temperature over France in 1987/88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brulebois, Etienne; Castel, Thierry; Richard, Yves; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Amiotte-Suchet, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    During the last few decades, Europe has seen a faster increase of observed temperature than that simulated by models. The air temperature over Western Europe showed an abrupt shift at the end of the 1980s, still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study is to assess the characteristics of this shift and its potential impacts on the hydrological cycle over France. Such an assessment is essential for a better understanding of past and future climatic changes and their impact on water resources. A subset of 119 temperature, 122 rainfall, and 30 hydrometric stations was studied, over the entire French metropolitan territory. Several change-point detection tests were applied to temperature, rainfall and runoff time series. A shift in annual mean air temperature was detected in 1987/88, for more than 75% of the stations, and for both minimum and maximum temperatures. An abrupt increase of about 1 °C in minimum and maximum temperature provides evidence of this shift, which shows strong seasonality, with significant increases for DJF, MAM and JJA. Its detection is not affected by the length of the time series or any potential artefacts associated to the conditions of measurement. Cluster analysis of the rainfall stations was used to take account of regional variability in rainfall evolution. Two climate areas were obtained from this analysis: Mediterranean and temperate. No shift was detected in rainfall for either area. However, at annual and quarterly scales, several changes in runoff were observed between the periods 1969-87 and 1988-09. The significant changes occurred from January to July, in agreement with maximum increases in temperature. Evapotranspiration could well play a key role in these changes in the hydrological cycle, as a response to temperature increases in the watersheds studied.

  2. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  3. An improved method for correction of air temperature measured using different radiation shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing

    2014-11-01

    The variation of air temperature measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most air temperature values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the air temperature errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the temperature error is considered and extreme errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.

  4. Temperature Stratification of Underfloor and Ceiling Based Air Heating Distribution System in an Experimental Room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katunský, Dušan; Lopušniak, Martin; Vašková, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Most of air heating and ventilating systems for passive houses inlet air in floors. It is assumed that a natural motion of air is led upwards, and so the right stratification of temperature in the space is ensured. However, in the case of excellently insulated buildings it is possible to assume that an upper inlet of air is also able to ensure the required layering of temperature. Within the experiment an influence of upper and down air inlet for temperature stratification in the space was followed. Night sensors of indoor air temperature are placed for measurement purposes. Measurements are done in the long term. The results from measurements show that both, vertical and horizontal stratification of temperature in rooms of passive houses are equal regardless of the fact, which system of air inlet is used.

  5. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  6. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index. PMID:26280557

  7. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index. PMID:26280557

  8. How the Plant Temperature Links to the Air Temperature in the Desert Plant Artemisia ordosica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Han; Ding, Guo-Dong; Gao, Guang-Lei; Sun, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wan, Li; Wang, De-Ying; Gui, Zi-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant temperature (Tp) is an important indicator of plant health. To determine the dynamics of plant temperature and self-cooling ability of the plant, we measured Tp in Artemisia ordosica in July, in the Mu Us Desert of Northwest China. Related factors were also monitored to investigate their effects on Tp, including environmental factors, such as air temperature (Ta), relative humidity, wind speed; and physiological factors, such as leaf water potential, sap flow, and water content. The results indicate that: 1) Tp generally changes in conjunction with Ta mainly, and varies with height and among the plant organs. Tp in the young branches is most constant, while it is the most sensitive in the leaves. 2) Correlations between Tp and environmental factors show that Tp is affected mainly by Ta. 3) The self-cooling ability of the plant was effective by midday, with Tp being lower than Ta. 4) Increasing sap flow and leaf water potential showed that transpiration formed part of the mechanism that supported self-cooling. Increased in water conductance and specific heat at midday may be additional factors that contribute to plant cooling ability. Therefore, our results confirmed plant self-cooling ability. The response to high temperatures is regulated by both transpiration speed and an increase in stem water conductance. This study provides quantitative data for plant management in terms of temperature control. Moreover, our findings will assist species selection with taking plant temperature as an index.

  9. Quantifying the Impact of Land Cover Composition on Intra-Urban Air Temperature Variations at a Mid-Latitude City

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hai; Fan, Shuxin; Guo, Chenxiao; Hu, Jie; Dong, Li

    2014-01-01

    The effects of land cover on urban-rural and intra-urban temperature differences have been extensively documented. However, few studies have quantitatively related air temperature to land cover composition at a local scale which may be useful to guide landscape planning and design. In this study, the quantitative relationships between air temperature and land cover composition at a neighborhood scale in Beijing were investigated through a field measurement campaign and statistical analysis. The results showed that the air temperature had a significant positive correlation with the coverage of man-made surfaces, but the degree of correlation varied among different times and seasons. The different land cover types had different effects on air temperature, and also had very different spatial extent dependence: with increasing buffer zone size (from 20 to 300 m in radius), the correlation coefficient of different land cover types varied differently, and their relative impacts also varied among different times and seasons. At noon in summer, ∼37% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage tree cover, while ∼87% of the variations in temperature were explained by the percentage of building area and the percentage tree cover on summer night. The results emphasize the key role of tree cover in attenuating urban air temperature during daytime and nighttime in summer, further highlighting that increasing vegetation cover could be one effective way to ameliorate the urban thermal environment. PMID:25010134

  10. Effect of low air velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beumer, Ronald J.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of different low air velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational temperature and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four air velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between air velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body temperatures. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal temperature and the greatest drop in skin temperature at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body temperatures; skin temperatures declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal temperature increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all air velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded warm and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low air velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin temperature measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.

  11. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  12. Analysis of spanwise temperature distribution in three types of air-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N B; Brown, W Byron

    1950-01-01

    Methods for computing spanwise blade-temperature distributions are derived for air-cooled hollow blades, air-cooled hollow blades with inserts, and air-cooled blades containing internal cooling fins. Individual and combined effects on spanwise blade-temperature distributions of cooling-air and radial heat conduction are determined. In general, the effects of radiation and radial heat conduction were found to be small and the omission of these variations permitted the construction of nondimensional charts for use in determining spanwise temperature distribution through air-cooled turbine blades. An approximate method for determining the allowable stress-limited blade-temperature distribution is included, with brief accounts of a method for determining the maximum allowable effective gas temperatures and the cooling-air requirements. Numerical examples that illustrate the use of the various temperature-distribution equations and of the nondimensional charts are also included.

  13. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. PMID:22721687

  14. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  15. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses on Very High Temperature Reactor Air Ingress

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang

    2009-07-01

    A preliminary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to understand density-gradient-induced stratified flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) air-ingress accident. Various parameters were taken into consideration, including turbulence model, core temperature, initial air mole-fraction, and flow resistance in the core. The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) 600 MWt was selected as the reference reactor and it was simplified to be 2-D geometry in modeling. The core and the lower plenum were assumed to be porous bodies. Following the preliminary CFD results, the analysis of the air-ingress accident has been performed by two different codes: GAMMA code (system analysis code, Oh et al. 2006) and FLUENT CFD code (Fluent 2007). Eventually, the analysis results showed that the actual onset time of natural convection (~160 sec) would be significantly earlier than the previous predictions (~150 hours) calculated based on the molecular diffusion air-ingress mechanism. This leads to the conclusion that the consequences of this accident will be much more serious than previously expected.

  17. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  18. Apparatus for supplying conditioned air at a substantially constant temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus includes a supply duct coupled to a source of supply air for carrying the supply air therethrough. A return duct is coupled to the supply duct for carrying return conditioned air therethrough. A temperature reducing device is coupled to the supply duct for decreasing the temperature of the supply and return conditioned air. A by-pass duct is coupled to the supply duct for selectively directing portions of the supply and return conditioned air around the temperature reducing device. Another by-pass duct is coupled to the return duct for selectively directing portions of the return conditioned air around the supply duct and the temperature reduction device. Controller devices selectively control the flow and amount of mixing of the supply and return conditioned air.

  19. High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL Small-Scale Development Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L.; Sato, K.

    1993-12-31

    The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger-scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a lo-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed pressure of 0.1 MPa. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K to 650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments. Experiments were conducted to measure the rate of hydrogen oxidation in the absence of ignition sources at temperatures of 500K and 650K, for hydrogen-air mixtures of 15 percent and 50 percent, and for a mixture of equimolar hydrogen-air and 30 percent steam at 650K. The rate of hydrogen oxidation was found to be significant at 650K. Reduction of hydrogen concentration by chemical reaction from 50 to 44 percent hydrogen, and from 15 to 11 percent hydrogen, were observed on a time frame of minutes.

  20. Regression analysis in modeling of air surface temperature and factors affecting its value in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jasim Mohammed; Jafri, Mohd. Zubir Mat; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-10-01

    This study encompasses air surface temperature (AST) modeling in the lower atmosphere. Data of four atmosphere pollutant gases (CO, O3, CH4, and H2O) dataset, retrieved from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), from 2003 to 2008 was employed to develop a model to predict AST value in the Malaysian peninsula using the multiple regression method. For the entire period, the pollutants were highly correlated (R=0.821) with predicted AST. Comparisons among five stations in 2009 showed close agreement between the predicted AST and the observed AST from AIRS, especially in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season, within 1.3 K, and for in situ data, within 1 to 2 K. The validation results of AST with AST from AIRS showed high correlation coefficient (R=0.845 to 0.918), indicating the model's efficiency and accuracy. Statistical analysis in terms of β showed that H2O (0.565 to 1.746) tended to contribute significantly to high AST values during the northeast monsoon season. Generally, these results clearly indicate the advantage of using the satellite AIRS data and a correlation analysis study to investigate the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases on AST over the Malaysian peninsula. A model was developed that is capable of retrieving the Malaysian peninsulan AST in all weather conditions, with total uncertainties ranging between 1 and 2 K.

  1. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  2. R&D on Micro-pyrolyzer for Solid Wastes Using High Temperature Steam and Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    An innovative micro-gasification system for solid wastes is proposed in this paper, whose technical feasibility is demonstrated by using rubber chips as a fuel. In this system, a batch-type fixed-bed pyrolyzer combined with a high temperature steam/air reformer is employed. In the present investigation, it is shown that supply of high temperature air into the pyrolyzer significantly increases the heating value of the pyrolysis gas. With the use of high temperature steam/air mixture as an oxidant for reforming, almost complete reforming of the tar components can be done and they are decomposed into CO, H2 and other hydrocarbon gases with reasonable decrease of the heating value of the reformed gas compared with that of the pyrolysis gas. With packing ceramic balls in the reformer, reforming reactions can be accelerated. The experimental results demonstrate that almost soot and tar free clean reformed gas with the heating value of above 1000kcal/Nm3 can be generated from rubber chips.

  3. The design of an air filtration system to clean high temperature/high humidity radioactive air streams

    SciTech Connect

    Proffitt, T.H.; Burket, J.P.

    1994-12-31

    During normal operating processes or waste remediation efforts high efficiency (HEPA) filtration systems are used to remove particulate contamination from air streams. These HEPA filtration systems can accommodate a range of air humidities and temperatures and still retain their effectiveness. However, when the combination of high humidity and high temperature are present the effect of these highly saturated air streams can be detrimental to a HEPA filtration system. Couple this highly saturated air stream with the effect of radioactivity and a case for a {open_quotes}specialized{close_quotes} HEPA filter system can be made. However, using fundamental laws of heat transfer it is possible to design a a HEPA a filter system that can operate in a high temperature/high humidity radioactive environment.

  4. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  5. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  6. Use of satellite land surface temperatures in the EUSTACE global surface air temperature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Rayner, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    EUSTACE (EU Surface Temperatures for All Corners of Earth) is a Horizon2020 project that will produce a spatially complete, near-surface air temperature (NSAT) analysis for the globe for every day since 1850. The analysis will be based on both satellite and in situ surface temperature observations over land, sea, ice and lakes, which will be combined using state-of-the-art statistical methods. The use of satellite data will enable the EUSTACE analysis to offer improved estimates of NSAT in regions that are poorly observed in situ, compared with existing in-situ based analyses. This presentation illustrates how satellite land surface temperature (LST) data - sourced from the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobTemperature project - will be used in EUSTACE. Satellite LSTs represent the temperature of the Earth's skin, which can differ from the corresponding NSAT by several degrees or more, particularly during the hottest part of the day. Therefore the first challenge is to develop an approach to estimate global NSAT from satellite observations. Two methods will be trialled in EUSTACE, both of which are summarised here: an established empirical regression-based approach for predicting NSAT from satellite data, and a new method whereby NSAT is calculated from LST and other parameters using a physics-based model. The second challenge is in estimating the uncertainties for the satellite NSAT estimates, which will determine how these data are used in the final blended satellite-in situ analysis. This is also important as a key component of EUSTACE is in delivering accurate uncertainty information to users. An overview of the methods to estimate the satellite NSATs is also included in this presentation.

  7. One-Component Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagrams in the Presence of Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Martire, Daniel O.; Donati, Edgardo R.

    2010-01-01

    One-component phase diagrams are good approximations to predict pressure-temperature ("P-T") behavior of a substance in the presence of air, provided air pressure is not much higher than the vapor pressure. However, at any air pressure, and from the conceptual point of view, the use of a traditional "P-T" phase diagram is not strictly correct. In…

  8. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  13. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, A.; Kaleschke, L.; Lüpkes, C.; Ament, F.; Vihma, T.

    2012-07-01

    The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and the JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model which only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I and AMSR-E data. Under nearly cloud free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 60% for Barrow using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Near-surface winds of both reanalyses show a large inconsistency in the Central Arctic, which leads to a large difference in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures at Tara. Explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and only 45% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 150 to 350 km radius around the site.

  14. Baseline tumor growth and immune control in laboratory mice are significantly influenced by subthermoneutral housing temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Capitano, Maegan L.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Eng, Jason W.-L.; Waight, Jeremy D.; Hylander, Bonnie L.; Sexton, Sandra; Hong, Chi-Chen; Gordon, Christopher J.; Abrams, Scott I.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that fundamental aspects of antitumor immunity in mice are significantly influenced by ambient housing temperature. Standard housing temperature for laboratory mice in research facilities is mandated to be between 20–26 °C; however, these subthermoneutral temperatures cause mild chronic cold stress, activating thermogenesis to maintain normal body temperature. When stress is alleviated by housing at thermoneutral ambient temperature (30–31 °C), we observe a striking reduction in tumor formation, growth rate and metastasis. This improved control of tumor growth is dependent upon the adaptive immune system. We observe significantly increased numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells with an activated phenotype in the tumor microenvironment at thermoneutrality. At the same time there is a significant reduction in numbers of immunosuppressive MDSCs and regulatory T lymphocytes. Notably, in temperature preference studies, tumor-bearing mice select a higher ambient temperature than non-tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that tumor-bearing mice experience a greater degree of cold-stress. Overall, our data raise the hypothesis that suppression of antitumor immunity is an outcome of cold stress-induced thermogenesis. Therefore, the common approach of studying immunity against tumors in mice housed only at standard room temperature may be limiting our understanding of the full potential of the antitumor immune response. PMID:24248371

  15. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial

  16. Interaction of temperature, humidity, driver preferences, and refrigerant type on air conditioning compressor usage.

    PubMed

    Levine, C; Younglove, T; Barth, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent studies have shown large increases in vehicle emissions when the air conditioner (AC) compressor is engaged. Factors that affect the compressor-on percentage can have a significant impact on vehicle emissions and can also lead to prediction errors in current emissions models if not accounted for properly. During 1996 and 1997, the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) conducted a vehicle activity study for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the Sacramento, CA, region. The vehicles were randomly selected from all registered vehicles in the region. As part of this study, ten vehicles were instrumented to collect AC compressor on/off data on a second-by-second basis in the summer of 1997. Temperature and humidity data were obtained and averaged on an hourly basis. The ten drivers were asked to complete a short survey about AC operational preferences. This paper examines the effects of temperature, humidity, refrigerant type, and driver preferences on air conditioning compressor activity. Overall, AC was in use in 69.1% of the trips monitored. The compressor was on an average of 64% of the time during the trips. The personal preference settings had a significant effect on the AC compressor-on percentage but did not interact with temperature. The refrigerant types, however, exhibited a differential response across temperature, which may necessitate separate modeling of the R12 refrigerant-equipped vehicles from the R134A-equipped vehicles. It should be noted that some older vehicles do get retrofitted with new compressors that use R134A; however, none of the vehicles in this study had been retrofitted.

  17. The Role of Auxiliary Variables in Deterministic and Deterministic-Stochastic Spatial Models of Air Temperature in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Kryza, Maciej

    2015-11-01

    Our study examines the role of auxiliary variables in the process of spatial modelling and mapping of climatological elements, with air temperature in Poland used as an example. The multivariable algorithms are the most frequently applied for spatialization of air temperature, and their results in many studies are proved to be better in comparison to those obtained by various one-dimensional techniques. In most of the previous studies, two main strategies were used to perform multidimensional spatial interpolation of air temperature. First, it was accepted that all variables significantly correlated with air temperature should be incorporated into the model. Second, it was assumed that the more spatial variation of air temperature was deterministically explained, the better was the quality of spatial interpolation. The main goal of the paper was to examine both above-mentioned assumptions. The analysis was performed using data from 250 meteorological stations and for 69 air temperature cases aggregated on different levels: from daily means to 10-year annual mean. Two cases were considered for detailed analysis. The set of potential auxiliary variables covered 11 environmental predictors of air temperature. Another purpose of the study was to compare the results of interpolation given by various multivariable methods using the same set of explanatory variables. Two regression models: multiple linear (MLR) and geographically weighted (GWR) method, as well as their extensions to the regression-kriging form, MLRK and GWRK, respectively, were examined. Stepwise regression was used to select variables for the individual models and the cross-validation method was used to validate the results with a special attention paid to statistically significant improvement of the model using the mean absolute error (MAE) criterion. The main results of this study led to rejection of both assumptions considered. Usually, including more than two or three of the most significantly

  18. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sharovsky, R; César, L A M; Ramires, J A F

    2004-11-01

    An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure), air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate), and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6 degrees C. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05) for each 10 microg/m(3) increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  19. Research report on the physiological effects of air ions and their significance as environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, A.

    1978-01-01

    The series of experiments performed have shown that small air ions generated artificially using radioactive materials produced physiological effects in all test subjects, which are described. These results show that the air ions were important climatic factors in the production of comfortable and healthy room climates.

  20. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-03-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with an uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 (standard error) and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard-error uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the Global Positioning System, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that the new laser air-motion sensor, combined with parametrized fits to correction factors for the measured dynamic and ambient pressure, provides a measurement of temperature that is independent of any other temperature sensor.

  1. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  2. Predicting seed cotton moisture content from changes in drying air temperature - second year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mathematical model was used to predict seed cotton moisture content in the overhead section of a cotton gin. The model took into account the temperature, mass flow, and specific heat of both the air and seed cotton. Air temperatures and mass flows were measured for a second year at a commercial g...

  3. Prediction of air temperature in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volavý, F.; Fišer, J.; Nöske, I.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the air temperature in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF) located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin temperatures were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. Air temperature in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface temperature and air temperature distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of air temperature from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for temperature prediction is discussed.

  4. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  5. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Gas Temperature in a Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Air Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipold, Frank; Hufney Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-10-01

    The application of electrical pulses with duration shorter than the time constant for glow-to-arc transition allows us to shift the electron energy distribution in high pressure glow discharges temporally to high energy values [1]. Application of these nonequilibrium plasmas are plasma ramparts, plasma reactors, and excimer light sources. In order to obtain information on the electron energy distribution , or electron energy, respectively, and the gas temperature with the required temporal resolution of 1 ns, we have explored two diagnostic methods. One is based on the evaluation of the bremsstrahlung. This method allows us to determine the electron temperature [2]. The gas temperature is obtained from the rotational spectrum of the second positive system of nitrogen. The results of measurement on a 10 ns pulsed atmospheric pressure air glow will be presented. References [1] Robert H. Stark and Karl H. Schoenbach, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3568 (2001) [2] Jaeyoung Park, Ivars Henins, Hans W. Herrmann, and Gary S. Selwyn, Physics of Plasmas 7, 3141 (2000). [3] R. Block, O. Toedter, and K. H. Schoenbach, Bull. APS 43, 1478 (1998)

  6. Modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to seasonal snow using air and tree trunk temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Zahner, Franziska; Jonas, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Data collected at three Swiss alpine forested sites over a combined 11 year period were used to evaluate the role of air temperature in modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface. Simulated subcanopy incoming longwave radiation is traditionally partitioned into that from the sky and that from the canopy, i.e., a two-part model. Initial uncertainties in predicting longwave radiation using the two-part model resulted from vertical differences in measured air temperature. Above-canopy (35 m) air temperatures were higher than those within (10 m) and below (2 m) canopy throughout four snow seasons (December-April), demonstrating how the forest canopy can act as a cold sink for air. Lowest model root-mean-square error (RMSE) was using above-canopy air temperature. Further investigation of modeling subcanopy longwave radiation using above-canopy air temperature showed underestimations, particularly during periods of high insolation. In order to explicitly account for canopy temperatures in modeling longwave radiation, the two-part model was improved by incorporating a measured trunk view component and trunk temperature. Trunk temperature measurements were up to 25°C higher than locally measured air temperatures. This three-part model reduced the RMSE by up to 7.7 W m-2 from the two-part air temperature model at all sensor positions across the 2014 snowmelt season and performed particularly well during periods of high insolation when errors from the two-part model were up to 40 W m-2. A parameterization predicting tree trunk temperatures using measured air temperature and incoming shortwave radiation demonstrate a simple method that can be applied to provide input to the three-part model across midlatitude coniferous forests.

  7. Comparison of MODIS Satellite Land Surface Temperature with Air Temperature along a 5000-metre Elevation Transect on Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.; Williams, R.; Maeda, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    There is concern that high elevations may be warming more rapidly than lower elevations, but there is a lack of observational data from weather stations in the high mountains. One alternative data source is satellite LST (Land Surface Temperature) which has extensive spatial coverage. This study compares instantaneous values of LST (1030 and 2230 local solar time) as measured by the MODIS MOD11A2 product at 1 km resolution with equivalent screen level air temperatures (in the same pixel) measured from a transect of 22 in situ weather stations across Kilimanjaro ranging in elevation from 990 to 5803 m. Data consists of 11 years on the SW slope and 3 years on the NE slope, equating to >500 and ~140 octtads (8-day periods) respectively. Results show substantial differences between LST and local air temperature, sometimes up to 20C. During the day the LST tends to be higher than air temperature and the reverse is true at night. The differences show large variance, particularly during the daytime, and tend to increase with elevation, particularly on the NE slope of the mountain which faces the sun when the daytime observations are taken (1030 LST). Differences between LST and air temperature are larger in the dry seasons (JF and JJAS), and reduce when conditions are more cloudy. Systematic relationships with cloud cover and vegetation characteristics (as measured by NDVI and MAIAC for the same pixel) are displayed. More vegetation reduces daytime surface heating above the air temperature, but this relationship weakens with elevation. Nighttime differences are more stable and show no relationship with vegetation indices. Therefore the predictability of the LST/air temperature differences reduces at high elevations and it is therefore much more challenging to use satellite data at high elevations to complement in situ air temperature measurements for climate change assessments, especially for daytime maximum temperatures.

  8. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  9. Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor air temperature on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and air temperature. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied daily at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, temperature seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the daily indoor air temperature ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the daily activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor air temperature ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. Daily CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while daily NH 3 emissions increased

  10. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  11. Homogenisation of minimum and maximum air temperature in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, L.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Mendes, L.; Amorim, L.; Nunes, L.

    2012-04-01

    Homogenization of minimum and maximum air temperature has been carried out for northern Portugal for the period 1941-2010. The database corresponds to the values of the monthly arithmetic averages calculated from daily values observed at stations within the network of stations managed by the national Institute of Meteorology (IM). Some of the weather stations of IM's network are collecting data for more than a century; however, during the entire observing period, some factors have affected the climate series and have to be considered such as, changes in the station surroundings and changes related to replacement of manually operated instruments. Besides these typical changes, it is of particular interest the station relocation to rural areas or to the urban-rural interface and the installation of automatic weather stations in the vicinity of the principal or synoptic stations with the aim of replacing them. The information from these relocated and new stations was merged to produce just one but representative time series of that site. This process starts at the end 90's and the information of the time series fusion process constitutes the set of metadata used. Two basic procedures were performed: (i) preliminary statistical and quality control analysis; and, (ii) detection and correction of problems of homogeneity. In the first case, was developed and used software for quality control, specifically dedicated for the detection of outliers, based on the quartile values of the time series itself. The analysis of homogeneity was performed using the MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation) and HOMER, which is a software application developed and recently made available within the COST Action ES0601 (COST-ES0601, 2012). Both methods provide a fast quality control of the original data and were developed for automatic processing, analyzing, homogeneity testing and adjusting of climatological data, but manual usage is also possible. Obtained results with both

  12. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  13. Relationship between alpine tourism demand and hot summer air temperatures associated with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebetez, M.; Serquet, G.

    2010-09-01

    We quantified the impacts of hot summer air temperatures on tourism in the Swiss Alps by analyzing the relationship between temperature and overnight stays in 40 Alpine resorts. Several temperature and insolation thresholds were tested to detect their relationship to summer tourism. Our results reveal significant correlations between the number of nights spent in mountain resorts and hot temperatures at lower elevations. Alpine resorts nearest to cities are most sensitive to hot temperatures. This is probably because reactions to hot episodes take place on a short-term basis as heat waves remain relatively rare. The correlation in June is stronger compared to the other months, probably because school holidays and the peak domestic tourist demand in summer usually takes place in July and August. Our results suggest that alpine tourist resorts could benefit from hotter temperatures at lower elevations under future climates. Tourists already react on a short-term basis to hot days and spend more nights in hotels in mountain resorts. If heat waves become more regular, it seems likely that tourists choose to stay at alpine resorts more frequently and for longer periods.

  14. Air temperature change in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change. PMID:24348192

  15. Air temperature change in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The temperature data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface temperature (ST), 850 hPa temperature (T850), and 700 hPa temperature (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa temperature (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the change rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air temperature (UT) to ST change.

  16. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P significantly higher (P significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate for the first time that increases in body heat and moisture result in an underestimation of body fat when using the BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  17. Auto-ignitions of a methane/air mixture at high and intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschevich, V. V.; Martynenko, V. V.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Shabunya, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    A rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube (ST) have been employed to study ignition delay times of homogeneous methane/air mixtures at intermediate-to-high temperatures. Both facilities allow measurements to be made at temperatures of 900-2000 K, at pressures of 0.38-2.23 MPa, and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. In ST experiments, nitrogen served as a diluent gas, whereas in RCM runs the diluent gas composition ranged from pure nitrogen to pure argon. Recording pressure, UV, and visible emissions identified the evolution of chemical reactions. Correlations of ignition delay time were generated from the data for each facility. At temperatures below 1300 K, a significant reduction of average activation energy from 53 to 15.3 kcal/mol was obtained. Moreover, the RCM data showed significant scatter that dramatically increased with decreasing temperature. An explanation for the abnormal scatter in the data was proposed based on the high-speed visualization of auto-ignition phenomena and experiments performed with oxygen-free and fuel-free mixtures. It is proposed that the main reason for such a significant reduction of average activation energy is attributable to the premature ignition of ultrafine particles in the reactive mixture.

  18. Auto-ignitions of a methane/air mixture at high and intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschevich, V. V.; Martynenko, V. V.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Shabunya, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    A rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube (ST) have been employed to study ignition delay times of homogeneous methane/air mixtures at intermediate-to-high temperatures. Both facilities allow measurements to be made at temperatures of 900-2000 K, at pressures of 0.38-2.23 MPa, and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. In ST experiments, nitrogen served as a diluent gas, whereas in RCM runs the diluent gas composition ranged from pure nitrogen to pure argon. Recording pressure, UV, and visible emissions identified the evolution of chemical reactions. Correlations of ignition delay time were generated from the data for each facility. At temperatures below 1300 K, a significant reduction of average activation energy from 53 to 15.3 kcal/mol was obtained. Moreover, the RCM data showed significant scatter that dramatically increased with decreasing temperature. An explanation for the abnormal scatter in the data was proposed based on the high-speed visualization of auto-ignition phenomena and experiments performed with oxygen-free and fuel-free mixtures. It is proposed that the main reason for such a significant reduction of average activation energy is attributable to the premature ignition of ultrafine particles in the reactive mixture.

  19. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind,Joel

    2009-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used by the AIRS Science Team in preparation for the AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both

  20. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  1. Some Effects of Air and Fuel Oil Temperatures on Spray Penetration and Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G

    1930-01-01

    Presented here are experimental results obtained from a brief investigation of the appearance, penetration, and dispersion of oil sprays injected into a chamber of highly heated air at atmospheric pressure. The development of single sprays injected into a chamber containing air at room temperature and at high temperature was recorded by spray photography equipment. A comparison of spray records showed that with the air at the higher temperature, the spray assumed the appearance of thin, transparent cloud, the greatest part of which rapidly disappeared from view. With the chamber air at room temperature, a compact spray with an opaque core was obtained. Measurements of the records showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in the dispersion of the spray injected into the heated air. No ignition of the fuel injected was observed or recorded until the spray particles came in contact with the much hotter walls of the chamber about 0.3 second after the start of injection.

  2. Low-cycle fatigue of two austenitic alloys in hydrogen gas and air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Rice, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue resistance of type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy Alloy X was evaluated in constant-amplitude, strain-controlled fatigue tests conducted under continuous negative strain cycling at a constant strain rate of 0.001 per sec and at total axial strain ranges of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 percent in both hydrogen gas and laboratory air environments in the temperature range 538-871 C. Elevated-temperature, compressive-strain hold-time experiments were also conducted. In hydrogen, the cyclic stress-strain behavior of both materials at 538 C was characterized by appreciable cyclic hardening at all strain ranges. At 871 C neither material hardened significantly; in fact, at 5% strain range 347 steel showed continuous cyclic softening until failure. The fatigue resistance of 347 steel was slightly higher than that of Alloy X at all temperatures and strain ranges. Ten-minute compressive hold time experiments at 760 and 871 C resulted in increased fatigue lives for 347 steel and decreased fatigue lives for Alloy X. Both alloys showed slightly lower fatigue resistance in air than in hydrogen. Some fractographic and metallographic results are also given.

  3. Relationship between air temperature and diacid relative abundances in lower troposphere aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere, R.; Kawamura, K.; Poggiale, J.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected in western Pacific, Arctic, as well as in urban area in Europe and Japan at differents seasons covering a large range of temperature. They were analyzed for total carbon (TC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) along with the molecular distributions of C2-C10 a, w-dicarboxylic acids, and related polar compounds, mainly, w-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9) and a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3). Oxalic acid (C2) was usually the most abundant followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. We observed that relative abundance of oxalic acid (C2) and succinic acid (C4)/ total diacids were correlated with air temperature. These findings suggest that the intensity of photochemical oxidation reactions and thus the variation in sunlight intensity characterized here by air temperature, significantly control the molecular distribution of water-soluble organic compounds during the long-range transport of anthropogenic and/or biogenic higher molecular weight organic compounds.

  4. The flammability limits of hydrogen and methane in air at moderately elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ale, B.B.; Wierzba, I.

    1997-12-31

    The flammability limits of hydrogen and methane in air were determined experimentally at elevated initial mixture temperatures up to 350 C at atmospheric pressure for upward flame propagation in a conventional steel test tube apparatus. Additionally, the extent to which a prolonged exposure (i.e., residence time) of the mixture to elevated temperatures before spark ignition and, consequently, the existence of pre-ignition reactions that may influence the value of the lean and rich flammability limits was also investigated. It was shown that the flammability limits for methane widened approximately linearly with an increase in the initial mixture temperature over the whole range of temperatures tested. These limits were not affected by the length of the residence time before spark ignition. Different behavior was observed for flammability limits of hydrogen. They were also widened with an increase in the initial temperature but only up to 200 C. In this initial temperature range the limits were not affected by the length of the residence time. However, at initial temperature exceeding 200 C the flammability limits, especially, the rich limits narrowed with an increase in the temperature and were significantly affected by the residence time before spark ignition. It was suggested that the substantial drop in the value of the rich limit with the increase in the residence time was caused by the relatively low temperature catalytic reactions on the stainless steel surface of the flame tube. Simple method for calculating the hydrogen conversion to water was proposed. The results of calculations are in fair agreement with the experimental evidence.

  5. Attribution of precipitation changes on ground-air temperature offset: Granger causality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise

    2016-06-01

    This work examines the causal relationship between the value of the ground-air temperature offset and the precipitation changes for monitored 5-min data series together with their hourly and daily averages obtained at the Sporilov Geophysical Observatory (Prague). Shallow subsurface soil temperatures were monitored under four different land cover types (bare soil, sand, short-cut grass and asphalt). The ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) offset, ΔT(GST-SAT), is defined as the difference between the temperature measured at the depth of 2 cm below the surface and the air temperature measured at 5 cm above the surface. The results of the Granger causality test did not reveal any evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to ground-air temperature offsets on the daily scale of aggregation except for the asphalt pavement. On the contrary, a strong evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to the ground-air temperature offsets was found on the hourly scale of aggregation for all land cover types except for the sand surface cover. All results are sensitive to the lag choice of the autoregressive model. On the whole, obtained results contain valuable information on the delay time of ΔT(GST-SAT) caused by the rainfall events and confirmed the importance of using autoregressive models to understand the ground-air temperature relationship.

  6. Validation of AIRS V6 Surface Temperature over Greenland with GCN and NOAA Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Hearty, Thomas; Cullather, Richard; Nowicki, Sophie; Susskind, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This work compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRSAMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A) Version 6 and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Collection 5 derived surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based surface temperature measurements, we re-projected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) to 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) into the same grid but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. Using this approach, the spatial comparison between the monthly mean AIRS Ts and MODIS IST is in good agreement with RMS 2K for May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in the MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net (GCN) and NOAA stations. The coherent time series of surface temperature evident in the correlation between AIRS Ts and GCN temperatures suggest that at monthly time scales both observations capture the same climate signal over Greenland. It is also suggested that AIRS surface air temperature (Ta) can be used to estimate the boundary layer inversion.

  7. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape.

  8. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape. PMID:26706765

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Surface Temperature Over Greenland As Observed In AIRS, MODIS and In-Situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. N.; Susskind, J.; Wu, D. L.; Nowicki, S.; Hall, D. K.; Iredell, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares the temporal and spatial characteristics of the AIRS and MODIS surface temperatures over Greenland. To estimate uncertainties in space-based temperature measurements, we reprojected the MODIS Ice Surface Temperature (IST) into 0.5 by 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We also re-gridded AIRS Skin Temperature (Ts) with same spatial resolution but classified with different cloud conditions and surface types. These co-located data sets make intercomparison between the two instruments relatively straightforward. By this approach, the spatial comparison between AIRS Ts and MODIS IST monthly mean is in good agreement with RMS less than 2K during May 2012. This approach also allows the detection of any long-term calibration drift and the careful examination of calibration consistency in MODIS and AIRS temperature data record. The temporal correlations between temperature data are also compared with those from in-situ measurements from GC-Net and NOAA stations. The most significant diurnal difference is found during spring season (April and May) in high altitude regions, when interannual variability is relatively smaller than summer and winter.

  10. Investigation of the impact of extreme air temperature on river water temperature: case study of the heat episode 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Goler, Robert; Formayer, Herbert; Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water stream temperature is a relevant factor for water quality since it is an important driver of water oxygen content and in turn also reduces or increases stress on the aquatic fauna. The water temperature of streams is determined by the source and inflow water temperature, by the energy balance at the stream surface and by the hydrological regime of the stream. Main factors driving the energy balance of streams are radiation balance and air temperature which influences the sensitive and latent heat flux. The present study investigates the impact of the heat episode of summer 2013 on water temperature of two lowland rivers in south eastern Austria. Within the scope of the project BIO_CLIC routine measurements of water temperature at 33 locations alongside the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz have been performed since spring 2012. In addition meteorological measurements of global shortwave and longwave radiation, air temperature, wind and air humidity have been carried out during this time. For the same time period, data of discharge and water levels of both rivers were provided by the public hydrological office. The heat episode of summer 2013 started, according to the Kysely- definition, on 18 July and lasted until 14 August. The highest air temperature ever recorded in Austria was reported on 8 August at 40.5°C. In Güssing, which is located within the project area, 40.0 °C were recorded. In the lower reaches of the river Pinka, at the station Burg the monthly mean water temperature of August 2013 was with more than 22°C, 1°C higher than the mean water temperature of the same period of the previous years. At the same station, the maximum water temperature of 27.1°C was recorded on 29 July, 9 days prior to the air temperature record. Analysis shows that at the downstream stations the main driving parameter is solar radiation whereas at the upstream stations a better correlation between air temperature and water temperature is obtained. Using the extensive data set

  11. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old mallards and a standard operative temperature scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Most duckling mortality occurs during the week following hatching and is often associated with cold, windy, wet weather and scattering of the brood. We estimated the thermoregulatory demands imposed by cold, windy weather on isolated 1-d-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings resting in cover. We measured O-2 consumption and evaporative water loss at air temperatures from 5 degrees to 25 degrees C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mis. Metabolic heat production increased as wind increased or temperature decreased but was less sensitive to wind than that of either adult passerines or small mammals. Evaporative heat loss ranged from 5% to 17% of heat production. Evaporative heal loss and the ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production was significantly lower in rest phase. These data were used to define a standard operative temperature (T-es) scale for night or heavy overcast conditions. An increase of wind speed from 0.1 to 1 mis decreased T-es by 3 degrees-5 degrees C.

  12. Comparison of Near-Surface Air Temperatures and MODIS Ice-Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Mefford, Thomas K.; Schnaubelt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared-derived ice surface temperature (IST) data from Terra for use as a climate quality data record. The availability of climate quality air temperature data (TA) from a NOAA Global Monitoring Division observatory at Greenlands Summit station has enabled this high temporal resolution study of MODIS ISTs. During a 5 year period (July 2008 to August 2013), more than 2500 IST values were compared with 3-minute average TA values derived from the 1-minute data from NOAAs primary 2 m air temperature sensor. These data enabled an expected small offset between air and surface temperatures at this the ice sheet location to be investigated over multiple annual cycles.

  13. Geographical and Geomorphological Effects on Air Temperatures in the Columbia Basin's Signature Vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, L.; Pogue, K. R.; Bader, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon is one of the most productive grape-growing areas in the United States. Wines produced in this region are influenced by their terroir - the amalgamation of physical and cultural elements that influence grapes grown at a particular vineyard site. Of the physical factors, climate, and in particular air temperature, has been recognized as a primary influence on viticulture. Air temperature directly affects ripening in the grapes. Proper fruit ripening, which requires precise and balanced levels of acid and sugar, and the accumulation of pigment in the grape skin, directly correlates with the quality of wine produced. Many features control air temperature within a particular vineyard. Elevation, latitude, slope, and aspect all converge to form complex relationships with air temperatures; however, the relative degree to which these attributes affect temperatures varies between regions and is not well understood. This study examines the influence of geography and geomorphology on air temperatures within the American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) of the Columbia Basin in eastern Washington and Oregon. The premier vineyards within each AVA, which have been recognized for producing high-quality wine, were equipped with air temperature monitoring stations that collected hourly temperature measurements. A variety of temperature statistics were calculated, including daily average, maximum, and minimum temperatures. From these values, average diurnal variation and growing degree-days (10°C) were calculated. A variety of other statistics were computed, including date of first and last frost and time spent below a minimum temperature threshold. These parameters were compared to the vineyard's elevation, latitude, slope, aspect, and local topography using GPS, ArcCatalog, and GIS in an attempt to determine their relative influences on air temperatures. From these statistics, it was possible to delineate two trends of temperature variation

  14. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  15. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  16. Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High Temperature Air in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is determine the effect of air preheat temperature on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high temperature combustion air under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high temperature combustion air at different equivalence ratio.

  17. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  18. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

  19. Rising air and stream-water temperatures in Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Monthly mean air temperature (AT) at 85 sites and instantaneous stream-water temperature (WT) at 129 sites for 1960–2010 are examined for the mid-Atlantic region, USA. Temperature anomalies for two periods, 1961–1985 and 1985–2010, relative to the climate normal period of 1971–2000, indicate that the latter period was statistically significantly warmer than the former for both mean AT and WT. Statistically significant temporal trends across the region of 0.023 °C per year for AT and 0.028 °C per year for WT are detected using simple linear regression. Sensitivity analyses show that the irregularly sampled WT data are appropriate for trend analyses, resulting in conservative estimates of trend magnitude. Relations between 190 landscape factors and significant trends in AT-WT relations are examined using principal components analysis. Measures of major dams and deciduous forest are correlated with WT increasing slower than AT, whereas agriculture in the absence of major dams is correlated with WT increasing faster than AT. Increasing WT trends are detected despite increasing trends in streamflow in the northern part of the study area. Continued warming of contributing streams to Chesapeake Bay likely will result in shifts in distributions of aquatic biota and contribute to worsened eutrophic conditions in the bay and its estuaries.

  20. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236