Science.gov

Sample records for air temperature warms

  1. Elevation of nasal mucosal temperature increases the ability of the nose to warm and humidify air.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D J; Baroody, F M; Naureckas, E; Naclerio, R M

    2001-01-01

    The nose functions to warm and humidify inspired air. The factors that influence these functions have been studied to a limited degree. We have developed a method for measuring the temperature and relative humidity of the air before and after nasal conditioning to study nasal function. In this experiment we studied the effects of raising the mucosal surface temperature by immersion of the feet in warm water. Six subjects (avg. age = 27.0 years) were randomized to immersion of the feet in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C water. The nasal mucosal temperature increased significantly from the 32.2+/-1.3 degrees C during immersion in the 30 degrees C water to the 33.1+/-1.2 degrees C during immersion in 40 degrees water (p < 0.05). No significant difference in nasal volume was noted between the 30 degrees (17.8+/-4.5 cc) and the 40 degrees (17.7+/-5.3 cc) immersions. There was a significant increase in the conditioning capacity of the nose (as measured by total water content of inspired air) in response to cold-air challenge during the 40 degrees immersion (1669+/-312 mg water) when compared to the 30 degrees immersion (1324+/-152 mg water). From these data we deduce that warming of the nasal mucosa improves the ability of the nose to condition inspired air without a significant change in the volume of the nasal cavity.

  2. Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe

    2015-07-22

    Global analyses of surface mean air temperature (T(m)) are key datasets for climate change studies and provide fundamental evidences for global warming. However, the causes of regional contrasts in the warming rate revealed by such datasets, i.e., enhanced warming rates over the northern high latitudes and the "warming hole" over the central U.S., are still under debate. Here we show these regional contrasts depend on the calculation methods of T(m). Existing global analyses calculate T(m) from daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). We found that T2 has a significant standard deviation error of 0.23 °C/decade in depicting the regional warming rate from 2000 to 2013 but can be reduced by two-thirds using T(m) calculated from observations at four specific times (T4), which samples diurnal cycle of land surface air temperature more often. From 1973 to 1997, compared with T4, T2 significantly underestimated the warming rate over the central U.S. and overestimated the warming rate over the northern high latitudes. The ratio of the warming rate over China to that over the U.S. reduces from 2.3 by T2 to 1.4 by T4. This study shows that the studies of regional warming can be substantially improved by T4 instead of T2.

  3. Comparison of forced-air warming and electric heating pad for maintenance of body temperature during total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Ng, V; Lai, A; Ho, V

    2006-11-01

    We conducted a randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy of forced-air warming (Bair Hugger(trade mark), Augustine Medical model 500/OR, Prairie, MN) with that of an electric heating pad (Operatherm 202, KanMed, Sweden) for maintenance of intra-operative body temperature in 60 patients undergoing total knee replacement under combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Intra-operative tympanic and rectal temperatures and verbal analogue score for thermal comfort were recorded. There were no differences in any measurements between the two groups, with mean (SD) final rectal temperatures of 36.8 (0.4) degrees C with forced-air warming and 36.9 (0.4) degrees C with the electric pad. The heating pad is as effective as forced-air warming for maintenance of intra-operative body temperature.

  4. Effects of a Circulating-water Garment and Forced-air Warming on Body Heat Content and Core Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Akiko; Ratnaraj, Jebadurai; Kabon, Barbara; Sharma, Neeru; Lenhardt, Rainer; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Forced-air warming is sometimes unable to maintain perioperative normothermia. We therefore compared heat transfer, regional heat distribution, and core rewarming of forced-air warming with a novel circulating-water garment. Methods: Nine volunteers were each evaluated on two randomly ordered study days. They were anesthetized and cooled to a core temperature near 34°C. The volunteers were subsequently warmed for 2.5 hours with either a circulating-water garment or forced-air cover. Overall, heat balance was determined from the difference between cutaneous heat loss (thermal flux transducers) and metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption). Average arm and leg (peripheral) tissue temperatures were determined from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, 15 skin thermal flux transducers, and “deep” arm and foot thermometers. Results: Heat production (≈ 60 kcal/h) and loss (≈45 kcal/h) were similar with each treatment before warming. The increase in heat transfer across anterior portions of the skin surface was similar with each warming system (≈65 kcal/h). Forced-air warming had no effect on posterior heat transfer whereas circulating-water transferred 21 ± 9 kcal/h through the posterior skin surface after a half hour of warming. Over 2.5 h, circulating-water thus increased body heat content 56% more than forced air. Core temperatures thus increased faster than with circulating water than forced air, especially during the first hour, with the result that core temperature was 1.1 ± 0.7°C greater after 2.5 h (P < 0.001). Peripheral tissue heat content increased twice as much as core heat content with each device, but the core-to-peripheral tissue temperature gradient remained positive throughout the study. Conclusions: The circulating-water system transferred more heat than forced air, with the difference resulting largely from posterior heating. Circulating water rewarmed patients 0.4°C/h faster than forced air. A substantial peripheral

  5. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    PubMed Central

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere. PMID:28262715

  6. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming.

    PubMed

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B; Baulch, Helen M; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C; Rusak, James A; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R Iestyn

    2017-03-06

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  7. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-03-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  8. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  9. Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).

    PubMed

    Ge, Li-Qiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming.

  10. Does climate warming stimulate or inhibit soil protist communities? A test on testate amoebae in high-arctic tundra with free-air temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Nijs, Ivan; Beyens, Louis

    2011-04-01

    Soil testate amoebae assemblages in a grassland area at Zackenberg (Northeast Greenland) were subjected to simulated climate-warming during the growing season using the Free-Air Temperature Increase technique. Samples were collected in upper (0 - 3cm) and deeper (3 - 6cm) soil horizons. Mean temperature elevations at 2.5 and 7.5 cm depth were 2.58 ± SD 1.11 and 2.13±SD 0.77°C, respectively, and did not differ significantly. Soil moisture in the top 11cm was not affected by the warming. During the manipulation, the densities of living amoebae and empty shells were higher in the experimental plots but only in the upper layer. Possibly, testate amoebae in the deeper layer were limited by other factors, suggesting that warming enhances the carrying capacity only in favourable conditions. Species richness, on the other hand, was only increased in the deeper horizon. Warming did not change the percentage of individuals belonging to small-sized species in any of the living assemblages, contrary to our expectation that those species would quickly increase their density. However, in the empty shell assemblages, the proportion of small-sized individuals in the experimental plots was higher in both layers, indicating a rapid, transient increase in small amoebae before the first sampling date. Changes in successional state of testate amoebae assemblages in response to future climate change might thus be ephemeral, whereas alterations in density and species richness might be more sustained.

  11. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    SciTech Connect

    Godfree, J.

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  12. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Abanyie, S.; Akuffo, F. O.; Kutin-Sanwu, V.

    2013-01-01

    Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+) simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT). An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses. PMID:23878528

  13. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  14. Forced-air patient warming blankets disrupt unidirectional airflow.

    PubMed

    Legg, A J; Hamer, A J

    2013-03-01

    We have recently shown that waste heat from forced-air warming blankets can increase the temperature and concentration of airborne particles over the surgical site. The mechanism for the increased concentration of particles and their site of origin remained unclear. We therefore attempted to visualise the airflow in theatre over a simulated total knee replacement using neutral-buoyancy helium bubbles. Particles were created using a Rocket PS23 smoke machine positioned below the operating table, a potential area of contamination. The same theatre set-up, warming devices and controls were used as in our previous study. This demonstrated that waste heat from the poorly insulated forced-air warming blanket increased the air temperature on the surgical side of the drape by > 5°C. This created convection currents that rose against the downward unidirectional airflow, causing turbulence over the patient. The convection currents increased the particle concentration 1000-fold (2 174 000 particles/m(3) for forced-air warming vs 1000 particles/m(3) for radiant warming and 2000 particles/m(3) for the control) by drawing potentially contaminated particles from below the operating table into the surgical site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:407-10.

  15. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content.

    PubMed

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-12-15

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20°C vs. 25°C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus. Enchytraeids were exposed for 21d to a dilution series of the agricultural soil with Lufa 2.2 control soil under four climate situations: 20°C+50% WHC (standard conditions), 20°C+30% WHC, 25°C+50% WHC, and 25°C+30% WHC. Survival, reproduction and bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were obtained as endpoints. Reproduction was more sensitive to both climate factors and metal(loid) pollution. High soil salinity (electrical conductivity~3dSm(-1)) and clay texture, even without the presence of high metal(loid) concentrations, affected enchytraeid performance especially at drier conditions (≥80% reduction in reproduction). The toxicity of the agricultural soil increased at drier conditions (10% reduction in EC10 and EC50 values for the effect on enchytraeid reproduction). Changes in enchytraeid performance were accompanied by changes in As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn bioaccumulation, with lower body concentrations at drier conditions probably due to greater competition with soluble salts in the case of Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. This study shows that apart from high metal(loid) concentrations other soil properties (e.g. salinity and texture) may be partially responsible for the toxicity of metal(loid)-polluted soils to soil invertebrates, especially under changing climate conditions.

  16. Inland Water Temperature and the recent Global Warming Hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Healey, N.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.

    2015-12-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  17. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  18. Human Milk Warming Temperatures Using a Simulation of Currently Available Storage and Warming Methods.

    PubMed

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Virozub, Alexander; Mimouni, Francis B

    2015-01-01

    Human milk handling guidelines are very demanding, based upon solid scientific evidence that handling methods can make a real difference in infant health and nutrition. Indeed, properly stored milk maintains many of its unique qualities and continues to be the second and third best infant feeding alternatives, much superior to artificial feeding. Container type and shape, mode of steering, amount of air exposure and storage temperature may adversely affect milk stability and composition. Heating above physiological temperatures significantly impacts nutritional and immunological properties of milk. In spite of this knowledge, there are no strict guidelines regarding milk warming. Human milk is often heated in electrical-based bottle warmers that can exceed 80°C, a temperature at which many beneficial human milk properties disappear. High temperatures can also induce fat profile variations as compared with fresh human milk. In this manuscript we estimate the amount of damage due to overheating during warming using a heat flow simulation of a regular water based bottle warmer. To do so, we carried out a series of warming simulations which provided us with dynamic temperature fields within bottled milk. We simulated the use of a hot water-bath at 80°C to heat bottled refrigerated milk (60 ml and 178 ml) to demonstrate that large milk portions are overheated (above 40°C). It seems that the contemporary storage method (upright feeding tool, i.e. bottle) and bottle warming device, are not optimize to preserve the unique properties of human milk. Health workers and parents should be aware of this problem especially when it relates to sick neonates and preemies that cannot be directly fed at the breast.

  19. Global surface air temperatures - Update through 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1988-01-01

    Data from meteorological stations show that surface air temperatures in the 1980s are the warmest in the history of instrumental records. The four warmest years on record are all in the 1980s, with the warmest years in the analysis being 1981 and 1987. The rate of warming between the mid-1960s and the present is higher than that which occurrred in the previous period of rapid warming between the 1880s and 1940.

  20. AIRS-observed warm core structures of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Si; Chen, Baiqing; Li, Tim; Wu, Naigeng; Deng, Wenjian

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature profiles during the period 2003-2013 are used to examine the warm core structures and evolution characteristics associated with the formation and development of western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclones (TCs). The warm core with a steady 1.5-K warming in the layer of 500-300 hPa occurs 24 h prior to tropical storm formation. Apparent eye warming extends upward to upper troposphere and downward to near surface after tropical storm formation. TC intensity shows a robust positive correlation with the warm core strength and has a weaker but still significant positive correlation with the warm core height (the weaker correlation is primarily attributed to the scattered warm core heights of weak TCs). Future 24-h intensity change of TCs has little correlation with the warm core height while it has a significant negative correlation with the warm core strength. Weak to moderate warm core at 500-200 hPa may be a necessary but not sufficient initial condition for TC rapid intensification. AIRS-observed warm core structures, in combination with other environmental factors, have the potential to improve the prediction of tropical storm formation and rapid intensification of WNP TCs.

  1. Convective air warming is more effective than resistive heating in an experimental model with a water dummy.

    PubMed

    Ittner, Karl Peter; Bachfischer, Markus; Zimmermann, Markus; Taeger, Kai

    2004-06-01

    Trauma patients with accidental hypothermia have adverse outcomes when compared with normothermic patients. Studies with a small number of mild hypothermic volunteers suggested that convective warming is more effective than warming with 12 volt resistive heating blankets. In a laboratory study, we compared the warming effectiveness of two electric blankets and convective air warming. The average speed of convective rewarming during anaesthesia in patients is approximately 0.6 degree C per hour. Accordingly, calibration of the dummy was performed with increasing amounts of water during convective warming until we reached a temperature gain of 0.6 degree C per hour. The following warming experiments were performed: 12 volt electric warming blanket (SH6012, Hella); 12 volt electric warming blanket (Thermamed, whole-body blanket); convective air warming (Warm Touch, Mallinckrodt, whole-body blanket). Each experiment was repeated four times. The temperature development was measured and recorded online. Convective warming increased the dummy temperature 0.6 degree C per hour, Thermamed 0.3 degree C per hour (P<0.001 versus convective warming) and two Hella blankets 0.2 degree C per hour (P<0.001 versus convective warming). Our laboratory investigation confirmed the superiority of convective warming over resistive heating. Efforts should be made to incorporate convective warming into the out-of-hospital treatment of trauma patients.

  2. The safe and efficient use of forced-air warming systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuelei

    2013-03-01

    Maintaining perioperative normothermia is important to ensure that a patient does not experience inadvertent hypothermia and its consequences, such as increased blood loss, cardiac abnormalities, prolonged recovery, and increased risk for wound infection. Many clinical guidelines recommend the use of forced-air warming as one of several techniques to prevent inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Safe use of forced-air warming devices includes choosing the right device, assessing the patient for risks, protecting the patient from burn injuries, appropriately maintaining the patient's body temperature, and using the device as directed by the manufacturer's recommendations. Staff members should receive education on hypothermia and warming technology on a regular basis.

  3. Changes in Extreme Warm and Cold Temperatures Associated with 20th Century Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Has 20thcentury global warming resulted in increases of extreme warm temperatures and decreases of extreme cold temperatures around the globe? One would certainly expect this to be so if the changes in the extreme temperature probabilities were determined only by the mean shift and not by changes in the width and/or shape of the temperature distribution. In reality, however, the latter two effects could also be important. Even ignoring changes of shape, it is easily shown that a 25% reduction of standard deviation, for example, can completely offset the effect of a mean positive shift of 0.5 standardized units on the probabilities of extreme positive values. A 25% increase of standard deviation can similarly offset the effect of the mean shift on the probabilities of extreme negative values. It is possible for such changes of standard deviation to occur in regions of large circulation and storminess changes associated with global warming. With this caveat in mind, we have investigated the change in probability of extreme weekly-averaged near-surface air temperatures, in both winter and summer, from the first half-century (1901-1950) to the last half-century (1960-2009) of the 1901 to 2009 period. We have done this using two newly available global atmospheric datasets (ERA-20C and 20CR-v2c) and large ensembles of global coupled climate model simulations of this period, plus very large ensembles of uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of our own. The results are revealing. In the tropics, the changes in the extreme warm and cold temperature probabilities are indeed generally consistent with those expected from the mean shift of the distribution. Outside the tropics, however, they are generally significantly inconsistent with the mean temperature shift, with many regions showing little or no change in the positive temperature extremes and in some instances even a decrease. In such regions, it is clear that the change in the temperature standard deviation is

  4. The Relationship Between Air Temperature and Stream Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, J. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the relationship, both linear and non-linear, between air temperature and stream temperature in order to determine if air temperature can be used as an accurate predictor of stream temperature, if general relationships could be developed that apply to a large number of streams, and how changes in stream temperature associated with climate variability or climate warming might affect the dissolved oxygen level, and thus the quality of life, in some of these streams. Understanding the relationship between air temperature and water temperature is important if we want to predict how stream temperatures are likely to respond to the increase in surface air temperature that is occurring. Data from over 50 streams in 13 countries, mostly gathered by K-12 students in the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment), are examined. Only a few streams display a linear 1:1 air/water temperature trend. The majority of streams instead show an increase in water temperature of about 0.6 to 0.8 degrees for every 1-degree increase in air temperature. At some of these sites, where dissolved oxygen content is already low, an increase in summer stream temperatures of 2-3 degrees could cause the dissolved oxygen levels to fall into a critically low range. At some locations, such as near the source of a stream, water temperature does not change much despite wide ranges in air temperatures. The temperatures at these sites are likely to be least affected by surface warming. More data are needed in warmer climates, where the water temperature already gets above 25oC, in order to better examine the air/water temperature relationship under warmer conditions. Global average surface air temperature is expected to increase by 3-5oC by the middle of this century. Surface water temperature in streams, lakes and wetlands will likely increase as air temperature increases, although the change in water temperature may not be as large as the change in

  5. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  6. Tree canopy temperature response under experimental warming and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, S. N.; Garrity, S. R.; Cai, M.; McDowell, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Tree mortality associated with rising temperatures and drought has been observed in numerous locations across the globe. Simulated global climate change experiments, such as increased air temperature and reduced precipitation, can help us understand tree response to altered climate regimes and identify key physiological mechanisms involved in tree stress response. We collected canopy-level leaf temperature measurements from several piñon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (juniperus monosperma) subjected to experimental warming, drought, combined warming and drought treatments, and control conditions in a field-based experiment in northern New Mexico beginning June 2012. We examined leaf temperature responses to the treatments by using continuous measurements from infrared thermocouples located above the tree canopy. We found that leaf temperatures were approximately 5 degrees warmer in heated chambers compared to leaf temperatures of trees outside chambers. Comparisons within each treatment demonstrated that, on average, piñon had higher absolute differences between leaf temperature and air temperature values compared to juniper trees. Stomatal conductance, measured with a leaf porometer showed that within each treatment, juniper had higher stomatal conductance relative to piñon, and that heated trees had lower stomatal conductance relative to non-heated trees. These differences may be attributable to the fact that piñon trees are isohydric, meaning that they have a lower tolerance to water stress. To date, we have not observed a significant drought effect on leaf temperature, however, this is likely due to the short duration of the drought treatment to date. We expect that as the experiment progresses, a drought effect will emerge. One of the key questions that we hope to answer as data continues to be collected is how tree physiology responds to drought, heat, and the interaction between both variables. Although this case study is being conducted in

  7. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE PAGES

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; ...

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more » but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming

  8. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much

  9. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  10. Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

  11. Zero Power Warming - A New Technology for Investigating Plant Responses to Rising Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, K.; Lewin, K. F.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of terrestrial ecosystem responses to rising temperature often requires temperature manipulation of research plots, and there are many methods to achieve this. However, in remote locations where line power is unavailable and unattended operation is a requirement, passive warming using solar energy is often the only viable approach. Current open topped passive warming approaches are unable to elevate enclosure air temperatures by more than 2°C. Existing full enclosure designs are capable of reaching higher air temperatures but can experience undesirable high temperature excursions. The ability to simulate future climate conditions using modulated temperature manipulations is critical to understand the acclimation of plant functional and structural traits to rising temperature and to enable improved model projections of a warming planet. This is particularly true for the Arctic—our target environment—where projected temperature increases far surpass those possible to achieve using current passive warming technology. To meet the research need for improved passive warming technology we have designed and tested a Zero Power Warming (ZPW) chamber capable of unattended temperature elevation and modulation. The ZPW chamber uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders that control chamber venting. This allows the ZPW chamber to heat the enclosed plot to a higher temperature than an open topped chamber but avoid the overheating typical of fully enclosed chambers. Here we describe the technology behind the ZPW and present data from a temperate prototype that was able to elevate and modulate the internal air temperature by 8°C, a marked increase over existing passive warming approaches. We also present new data from a recently deployed Arctic prototype. Whilst the ZPW chambers were designed for the Arctic, the concept described here can be adapted for many research

  12. Increasing Temperature Extremes during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Although the recent global warming hiatus has featured a slowdown in the annual, global mean surface air temperature trend, temperature extremes have exhibited contrasting changes, as both wintertime cold and summertime hot extremes have increased over Northern Hemisphere (NH) land from 2002-2014. To investigate the sources of NH temperature extreme variability, we use multiple linear regression analysis that includes as predictors the typical drivers of global-scale climate variability - tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), volcanic aerosols, solar variability, and the linear time trend. This analysis suggests that natural forcings, including tropical SSTs and solar variations, have contributed to the recent increase in NH winter cold extremes. The magnitude of the recent increase in summer hot extremes is only captured after including an additional SST predictor for a pattern that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which suggests the importance of Atlantic Ocean SSTs for recent increases in hot extremes. When the regression models are applied to local, grid point scales, they indicate the promise for substantial skill in seasonal predictions of extreme temperature over some NH regions. Overall, this work reveals important sources of natural variability in extreme temperature trends superimposed upon the long-term increase of hot extremes and decrease of cold extremes.

  13. Global warming and urbanization affect springwater temperatures in Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, H.

    2014-02-01

    Due to global warming and urbanization, air temperature in Tokyo has risen 1.6 degrees in the past 30-40 years which has also affected springwater temperatures. From 2005, we have proceeded with the observations of springs in Tokyo metropolis, Japan which had been conducted by Environment of Tokyo from the end of the 1980s to 2001. In the rainy season (October) and dry season (February), we have observed springwater temperatures in 25 springs. The field surveys have revealed that most springwater temperatures has steadly risen in the past 30 years. As of February 2013, water temperatures of 19/11 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season. As of February 2006, water temperatures of 10/13 springs have risen with 5% level in the rainy/dry season, i.e., 9/2 springs have acquired/lost the significance as of February 2013. One possible reason is the recent hot summer/cold winter in Tokyo.

  14. Low clouds suppress Arctic air formation and amplify high-latitude continental winter warming

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Timothy W.; Tziperman, Eli

    2015-01-01

    High-latitude continents have warmed much more rapidly in recent decades than the rest of the globe, especially in winter, and the maintenance of warm, frost-free conditions in continental interiors in winter has been a long-standing problem of past equable climates. We use an idealized single-column atmospheric model across a range of conditions to study the polar night process of air mass transformation from high-latitude maritime air, with a prescribed initial temperature profile, to much colder high-latitude continental air. We find that a low-cloud feedback—consisting of a robust increase in the duration of optically thick liquid clouds with warming of the initial state—slows radiative cooling of the surface and amplifies continental warming. This low-cloud feedback increases the continental surface air temperature by roughly two degrees for each degree increase of the initial maritime surface air temperature, effectively suppressing Arctic air formation. The time it takes for the surface air temperature to drop below freezing increases nonlinearly to ∼10 d for initial maritime surface air temperatures of 20 °C. These results, supplemented by an analysis of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 climate model runs that shows large increases in cloud water path and surface cloud longwave forcing in warmer climates, suggest that the “lapse rate feedback” in simulations of anthropogenic climate change may be related to the influence of low clouds on the stratification of the lower troposphere. The results also indicate that optically thick stratus cloud decks could help to maintain frost-free winter continental interiors in equable climates. PMID:26324919

  15. Low clouds suppress Arctic air formation and amplify high-latitude continental winter warming.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Timothy W; Tziperman, Eli

    2015-09-15

    High-latitude continents have warmed much more rapidly in recent decades than the rest of the globe, especially in winter, and the maintenance of warm, frost-free conditions in continental interiors in winter has been a long-standing problem of past equable climates. We use an idealized single-column atmospheric model across a range of conditions to study the polar night process of air mass transformation from high-latitude maritime air, with a prescribed initial temperature profile, to much colder high-latitude continental air. We find that a low-cloud feedback--consisting of a robust increase in the duration of optically thick liquid clouds with warming of the initial state--slows radiative cooling of the surface and amplifies continental warming. This low-cloud feedback increases the continental surface air temperature by roughly two degrees for each degree increase of the initial maritime surface air temperature, effectively suppressing Arctic air formation. The time it takes for the surface air temperature to drop below freezing increases nonlinearly to ∼ 10 d for initial maritime surface air temperatures of 20 °C. These results, supplemented by an analysis of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 climate model runs that shows large increases in cloud water path and surface cloud longwave forcing in warmer climates, suggest that the "lapse rate feedback" in simulations of anthropogenic climate change may be related to the influence of low clouds on the stratification of the lower troposphere. The results also indicate that optically thick stratus cloud decks could help to maintain frost-free winter continental interiors in equable climates.

  16. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    As the climate change occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  17. Optimal Detection of Global Warming using Temperature Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    Optimal fingerprinting is applied to estimate the amount of time it would take to detect warming by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in monthly averages of temperature profiles over the Indian Ocean.

  18. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, Joanna C.; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Burton, Andrew J.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Emmett, Bridget; Frey, Serita D.; Heskel, Mary A.; Jiang, Lifen; Machmuller, Megan B.; Mohan, Jacqueline; Panetta, Anne Marie; Reich, Peter B.; Reinsch, Sabine; Wang, Xin; Allison, Steven D.; Bamminger, Chris; Bridgham, Scott; Collins, Scott L.; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Eddy, William C.; Enquist, Brian J.; Estiarte, Marc; Harte, John; Henderson, Amanda; Johnson, Bart R.; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Luo, Yiqi; Marhan, Sven; Melillo, Jerry M.; Penuelas, Josep; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Poll, Christian; Rastetter, Edward B.; Reinmann, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Lorien L.; Schmidt, Inger K.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Strong, Aaron L.; Suseela, Vidya; Tietema, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation of soil respiration to experimental warming in several major biome types, contrary to the results from multiple single-site studies. Moreover, across all nondesert biomes, respiration rates with and without experimental warming follow a Gaussian response, increasing with soil temperature up to a threshold of ∼25 °C, above which respiration rates decrease with further increases in temperature. This consistent decrease in temperature sensitivity at higher temperatures demonstrates that rising global temperatures may result in regionally variable responses in soil respiration, with colder climates being considerably more responsive to increased ambient temperatures compared with warmer regions. Our analysis adds a unique cross-biome perspective on the temperature response of soil respiration, information critical to improving our mechanistic understanding of how soil carbon dynamics change with climatic warming.

  19. Temperature response of soil respiration largely unaltered with experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Carey, Joanna C; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H; Kroeger, Kevin D; Crowther, Thomas W; Burton, Andrew J; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Emmett, Bridget; Frey, Serita D; Heskel, Mary A; Jiang, Lifen; Machmuller, Megan B; Mohan, Jacqueline; Panetta, Anne Marie; Reich, Peter B; Reinsch, Sabine; Wang, Xin; Allison, Steven D; Bamminger, Chris; Bridgham, Scott; Collins, Scott L; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Eddy, William C; Enquist, Brian J; Estiarte, Marc; Harte, John; Henderson, Amanda; Johnson, Bart R; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Luo, Yiqi; Marhan, Sven; Melillo, Jerry M; Peñuelas, Josep; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Poll, Christian; Rastetter, Edward; Reinmann, Andrew B; Reynolds, Lorien L; Schmidt, Inger K; Shaver, Gaius R; Strong, Aaron L; Suseela, Vidya; Tietema, Albert

    2016-11-29

    The respiratory release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soil is a major yet poorly understood flux in the global carbon cycle. Climatic warming is hypothesized to increase rates of soil respiration, potentially fueling further increases in global temperatures. However, despite considerable scientific attention in recent decades, the overall response of soil respiration to anticipated climatic warming remains unclear. We synthesize the largest global dataset to date of soil respiration, moisture, and temperature measurements, totaling >3,800 observations representing 27 temperature manipulation studies, spanning nine biomes and over 2 decades of warming. Our analysis reveals no significant differences in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration between control and warmed plots in all biomes, with the exception of deserts and boreal forests. Thus, our data provide limited evidence of acclimation of soil respiration to experimental warming in several major biome types, contrary to the results from multiple single-site studies. Moreover, across all nondesert biomes, respiration rates with and without experimental warming follow a Gaussian response, increasing with soil temperature up to a threshold of ∼25 °C, above which respiration rates decrease with further increases in temperature. This consistent decrease in temperature sensitivity at higher temperatures demonstrates that rising global temperatures may result in regionally variable responses in soil respiration, with colder climates being considerably more responsive to increased ambient temperatures compared with warmer regions. Our analysis adds a unique cross-biome perspective on the temperature response of soil respiration, information critical to improving our mechanistic understanding of how soil carbon dynamics change with climatic warming.

  20. Clouds, warm air, and a climate cooling signal over the summer Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernström, Michael

    2017-01-01

    While the atmospheric greenhouse effect always results in a warming at the surface, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to space always represents a cooling. During events of heat and moisture advection into the Arctic, increases in tropospheric temperature and moisture impact clouds, in turn impacting longwave (LW) radiation. State-of-the-art satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis consistently reveal an enhancement of summer Arctic monthly OLR cooling ranging 1.5-4 W m-2 during months with anomalously high thermodynamic advection. This cooling anomaly is found to be of the same magnitude or slightly larger than associated downwelling LW surface warming anomalies. We identify a relationship between large-scale circulation variability and changing cloud properties permitting LW radiation at both the surface and top of the atmosphere to respond to variability in atmospheric thermodynamics. Driven by anomalous advection of warm air, the corresponding enhanced OLR cooling signal on monthly time scales represents an important buffer to regional Arctic warming.

  1. Unabated global surface temperature warming: evaluating the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T. R.; Arguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    New insights related to time-dependent bias corrections in global surface temperatures have led to higher rates of warming over the past few decades than previously reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (2014). Record high global temperatures in the past few years have also contributed to larger trends. The combination of these factors and new analyses of the rate of temperature change show unabated global warming since at least the mid-Twentieth Century. New time-dependent bias corrections account for: (1) differences in temperatures measured from ships and drifting buoys; (2) improved corrections to ship measured temperatures; and (3) the larger rates of warming in polar regions (particularly the Arctic). Since 1951, the period over which IPCC (2014) attributes over half of the observed global warming to human causes, it is shown that there has been a remarkably robust and sustained warming, punctuated with inter-annual and decadal variability. This finding is confirmed through simple trend analysis and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Trend analysis however, especially for decadal trends, is sensitive to selection bias of beginning and ending dates. EMD has no selection bias. Additionally, it can highlight both short- and long-term processes affecting the global temperature times series since it addresses both non-linear and non-stationary processes. For the new NOAA global temperature data set, our analyses do not support the notion of a hiatus or slowing of long-term global warming. However, sub-decadal periods of little (or no warming) and rapid warming can also be found, clearly showing the impact of inter-annual and decadal variability that previously has been attributed to both natural and human-induced non-greenhouse forcings.

  2. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of...

  3. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013. The...

  4. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of...

  5. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of...

  6. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of...

  7. Spatiotemporal Divergence of the Warming Hiatus over Land Based on Different Definitions of Mean Temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-08-17

    Existing studies of the recent warming hiatus over land are primarily based on the average of daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). This study compared regional warming rates of mean temperature based on T2 and T24 calculated from hourly observations available from 1998 to 2013. Both T2 and T24 show that the warming hiatus over land is apparent in the mid-latitudes of North America and Eurasia, especially in cold seasons, which is closely associated with the negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) and cold air propagation by the Arctic-original northerly wind anomaly into mid-latitudes. However, the warming rates of T2 and T24 are significantly different at regional and seasonal scales because T2 only samples air temperature twice daily and cannot accurately reflect land-atmosphere and incoming radiation variations in the temperature diurnal cycle. The trend has a standard deviation of 0.43 °C/decade for T2 and 0.41 °C/decade for T24, and 0.38 °C/decade for their trend difference in 5° × 5° grids. The use of T2 amplifies the regional contrasts of the warming rate, i.e., the trend underestimation in the US and overestimation at high latitudes by T2.

  8. Spatiotemporal Divergence of the Warming Hiatus over Land Based on Different Definitions of Mean Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies of the recent warming hiatus over land are primarily based on the average of daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). This study compared regional warming rates of mean temperature based on T2 and T24 calculated from hourly observations available from 1998 to 2013. Both T2 and T24 show that the warming hiatus over land is apparent in the mid-latitudes of North America and Eurasia, especially in cold seasons, which is closely associated with the negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) and cold air propagation by the Arctic-original northerly wind anomaly into mid-latitudes. However, the warming rates of T2 and T24 are significantly different at regional and seasonal scales because T2 only samples air temperature twice daily and cannot accurately reflect land-atmosphere and incoming radiation variations in the temperature diurnal cycle. The trend has a standard deviation of 0.43 °C/decade for T2 and 0.41 °C/decade for T24, and 0.38 °C/decade for their trend difference in 5° × 5° grids. The use of T2 amplifies the regional contrasts of the warming rate, i.e., the trend underestimation in the US and overestimation at high latitudes by T2. PMID:27531421

  9. Spatiotemporal Divergence of the Warming Hiatus over Land Based on Different Definitions of Mean Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun

    2016-08-01

    Existing studies of the recent warming hiatus over land are primarily based on the average of daily minimum and maximum temperatures (T2). This study compared regional warming rates of mean temperature based on T2 and T24 calculated from hourly observations available from 1998 to 2013. Both T2 and T24 show that the warming hiatus over land is apparent in the mid-latitudes of North America and Eurasia, especially in cold seasons, which is closely associated with the negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic Oscillation (AO) and cold air propagation by the Arctic-original northerly wind anomaly into mid-latitudes. However, the warming rates of T2 and T24 are significantly different at regional and seasonal scales because T2 only samples air temperature twice daily and cannot accurately reflect land-atmosphere and incoming radiation variations in the temperature diurnal cycle. The trend has a standard deviation of 0.43 °C/decade for T2 and 0.41 °C/decade for T24, and 0.38 °C/decade for their trend difference in 5° × 5° grids. The use of T2 amplifies the regional contrasts of the warming rate, i.e., the trend underestimation in the US and overestimation at high latitudes by T2.

  10. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, N. J.; Belancourt, P.; Chapman, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Drake, R. P.; Gericke, D. O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khaghani, D.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Neumayer, P.; Pak, A.; Peters, L.; Richardson, S.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Gregori, G.

    2015-03-01

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. However, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  11. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Hartley, N. J.; Peters, L.; Gregori, G.; Belancourt, P.; Drake, R. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Richardson, S.; Gericke, D. O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khaghani, D.; Neumayer, P.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  12. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    DOE PAGES

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; ...

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  13. A randomised controlled trial of the electric heating pad vs forced-air warming for preventing hypothermia during laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Leung, K K; Lai, A; Wu, A

    2007-06-01

    A randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of upper body forced-air warming (Bair Hugger, Augustine Medical model 500/OR, Prairie, MN) with that of an electric heating pad (Operatherm 202, KanMed, Bromma, Sweden) for maintenance of intra-operative body temperature in 60 patients undergoing laparotomy under general anaesthesia. The nasopharyngeal temperature was recorded throughout the operative period. The mean (SD) final temperatures were 36.2 (0.4) degrees C with forced-air warming and 35.5 (1.0) degrees C with electric heating pad (p < 0.01). Upper body forced-air warming is more effective than the heating pad for maintenance of body temperature during laparotomy.

  14. Borehole Temperatures and a Baseline for 20th-Century Global Warming Estimates

    PubMed

    Harris; Chapman

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorological archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological Network, yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6° ± 0.1°C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region.

  15. Effect of warm air on the shear bond strength of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Allen, J D; Breeding, L C; Pashley, D H

    1992-04-01

    This investigation evaluated the operating characteristics of a recently introduced tooth dryer and its effect on the bond strength of three composite resins to etched enamel. The effect of varying air pressure, distance from the tip of the tooth dryer, and distance laterally from mid-air stream on temperature were measured using a rapid-response thermocouple. Specimens were subjected to shear forces either immediately after bonding or after 5 days of water storage. The air stream required from 32 to 41 seconds to reach maximal temperature; however, more than 90% of the maximal temperature was obtained in 20 seconds. There was an increase in temperature with increased air pressure and a decrease in temperature with increasing distance from the tip. The temperature dropped rapidly laterally from the center of the air stream. The shear bond strength measurements were significantly higher for the specimens prepared using the tooth dryer for one composite resin tested immediately after bonding; there was no statistically significant difference for the other resins. The effect of warm air on the shear bond strength of composite resins to etched enamel may be dependent on the resin used and the time between bonding and testing.

  16. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO2 enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms(-1) average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the

  17. Microclimatic Performance of a Free-Air Warming and CO2 Enrichment Experiment in Windy Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms-1 average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the

  18. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  19. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  20. Warming and drought reduce temperature sensitivity of nitrogen transformations.

    PubMed

    Novem Auyeung, Dolaporn S; Suseela, Vidya; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2013-02-01

    Shifts in nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates due to global changes can influence nutrient availability, which can affect terrestrial productivity and climate change feedbacks. While many single-factor studies have examined the effects of environmental changes on N mineralization and nitrification, few have examined these effects in a multifactor context or recorded how these effects vary seasonally. In an old-field ecosystem in Massachusetts, USA, we investigated the combined effects of four levels of warming (up to 4 °C) and three levels of precipitation (drought, ambient, and wet) on net N mineralization, net nitrification, and potential nitrification. We also examined the treatment effects on the temperature sensitivity of net N mineralization and net nitrification and on the ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization. During winter, freeze-thaw events, snow depth, and soil freezing depth explained little of the variation in net nitrification and N mineralization rates among treatments. During two years of treatments, warming and altered precipitation rarely influenced the rates of N cycling, and there was no evidence of a seasonal pattern in the responses. In contrast, warming and drought dramatically decreased the apparent Q10 of net N mineralization and net nitrification, and the warming-induced decrease in apparent Q10 was more pronounced in ambient and wet treatments than the drought treatment. The ratio of C mineralization to net N mineralization varied over time and was sensitive to the interactive effects of warming and altered precipitation. Although many studies have found that warming tends to accelerate N cycling, our results suggest that warming can have little to no effect on N cycling in some ecosystems. Thus, ecosystem models that assume that warming will consistently increase N mineralization rates and inputs of plant-available N may overestimate the increase in terrestrial productivity and the magnitude of an important

  1. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  2. Common Warm Dust Temperatures Around Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Farisa; Rieke, George; Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-KO) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures (∼ 190 K and ∼60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at ∼ 150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to dust Temperatures of -190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-KO stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  3. Is Air Temperature Enough to Predict Lake Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.; Majone, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake surface water (LST) is a key factor that controls most of the physical and ecological processes occurring in lakes. Reliable estimates are especially important in the light of recent studies, which revealed that inland water bodies are highly sensitive to climate, and are rapidly warming throughout the world. However, an accurate estimation of LST usually requires a significant amount of information that is not always available. In this work, we present an application of air2water, a lumped model that simulates LST as a function of air temperature only. In addition, air2water allows for a qualitative evaluation of the depth of the epilimnion during the annual stratification cycle. The model consists in a simplification of the complete heat budget of the well-mixed surface layer, and has a few parameters (from 4 to 8 depending on the version) that summarize the role of the different heat flux components. Model calibration requires only air and water temperature data, possibly covering sufficiently long historical periods in order to capture inter-annual variability and long-term trends. During the calibration procedure, the information included in input data is retrieved to directly inform model parameters, which can be used to classify the thermal behavior of the lake. In order to investigate how thermal dynamics are related to morphological features, the model has been applied to 14 temperate lakes characterized by different morphological and hydrological conditions, by different sources of temperature data (buoys, satellite), and by variable frequency of acquisition. A good agreement between observed and simulated LST has been achieved, with a RMSE in the order of 1°C, which is fully comparable to the performances of more complex process-based models. This application allowed for a deeper understanding of the thermal response of lakes as a function of their morphology, as well as for specific analyses as for example the investigation of the exceptional

  4. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-02

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields.

  5. COMMON WARM DUST TEMPERATURES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Werner, M. W.; Bryden, G.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2011-04-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-K0) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures ({approx}190 K and {approx}60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at {approx}150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to T{sub dust} {approx} 190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-K0 stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  6. A phenological timetable of oak growth under experimental drought and air warming.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Thomas M; Dobbertin, Matthias; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schaub, Marcus; Arend, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known about how warming and drought will affect phenological patterns of oaks, which are considered to possess excellent adaptability to these climatic changes. Here, we investigated bud burst and intra-annual shoot growth of Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens grown on two different forest soils and exposed to air warming and drought. Phenological development was assessed over the course of three growing seasons. Warming advanced bud burst by 1-3 days °C⁻¹ and led to an earlier start of intra-annual shoot growth. Despite this phenological shift, total time span of annual growth and shoot biomass were not affected. Drought changed the frequency and intensity of intra-annual shoot growth and advanced bud burst in the subsequent spring of a severe summer drought by 1-2 days. After re-wetting, shoot growth recovered within a few days, demonstrating the superior drought tolerance of this tree genus. Our findings show that phenological patterns of oaks are modified by warming and drought but also suggest that ontogenetic factors and/or limitations of water and nutrients counteract warming effects on the biomass and the entire span of annual shoot growth.

  7. 3-D simulation of urban warming in Tokyo and proposal of air-cooled city project

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Yamada, Noboru

    1999-07-01

    Recent computer projection of the urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area around the year 2030 showed the authors that the urban temperature near Otemachi, heart of Tokyo, will exceed 43{+-}2 degree Celsius (110 degree Fahrenheit) at 6 p.m. in the summer. In the present paper, modeling and 3-D simulation results of urban warming in the Tokyo metropolitan area were presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effect of the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions was discussed by using a newly developed 3-D simulation code. Finally, the authors proposed a new concept; cool-air ventilated city project, which alleviates the urban warming, air pollution, and urban discomfort. In this project, the urban outdoor and indoor spaces are ventilated by clean cooled-air, which is produced in the rural or mountainous regions located far away from the urban area. Water of a huge reservoir is cooled below 4 degree Celsius in winter by utilizing sky radiation cooling and will be kept until the summer for indoor and outdoor space cooling. In this study, the feasibility of this system was discussed.

  8. Experimental Air Warming of a Stylosanthes capitata, Vogel Dominated Tropical Pasture Affects Soil Respiration and Nitrogen Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Silva, Lais B. C.; Dias-De-Oliveira, Eduardo; Flower, Charles E.; Martinez, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Warming due to global climate change is predicted to reach 2°C in tropical latitudes. There is an alarming paucity of information regarding the effects of air temperature on tropical agroecosystems, including foraging pastures. Here, we investigated the effects of a 2°C increase in air temperature over ambient for 30 days on an established tropical pasture (Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil) dominated by the legume Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, using a T-FACE (temperature free-air controlled enhancement) system. We tested the effects of air warming on soil properties [carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and their stable isotopic levels (δ13C and δ15N), as well as soil respiration and soil enzymatic activity] and aboveground characteristics (foliar C, N, δ13C, δ15N, leaf area index, and aboveground biomass) under field conditions. Results show that experimental air warming moderately increased soil respiration rates compared to ambient temperature. Soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture during mid-day (when soil respiration was at its highest) but not at dusk. Foliar δ13C were not different between control and elevated temperature treatments, indicating that plants grown in warmed plots did not show the obvious signs of water stress often seen in warming experiments. The 15N isotopic composition of leaves from plants grown at elevated temperature was lower than in ambient plants, suggesting perhaps a higher proportion of N-fixation contributing to tissue N in warmed plants when compared to ambient ones. Soil microbial enzymatic activity decreased in response to the air warming treatment, suggesting a slower decomposition of organic matter under elevated air temperature conditions. Decreased soil enzyme capacity and increases in soil respiration and plant biomass in plots exposed to high temperature suggest that increased root activity may have caused the increase seen in soil respiration in this tropical pasture. This response

  9. Differential effects of ambient temperature on warm cell responses to infrared radiation in the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Zopf, Lydia M; Lazzari, Claudio R; Tichy, Harald

    2014-03-01

    Thermoreceptors provide animals with background information about the thermal environment, which is at least indirectly a prerequisite for thermoregulation and assists bloodsucking insects in the search for their host. Recordings from peg-in-pit sensilla and tapered hairs on the antennae of the bug Rhodnius prolixus revealed two physiologically different types of warm cells. Both types responded more strongly to temperature pulses produced by switching between two air streams at different constant temperatures than to infrared radiation pulses employed in still air. In addition, both warm cells were better able to discriminate small changes in air temperature than in infrared radiation. As convective and radiant heat determines the discharge, it is impossible for a single warm cell to signal the nature of the stimulus unequivocally. Individual responses are ambiguous, not with regard to temperature change, but with regard to its source. We argue that the bugs use mechanical flow information to differentiate between pulses of convective and radiant heat. However, if pulses of radiant heat occur together with a constant temperature air stream, the mechanical cues would not allow avoiding ambiguity that convective heat introduces into radiant heat stimulation. In this situation, the warm cell in the tapered hairs produced stronger responses than those in the peg-in-pit sensilla. The reversal in the excitability of the two types of warm cells provides a criterion by which to distinguish the combination of convective and radiant heat from the stimuli presented alone.

  10. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Sheehy, John E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; Zhong, Xuhua; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35°C and 1.13°C, respectively, for the period 1979–2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1°C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming. PMID:15226500

  11. Analysis of surface air temperature variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying

    2016-10-01

    With the surface air temperature (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the air temperature change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean air temperature showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean air temperature presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean air temperature tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean air temperature series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban temperatures always rise faster than rural temperatures on the CYP.

  12. Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh Dung T; Morley, Simon A; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E; Peck, Lloyd S

    2011-01-01

    Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour(-1), the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming.

  13. Detailed temperature mapping-Warming characterizes archipelago zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneranta, L.; Vanhatalo, J.; Urho, L.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly warming shallow archipelago areas have the best energetic options for high ecological production. We analyzed and visualized the spring and summer temperature development in the Finnish coastal areas of the Northern Baltic Sea. Typical for the Baltic is a high annual periodicity and variability in water temperatures. The maximum difference between a single day average temperatures across the study area was 28.3 °C. During wintertime the littoral water temperature can decrease below zero in outer archipelago or open water areas when the protective ice cover is not present and the lowest observed value was -0.5 °C. The depth and exposition are the most important variables explaining the coastal temperature gradients from the innermost to the outermost areas in springtime when water is heated by increasing solar radiation. Temperature differs more within coastal area than between the basins. Water temperature sum was highest in innermost areas, lowest in open water areas and the variation in daily averages was highest in the middle region. At the end of the warming period, the difference in surface water temperatures between the innermost and outermost areas had diminished at the time when the cooling began in August-September. These clear temperature gradients enabled us use the cumulative water temperature to classify the coastal zones in a biologically sensible manner into five regions. Our study shows a novel approach to study detailed spatial variations in water temperatures. The results can further be used, for example, to model and predict the spatial distribution of aquatic biota and to determine appropriate spatio-temporal designs for aquatic biota surveys. The new spatial knowledge of temperature regions will also help the evaluation of possible causes of larger scale climatological changes in a biological context including productivity.

  14. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Yu, H.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change has occurred over east Asia since the 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the observed warming in past decades. In this study, we investigate regional surface temperature change during the boreal cold season using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT contribute 44 and 56 % to the SAT over east Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). Radiatively forced SAT changes have made a major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between the so-called "global warming hiatus" and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  15. Falsely increased bispectral index values by convective air warming system during kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Yong Han

    2016-01-01

    Bispectral index (BIS) is a reliable parameter for measuring depth of hypnotic level during anesthesia. Convective air warming system is an effective equipment to maintain normothermia during operation. We report falsely elevated BIS value due to convective air warming system while undergoing kidney transplantation. PMID:27375736

  16. Variation in the urban vegetation, surface temperature, air temperature nexus.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Sheri A; Liang, Liyin L; Crum, Steven M; Feyisa, Gudina L; Wang, Jun; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2017-02-01

    Our study examines the urban vegetation - air temperature (Ta) - land surface temperature (LST) nexus at micro- and regional-scales to better understand urban climate dynamics and the uncertainty in using satellite-based LST for characterizing Ta. While vegetated cooling has been repeatedly linked to reductions in urban LST, the effects of vegetation on Ta, the quantity often used to characterize urban heat islands and global warming, and on the interactions between LST and Ta are less well characterized. To address this need we quantified summer temporal and spatial variation in Ta through a network of 300 air temperature sensors in three sub-regions of greater Los Angeles, CA, which spans a coastal to desert climate gradient. Additional sensors were placed within the inland sub-region at two heights (0.1m and 2m) within three groundcover types: bare soil, irrigated grass, and underneath citrus canopy. For the entire study region, we acquired new imagery data, which allowed calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST. At the microscale, daytime Ta measured along a vertical gradient, ranged from 6 to 3°C cooler at 0.1 and 2m, underneath tall canopy compared to bare ground respectively. At the regional scale NDVI and LST were negatively correlated (p<0.001). Relationships between diel variation in Ta and daytime LST at the regional scale were progressively weaker moving away from the coast and were generally limited to evening and nighttime hours. Relationships between NDVI and Ta were stronger during nighttime hours, yet effectiveness of mid-day vegetated cooling increased substantially at the most arid region. The effectiveness of vegetated Ta cooling increased during heat waves throughout the region. Our findings suggest an important but complex role of vegetation on LST and Ta and that vegetation may provide a negative feedback to urban climate warming.

  17. High Lapse Rates in AIRS Retrieved Temperatures in Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian; Olsen, Edward T.; Fishbein, Evan

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) experiment, on NASA's Aqua spacecraft, uses a combination of infrared and microwave observations to retrieve cloud and surface properties, plus temperature and water vapor profiles comparable to radiosondes throughout the troposphere, for cloud cover up to 70%. The high spectral resolution of AIRS provides sensitivity to important information about the near-surface atmosphere and underlying surface. A preliminary analysis of AIRS temperature retrievals taken during January 2003 reveals extensive areas of superadiabatic lapse rates in the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. These areas are found predominantly east of North America over the Gulf Stream, and, off East Asia over the Kuroshio Current. Accompanying the high lapse rates are low air temperatures, large sea-air temperature differences, and low relative humidities. Imagery from a Visible / Near Infrared instrument on the AIRS experiment shows accompanying clouds. These lines of evidence all point to shallow convection in the bottom layer of a cold air mass overlying warm water, with overturning driven by heat flow from ocean to atmosphere. An examination of operational radiosondes at six coastal stations in Japan shows AIRS to be oversensitive to lower tropospheric lapse rates due to systematically warm near-surface air temperatures. The bias in near-surface air temperature is seen to be independent of sea surface temperature, however. AIRS is therefore sensitive to air-sea temperature difference, but with a warm atmospheric bias. A regression fit to radiosondes is used to correct AIRS near-surface retrieved temperatures, and thereby obtain an estimate of the true atmosphere-ocean thermal contrast in five subtropical regions across the north Pacific. Moving eastward, we show a systematic shift in this air-sea temperature differences toward more isothermal conditions. These results, while preliminary, have implications for our understanding of heat flow from ocean to

  18. Tropical Intraseasonal Air-Sea Exchanges during the 1997 Pacific Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.; Chou, S.-H.; Wang, Zihou

    1999-01-01

    The Madden Julian Oscillations (MJO) and associated westerly wind (WW) events account for much of the tropical intraseasonal variability (TISV). The TISV has been suggested as an important stochastic forcing that may be one of the underlying causes for the observed irregularities of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent observational studies and theories of interannual to interdecadal-scale variability suggest that ENSO may arise from different mechanisms depending on the basic states. The Pacific warming event of 1997, being associated with a period of strong MJO and WW events, serves as a natural experiment for studying the possible role of TISV in triggering an ENSO event. We have performed a combined statistical and composite analysis of surface WW events based on the assimilated surface wind and sea level pressure for the period of 1980-1993, the SSM/I wind for the period of 1988-1997, and OLR. Results indicates that extratropical forcing contribute significantly to the evolution of MJO and establishment of WW events over the Pacific warm pool. Following the major WW events, there appeared an eastward extension of equatorial warm SST anomalies from the western Pacific warm pool. Such tropical-extratropical interaction is particularly clear in the winter of 96-97 that leads to the recent warming event in 1997/98. From the above discussion, our current study on this subject is based on the hypothesis that 1) there is an enhanced air-sea interaction associated with TISV and the northerly surges from the extratropics in the initial phase of the 97/98 warming event, and 2) the relevant mechanisms are functions of the basic state of the coupled system (in terms of SST distribution and atmospheric mean circulation) that varies at the interannual and interdecadal time scale. We are analyzing the space-time structure of the northerly surges, their association with air-sea fluxes and upper ocean responses during the period of September 1996 to June 1997. The

  19. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  20. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  1. Forced-air warming and ultra-clean ventilation do not mix: an investigation of theatre ventilation, patient warming and joint replacement infection in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P D; Albrecht, M; Belani, K G; Nachtsheim, C; Partington, P F; Carluke, I; Reed, M R

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the capacity of patient warming devices to disrupt the ultra-clean airflow system. We compared the effects of two patient warming technologies, forced-air and conductive fabric, on operating theatre ventilation during simulated hip replacement and lumbar spinal procedures using a mannequin as a patient. Infection data were reviewed to determine whether joint infection rates were associated with the type of patient warming device that was used. Neutral-buoyancy detergent bubbles were released adjacent to the mannequin's head and at floor level to assess the movement of non-sterile air into the clean airflow over the surgical site. During simulated hip replacement, bubble counts over the surgical site were greater for forced-air than for conductive fabric warming when the anaesthesia/surgery drape was laid down (p = 0.010) and at half-height (p < 0.001). For lumbar surgery, forced-air warming generated convection currents that mobilised floor air into the surgical site area. Conductive fabric warming had no such effect. A significant increase in deep joint infection, as demonstrated by an elevated infection odds ratio (3.8, p = 0.024), was identified during a period when forced-air warming was used compared to a period when conductive fabric warming was used. Air-free warming is, therefore, recommended over forced-air warming for orthopaedic procedures.

  2. Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records

    PubMed Central

    Hausfather, Zeke; Cowtan, Kevin; Clarke, David C.; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Rohde, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) records are subject to potential biases due to changing instrumentation and measurement practices. Significant differences exist between commonly used composite SST reconstructions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), the Hadley Centre SST data set (HadSST3), and the Japanese Meteorological Agency’s Centennial Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs (COBE-SST) from 2003 to the present. The update from ERSST version 3b to version 4 resulted in an increase in the operational SST trend estimate during the last 19 years from 0.07° to 0.12°C per decade, indicating a higher rate of warming in recent years. We show that ERSST version 4 trends generally agree with largely independent, near-global, and instrumentally homogeneous SST measurements from floating buoys, Argo floats, and radiometer-based satellite measurements that have been developed and deployed during the past two decades. We find a large cooling bias in ERSST version 3b and smaller but significant cooling biases in HadSST3 and COBE-SST from 2003 to the present, with respect to most series examined. These results suggest that reported rates of SST warming in recent years have been underestimated in these three data sets. PMID:28070556

  3. On the Regulation of the Pacific Warm Pool Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Sue-Hsien; Chan, Pui-King; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the tropical western Pacific, regions of the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and the largest cloud cover are found to have the largest surface heating, primarily due to the weak evaporative cooling associated with weak winds. This situation is in variance with the suggestions that the temperature in the Pacific warm pool is regulated either by the reduced solar heating due to an enhanced cloudiness or by the enhanced evaporative cooling due to an elevated SST. It is clear that an enhanced surface heating in an enhanced convection region is not sustainable and must be interrupted by variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation. As the deep convective regions shift away from regions of high SST due primarily to seasonal variation and secondarily to interannual variation of the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation, both trade wind and evaporative cooling in the high SST region increase, leading to a reduction in SST. We conclude that the evaporative cooling associated with the seasonal and interannual variations of trade winds in the primary factor that prevent the warm pool SST from increasing to a value much higher than what is observed.

  4. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  5. Surface Temperature variability from AIRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.; Dang, V. T.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    To address the existence and possible causes of the climate hiatus in the Earth's global temperature we investigate the trends and variability in the surface temperature using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014for the day and night conditions. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean temperatures, as well as temperatures in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We compare the satellite data with the new surface data produced by Karl et al. (2015) who denies the reality of the climate hiatus. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface temperature remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The day-night difference is an indicator of the anthropogenic trend. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Comparing new-technology passive warming versus traditional passive warming methods for optimizing perioperative body core temperature.

    PubMed

    Bender, Miriam; Self, Beverly; Schroeder, Ellen; Giap, Brandon

    2015-08-01

    Hypothermia puts surgical patients at risk for adverse outcomes. Traditional passive warming methods are mostly ineffective in reducing hypothermia. New-technology passive warming holds promise as an effective method for promoting and sustaining normothermia throughout surgery. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to compare the effectiveness of new-technology passive warming with traditional methods. We measured core body temperature at anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery for patients undergoing robotic-assisted prostatectomy/hysterectomy in the lithotomy position who received either new-technology passive warming (n = 30) or traditional linens and gel pads (n = 35). The traditionally warmed cohort had no change in temperature (35.9° C ± 0.6° C presurgery vs 35.9° C ± 0.7° C postsurgery; t = 0.47; P = .66). The intervention cohort showed a significant increase in temperature (35.75° C ± 0.52° C presurgery vs 36.30° C ± 0.53° C postsurgery; t = 4.64; P < .001). A repeated-measure analysis of variance adjusting for surgery duration and fluid administration confirmed the significance (F = 17.254; P < .001), suggesting that new-technology passive warming may effectively complement active warming to reduce perioperative hypothermia.

  7. Potential Alternative Lower Global Warming Refrigerants for Air Conditioning in Hot Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The earth continues to see record increase in temperatures and extreme weather conditions that is largely driven by anthropogenic emissions of warming gases such as carbon dioxide and other more potent greenhouse gases such as refrigerants. The cooperation of 188 countries in the Conference of the Parties in Paris 2015 (COP21) resulted in an agreement aimed to achieve a legally binding and universal agreement on climate, with the aim of keeping global warming below 2 C. A global phasedown of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) can prevent 0.5 C of warming by 2100. However, most of the countries in hot climates are considered as developing countries and as such are still using R-22 (a Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)) as the baseline refrigerant and are currently undergoing a phase-out of R-22 which is controlled by current Montreal Protocol to R-410A and other HFC based refrigerants. These HFCs have significantly high Global Warming Potential (GWP) and might not perform as well as R-22 at high ambient temperature conditions. In this paper we present recent results on evaluating the performance of alternative lower GWP refrigerants for R-22 and R-410A for small residential mini-split air conditioners and large commercial packaged units. Results showed that several of the alternatives would provide adequate replacement for R-22 with minor system modification. For the R-410A system, results showed that some of the alternatives were almost drop-in ready with benefit in efficiency and/or capacity. One of the most promising alternatives for R-22 mini-split unit is propane (R-290) as it offers higher efficiency; however it requires compressor and some other minor system modification to maintain capacity and minimize flammability risk. Between the R-410A alternatives, R-32 appears to have a competitive advantage; however at the cost of higher compressor discharge temperature. With respect to the hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) blends, there existed a tradeoff in performance and system design

  8. Global warming forecasts may be built on hot air

    SciTech Connect

    Lochhead, C.

    1990-04-16

    Predictions of a catastrophic global warming have come under scrutiny in the scientific community. Data are discussed that suggest that ice sheets are not melting as predicted nor is there clear-cut evidence that Earth is warming. Climate models have proved to be unreliable because of computer limitations and the highly complex factors of the planet's weather. However, some scientists say there is still cause for concern.

  9. Constant diurnal temperature regime alters the impact of simulated climate warming on a tropical pseudoscorpion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeh, Jeanne A.; Bonilla, Melvin M.; Su, Eleanor J.; Padua, Michael V.; Anderson, Rachel V.; Zeh, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that global warming may be catastrophic for tropical ectotherms. Although most studies addressing temperature effects in ectotherms utilize constant temperatures, Jensen's inequality and thermal stress considerations predict that this approach will underestimate warming effects on species experiencing daily temperature fluctuations in nature. Here, we tested this prediction in a neotropical pseudoscorpion. Nymphs were reared in control and high-temperature treatments under a constant daily temperature regime, and results compared to a companion fluctuating-temperature study. At constant temperature, pseudoscorpions outperformed their fluctuating-temperature counterparts. Individuals were larger, developed faster, and males produced more sperm, and females more embryos. The greatest impact of temperature regime involved short-term, adult exposure, with constant temperature mitigating high-temperature effects on reproductive traits. Our findings demonstrate the importance of realistic temperature regimes in climate warming studies, and suggest that exploitation of microhabitats that dampen temperature oscillations may be critical in avoiding extinction as tropical climates warm.

  10. Climate change and river temperature sensitivity to warmer nighttime vs. warmer daytime air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the July river temperature response to atmospheric warming over the diurnal cycle in a 36 km reach of the upper Middle Fork John Day River of Oregon, USA. The physical model Heat Source was calibrated and used to run 3 different cases of increased air temperature during July: 1) uniform increase over the whole day ("delta method"), 2) warmer daytime, and 3) warmer nighttime. All 3 cases had the same mean daily air temperatures - a 4 °C increase relative to 2002. Results show that the timing of air temperature increases has a significant effect on the magnitude, timing and duration of changes in water temperatures relative to current conditions. In all cases, river temperatures in the lower reach increased by at least 1.1 °C . For the delta case, water temperature increases never exceeded 2.3 °C. In contrast, under the warmer daytime case, water temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 6.6 hours/day on average, with the largest increases occurring during mid-day. In the warmer night case the river temperature increases exceeded 2.3 °C for 4.3 hours/day on average with the largest increases occurring around midnight. In addition, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the delta case increased the water temperature by an average of 1.9 °C uniformly during daytime and nighttime. Still, an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer daytime case increased water temperature by an average of at least 1.6 °C during the daytime and by an average of up to 2.5 °C during the nighttime, while an average increase of 4 °C in air temperature under the warmer nighttime case increased the water temperature by an average of at least 1.4 °C during the nighttime and by an average of up to 2.4 °C during the daytime. The spatial response of temperature was different for each case. The lower 13 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the delta case, while only the lower 6 rkm warmed by at least 1.1 °C with the warmer daytime case

  11. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:27152599

  12. Sensitivity of New England Stream Temperatures to Air Temperature and Precipitation Under Projected Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Samal, N. R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Zuidema, S.; Prousevitch, A.; Glidden, S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal response of streams and rivers to changing climate will influence aquatic habitat. This study examines the impact that changing climate has on stream temperatures in the Merrimack River, NH/MA USA using the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES), a spatially distributed river network model driven by air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, precipitation, and solar radiation. Streamflow and water temperatures are simulated at a 45-second (latitude x longitude) river grid resolution for 135 years under historical and projected climate variability. Contemporary streamflow (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.77) and river temperatures (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient = 0.89) matched at downstream USGS gauge data well. A suite of model runs were made in combination with uniformly increased daily summer air temperatures by 2oC, 4 oC and 6 oC as well as adjusted precipitation by -40%, -30%, -20%, -10% and +10% as a sensitivity analysis to explore a broad range of potential future climates. We analyzed the summer stream temperatures and the percent of river length unsuitable for cold to warm water fish habitats. Impacts are greatest in large rivers due to the accumulation of river temperature warming throughout the entire river network. Cold water fish (i.e. brook trout) are most strongly affected while, warm water fish (i.e. largemouth bass) aren't expected to be impacted. The changes in stream temperatures under various potential climate scenarios will provide a better understanding of the specific impact that air temperature and precipitation have on aquatic thermal regimes and habitat.

  13. Correlation of air temperature above water-air sections with the forecasted low level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with air temperature transformational variations on the sections "water-air" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of air temperature mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of temperature. DT is the differences of initial temperature on section water-air in started area, from contrast temperature of water surface along a trajectory of movement of air masses and from the temperature above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of air temperature at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water temperature in forecasting point and air temperature in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm air masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of air temperature above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of air temperature in

  14. Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Nettles, W. Robert; Phillips, Jana R.; Krassovski, Misha B.; Hook, Leslie A.; Gu, Lianhong; Richardson, Andrew D.; Aubrecht, Donald M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Barbier, Charlotte

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the operational methods to achieve and measure both deep-soil heating (0-3 m) and whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) appropriate to the scale of tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods were developed to allow scientists to provide a plausible set of ecosystem-warming scenarios within which immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles) could be measured. Elevated CO2 was also incorporated to test how temperature responses may be modified by atmospheric CO2 effects on carbon cycle processes. The WEW approach was successful in sustaining a wide range of aboveground and belowground temperature treatments (+0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C) in large 115 m2 open-topped enclosures with elevated CO2 treatments (+0 to +500 ppm). Air warming across the entire 10 enclosure study required ˜ 90 % of the total energy for WEW ranging from 64 283 mega Joules (MJ) d-1 during the warm season to 80 102 MJ d-1 during cold months. Soil warming across the study required only 1.3 to 1.9 % of the energy used ranging from 954 to 1782 MJ d-1 of energy in the warm and cold seasons, respectively. The residual energy was consumed by measurement and communication systems. Sustained temperature and elevated CO2 treatments were only constrained by occasional high external winds. This paper contrasts the in situ WEW method with closely related field-warming approaches using both aboveground (air or infrared heating) and belowground-warming methods. It also includes a full discussion of confounding factors that need to be considered carefully in the interpretation of experimental results. The WEW method combining aboveground and deep-soil heating approaches enables observations of future temperature conditions not available in the current observational record, and therefore provides a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions.

  15. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  16. Arctic air may become cleaner as temperatures rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The air in the Arctic is cleaner during summer than during winter. Previous studies have shown that for light-scattering pollutants, this seasonal cycle is due mainly to summer precipitation removing pollutants from the air during atmospheric transport from midlatitude industrial and agricultural sources. With new measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and Alert, Nunavut, Canada, Garrett et al. extended previous research to show that light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon are also efficiently removed by seasonal precipitation. Precipitation removes these particles from the air most efficiently at high humidities and relatively warm temperatures, suggesting that as the Arctic gets warmer and wetter in the future, the air and snow might also become cleaner.

  17. Global patterns in lake ecosystem responses to warming based on the temperature dependence of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Benjamin M; Chandra, Sudeep; Dell, Anthony I; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M; Tamatamah, Rashid; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming is expected to have large effects on ecosystems in part due to the temperature dependence of metabolism. The responses of metabolic rates to climate warming may be greatest in the tropics and at low elevations because mean temperatures are warmer there and metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature (with exponents >1). However, if warming rates are sufficiently fast in higher latitude/elevation lakes, metabolic rate responses to warming may still be greater there even though metabolic rates respond exponentially to temperature. Thus, a wide range of global patterns in the magnitude of metabolic rate responses to warming could emerge depending on global patterns of temperature and warming rates. Here we use the Boltzmann-Arrhenius equation, published estimates of activation energy, and time series of temperature from 271 lakes to estimate long-term (1970-2010) changes in 64 metabolic processes in lakes. The estimated responses of metabolic processes to warming were usually greatest in tropical/low-elevation lakes even though surface temperatures in higher latitude/elevation lakes are warming faster. However, when the thermal sensitivity of a metabolic process is especially weak, higher latitude/elevation lakes had larger responses to warming in parallel with warming rates. Our results show that the sensitivity of a given response to temperature (as described by its activation energy) provides a simple heuristic for predicting whether tropical/low-elevation lakes will have larger or smaller metabolic responses to warming than higher latitude/elevation lakes. Overall, we conclude that the direct metabolic consequences of lake warming are likely to be felt most strongly at low latitudes and low elevations where metabolism-linked ecosystem services may be most affected.

  18. Effects of airflow on body temperatures and sleep stages in a warm humid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Iwaki, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    Airflow is an effective way to increase heat loss—an ongoing process during sleep and wakefulness in daily life. However, it is unclear whether airflow stimulates cutaneous sensation and disturbs sleep or reduces the heat load and facilitates sleep. In this study, 17 male subjects wearing short pyjamas slept on a bed with a cotton blanket under two of the following conditions: (1) air temperature (Ta) 26°C, relative humidity (RH) 50%, and air velocity (V) 0.2 m s-1; (2) Ta 32°C, RH 80%, V 1.7 m s-1; (3) Ta 32°C; RH 80%, V 0.2 m s-1 (hereafter referred to as 26/50, 32/80 with airflow, and 32/80 with still air, respectively). Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, and mental electromyograms were obtained for all subjects. Rectal (Tre) and skin (Ts) temperatures were recorded continuously during the sleep session, and body-mass was measured before and after the sleep session. No significant differences were observed in the duration of sleep stages between subjects under the 26/50 and 32/80 with airflow conditions; however, the total duration of wakefulness decreased significantly in subjects under the 32/80 with airflow condition compared to that in subjects under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss under the 32/80 with airflow condition were significantly higher compared to those under the 26/50 condition, and significantly lower than those under the 32/80 with still air condition ( P < 0.05). An alleviated heat load due to increased airflow was considered to exist between the 32/80 with still air and the 26/50 conditions. Airflow reduces the duration of wakefulness by decreasing Tre, Tsk, Ts, and body-mass loss in a warm humid condition.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of warming in Bangladesh using recent observed temperature data and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Rejaur; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-05-01

    This study focused on the annual and seasonal warming at local scale by analysing the trends, anomalies, change points and shifting of isotherm in temperature from 34 meteorological stations distributed over Bangladesh, spanning 40 years from the year 1971-2010. For trends, a linear regression using least square model was applied. Anomalies were calculated as a difference between the reference (1971-2000 mean) and actual occurrence value. Inverse distance weighted interpolation and GIS techniques were used to find out the spatial pattern of warming. Besides, the sequential version of the Mann-Kendall test was applied to detect the changing point of warming. Direction of shifting of warming was detected by the decadal distribution pattern of specific isotherms which were generated using GIS. The result reveals that the climate of Bangladesh undergone a significant warming during the period 1971-2010, 0.020 °C per year (for annual mean) and the maximum temperature warmed more than the minimum temperature (0.022 vs. 0.018 °C per year). On a seasonal basis, hot summer, humid summer and dry winter also show significant warming, 0.022, 0.026 and 0.011 °C per year, respectively. The warming of maximum temperature (0.032 °C per year) in humid summer was greater than other seasons, contributed more on annual warming. Spatial patterns indicate that geographically the warming varied significantly and some places warming exit 2.0 °C and reached up to 3.2 °C. The north western, north eastern, southern and south eastern parts of the country are more susceptible to rising temperature. In 2010, mean annual temperature was 0.84 °C warmer than the base period (1971-2000) mean. The significant warmest period was spread across the year 1995-2010, with 2010 being the warmest year. Statistically significant warming was began in early 1990's and the years 1990, 1994 and 1997 identified as important abrupt change points of warming. Moreover, a remarkably northward and north

  20. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These data, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temperatures(indicated by the red and white areas) still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north (and south) mid-Pacific. Red areas are about 10centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas show the sea-surface height is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal.

    This build-up of heat dominating the Western Pacific was first noted by TOPEX/Poseidon oceanographers more than two years ago and has outlasted the El Nino and La Nina events of the past few years. See: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino/990127.html . This warmth contrasts with the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and tropical Pacific where lower-than-normal sea levels and cool ocean temperatures continue (indicated by blue areas). The blue areas are between 5 and 13centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, whereas the purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Actually, the near-equatorial ocean cooled through the fall of 2000 and into mid-winter and continues almost La Nina-like.

    Looking at the entire Pacific basin, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation's warm horseshoe and cool wedge pattern still dominates this sea-level height image. Most recent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sea-surface temperature data also clearly illustrate the persistence of this basin-wide pattern. They are available at http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/climo.html

    The U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. For more information on the TOPEX/Poseidon project, see: http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov

  1. Observations of Cooling Summer Daytime Temperatures (1948-2005) in Growing Urban Coastal California Air Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures in California (CA) during summer (June- August). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily minimum temperatures increased faster than daily maximum temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily maximum temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a 'reverse-reaction' to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. The coastal cooling thus resulted as urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would be even stronger. The cooling or warming trends at several pairs of nearby urban and non- urban sites were compared in an effort to separate out the urban heat island (UHI) and global warming components of the trend. Average temperatures from global circulation models show warming that decreases from inland areas of California to its coastal areas. Such large scale models, however, cannot resolve these smaller scale topographic and coastal effects. Meso-scale modeling on a 4 km grid is thus being carried out to evaluate the contributions from GHG global-warming and land-use changes, including UHI development, to the observed trends. Significant societal impacts may result from this observed reverse-reaction to GHG- warming; possible beneficial effects include decreased maximum: O3 levels, human thermal-stress, and per- capita energy requirements for cooling.

  2. Microphysics and chemistry of sulphate aerosols at warm stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drdla, K.; Pueschel, R. F.; Strawa, A. W.; Cohen, R. C.; Hanisco, T. F.

    1999-11-01

    Observations of high NOx/NOy ratios (overall 40% larger than modelled values) during the Polar Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer campaign have led us to re-examine the heterogeneous chemistry of stratospheric aerosol particles during the polar summer period, using the Integrated MicroPhysics and Aerosol Chemistry on Trajectories model. The warm summer temperatures (up to 235 K) imply very concentrated sulphuric acid solutions (80 wt %). On the one hand, these solutions are more likely to freeze, into sulphuric acid monohydrate (SAM), reducing the efficiency of the N2O5 hydrolysis reaction. Including this freezing process increases NOx/NOy ratios but does not improve model/measurement agreement: in polar spring, SAM formation causes the NOx/NOy ratio to be overpredicted whereas freezing has a much smaller effect on nitrogen chemistry during the continuous solar exposure of polar summer. On the other hand, if sulphate aerosols remain liquid, the high acidity may promote acid-catalysed reactions. The most important reaction is CH2O + HNO3, which effectively increases NOx/NOy ratios across a wide range of conditions, improving agreement with measurements. Furthermore, the production of HONO can either enhance gas-phase OH concentrations or promote secondary liquid reactions, including HONO + HNO3 and HONO + HCl. Primary uncertainties include the uptake coefficient of CH2O relevant to reaction with HNO3, the amount of HONO available for secondary reaction, and the relative rates of HONO reaction with HNO3 and HCl. The fate of the formic acid product, whose presence in the stratosphere may be an indicator for the CH2O reaction, and the impact on the stratospheric hydrogen budget are also discussed.

  3. Amazon Basin climate under global warming: the role of the sea surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Harris, Phil P; Huntingford, Chris; Cox, Peter M

    2008-05-27

    The Hadley Centre coupled climate-carbon cycle model (HadCM3LC) predicts loss of the Amazon rainforest in response to future anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, the atmospheric component of HadCM3LC is used to assess the role of simulated changes in mid-twenty-first century sea surface temperature (SST) in Amazon Basin climate change. When the full HadCM3LC SST anomalies (SSTAs) are used, the atmosphere model reproduces the Amazon Basin climate change exhibited by HadCM3LC, including much of the reduction in Amazon Basin rainfall. This rainfall change is shown to be the combined effect of SSTAs in both the tropical Atlantic and the Pacific, with roughly equal contributions from each basin. The greatest rainfall reduction occurs from May to October, outside of the mature South American monsoon (SAM) season. This dry season response is the combined effect of a more rapid warming of the tropical North Atlantic relative to the south, and warm SSTAs in the tropical east Pacific. Conversely, a weak enhancement of mature SAM season rainfall in response to Atlantic SST change is suppressed by the atmospheric response to Pacific SST. This net wet season response is sufficient to prevent dry season soil moisture deficits from being recharged through the SAM season, leading to a perennial soil moisture reduction and an associated 30% reduction in annual Amazon Basin net primary productivity (NPP). A further 23% NPP reduction occurs in response to a 3.5 degrees C warmer air temperature associated with a global mean SST warming.

  4. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas.

  5. Association Between Air Temperature and Cancer Death Rates in Florida: An Ecological Study.

    PubMed

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Proponents of global warming predict adverse events due to a slight warming of the planet in the last 100 years. This ecological study tests one of the possible arguments that might support the global warming theory - that it may increase cancer death rates. Thus, average daily air temperature is compared to cancer death rates at the county level in a U.S. state, while controlling for variables of smoking, race, and land elevation. The study revealed that lower cancer death rates were associated with warmer temperatures. Further study is indicated to verify these findings.

  6. Fifty-year record of north polar temperatures shows warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Jansen, Mark; Pulrang, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean has long been at the center of the global warming debate, since a significant reduction in sea ice could alter the Earth's radiation balance, as well as modify global atmospheric circulation. According to an August 19, 2000, report in The New York Times, passengers aboard a Russian icebreaker-turned-cruise ship observed a "mile-wide" patch of ice-free ocean at the pole. This observation immediately prompted speculation that global warming is already melting the polar icecap. Two types of open water commonly occur throughout the Arctic pack ice. The linear features, called leads, and curvilinear features, called polynyas, are not necessarily cause for concern. However, the overall extent of Arctic sea ice has decreased in recent decades and, hence, the issue of polar warming is of broad environmental interest.

  7. Regional air pollution brightening reverses the greenhouse gases induced warming-elevation relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Yue; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Vautard, Robert; Zhou, Liming; Yang, Hui; Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong

    2015-06-01

    Mountain waters, glaciers, hazards, and biodiversity are vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. Warming is projected to amplify over mountains by global climate models, yet meteorological records do not show a uniform acceleration of warming with elevation. Here we explore warming-elevation relationships using records from 2660 meteorological stations and determine that the vertical gradient of warming rate varies with location. The warming is faster at higher altitudes in Asia and western North America, but the opposite is observed over Central Europe and eastern North America which have received more short-wave radiation (brightening) associated with a decrease of aerosols and clouds since the 1980s. We found that altitudinal differences in air pollution (brightening), with observations showing more short-wave radiation received at low altitudes than at mountains, modulate the warming-elevation relationships. The advance in understanding of the drivers of regional climate change will contribute to the formulation of strategies for climate change mitigation at high elevations.

  8. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  9. Infection control hazards associated with the use of forced-air warming in operating theatres.

    PubMed

    Wood, A M; Moss, C; Keenan, A; Reed, M R; Leaper, D J

    2014-11-01

    A review is presented of the published experimental and clinical research into the infection control hazards of using forced air-warming (FAW) in operating theatres to prevent inadvertent hypothermia. This evidence has been reviewed with emphasis on the use of ultra-clean ventilation, any interaction it has with different types of patient warming (and FAW in particular), and any related increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI). We conclude that FAW does contaminate ultra-clean air ventilation; however, there appears to be no definite link to an increased risk of SSI based on current research. Nevertheless, whereas this remains unproven, we recommend that surgeons should at least consider alternative patient-warming systems in areas where contamination of the operative field may be critical. Although this is not a systematic review of acceptable randomized controlled clinical trials, which do not exist, it does identify that there is a need for definitive research in this field.

  10. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  11. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  12. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This Section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  13. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This Section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  14. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. (a) This Section covers the test procedures you must follow if, pursuant...

  15. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  16. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  17. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  18. The major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Lawrence, Zachary D.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015/16 Northern Hemisphere winter stratosphere appeared to have the greatest potential yet seen for record Arctic ozone loss. Temperatures in the Arctic lower stratosphere were at record lows from December 2015 through early February 2016, with an unprecedented period of temperatures below ice polar stratospheric cloud thresholds. Trace gas measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) show that exceptional denitrification and dehydration, as well as extensive chlorine activation, occurred throughout the polar vortex. Ozone decreases in 2015/16 began earlier and proceeded more rapidly than those in 2010/11, a winter that saw unprecedented Arctic ozone loss. However, on 5-6 March 2016 a major final sudden stratospheric warming ("major final warming", MFW) began. By mid-March, the mid-stratospheric vortex split after being displaced far off the pole. The resulting offspring vortices decayed rapidly preceding the full breakdown of the vortex by early April. In the lower stratosphere, the period of temperatures low enough for chlorine activation ended nearly a month earlier than that in 2011 because of the MFW. Ozone loss rates were thus kept in check because there was less sunlight during the cold period. Although the winter mean volume of air in which chemical ozone loss could occur was as large as that in 2010/11, observed ozone values did not drop to the persistently low values reached in 2011.We use MLS trace gas measurements, as well as mixing and polar vortex diagnostics based on meteorological fields, to show how the timing and intensity of the MFW and its impact on transport and mixing halted chemical ozone loss. Our detailed characterization of the polar vortex breakdown includes investigations of individual offspring vortices and the origins and fate of air within them. Comparisons of mixing diagnostics with lower-stratospheric N2O and middle-stratospheric CO from MLS (long-lived tracers) show rapid vortex erosion and extensive mixing during

  19. Amplification of Arctic warming by past air pollution reductions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Varma, V.; Riipinen, I.; Seland, Ø.; Kirkevåg, A.; Struthers, H.; Iversen, T.; Hansson, H.-C.; Ekman, A. M. L.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic region is warming considerably faster than the rest of the globe, with important consequences for the ecosystems and human exploration of the region. However, the reasons behind this Arctic amplification are not entirely clear. As a result of measures to enhance air quality, anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter and its precursors have drastically decreased in parts of the Northern Hemisphere over the past three decades. Here we present simulations with an Earth system model with comprehensive aerosol physics and chemistry that show that the sulfate aerosol reductions in Europe since 1980 can potentially explain a significant fraction of Arctic warming over that period. Specifically, the Arctic region receives an additional 0.3 W m-2 of energy, and warms by 0.5 °C on annual average in simulations with declining European sulfur emissions in line with historical observations, compared with a model simulation with fixed European emissions at 1980 levels. Arctic warming is amplified mainly in fall and winter, but the warming is initiated in summer by an increase in incoming solar radiation as well as an enhanced poleward oceanic and atmospheric heat transport. The simulated summertime energy surplus reduces sea-ice cover, which leads to a transfer of heat from the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere. We conclude that air quality regulations in the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmospheric circulation, and Arctic climate are inherently linked.

  20. Impact of Surface Air Temperature and Snow Cover Depth on the Upper Soil Temperature Variations in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, A. B.; Sherstyukov, B. G.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2007-12-01

    A study of the impact of climate changes during for the last four decades on soil temperatures at depths up to 3.2 meters has been conducted for the territory of Russia. For the 1965-2004 period, we compiled and analyzed data from all Russian meteorological stations with long-term soil temperature observations at depths 80, 160 and 320 cm. Traditionally, these stations also observe a complete set of standard meteorological variables (that include surface air temperature and extensive monitoring of snow cover characteristics). This allowed us to investigate the impact of surface air temperatures and snow depth variations on soil temperatures in the upper soil layer, to quantify it using statistical analyses of multi-dimensional 40-year-long time series at 164 locations throughout the country, and assess the representativeness of the obtained results. Three-dimensional spatial distributions of regression and correlation coefficients were mapped for warm and cold seasons separately as well as for the entire year, and thereafter analyzed. In the permafrost zone we found special features in these fields that distinctively separate the permafrost zone from the remaining territory. In this zone, soil temperatures are practically uncorrelated with surface air temperatures and variations of the snow depth controls soil temperature variations (with R2 up to 0.5) Quantitative estimates of the contribution of mid-annual air temperature and snow cover depth in the long-term changes of mid-annual soil temperatures across the Russia territory were received. We found that the prevailing influence on soil temperature variations in the European part was surface air temperatures and in the Asian part of Russia was snow cover depth. Furthermore, increase of the winter snow depth in the permafrost zone (by preserving the heat accumulated in the warm season) promotes annual soil temperature increase and therefore may foster the further permafrost degradation associated with ongoing

  1. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  2. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  3. Temperature oscillation coupled with fungal community shifts can modulate warming effects on litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Dang, Christian K; Schindler, Markus; Chauvet, Eric; Gessner, Mark O

    2009-01-01

    Diel temperature oscillations are a nearly ubiquitous phenomenon, with amplitudes predicted to change along with mean temperatures under global-warming scenarios. Impact assessments of global warming have largely disregarded diel temperature oscillations, even though key processes in ecosystems, such as decomposition, may be affected. We tested the effect of a 5 degrees C temperature increase with and without diel oscillations on litter decomposition by fungal communities in stream microcosms. Five temperature regimes with identical thermal sums (degree days) were applied: constant 3 degrees and 8 degrees C; diel temperature oscillations of 5 degrees C around each mean; and oscillations of 9 degrees C around 8 degrees C. Temperature oscillations around 8 degrees C (warming scenario), but not 3 degrees C (ambient scenario), accelerated decomposition by 18% (5 degrees C oscillations) and 31% (9 degrees C oscillations), respectively, compared to the constant temperature regime at 8 degrees C. Community structure was not affected by oscillating temperatures, although the rise in mean temperature from 3 degrees to 8 degrees C consistently shifted the relative abundance of species. A simple model using temperature-growth responses of the dominant fungal decomposers accurately described the experimentally observed pattern, indicating that the effect of temperature oscillations on decomposition in our warming scenario was caused by strong curvilinear responses of species to warming at low temperature, particularly of the species becoming most abundant at 8 degrees C (Tetracladium marchalianum). These findings underscore the need to consider species-specific temperature characteristics in concert with changes in communities when assessing consequences of global warming on ecosystem processes.

  4. Temperature Tunable Air-Gap Etalon Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experimental measurements of a temperature tuned air-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits temperature dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.

  5. Cold-Air Pools and Regional Warming in the Lake Tahoe Region, Central Sierra Nevada of California—Observations and Considerations regarding the Future of Climate-Change Refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring climate refugia, specifically in the form of cold-air pools (CAPs) in mountain basins, are increasingly discussed as potential safe havens against some impacts of global warming on western ecosystems and cold-adapted species. A key concern in these discussions should be: How will CAPs react to regional warming? Several broad possibilities exist: CAPs may "resist" regional warming, remaining as cool as ever despite warming of their surroundings. CAPs may "reflect" regional warming, experiencing temperature increases that are roughly equal to the warming of their surroundings but that leave the CAP as cool relative to their surroundings as ever. Or CAPs might "disintegrate" in the face of regional warming, losing their special cool status relative to surroundings and in the process warming much more than their surroundings. An evaluation of historical observations of wintertime cold-air pooling in the Lake Tahoe basin and adjacent Truckee drainage offers examples of CAPs that have resisted regional warming (Tahoe) and that have reflected regional warming (Truckee). These two CAP responses to warming suggest that no single fate awaits all CAPs in the Sierra Nevada. Rather, different CAPs will likely evolve in different ways, depending on their topographic configurations (e.g., closed vs draining basins), topographic depths, CAP areas, and even (in the case of the Tahoe basin) thermal conditions at the base of the CAP. These CAP examples also suggest a need for research on the possibility of equivalent future responses by other, non-CAP climate refugia in a warming world.

  6. On the association between high temperature and mortality in warm climates.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Abbas; Tewtel-Salem, Mylene

    2005-05-01

    We conducted a time-series analysis of 1997-1999 data records of air temperature and all-cause mortality in Greater Beirut, using bi-linear Poisson auto-regressive models, and published our findings in the Science of the Total Environment [El-Zein, A., Tewtel-Salem, M., Nehme, G., 2004. A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut. Sci. Total Environ. 330, 71-80]. We compared our results to those of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87.], who subsequently reported that their original results were inaccurate and published new results [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87; Curriero, F.C., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., 2003. Letter to the Editor re. On the Use of Generalized Additive Models in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health" and "Temperature and Mortality in 11 Cities of the Eastern United States". Am. J. Epidemiol. 158(1) 93-94.]. In this letter, we report two changes in the interpretation of our findings as a result of the change in the results of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87]. Their newly-reported results reinforce our conclusion that heat-related mortality can be a significant public health issue even in temperate to warm climates. However, our findings raise a question concerning the ability of socioeconomic indicators to explain differences in vulnerability to heat between high-income and low-income countries.

  7. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  8. Modeling monthly mean air temperature for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    Air temperature is one of the main weather variables influencing agriculture around the world. Its availability, however, is a concern, mainly in Brazil where the weather stations are more concentrated on the coastal regions of the country. Therefore, the present study had as an objective to develop models for estimating monthly and annual mean air temperature for the Brazilian territory using multiple regression and geographic information system techniques. Temperature data from 2,400 stations distributed across the Brazilian territory were used, 1,800 to develop the equations and 600 for validating them, as well as their geographical coordinates and altitude as independent variables for the models. A total of 39 models were developed, relating the dependent variables maximum, mean, and minimum air temperatures (monthly and annual) to the independent variables latitude, longitude, altitude, and their combinations. All regression models were statistically significant ( α ≤ 0.01). The monthly and annual temperature models presented determination coefficients between 0.54 and 0.96. We obtained an overall spatial correlation higher than 0.9 between the models proposed and the 16 major models already published for some Brazilian regions, considering a total of 3.67 × 108 pixels evaluated. Our national temperature models are recommended to predict air temperature in all Brazilian territories.

  9. Modeling of global surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusakova, M. A.; Karlin, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    A model to assess a number of factors, such as total solar irradiance, albedo, greenhouse gases and water vapor, affecting climate change has been developed on the basis of Earth's radiation balance principle. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere was investigated. It's a common knowledge, that part of the incoming radiation is reflected into space from the atmosphere, land and water surfaces, and another part is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Some part of outdoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) and water vapor. Making use of the regression analysis a correlation between concentration of greenhouse gases, water vapor and global surface air temperature was obtained which, it is turn, made it possible to develop the proposed model. The model showed that even smallest fluctuations of total solar irradiance intensify both positive and negative feedback which give rise to considerable changes in global surface air temperature. The model was used both to reconstruct the global surface air temperature for the 1981-2005 period and to predict global surface air temperature until 2030. The reconstructions of global surface air temperature for 1981-2005 showed the models validity. The model makes it possible to assess contribution of the factors listed above in climate change.

  10. Natural and forced air temperature variability in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of Labrador air temperatures over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate variability and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of variability and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air temperature variability for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate variability in Labrador air temperature. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the variability in annual Labrador air temperatures over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air temperature response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.

  11. Abrupt summer warming and changes in temperature extremes over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s: Drivers and physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaodong; Lu, Riyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the drivers and physical processes for the abrupt decadal summer surface warming and increases in hot temperature extremes that occurred over Northeast Asia in the mid-1990s. Observations indicate an abrupt increase in summer mean surface air temperature (SAT) over Northeast Asia since the mid-1990s. Accompanying this abrupt surface warming, significant changes in some temperature extremes, characterized by increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature (Tmax), daily minimum temperature (Tmin), annual hottest day temperature (TXx), and annual warmest night temperature (TNx) were observed. There were also increases in the frequency of summer days (SU) and tropical nights (TR). Atmospheric general circulation model experiments forced by changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, and anthropogenic aerosol (AA) forcing, relative to the period 1964-93, reproduced the general patterns of observed summer mean SAT changes and associated changes in temperature extremes, although the abrupt decrease in precipitation since the mid-1990s was not simulated. Additional model experiments with different forcings indicated that changes in SST/SIE explained 76% of the area-averaged summer mean surface warming signal over Northeast Asia, while the direct impact of changes in GHG and AA explained the remaining 24% of the surface warming signal. Analysis of physical processes indicated that the direct impact of the changes in AA (through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions), mainly related to the reduction of AA precursor emissions over Europe, played a dominant role in the increase in TXx and a similarly important role as SST/SIE changes in the increase in the frequency of SU over Northeast Asia via AA-induced coupled atmosphere-land surface and cloud feedbacks, rather than through a direct impact of AA changes on cloud condensation nuclei. The modelling results also imply

  12. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  13. From warming to hiatus (1951-2010): the evolution of temperature in Spain, western mediterranean basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Angulo, Dhais; González-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos; Brunetti, Michele; Cortesi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The most recent debate on global warming is concentrated on the hiatus on global temperature increase for which different explanations have been proposed. By the other hand, variability of temperature evolution has been recognize as a fundamental key point in global change analyses. In the present study we analyze the evolution of warming rate in the western Mediterranean basin (Iberian Peninsula) during the last 60 years (1951-2010), with special emphasis on the last decades, to identify the eventual detection of hiatus, and to determine its effects on daytime (Tmax) and nightime (Tmin) records at annual and seasonal scales. The research has been developed by using the new high spatial density of monthly mean temperature dataset of Spanish mainland (MOTEDAS: MOnthly TEmperature Database of Spain) recently developed within the framework of HIDROCAES-01 research project. The dataset is available as anomalies (with respect to the 1951-2010 period) in grid form with a 0.1 x 0.1 deg spatial resolution, and a national serie for both Tmax and Tmin was calculated by averaging the gridded series. Significance of trend were identified by using Mann-Kendall test, and intensity of trend (i.e. slope, or rate) by Sen's mehod; different periods were analysed by considering 30-years, 20-years, and 10-years running windows. The global results suggest the following conclusions: - In the Iberian Peninsula maximum warming occurred between 70's and 90's. - Warming rates of annual mean Tmax and Tmin have changed along the years, and they decreased for the last decades. - During the last decades the warming rate of annual Tmax and Tmin remain positive but not significant in Tmax; then decrease of Tmax warming rate is stronger than that of Tmin and, as a consequence, present warming depends much more on nocturnal temperatures. - Seasonal analyses detected a different behavior between seasons. Summer is the only season characterized by a continuous increase in temperature trend. Mean

  14. Long-Term Warm-Season Stream Temperature Variations and Changes Over Siberian Lena River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Yang, D.

    2003-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important environmental variable that has considerable significance in regional hydrology, climate, and ecology systems. Few investigations on long-term stream temperature variations in Arctic regions have been undertaken. This research examined and analyzed long-term (1950-1992) stream temperature data collected at dozens of stations in the Lena River basin during (open water) warm seasons. Preliminary results show that: (1) the stream temperature across the whole basin shows a significant positive trend during early warm season, which may indicate a response of early snowmelt due to climate warming in the winter and spring seasons; (2) over the Aldan tributary, stream temperatures collected at elevated locations are much lower than those at low valley stations; (3) in the Upper Lena river, stream temperatures have very strong negative trend in late July to early August, which imply certain climatic factors is affecting the stream temperature regime during this period; and, (4) in the Vilui subbasin, stream temperatures are strongly affected by reservoir regulations, for instance, extremely strong positive and negative trends appear at the station close to reservoir in early and middle warm season, respectively. The research has defined stream temperature regime and identified its long-term changes/variations over Lena river basin. Our future work will examine the impacts of climate change on river thermal condition. We will also study the effects of local environmental settings to stream temperatures and aquatic life.

  15. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Studies of temperature disturbances of lower and middle atmosphere during stratospheric warmings 2006-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Andrey; Medvedeva, Irina; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Tolstikov, Maxim

    This paper was devoted to study of sudden winter stratospheric warmings 2006-2013. Initial data were vertical temperature profiles obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the spacecraft EOS Aura. Shown that the temperature disturbances, propagated during stratospheric warmings are result of interference of at least two waves. Two-wave interference model of stratospheric warming was developed. Characteristics of planetary waves were obtained by using this model. Periods of disturbances vary from 5 to 45 days. Vertical wave numbers range is 20-150 km. Amplitudes and horizontal wave numbers obtained by the two-wave model vary smoothly in space and time, forming vorticity-like structure. We compared warmings 2006-2013 by using global amplitude. Comparison of variations of ionospheric parameters and characteristics of planetary waves in the stratosphere during warmings was done. On the basis of regular, continuous observations of the Irkutsk ionosonde DSP-4, was shown that number of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) tend to increase during stratospheric warmings. Found correlations between the amount of traveling ionospheric disturbances and the temperature at 80 km, between the daily maximum electron concentration and global amplitude of wave with upward phase velocity between the ion temperature and the amplitude of wave with downward phase velocity over Irkutsk. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant 13-05-00153 and RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-2942.2014.5).

  17. The study of the special features of winter stratospheric warming manifestations over Tomsk according to the lidar temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marichev, V. N.; Samokhvalov, I. V.

    2014-11-01

    In the article the lidar observations of the winter stratosphere warming manifestations of (SW) 2011-13 over Tomsk are considered. In 2010/11 the winter warming took place in January with insignificant positive temperature deviations from the mean monthly values in its first decade and then two maxima on the 14th and 15th of January at the altitude of 30-40 km with a deviation to 45K. In 2011/12 the beginning of the SW was recorded from lidar measurements on December 26 and lasted for two decades of January. The maximum development of SW was at the end of December 2011 - the first decade of January. The biggest temperature deviations were at the 40-60K level in the height interval of 35-45 km. In 2012/13 the SW began on December 25. The phase of its maximum development fell on the 1-4th of January when the stratopause altitude dropped on 30 km and the maximum temperature deviation from the model at this level reached 70K. In contrast to the first two warming (minor), the last was referred to the major type wherein air mass circulation change happened in the upper stratosphere over Tomsk ((http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/met/ag/strat/index.html).).

  18. Record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Anderson, Phil; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Colwell, Steve; Phillips, Tony; Kirchgaessner, AméLie; Marshall, Gareth J.; King, John C.; Bracegirdle, Tom; Vaughan, David G.; Lagun, Victor; Orr, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    The lowest recorded air temperature at the surface of the Earth was a measurement of -89.2°C made at Vostok station, Antarctica, at 0245 UT on 21 July 1983. Here we present the first detailed analysis of this event using meteorological reanalysis fields, in situ observations and satellite imagery. Surface temperatures at Vostok station in winter are highly variable on daily to interannual timescales as a result of the great sensitivity to intrusions of maritime air masses as Rossby wave activity changes around the continent. The record low temperature was measured following a near-linear cooling of over 30 K over a 10 day period from close to mean July temperatures. The event occurred because of five specific conditions that arose: (1) the temperature at the core of the midtropospheric vortex was at a near-record low value; (2) the center of the vortex moved close to the station; (3) an almost circular flow regime persisted around the station for a week resulting in very little warm air advection from lower latitudes; (4) surface wind speeds were low for the location; and (5) no cloud or diamond dust was reported above the station for a week, promoting the loss of heat to space via the emission of longwave radiation. We estimate that should a longer period of isolation occur the surface temperature at Vostok could drop to around -96°C. The higher site of Dome Argus is typically 5-6 K colder than Vostok so has the potential to record an even lower temperature.

  19. Warming and free-air CO2 enrichment alter demographics in four co-occurring grassland species.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amity L; Wills, Karen E; Janes, Jasmine K; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Newton, Paul C D; Hovenden, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Species differ in their responses to global changes such as rising CO(2) and temperature, meaning that global changes are likely to change the structure of plant communities. Such alterations in community composition must be underlain by changes in the population dynamics of component species. Here, the impact of elevated CO(2) (550 micromol mol(-1)) and warming (+2 degrees C) on the population growth of four plant species important in Australian temperate grasslands is reported. Data collected from the Tasmanian free-air CO(2) enrichment (TasFACE) experiment between 2003 and 2006 were analysed using population matrix models. Population growth of Themeda triandra, a perennial C(4) grass, was largely unaffected by either factor but population growth of Austrodanthonia caespitosa, a perennial C(3) grass, was reduced substantially in elevated CO(2) plots. Warming and elevated CO(2) had antagonistic effects on population growth of two invasive weeds, Hypochaeris radicata and Leontodon taraxacoides, with warming causing population decline. Analysis of life cycle stages showed that seed production, seedling emergence and establishment were important factors in the responses of the species to global changes. These results show that the demographic approach is very useful in understanding the variable responses of plants to global changes and in elucidating the life cycle stages that are most responsive.

  20. Temperature-difference-driven mass transfer through the vapor from a cold to a warm liquid.

    PubMed

    Struchtrup, Henning; Kjelstrup, Signe; Bedeaux, Dick

    2012-06-01

    Irreversible thermodynamics provides interface conditions that yield temperature and chemical potential jumps at phase boundaries. The interfacial jumps allow unexpected transport phenomena, such as the inverted temperature profile [Pao, Phys. Fluids 14, 306 (1971)] and mass transfer from a cold to a warm liquid driven by a temperature difference across the vapor phase [Mills and Phillips, Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 615 (2002)]. Careful evaluation of the thermodynamic laws has shown [Bedeaux et al., Physica A 169, 263 (1990)] that the inverted temperature profile is observed for processes with a high heat of vaporization. In this paper, we show that cold to warm mass transfer through the vapor from a cold to a warm liquid is only possible when the heat of evaporation is sufficiently small. A necessary criterium for the size of the mass transfer coefficient is given.

  1. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  2. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  3. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  4. Winter stratospheric warmings and their influence on the temperature regime in the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, D. A.; Kidiiarova, V. G.; Milenkova, L. P.; Zakhariev, V. I.; Spasov, Kh. V.

    An analysis is presented of the relationship between the temperature conditions in the D layer of the ionosphere and the intensity of winter stratospheric warmings in different geographic regions, namely, high latitudes and midlatitudes in the Northern Hemisphere and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The relationships between the temperatures in the stratosphere and mesosphere and the parameters' transmission coefficient, defraction coefficient, and the phase of the two-year equatorial circulation cycle are considered. The temperature conditions in the stratosphere and mesosphere are found to be controlled by the quasi-two-year cycle of the equatorial circulation, which is connected with the intensity of winter stratospheric warmings.

  5. Consecutive record-breaking high temperatures marked the handover from hiatus to accelerated warming.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingzhi; Zhang, Renhe; Wang, Huijun

    2017-03-03

    Closely following the hiatus warming period, two astonishing high temperature records reached in 2014 and 2015 consecutively. To investigate the occurrence features of record-breaking high temperatures in recent years, a new index focusing the frequency of the top 10 high annual mean temperatures was defined in this study. Analyses based on this index shown that record-breaking high temperatures occurred over most regions of the globe with a salient increasing trend after 1960 s, even during the so-called hiatus period. Overlapped on the ongoing background warming trend and the interdecadal climate variabilities, the El Niño events, particularly the strong ones, can make a significant contribution to the occurrence of high temperatures on interannual timescale. High temperatures associated with El Niño events mainly occurred during the winter annual period. As the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) struggled back to its positive phase since 2014, the global warming returned back to a new accelerated warming period, marked by the record-breaking high temperatures in 2014. Intensified by the super strong El Niño, successive high records occurred in 2015 and 2016. Higher frequencies of record high temperatures would occur in the near future because the PDO tends to maintain a continuously positive phase.

  6. Consecutive record-breaking high temperatures marked the handover from hiatus to accelerated warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jingzhi; Zhang, Renhe; Wang, Huijun

    2017-03-01

    Closely following the hiatus warming period, two astonishing high temperature records reached in 2014 and 2015 consecutively. To investigate the occurrence features of record-breaking high temperatures in recent years, a new index focusing the frequency of the top 10 high annual mean temperatures was defined in this study. Analyses based on this index shown that record-breaking high temperatures occurred over most regions of the globe with a salient increasing trend after 1960 s, even during the so-called hiatus period. Overlapped on the ongoing background warming trend and the interdecadal climate variabilities, the El Niño events, particularly the strong ones, can make a significant contribution to the occurrence of high temperatures on interannual timescale. High temperatures associated with El Niño events mainly occurred during the winter annual period. As the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) struggled back to its positive phase since 2014, the global warming returned back to a new accelerated warming period, marked by the record-breaking high temperatures in 2014. Intensified by the super strong El Niño, successive high records occurred in 2015 and 2016. Higher frequencies of record high temperatures would occur in the near future because the PDO tends to maintain a continuously positive phase.

  7. Consecutive record-breaking high temperatures marked the handover from hiatus to accelerated warming

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jingzhi; Zhang, Renhe; Wang, Huijun

    2017-01-01

    Closely following the hiatus warming period, two astonishing high temperature records reached in 2014 and 2015 consecutively. To investigate the occurrence features of record-breaking high temperatures in recent years, a new index focusing the frequency of the top 10 high annual mean temperatures was defined in this study. Analyses based on this index shown that record-breaking high temperatures occurred over most regions of the globe with a salient increasing trend after 1960 s, even during the so-called hiatus period. Overlapped on the ongoing background warming trend and the interdecadal climate variabilities, the El Niño events, particularly the strong ones, can make a significant contribution to the occurrence of high temperatures on interannual timescale. High temperatures associated with El Niño events mainly occurred during the winter annual period. As the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) struggled back to its positive phase since 2014, the global warming returned back to a new accelerated warming period, marked by the record-breaking high temperatures in 2014. Intensified by the super strong El Niño, successive high records occurred in 2015 and 2016. Higher frequencies of record high temperatures would occur in the near future because the PDO tends to maintain a continuously positive phase. PMID:28256561

  8. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P; McCormick, David A

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+) channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+), and outward K(+), currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+) entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  9. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  10. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  11. Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: modelling the effects of temperature.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M James C

    2008-10-01

    Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems. This review summarizes recent literature on the influence of temperature on coral growth, coral bleaching, and modelling the effects of high temperature on corals. Satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and coral bleaching information available on the internet is an important tool in monitoring and modelling coral responses to temperature. Within the narrow temperature range for coral growth, corals can respond to rate of temperature change as well as to temperature per se. We need to continue to develop models of how non-steady-state processes such as global warming and climate change will affect coral reefs.

  12. Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures.

    PubMed

    Redner, S; Petersen, Mark R

    2006-12-01

    We theoretically study the statistics of record-breaking daily temperatures and validate these predictions using both Monte Carlo simulations and 126 years of available data from the city of Philadelphia. Using extreme statistics, we derive the number and the magnitude of record temperature events, based on the observed Gaussian daily temperature distribution in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically increases with time. Over the 126-year time range of observations, we argue that the current warming rate is insufficient to measurably influence the frequency of record temperature events, a conclusion that is supported by numerical simulations and by the Philadelphia data. We also study the role of correlations between temperatures on successive days and find that they do not affect the frequency or magnitude of record temperature events.

  13. The paradox of cooling streams in a warming world: regional climate trends do not parallel variable local trends in stream temperature in the Pacific continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy; Hockman-Wert, David

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamentally important driver of ecosystem processes in streams. Recent warming of terrestrial climates around the globe has motivated concern about consequent increases in stream temperature. More specifically, observed trends of increasing air temperature and declining stream flow are widely believed to result in corresponding increases in stream temperature. Here, we examined the evidence for this using long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-impacted sites located across the Pacific continental United States. Based on hypothesized climate impacts, we predicted that we should find warming trends in the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures, as well as increasing variability over time. These predictions were not fully realized. Warming trends were most prevalent in a small subset of locations with longer time series beginning in the 1950s. More recent series of observations (1987-2009) exhibited fewer warming trends and more cooling trends in both minimally and highly human-influenced systems. Trends in variability were much less evident, regardless of the length of time series. Based on these findings, we conclude that our perspective of climate impacts on stream temperatures is clouded considerably by a lack of long-termdata on minimally impacted streams, and biased spatio-temporal representation of existing time series. Overall our results highlight the need to develop more mechanistic, process-based understanding of linkages between climate change, other human impacts and stream temperature, and to deploy sensor networks that will provide better information on trends in stream temperatures in the future.

  14. Precipitation scaling with temperature in warm and cold climates: An analysis of CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangqi; Harrison, Sandy P.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Izumi, Kenji; Colin Prentice, I.

    2013-08-01

    investigate the scaling between precipitation and temperature changes in warm and cold climates using six models that have simulated the response to both increased CO2 and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) boundary conditions. Globally, precipitation increases in warm climates and decreases in cold climates by between 1.5%/°C and 3%/°C. Precipitation sensitivity to temperature changes is lower over the land than over the ocean and lower over the tropical land than over the extratropical land, reflecting the constraint of water availability. The wet tropics get wetter in warm climates and drier in cold climates, but the changes in dry areas differ among models. Seasonal changes of tropical precipitation in a warmer world also reflect this "rich get richer" syndrome. Precipitation seasonality is decreased in the cold-climate state. The simulated changes in precipitation per degree temperature change are comparable to the observed changes in both the historical period and the LGM.

  15. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  16. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shiqiang; Norby, Richard J; Childs, Joanne; Weltzin, Jake

    2007-01-01

    Responses of soil respiration to atmospheric and climatic change will have profound impacts on ecosystem and global C cycling in the future. This study was conducted to examine effects on soil respiration of the concurrent driving factors of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, rising temperature, and changing precipitation in a constructed old-field grassland in eastern Tennessee, USA. Model ecosystems of seven old-field species in 12 open-top chambers (4 m in diameter) were treated with two CO2 (ambient and ambient plus 300 ppm) and two temperature (ambient and ambient plus 3 C) levels. Two split plots with each chamber were assigned with high and low soil moisture levels. During the 19-month experimental period from June 2003 to December 2004, higher CO2 concentration and soil water availability significantly increased mean soil respiration by 35.8% and 15.7%, respectively. The effects of air warming on soil respiration varied seasonally from small reductions to significant increases to no response, and there was no significant main effect. In the wet side of elevated CO2 chambers, air warming consistently caused increases in soil respiration, whereas in other three combinations of CO2 and water treatments, warming tended to decrease soil respiration over the growing season but increase it over the winter. There were no interactive effects on soil respiration among any two or three treatment factors irrespective of testing time period. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was reduced by air warming, lower in the wet than the dry side, and not affected by CO2 treatment. Variations of soil respiration responses with soil temperature and soil moisture ranges could be primarily attributable to the seasonal dynamics of plant growth and its responses to the three treatments. Using a conceptual model to interpret the significant relationships of treatment-induced changes in soil respiration with changes in soil temperature and moisture observed in this study

  17. Evidence for a little ice age and recent warming from a borehole temperature data inversion procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Fivez, J.; Thoen, J.

    2004-11-15

    In this article, we apply our analytical theory, published earlier in this journal, to obtain information on the earth surface temperature history from some borehole temperature data. Compared to the results of the five different methods applied to the same temperature data, our method seems to be easier, assumption-free, and yields internally consistent results. The results suggest a cooling a few centuries ago, followed by a continuing warming up to these days, in agreement with a little ice age scenario.

  18. Modeling air temperature changes in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuchin, A.; Korets, M.; Shvidenko, A.; Burenina, T.; Musokhranova, A.

    2014-11-01

    Based on time series (1950-2005) of monthly temperatures from 73 weather stations in Northern Asia (limited by 70-180° EL and 48-75° NL), it is shown that there are statistically significant spatial differences in character and intensity of the monthly and yearly temperature trends. These differences are defined by geomorphological and geographical parameters of the area including exposure of the territory to Arctic and Pacific air mass, geographic coordinates, elevation, and distances to Arctic and Pacific oceans. Study area has been divided into six domains with unique groupings of the temperature trends based on cluster analysis. An original methodology for mapping of temperature trends has been developed and applied to the region. The assessment of spatial patterns of temperature trends at the regional level requires consideration of specific regional features in the complex of factors operating in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-lithosphere-biosphere system.

  19. A randomised controlled trial comparing Mediwrap heat retention and forced air warming for maintaining normothermia in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Sridhar; Annam, Venkatesh; Steyn, Richard; Raghuraman, Govindan

    2009-07-01

    Hypothermia is one of the common complications in the perioperative period. Currently, normothermia is maintained with forced air warming (FAW) or passive heat retention methods. We compared the efficacy of the Mediwrap blanket with FAW in maintaining normothermia during intra-operative period in thoracic surgery in a prospective randomised controlled trial on 30 patients. Core temperature was measured at 30-min intervals in the perioperative period and the time taken to attain baseline in the postoperative periods in the two groups was compared. There was no difference in core temperatures between the groups during pre- and intra-operative period, with mean+/-S.D. final core temperatures of 36.2+/-0.6 degrees C with Mediwrap and 36+/-0.9 degrees C with the FAW blanket. However, the postoperative core temperatures were significantly higher in the Mediwrap group. The time required to reach baseline temperature was lower in the Mediwrap group with a mean+/-S.D. of 66+/-66 min as compared to 161+/-108 min in the FAW group. The Mediwrap blanket is as effective as the FAW blanket in maintaining core body temperature during thoracotomy when applied thirty minutes before the surgery.

  20. Vulnerability to the mortality effects of warm temperature in the districts of England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, James E.; Blangiardo, Marta; Fecht, Daniela; Elliott, Paul; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-04-01

    Warm temperatures adversely affect disease occurrence and death, in extreme conditions as well as when the temperature changes are more modest. Therefore climate change, which is expected to affect both average temperatures and temperature variability, is likely to impact health even in temperate climates. Climate change risk assessment is enriched if there is information on vulnerability and resilience to effects of temperature. Some studies have analysed socio-demographic characteristics that make individuals vulnerable to adverse effects of temperature. Less is known about community-level vulnerability. We used geo-coded mortality and environmental data and Bayesian spatial methods to conduct a national small-area analysis of the mortality effects of warm temperature for all 376 districts in England and Wales. In the most vulnerable districts, those in London and south/southeast England, odds of dying from cardiorespiratory causes increased by more than 10% for 1 °C warmer temperature, compared with virtually no effect in the most resilient districts, which were in the far north. A 2 °C warmer summer may result in 1,552 (95% credible interval 1,307-1,762) additional deaths, about one-half of which would occur in 95 districts. The findings enable risk and adaptation analyses to incorporate local vulnerability to warm temperature and to quantify inequality in its effects.

  1. Field warming experiments shed light on the wheat yield response to temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xuhui; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peng, Shushi

    2016-11-01

    Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is -0.7+/-7.8(+/-s.d.)% per °C, -5.7+/-6.5% per °C and 0.4+/-4.4% per °C, respectively. Moreover, SY,T is different across regions and warming experiments indicate positive SY,T values in regions where growing-season mean temperature is low, and water supply is not limiting, and negative values elsewhere. Gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project appear to capture the spatial pattern of SY,T deduced from warming observations. These results from local manipulative experiments could be used to improve crop models in the future.

  2. Field warming experiments shed light on the wheat yield response to temperature in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xuhui; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peng, Shushi

    2016-11-17

    Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is -0.7±7.8(±s.d.)% per °C, -5.7±6.5% per °C and 0.4±4.4% per °C, respectively. Moreover, SY,T is different across regions and warming experiments indicate positive SY,T values in regions where growing-season mean temperature is low, and water supply is not limiting, and negative values elsewhere. Gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project appear to capture the spatial pattern of SY,T deduced from warming observations. These results from local manipulative experiments could be used to improve crop models in the future.

  3. Field warming experiments shed light on the wheat yield response to temperature in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xuhui; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peng, Shushi

    2016-01-01

    Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is −0.7±7.8(±s.d.)% per °C, −5.7±6.5% per °C and 0.4±4.4% per °C, respectively. Moreover, SY,T is different across regions and warming experiments indicate positive SY,T values in regions where growing-season mean temperature is low, and water supply is not limiting, and negative values elsewhere. Gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project appear to capture the spatial pattern of SY,T deduced from warming observations. These results from local manipulative experiments could be used to improve crop models in the future. PMID:27853151

  4. The validity of mass body temperature screening with ear thermometers in a warm thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Koji; Wada, Yuko; Kagitani, Hideaki; Arioka, Tetsuya; Maeda, Koji; Kida, Kenichi

    2010-10-01

    Identification of people who have a fever in public places during the occurrence of emerging infectious diseases is essential for controlling disease spread. The measurement of body temperature could identify infected persons. The environment affects body temperature, but little is known about the validity of measurements under different thermal environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity of measuring body temperature in cold and warm environments. We recruited 50 participants aged 18-69 years (26 males, 24 females) to measure body temperature using an axillary thermometer and an ear thermometer and by infrared thermal imaging (thermography). The body temperature obtained with an axillary thermometer was used as a reference; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to determine the validity of temperatures obtained by measurement with an ear thermometer and thermography at 36.7°C (median of the axillary body temperature). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicates the validity of measurements. The AUC for ear thermometers in a warm environment (mean temperature: 20.0°C) showed a fair accuracy (AUC: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.64-0.83]), while that (AUC: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.72]) in a cold environment (mean temperature: 12.6°C) and measurements with thermography used in both environments (AUC: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.45-0.68] in a warm environment and AUC: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.54-0.76] in a cold environment) showed a low accuracy. In conclusion, in a warm environment, measurement of body temperature with an ear thermometer is a valid procedure and effective for mass body temperature screening.

  5. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of daily extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in daily extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of <span class="hlt">warm</span> but not cold extremes. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of <span class="hlt">warm</span> extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a4024S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a4024S"><span>The upper end of climate model <span class="hlt">temperature</span> projections is inconsistent with past <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stott, Peter; Good, Peter; Jones, Gareth; Gillett, Nathan; Hawkins, Ed</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Climate models predict a large range of possible future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for a particular scenario of future emissions of greenhouse gases and other anthropogenic forcings of climate. Given that further <span class="hlt">warming</span> in coming decades could threaten increasing risks of climatic disruption, it is important to determine whether model projections are consistent with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes already observed. This can be achieved by quantifying the extent to which increases in well mixed greenhouse gases and changes in other anthropogenic and natural forcings have already altered <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns around the globe. Here, for the first time, we combine multiple climate models into a single synthesized estimate of future <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates consistent with past <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. We show that the observed evolution of near-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> appears to indicate lower ranges (5-95%) for <span class="hlt">warming</span> (0.35-0.82 K and 0.45-0.93 K by the 2020s (2020-9) relative to 1986-2005 under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios respectively) than the equivalent ranges projected by the CMIP5 climate models (0.48-1.00 K and 0.51-1.16 K respectively). Our results indicate that for each RCP the upper end of the range of CMIP5 climate model projections is inconsistent with past <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5345S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.5345S"><span>What caused the recent ``<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Arctic, Cold Continents'' trend pattern in winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Lantao; Perlwitz, Judith; Hoerling, Martin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The emergence of rapid Arctic <span class="hlt">warming</span> in recent decades has coincided with unusually cold winters over Northern Hemisphere continents. It has been speculated that this "<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Arctic, Cold Continents" trend pattern is due to sea ice loss. Here we use multiple models to examine whether such a pattern is indeed forced by sea ice loss specifically and by anthropogenic forcing in general. While we show much of Arctic amplification in surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> to result from sea ice loss, we find that neither sea ice loss nor anthropogenic forcing overall yield trends toward colder continental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. An alternate explanation of the cooling is that it represents a strong articulation of internal atmospheric variability, evidence for which is derived from model data, and physical considerations. Sea ice loss impact on weather variability over the high-latitude continents is found, however, to be characterized by reduced daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and fewer cold extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298040','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298040"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Profiles Along the Root with Gutta-percha <span class="hlt">Warmed</span> through Different Heat Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simeone, Michele; Santis, Roberto De; Ametrano, Gianluca; Prisco, Davide; Borrelli, Marino; Paduano, Sergio; Riccitiello, Francesco; Spagnuolo, Gianrico</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To evaluate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles developing in the root during <span class="hlt">warm</span> compaction of gutta-percha with the heat sources System B and System MB Obtura (Analityc Technology, Redmond, WA, USA). Thirty extracted human incisor teeth were used. Root canals were cleaned and shaped by means of Protaper rotary files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Belgium), and imaging was performed by micro-CT (Skyscan 1072, Aartselaar, Belgium). Methods: Teeth were instrumented with K-type thermocouples, and the roots were filled with thermoplastic gutta-percha. Vertical compaction was achieved through the heat sources System B and System MB, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles were detect-ed by means of NI Dac Interface controlled by the LabView System. With both heat sources, higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels were recorded in the region of the root far from the apex. When the <span class="hlt">warm</span> plugger tip was positioned at a distance of 3 mm from the root apex, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels of about 180°C were used to soften gutta-percha, and no statistically significant differences were observed between peak <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> developed by the two heating sources at the root apex. However, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> level higher than 40°C was maintained for a longer time with System MB. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels recorded far from the root apex. Thus, with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 180°C and the <span class="hlt">warm</span> plugger positioned at 3 mm from the root apex, both heating sources led to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> slightly higher than 40°C at the apex of the root, suggesting that the gutta-percha was properly softened. Significance: A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> level higher than 40°C was maintained for a longer time with System MB, thus providing an ad-equate time for <span class="hlt">warm</span> compaction of the gutta-percha. PMID:25614768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22288508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22288508"><span>Water regime and growth of young oak stands subjected to <span class="hlt">air-warming</span> and drought on two different forest soils in a model ecosystem experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Bleuler, P; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Schulin, R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Global climate change is expected to increase annual <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known of how forests respond to the interaction of these climate factors and if their responses depend on soil conditions. In a 3-year lysimeter experiment, we investigated the growth response of young mixed oak stands, on either acidic or calcareous soil, to soil water regime, <span class="hlt">air-warming</span> and drought treatments corresponding to an intermediate climate change scenario. The <span class="hlt">air-warming</span> and drought treatments were applied separately as well as in combination. The <span class="hlt">air-warming</span> treatment had no effect on soil water availability, evapotranspiration or stand biomass. Decreased evapotranspiration from the drought-exposed stands led to significantly higher <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which were attributed to impaired transpirational cooling. Water limitation significantly reduced the stand foliage, shoot and root biomass as droughts were severe, as shown in low leaf water potentials. Additional <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> did not enhance the drought effects on evapotranspiration and biomass, although more negative leaf water potentials were observed. After re-watering, evapotranspiration increased within a few days to pre-drought levels. Stands not subjected to the drought treatment produced significantly less biomass on the calcareous soil than on the acidic soil, probably due to P or Mn limitation. There was no difference in biomass and water regime between the two soils under drought conditions, indicating that nutrient availability was governed by water availability under these conditions. The results demonstrate that young oak stands can cope with severe drought and therefore can be considered for future forestry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPJ10054S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPJ10054S"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence of Lithium Reactions with <span class="hlt">Air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (298-373 K) when exposed to natural <span class="hlt">air</span>. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in <span class="hlt">air</span>, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> followed a markedly different behavior to that at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26513222"><span>Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11°C; control) and <span class="hlt">warm</span> (20°C) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I-IV (CI-IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma metabolites, with modest additive actions limited to CII and IV state 4. Overall, our results indicate that <span class="hlt">warm</span> acclimation came at a cost of reduced ETS efficiency and increased sensitivity to added stressors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233588','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233588"><span>Elevational Ranges of Birds on a Tropical Montane Gradient Lag behind <span class="hlt">Warming</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forero-Medina, German; Terborgh, John; Socolar, S. Jacob; Pimm, Stuart L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Species may respond to a <span class="hlt">warming</span> climate by moving to higher latitudes or elevations. Shifts in geographic ranges are common responses in temperate regions. For the tropics, latitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients are shallow; the only escape for species may be to move to higher elevations. There are few data to suggest that they do. Yet, the greatest loss of species from climate disruption may be for tropical montane species. Methodology/Principal Findings We repeat a historical transect in Peru and find an average upward shift of 49 m for 55 bird species over a 41 year interval. This shift is significantly upward, but also significantly smaller than the 152 m one expects from <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the region. To estimate the expected shift in elevation we first determined the magnitude of <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the locality from historical data. Then we used the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lapse rate to infer the required shift in altitude to compensate for <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The range shifts in elevation were similar across different trophic guilds. Conclusions Endothermy may provide birds with some flexibility to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and allow them to move less than expected. Instead of being directly dependent on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, birds may be responding to gradual changes in the nature of the habitat or availability of food resources, and presence of competitors. If so, this has important implications for estimates of mountaintop extinctions from climate change. PMID:22163309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A14C..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A14C..01R"><span>Regulating emission of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants for near-term relief from global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramanathan, V.; Xu, Y.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to <span class="hlt">warm</span> the system beyond the 20C threshold. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we will still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and add another 10C to the <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Fortunately, there are still ways to contain the <span class="hlt">warming</span> by reducing non-CO2 climate warmers (methane, lower atmosphere ozone, black carbon and HFCs), using available and field tested technologies. The major advantage of going for these 'low-hanging fruits' is that this approach will clean up the <span class="hlt">air</span> and improve health and food security of south and east Asia, thus engaging developing nations more effectively in climate negotiations. These non-CO2 mitigation actions will have significant (beneficial) impacts on the chemistry, clouds and precipitation of the atmosphere and these have to be quantified adequately. For example, reducing black and organic carbon emissions (through cleaner cooking technologies in developing countries) will also lead to significant reductions in carbon monoxide, which is an ozone precursor. The institutional infrastructure for reducing non-CO2 climate warmers already exist and have a proven track record for successful climate mitigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.springerlink.com/content/31031027mg27q211/abstract/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.springerlink.com/content/31031027mg27q211/abstract/"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> inverted haloclines provide winter <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water refugia for manatees in southwest Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stith, Bradley M.; Reid, James P.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.; Doyle, Terry J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Decker, Jeremy D.; Soderqvist, Lars E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) overwintering in the Ten Thousand Islands and western Everglades have no access to power plants or major artesian springs that provide <span class="hlt">warm</span>-water refugia in other parts of Florida. Instead, hundreds of manatees aggregate at artificial canals, basins, and natural deep water sites that act as passive thermal refugia (PTR). Monitoring at two canal sites revealed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inverted haloclines, which provided <span class="hlt">warm</span> salty bottom layers that generally remained above <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> considered adverse for manatees. At the largest PTR, the warmer bottom layer disappeared unless significant salt stratification was maintained by upstream freshwater inflow over a persistent tidal wedge. A detailed three-dimensional hydrology model showed that salinity stratification inhibited vertical convection induced by atmospheric cooling. Management or creation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inverted haloclines may be a feasible and desirable option for resource managers to provide passive thermal refugia for manatees and other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitive aquatic species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5142048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5142048"><span>Interactions between rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allen, Jessica L.; Chown, Steven L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3–0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species’ vulnerability to climate change using a <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance approach. PMID:27933165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933165"><span>Interactions between rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Jessica L; Chown, Steven L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3-0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species' vulnerability to climate change using a <span class="hlt">warming</span> tolerance approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51D0449R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51D0449R"><span>Trends in Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>To address possible causes of the current hiatus in the Earth's global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we investigate the trends and variability in the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using retrievals obtained from the measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) and its companion instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), onboard of Aqua spacecraft in 2002-2014. The data used are L3 monthly means on a 1x1degree spatial grid. We separate the land and ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Artic, Antarctic and desert regions. We find a monotonic positive trend for the land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but not for the ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The difference in the regional trends can help to explain why the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remains almost unchanged but the frequency of occurrence of the extreme events increases under rising anthropogenic forcing. The results are compared with the model studies. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1344998-attaining-whole-ecosystem-warming-using-air-deep-soil-heating-methods-elevated-co-lt-sub-gt-lt-sub-gt-atmosphere','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1344998-attaining-whole-ecosystem-warming-using-air-deep-soil-heating-methods-elevated-co-lt-sub-gt-lt-sub-gt-atmosphere"><span>Attaining whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> using <span class="hlt">air</span> and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO<sub>2</sub> atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Hanson, Paul J.; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Nettles, IV, W. Robert; ...</p> <p>2017-02-24</p> <p>This paper describes the operational methods to achieve and measure both deep-soil heating (0–3 m) and whole-ecosystem <span class="hlt">warming</span> (WEW) appropriate to the scale of tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods were developed to allow scientists to provide a plausible set of ecosystem-<span class="hlt">warming</span> scenarios within which immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles) could be measured. Elevated CO2 was also incorporated to test how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses may be modified by atmospheric CO2 effects on carbon cycle processes. The WEW approach was successful in sustaining a wide range ofmore » aboveground and belowground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments (+0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C) in large 115 m2 open-topped enclosures with elevated CO2 treatments (+0 to +500 ppm). <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> across the entire 10 enclosure study required ~90 % of the total energy for WEW ranging from 64 283 mega Joules (MJ) d–1 during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season to 80 102 MJ d–1 during cold months. Soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> across the study required only 1.3 to 1.9 % of the energy used ranging from 954 to 1782 MJ d–1 of energy in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold seasons, respectively. The residual energy was consumed by measurement and communication systems. Sustained <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated CO2 treatments were only constrained by occasional high external winds. This paper contrasts the in situ WEW method with closely related field-<span class="hlt">warming</span> approaches using both aboveground (<span class="hlt">air</span> or infrared heating) and belowground-<span class="hlt">warming</span> methods. It also includes a full discussion of confounding factors that need to be considered carefully in the interpretation of experimental results. As a result, the WEW method combining aboveground and deep-soil heating approaches enables observations of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions not available in the current observational record, and therefore provides a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=305472','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=305472"><span>Design and performance of B4<span class="hlt">WarmED</span>, an aboveground and belowground free-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiment at the temperate-boreal forest ecotone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in forests is challenging, given their spatial heterogeneity and canopy complexity. One specific challenge involves <span class="hlt">warming</span> both plants and soils to depth in ecosystems without much bare ground. We describe the design, implementation, and performanc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1166/ofr20161166.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1166/ofr20161166.pdf"><span>Discharge, water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and water quality of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Metz, Patricia A.</p> <p>2016-09-27</p> <p> in inland areas, and upward flow toward the surface in coastal areas, such as at <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs is located in a discharge area. Changes in water use in the region have affected the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Historical increase in groundwater withdrawals resulted in a 10- to 20-foot regional decline in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by May 1975 relative to predevelopment levels and remained at approximately that level in May 2007 in the area of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs. Discharge measurements at <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs (1942–2014) decreased from about 11–12 cubic feet per second in the 1940s to about 6–9 cubic feet per second in the 1970s and remained at about that level for the remainder of the period of record. Similarity of changes in regional water use and discharge at <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs indicates that basin-scale changes to the groundwater system have affected discharge at <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs. Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had no significant trend in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the period of record, 1943–2015, and outliers were identified in the data that might indicate inconsistencies in measurement methods or locations.Within the regional groundwater basin, <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs is influenced by deep Upper Floridan aquifer flow paths that discharge toward the coast. Associated with these flow paths, the groundwater <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase with depth and toward the coast. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that a source of <span class="hlt">warm</span> groundwater to <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs is likely the permeable zone of the Avon Park Formation within the Upper Floridan aquifer at a depth of about 1,400 to 1,600 feet, or deeper sources. The permeable zone contains saline groundwater with water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of at least 95 degrees Fahrenheit.The water quality of <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs, when compared with other springs in Florida had the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the greatest mineralized content. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Mineral Springs water is</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A42F..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A42F..03N"><span>Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Projections to <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global <span class="hlt">warming</span> projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on <span class="hlt">air</span> quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612857"><span>Wood anatomical responses of oak saplings exposed to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> and soil drought.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fonti, P; Heller, O; Cherubini, P; Rigling, A; Arend, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Water is vital for plant performance and survival. Its scarcity, induced by a seasonal decline in soil water availability or an increase of evaporative demand, can cause failures of the water conducting system. An adequate tolerance to drought and the ability to acclimate to changing hydraulic conditions are important features for the survival of long-lived woody plants in dry environments. In this study we examine secondary growth and xylem anatomical acclimation of 6 year old saplings of three European oak species (Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens) during the third consecutive year of exposure to soil drought and/or <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (from 2007 to 2009). Intra-annual pinning was applied to mark the development of the formation of the annual ring 2009. Vessel size, parenchyma cell density and fiber size produced at different time of the growing season 2009 were compared between drought and <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatments and species. Drought reduced secondary growth and induced changes in xylem structure while <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> had little effect on wood anatomical traits. Results indicate that drought-exposed saplings adjust their xylem structure to improve resistance and repairing abilities after cavitation. All species show a significant radial growth reduction, a reduced vessel size with diminished conductivity and a slightly increased density of parenchyma cells. Comparisons between species fostered our understanding of the relationship between the inter-specific xylem hydraulic plasticity and the ecological response to drought. The stronger changes observed for Q. robur and Q. petraea indicate a lower drought tolerance than Q. pubescens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12b4021G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12b4021G"><span>Incorporating residual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity in predicting weather-dependent <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season electricity consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Huade; Beecham, Simon; Xu, Hanqiu; Ingleton, Greg</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and increasing variability challenges the electricity supply in <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons. A good quantitative representation of the relationship between <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season electricity consumption and weather condition provides necessary information for long-term electricity planning and short-term electricity management. In this study, an extended version of cooling degree days (ECDD) is proposed for better characterisation of this relationship. The ECDD includes <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, residual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity effects. The residual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is introduced for the first time to reflect the building thermal inertia effect on electricity consumption. The study is based on the electricity consumption data of four multiple-street city blocks and three office buildings. It is found that the residual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect is about 20% of the current-day <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect at the block scale, and increases with a large variation at the building scale. Investigation of this residual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect provides insight to the influence of building designs and structures on electricity consumption. The specific humidity effect appears to be more important at the building scale than at the block scale. A building with high energy performance does not necessarily have low specific humidity dependence. The new ECDD better reflects the weather dependence of electricity consumption than the conventional CDD method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation changes under high-end (≥4°C) global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanderson, M G; Hemming, D L; Betts, R A</p> <p>2011-01-13</p> <p>Climate models vary widely in their projections of both global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and regional climate changes, but are there any systematic differences in regional changes associated with different levels of global climate sensitivity? This paper examines model projections of climate change over the twenty-first century from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report which used the A2 scenario from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, assessing whether different regional responses can be seen in models categorized as 'high-end' (those projecting 4°C or more by the end of the twenty-first century relative to the preindustrial). It also identifies regions where the largest climate changes are projected under high-end <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The mean spatial patterns of change, normalized against the global rate of <span class="hlt">warming</span>, are generally similar in high-end and 'non-high-end' simulations. The exception is the higher latitudes, where land areas <span class="hlt">warm</span> relatively faster in boreal summer in high-end models, but sea ice areas show varying differences in boreal winter. Many continental interiors <span class="hlt">warm</span> approximately twice as fast as the global average, with this being particularly accentuated in boreal summer, and the winter-time Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise more than three times faster than the global average. Large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and precipitation decreases are projected in some of the regions that currently experience water resource pressures, including Mediterranean fringe regions, indicating enhanced pressure on water resources in these areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2004/114/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2004/114/"><span>Bracketing mid-pliocene sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: maximum and minimum possible <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dowsett, Harry</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) from ocean cores reveal a <span class="hlt">warm</span> phase of the Pliocene between about 3.3 and 3.0 Mega-annums (Ma). Pollen records from land based cores and sections, although not as well dated, also show evidence for a warmer climate at about the same time. Increased greenhouse forcing and altered ocean heat transport is the leading candidates for the underlying cause of Pliocene global warmth. However, despite being a period of global warmth, there exists considerable variability within this interval. Two new SST reconstructions have been created to provide a climatological error bar for <span class="hlt">warm</span> peak phases of the Pliocene. These data represent the maximum and minimum possible <span class="hlt">warming</span> recorded within the 3.3 to 3.0 Ma interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22426225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22426225"><span>Three decades of high-resolution coastal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reveal more than <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lima, Fernando P; Wethey, David S</p> <p>2012-02-28</p> <p>Understanding and forecasting current and future consequences of coastal <span class="hlt">warming</span> require a fine-scale assessment of the near-shore <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. Here we show that despite the fact that 71% of the world's coastlines are significantly <span class="hlt">warming</span>, rates of change have been highly heterogeneous both spatially and seasonally. We demonstrate that 46% of the coastlines have experienced a significant decrease in the frequency of extremely cold events, while extremely hot days are becoming more common in 38% of the area. Also, we show that the onset of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season is significantly advancing earlier in the year in 36% of the temperate coastal regions. More importantly, it is now possible to analyse local patterns within the global context, which is useful for a broad array of scientific fields, policy makers and general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15811391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15811391"><span>Brain and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> homeostasis during sodium pentobarbital anesthesia with and without body <span class="hlt">warming</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Brown, P Leon</p> <p>2005-03-31</p> <p>High-speed, multi-site thermorecording offers the ability to follow the dynamics of heat production and flow in an organism. This approach was used to study brain-body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> homeostasis during the development of general anesthesia induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, ip) in rats. Animals were chronically implanted with thermocouple probes in two brain areas, the abdominal cavity, and subcutaneously, and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured during anesthesia both with and without (control) body <span class="hlt">warming</span>. In control conditions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in all sites rapidly and strongly decreased (from 36-37 degrees C to 32-33 degrees C, or 3.5-4.5 degrees C below baselines). Relative to body core, brain hypothermia was greater (by 0.3-0.4 degrees C) and skin hypothermia was less (by approximately 0.7 degrees C). If the body was kept <span class="hlt">warm</span> with a heating pad, brain hypothermia was three-fold weaker ( approximately 1.2 degrees C), but the brain-body difference was significantly augmented (-0.6 degrees C). These results suggest that pentobarbital-induced inhibition of brain metabolic activity is a major factor behind brain hypothermia and global body hypothermia during general anesthesia. These data also indicate that body <span class="hlt">warming</span> is unable to fully compensate for anesthesia-induced brain hypothermia and enhances the negative brain-body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differentials typical of anesthesia. Since <span class="hlt">temperature</span> strongly affects various underlying parameters of neuronal activity, these findings are important for electrophysiological studies performed in anesthetized animal preparations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...629441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...629441B"><span>Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Vold, E. L.; Boettger, J. C.; Fernández, J. C.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27405664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27405664"><span>Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bang, W; Albright, B J; Bradley, P A; Vold, E L; Boettger, J C; Fernández, J C</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1-100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11586350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11586350"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearson, P N; Ditchfield, P W; Singano, J; Harcourt-Brown, K G; Nicholas, C J; Olsson, R K; Shackleton, N J; Hall, M A</p> <p>2001-10-04</p> <p>Climate models with increased levels of carbon dioxide predict that global <span class="hlt">warming</span> causes heating in the tropics, but investigations of ancient climates based on palaeodata have generally indicated cool tropical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during supposed greenhouse episodes. For example, in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs there is abundant geological evidence for <span class="hlt">warm</span>, mostly ice-free poles, but tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are generally estimated to be only 15-23 degrees C, based on oxygen isotope palaeothermometry of surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifer shells. Here we question the validity of most such data on the grounds of poor preservation and diagenetic alteration. We present new data from exceptionally well preserved foraminifer shells extracted from impermeable clay-rich sediments, which indicate that for the intervals studied, tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were at least 28-32 degrees C. These <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are more in line with our understanding of the geographical distributions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive fossil organisms and the results of climate models with increased CO2 levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1321777-linear-dependence-surface-expansion-speed-initial-plasma-temperature-warm-dense-matter','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1321777-linear-dependence-surface-expansion-speed-initial-plasma-temperature-warm-dense-matter"><span>Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; ...</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly withmore » <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1321777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1321777"><span>Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Vold, Erik Lehman; Boettger, Jonathan Carl; Fernández, Juan Carlos</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control for each engine....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JApMe..43.1635W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JApMe..43.1635W"><span>Comparison of Vertical Soundings and Sidewall <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements in a Small Alpine Basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whiteman, C. David; Eisenbach, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; Steinacker, Reinhold</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Tethered balloon soundings from two sites on the floor of a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole in the eastern Alps are compared with pseudovertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> “soundings” from three lines of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataloggers on the basin's northwest, southwest, and southeast sidewalls. Under stable nighttime conditions with low background winds, the pseudovertical profiles from all three lines were good proxies for free <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soundings over the basin center, with a mean nighttime cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> bias of about 0.4°C and a standard deviation of 0.4°C. Cold biases were highest in the upper basin where relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> subsides to replace <span class="hlt">air</span> that spills out of the basin through the lowest-altitude saddle. On a windy night, standard deviations increased to 1° 2°C. After sunrise, the varying exposures of the dataloggers to sunlight made the pseudovertical profiles less useful as proxies for free <span class="hlt">air</span> soundings. The good correspondence between sidewall and free <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during high-static-stability conditions suggests that sidewall soundings can be used to monitor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion evolution in the sinkhole. Sidewall soundings can produce more frequent profiles at lower cost than can tethersondes or rawinsondes, and extension of these findings to other enclosed or semienclosed topographies may enhance future basic meteorological research or support applications studies in agriculture, forestry, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution, and land use planning.<HR ALIGN="center" WIDTH="30%"></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1226143M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1226143M"><span>Urediospores of Puccinia spp. and other rusts are <span class="hlt">warm-temperature</span> ice nucleators and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In light of various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause that illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history, we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections from 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active having freezing onset <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as <span class="hlt">warm</span> as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in <span class="hlt">air</span> at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. We suggest that <span class="hlt">air</span> sampling techniques have ignored the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric concentrations that occur under conditions propitious for precipitation that could increase their local abundance intermittently. Nevertheless, we propose that the relative low abundance of <span class="hlt">warm-temperature</span> biological ice nucleators in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990005103','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990005103"><span>Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool During TOGA COARE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong; Chou, Ming-Dah</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The daily mean heat and momentum fluxes at the surface derived from the SSM/I and Japan's GMS radiance measurements are used to study the temporal and spatial variability of the surface energy budgets and their relationship to the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the COARE intensive observing period (IOP). For the three time legs observed during the IOP, the retrieved surface fluxes compare reasonably well with those from the IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV Wecoma. The characteristics of surface heat and momentum fluxes are very different between the southern and northern <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool. In the southern <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, the net surface heat flux is dominated by solar radiation which is, in turn, modulated by the two Madden-Julian oscillations. The surface winds are generally weak, leading to a shallow ocean mixed layer. The solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is significant, and the change in the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the IOP does not follow the net surface heat flux. In the northern <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, the northeasterly trade wind is strong and undergoes strong seasonal variation. The variation of the net surface heat flux is dominated by evaporation. The two westerly wind bursts associated with the Madden-Julian oscillations seem to have little effect on the net surface heat flux. The ocean mixed layer is deep, and the solar radiation penetrating through the bottom of the mixed layer is small. As opposed to the southern <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, the trend of the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the northern <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool during the IOP is in agreement with the variation of the net heat flux at the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC41A0674S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC41A0674S"><span>Impact of Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Snow Cover Depth on the Upper Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Variations in Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sherstyukov, B. G.; Sherstyukov, A. B.; Groisman, P. Y.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>For the 1965-2004 period, data from all Russian meteorological stations with long-term soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations at depths 80, 160 and 320 cm were compiled and analyzed. It was found that the prevailing influence on soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in the European part of Russia was surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in the Asian part of Russia - snow cover depth. By preserving the heat accumulated in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season, an observed increase of the winter snow depth in the permafrost zone (cf., Bulygina et al. 2007) promotes annual soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase and therefore may foster the further permafrost degradation associated with ongoing regional <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The impact of long-term changes in surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the central regions of the permafrost zone is weak throughout the year. However, in the regions with intermittent permafrost, this impact is substantial. The impact of snow depth on soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is observed throughout the entire permafrost zone of Russia. Reference cited: Bulygina O.N., N.N. Korshunova, and V.N. Razuvaev, 2007: Variations in snow characteristics over the Russian territory in the recent decades. Transactions of RIHMI-WDC, 173, 41-46.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980228031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980228031"><span>Effect of Contraction on Turbulence and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Fluctuations Generated by a <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Grid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mills, Robert R., Jr.; Corrsin, Stanley</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>Hot-wire anemometer measurements were made of several statistical properties of approximately homogeneous and isotropic fields of turbulence and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations generated by a <span class="hlt">warm</span> grid in a uniform airstream sent through a 4-to-1 contraction. These measurements were made both in the contraction and in the axisymmetric domain farther downstream. In addition to confirming the well-known turbulence anisotropy induced by strain, the data show effects on the skewnesses of both longitudinal velocity fluctuation (which has zero skewness in isotropic turbulence) and its derivative. The concomitant anisotropy in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field accelerates the decay of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9775B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9775B"><span>Model-based estimation of changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> seasonality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the 20th century. The analysed data are global <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..337M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.125..337M"><span>Long-term <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation in the Karkonosze mountains according to atmospheric circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Migała, Krzysztof; Urban, Grzegorz; Tomczyński, Karol</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The results of meteorological measurements carried out continuously on Mt Śnieżka in Karkonosze mountains since 1880 well document the <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed on a global scale. Data analysis indicates <span class="hlt">warming</span> expressed by an increase in the mean annual <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0.8 °C/100 years. A much higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase was recorded in the last two decades at the turn of the twenty-first century. Mean decade <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased from -0.1 to 1.5 °C. It has been shown that there are relationships between <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Mt Śnieżka and global mechanisms of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Thermal conditions of the Karkonosze (Mt Śnieżka) accurately reflect global climate trends and impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, macrotypes of atmospheric circulation in Europe (GWL) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The increase in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the 1989-2012 solar magnetic cycle may reveal a synergy effect to which astrophysical effects and atmospheric and oceanic circulation effects contribute, modified by constantly increasing anthropogenic factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579022"><span>Impact of cool versus <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on gestation in the aspic viper (Vipera aspis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Michel, Catherine Louise; Pastore, Jean-Henri; Bonnet, Xavier</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Previous experimental data suggested that digestion and growth rates are not impaired under cool constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (23°C) in a viviparous snake (Vipera aspis). These results challenged the widespread notion that both elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (e.g. 30°C) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations are required for digestion and growth in temperate climate reptiles. Here, we investigated the impact of constant cool <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on another physiological performance that is crucial to population persistence: gestation. At the time when reproductive females were midway through vitellogenesis, we placed ten reproductive and two non-reproductive female aspic vipers at each of two contrasted constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions: cool (23°C) versus <span class="hlt">warm</span> (28°C). Sixty percent of the females placed at 28°C gave birth to healthy offspring, suggesting that constant <span class="hlt">warm</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were compatible with normal offspring production. Conversely, none of the cool females gave birth to healthy offspring. A blister disease affected exclusively cool pregnant females. Apparently, the combination of cool <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> plus gestation was too challenging for such females. Our results suggest that reproduction is more thermally sensitive than digestion or growth, indeed gestation faltered under moderately cool thermal constraints. This sensitivity could be a crucial factor determining the capacity of this species to colonize different habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055284"><span>Adaptive capacity at the northern front: sockeye salmon behaviourally thermoregulate during novel exposure to <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Ward, Eric J.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Lisi, Peter J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As climate change increases maximal water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, behavioural thermoregulation may be crucial for the persistence of coldwater fishes, such as salmonids. Although myriad studies have documented behavioural thermoregulation in southern populations of salmonids, few if any have explored this phenomenon in northern populations, which are less likely to have an evolutionary history of heat stress, yet are predicted to experience substantial <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here, we treated a rare heat wave as a natural experiment to test whether wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the northern extent of their primary range (60° latitude) can thermoregulate in response to abnormally high thermal conditions. We tagged adult sockeye salmon with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers as they staged in a lake epilimnion prior to spawning in small cold streams (n = 40 recovered loggers). As lake surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">warmed</span> to physiologically suboptimal levels (15–20°C), sockeye salmon thermoregulated by moving to tributary plumes or the lake metalimnion. A regression of fish body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> against lake surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicated that fish moved to cooler waters when the epilimnion <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeded ~12°C. A bioenergetics model suggested that the observed behaviour reduced daily metabolic costs by as much as ~50% during the warmest conditions (18–20°C). These results provide rare evidence of cool-seeking thermoregulation at the poleward extent of a species range, emphasizing the potential ubiquity of maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints and the functional significance of thermal heterogeneity for buffering poikilotherms from climate change. PMID:27729980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326491-model-validations-low-global-warming-potential-refrigerants-mini-split-air-conditioning-units','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1326491-model-validations-low-global-warming-potential-refrigerants-mini-split-air-conditioning-units"><span>Model validations for low-global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential refrigerants in mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som; Abdelaziz, Omar</p> <p>2016-09-02</p> <p>To identify low GWP (global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates of refrigerant at the standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions with outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varying from 27.8 C to 55.0 C.. In the study, R-22 was compared to propane (R-290), DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, L41-2 (R-447A) in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. To reveal physics behind the measured performance results, thermodynamic properties of the alternative refrigerants were analysed. In addition,more » the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). The calibrated model translated the experimental results to key calculated parameters, i.e. compressor efficiencies, refrigerant side two-phase heat transfer coefficients, corresponding to each refrigerant. As a result, these calculated values provide scientific insights on the performance of the alternative refrigerants and are useful for other applications beyond mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning units.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326491','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326491"><span>Model validations for low-global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential refrigerants in mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som; Abdelaziz, Omar</p> <p>2016-09-02</p> <p>To identify low GWP (global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A, extensive experimental evaluations were conducted for multiple candidates of refrigerant at the standard test conditions and at high-ambient conditions with outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varying from 27.8 C to 55.0 C.. In the study, R-22 was compared to propane (R-290), DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B in a mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning unit originally designed for R-22; R-410A was compared to R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, L41-2 (R-447A) in a mini-split unit designed for R-410A. To reveal physics behind the measured performance results, thermodynamic properties of the alternative refrigerants were analysed. In addition, the experimental data was used to calibrate a physics-based equipment model, i.e. ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). The calibrated model translated the experimental results to key calculated parameters, i.e. compressor efficiencies, refrigerant side two-phase heat transfer coefficients, corresponding to each refrigerant. As a result, these calculated values provide scientific insights on the performance of the alternative refrigerants and are useful for other applications beyond mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning units.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23841790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23841790"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-drying on enamel bond strength and surface free-energy of self-etch adhesives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiratsuchi, Koji; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-drying on the enamel bond strengths and the surface free-energy of three single-step self-etch adhesives. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and then wet ground with #600 silicon carbide (SiC) paper. The adhesives were applied according to the instructions of the respective manufacturers and then dried in a stream of normal (23°C) or <span class="hlt">warm</span> (37°C) <span class="hlt">air</span> for 5, 10, and 20 s. After visible-light irradiation of the adhesives, resin composites were condensed into a mold and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then the bond strengths were measured. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. The enamel bond strengths varied according to the <span class="hlt">air</span>-drying time and ranged from 15.8 to 19.1 MPa. The trends for the bond strengths were different among the materials. The value of the γS⁺ component increased slightly when drying was performed with a stream of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>, whereas that of the γS⁻ component decreased significantly. These data suggest that <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-drying is essential to obtain adequate enamel bond strengths, although increasing the drying time did not significantly influence the bond strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26461461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26461461"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> Amplification of Minimum and Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> over High-Elevation Regions across the Globe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Qixiang; Wang, Mengben; Jiménez, Claudia Villarroel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of the annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMEAN) (1961-2010) has revealed that <span class="hlt">warming</span> amplification (altitudinal amplification and regional amplification) is a common feature of major high-elevation regions across the globe against the background of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since the mid-20th century. In this study, the authors further examine whether this holds for annual mean minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) and annual mean maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) (1961-2010) on a global scale. The extraction method of <span class="hlt">warming</span> component of altitude, and the paired region comparison method were used in this study. Results show that a significant altitudinal amplification trend in TMIN (TMAX) is detected in all (four) of the six high-elevation regions tested, and the average magnitude of altitudinal amplification trend for TMIN (TMAX) [0.306±0.086 °C km-1(0.154±0.213 °C km-1)] is substantially larger (smaller) than TMEAN (0.230±0.073 °C km-1) during the period 1961-2010. For the five paired high- and low-elevation regions available, regional amplification is detected in the four high-elevation regions for TMIN and TMAX (respectively or as a whole). Qualitatively, highly (largely) consistent results are observed for TMIN (TMAX) compared with those for TMEAN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TCry....6..675Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TCry....6..675Z"><span>Borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reveal details of 20th century <span class="hlt">warming</span> at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zagorodnov, V.; Nagornov, O.; Scambos, T. A.; Muto, A.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Pettit, E. C.; Tyuflin, S.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock) were drilled during the 2009-2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.). Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and <span class="hlt">warming</span> thereafter to the bed. The average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the most recent year is -14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15). A minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of -15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is estimated to be -10.2°C. Current mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the gradient in the lower part of the measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m-2 a-1 and basal heat flux (q) of 88 mW m-2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations show that recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Ts=T15) over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990). From this, we find that cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (minimum Ts=-16.2°C) prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to -14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> 19th century at T15≥-15°C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26463894"><span>Rice grain yield and quality responses to free-<span class="hlt">air</span> CO2 enrichment combined with soil and water <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Usui, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Rising <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are projected to reduce rice yield and quality, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) can increase grain yield. For irrigated rice, ponded water is an important <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment, but few open-field evaluations are available on the combined effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and [CO2 ], which limits our ability to predict future rice production. We conducted free-<span class="hlt">air</span> CO2 enrichment and soil and water <span class="hlt">warming</span> experiments, for three growing seasons to determine the yield and quality response to elevated [CO2 ] (+200 μmol mol(-1) , E-[CO2 ]) and soil and water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+2 °C, E-T). E-[CO2 ] significantly increased biomass and grain yield by approximately 14% averaged over 3 years, mainly because of increased panicle and spikelet density. E-T significantly increased biomass but had no significant effect on the grain yield. E-T decreased days from transplanting to heading by approximately 1%, but days to the maximum tiller number (MTN) stage were reduced by approximately 8%, which limited the panicle density and therefore sink capacity. On the other hand, E-[CO2 ] increased days to the MTN stage by approximately 4%, leading to a greater number of tillers. Grain appearance quality was decreased by both treatments, but E-[CO2 ] showed a much larger effect than did E-T. The significant decrease in undamaged grains (UDG) by E-[CO2 ] was mainly the result of an increased percentage of white-base grains (WBSG), which were negatively correlated with grain protein content. A significant decrease in grain protein content by E-[CO2 ] accounted in part for the increased WBSG. The dependence of WBSG on grain protein content, however, was different among years; the slope and intercept of the relationship were positively correlated with a heat dose above 26 °C. Year-to-year variation in the response of grain appearance quality demonstrated that E-[CO2 ] and rising <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> synergistically reduce grain appearance quality of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214497"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira de; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or <span class="hlt">warm</span> (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877067','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877067"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; de Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or <span class="hlt">warm</span> environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or <span class="hlt">warm</span> (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment. PMID:27214497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 29.1157 Section 29.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 29.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1157.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1157 - Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. 25.1157 Section 25.1157 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Accessories § 25.1157 Carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls. There must be a separate carburetor <span class="hlt">air</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=236095','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=236095"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation within various heated <span class="hlt">air</span> seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation across the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=223146','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=223146"><span><span class="hlt">AIR</span> <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> DISTRIBUTION IN SEED COTTON DRYING SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ten tests were conducted in the fall of 2007 to measure <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation within various heated <span class="hlt">air</span> seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation across the airflow ductwork...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED035214.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED035214.pdf"><span>Possible Economies in <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Conditioning by Accepting <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Swings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Public building <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls based on outside <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside <span class="hlt">air</span> and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449589"><span>Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last deglacial <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last deglacial <span class="hlt">warming</span>, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C41A0495E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C41A0495E"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and IASI Surface Observations of DomeC in Antarctica with Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Reported by AWS8989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elliott, D. A.; Aumann, H. H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The decrease of the ice in the Antarctic indicates that the land and the ocean along the coastline are <span class="hlt">warming</span> up. Representative numbers for <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the surface further inland are much more complicated due to the vast size of the continent. The Automated Weather Station AWS8989 has been reporting <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Concordia Station on DomeC in Antarctica every 10 minutes since 1996. AWS8989 is located about 1 mile from the power plant at Concordia Station. We compare the surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at DomeC deduced from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) data to the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reported by Automated Weather Station AWS8989 for the year between May 1, 2007 and April 30, 2008. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and IASI measure the mean skin brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a 50-km-radius circle from DomeC, while the AWS reports the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the <span class="hlt">air</span> at 3 meters above the surface. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and IASI measurements agree within 50 mK over the entire <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 190 K in the winter to 245 K in the summer, but consistently report a colder <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than the AWS8989. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> bias of AWS8989 is season dependent, changing from 1.5 K <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the winter to 5.5 K <span class="hlt">warm</span> in the summer. Comparison of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data in 2005 with a temporary Italian AWS (Aumann et al. 2006) and located several miles upwind from the power station, showed no significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> bias throughout the year 2005. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> readings of AWS8989 are likely due the combination of a season-independent 1.5 K <span class="hlt">warm</span> calibration bias in the AWS8989 sensor plus thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site. This heat island effect ranges from near zero during the low-activity winter months to about 4 K during the summer months with the highest activity at Concordia Station. The fact that activities at DomeC are increasing makes surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends from AWS8989 suspect. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and IASI are hyperspectral infrared sounders designed in support of weather forecasting and climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940260"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> may increase aphids' dropping probabilities in response to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Gang; Ma, Chun-Sen</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Dropping off is considered an anti-predator behavior for aphids since previous studies have shown that it reduces the risk of predation. However, little attention is paid to dropping behavior triggered by other external stresses such as daytime high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which are predicted to become more frequent in the context of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Here we defined a new parameter, drop-off <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DOT), to describe the critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which an aphid drops off its host plant when the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases gradually and slowly. Detailed studies were conducted to reveal effects of short-term acclimation (<span class="hlt">temperature</span>, exposure time at high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and starvation) on DOT of an aphid species, Sitobion avenae. Our objectives were to test if the aphids dropped off host plant to avoid high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and how short-term acclimation affected the aphids' dropping behavior in response to heat stress. We suggest that dropping is a behavioral thermoregulation to avoid heat stress, since aphids started to move before they dropped off and the dropped aphids were still able to control their muscles prior to knockdown. The adults starved for 12 h had higher DOT values than those that were unstarved or starved for 6 h, and there was a trade-off between behavioral thermoregulation and energy acquisition. Higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and longer exposure times at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> significantly lowered the aphids' DOT, suggested that the aphids avoid heat stress by dropping when exposed to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> may therefore increase the aphids' dropping probabilities and consequently affect the aphids' individual development and population growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23619385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23619385"><span>Drought and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> affect the species-specific levels of stress-related foliar metabolites of three oak species on acidic and calcareous soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Climate change as projected for Central Europe will lead to prolonged periods of summer drought and enhanced <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Thus, forest management practices are required to take into account how species performance is adapted to cope with these climate changes. Oak trees may play a major role in future forests because of their relative drought-tolerance compared with other species like beech. Therefore, this study investigated the stress responses (i.e., anti-oxidants, free amino acids) in the leaves of three widely distributed oak species in Central Europe (i.e., Quercus robur L., Q. petraea [Matt.] Libel., Q. pubescens Willd.) to drought, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the combination of drought plus <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> under controlled conditions after periods of spring drought, a short rewetting and summer drought. We quantified foliar levels of thiols, ascorbate, and free amino compounds in Q robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Our study showed that oak saplings had increased levels of γ-glutamylcysteine and total glutathione and proline with drought and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Foliar ascorbate, glutathione disulfide and dehydroascorbic acid levels were not affected. The comparison of stress responses to drought and/or <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> between the three species showed higher foliar thiol levels in Q. robur and Q. pubescens compared with Q. petraea. For total and reduced ascorbic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid, the highest levels were found in Q. robur. In conclusion, our study showed that foliar anti-oxidant and free amino acid levels were significantly affected by drought plus <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>; however, this effect was species-dependent with the drought-tolerant species of Q. pubescens having the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity among three tested oak species. Furthermore, stress responses as shown by increased levels of foliar anti-oxidants and free amino acids differ between calcareous and acidic soil indicating that the capacities of anti-oxidative defense and osmotic stress</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020847"><span>Comparison of Vertical Soundings and Sidewall <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements in a Small Alpine Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whiteman, Charles D.; Eisenbach, Stefan; Pospichal, Bernhard; Steinacker, Reinhold</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Tethered balloon soundings from two sites on the floor of a 1-km diameter limestone sinkhole in the Eastern Alps are compared with pseudo-vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ‘soundings’ from three lines of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data loggers on the basin’s northwest, southwest and southeast sidewalls. Under stable nighttime conditions with low background winds, the pseudo-vertical profiles from all three lines were good proxies for free <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soundings over the basin center, with a mean nighttime cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> bias of about 0.4°C and a standard deviation of 0.4°C. Cold biases were highest in the upper basin where relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> subsides to replace <span class="hlt">air</span> that spills out of the basin through the lowest altitude saddle. On a windy night, standard deviations increased to 1 - 2°C. After sunrise, the varying exposures of the data loggers to sunlight made the pseudo-vertical profiles less useful as proxies for free <span class="hlt">air</span> soundings. The good correspondence between sidewall and free <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during high static stability conditions suggests that sidewall soundings will prove useful in monitoring <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in the sinkhole. The sidewall soundings can produce more frequent profiles at less cost than tethersondes or rawinsondes, and provide valuable advantages for some types of meteorological analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1235571','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1235571"><span>Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential Refrigerants in Room <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343296"><span>Effects of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Because of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910054033&hterms=cold+front&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcold%2Bfront','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910054033&hterms=cold+front&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcold%2Bfront"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span>-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> front</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friehe, C. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Davidson, K. L.; Rogers, D. P.; Large, W. G.; Stage, S. A.; Crescenti, G. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Greenhut, G. K.; Li, F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The observed effects of sharp changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on the <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea fluxes, surface roughness, and the turbulence structure in the surface layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In situ flux and turbulence observations were carried out from three aircraft and two ships within the FASINEX framework. Three other aircraft used remote sensors to measure waves, microwave backscatter, and lidar signatures of cloud tops. Descriptions of the techniques, intercomparison of aircraft and ship flux data, and use of different methods for analyzing the fluxes from the aircraft data are described. Changing synoptic weather on three successive days yielded cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> front. For the wind perpendicular to the front, wind over both cold-to-<span class="hlt">warm</span> and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-to-cold surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred. Model results consistent with the observations suggest that an internal boundary layer forms at the SST.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023575','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023575"><span>Sources of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> in upper ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during El Niño</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Mike; Auad, Guillermo</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Global average sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) from 40°S to 60°N fluctuates ±0.3°C on interannual period scales, with global <span class="hlt">warming</span> (cooling) during El Niño (La Niña). About 90% of the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> during El Niño occurs in the tropical global ocean from 20°S to 20°N, half because of large SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific associated with El Niño and the other half because of <span class="hlt">warm</span> SST anomalies occurring over ∼80% of the tropical global ocean. From examination of National Centers for Environmental Prediction [Kalnay et al., 1996] and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set [Woodruff et al., 1993] reanalyses, tropical global <span class="hlt">warming</span> during El Niño is associated with higher troposphere moisture content and cloud cover, with reduced trade wind intensity occurring during the onset phase of El Niño. During this onset phase the tropical global average diabatic heat storage tendency in the layer above the main pycnocline is 1–3 W m−2above normal. Its principal source is a reduction in the poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropical ocean of 2–5 W m−2. Subsequently, peak tropical global <span class="hlt">warming</span> during El Niño is dissipated by an increase in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere of 2–5 W m−2, with reduced shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes in response to increased cloud cover tending to cancel each other. In the extratropical global ocean the reduction in poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropics during the onset of El Niño tends to be balanced by reduction in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere. Thus global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling during Earth's internal mode of interannual climate variability arise from fluctuations in the global hydrological balance, not the global radiation balance. Since it occurs in the absence of extraterrestrial and anthropogenic forcing, global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on decadal, interdecadal, and centennial period scales may also occur in association with Earth's internal modes of climate variability on those scales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JASTP..69.2355H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JASTP..69.2355H"><span>Latitudinal and longitudinal variability of mesospheric winds and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Keuer, D.; Hocking, W. K.; Kunze, M.; Murayama, Y.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Continuous MF and meteor radar observations allow detailed studies of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) as well as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> around the mesopause. This height region is characterized by a strong variability in winter due to enhanced planetary wave activity and related stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events, which are distinct coupling processes between lower, middle and upper atmosphere. Here the variability of mesospheric winds and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is discussed in relation with major and minor stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span> as observed during winter 2005/06 in comparison with results during winter 1998/99. Our studies are based on MF radar wind measurements at Andenes (69°N, 16°E), Poker Flat (65°N, 147°W) and Juliusruh (55°N, 13°E) as well as on meteor radar observations of winds and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at Resolute Bay (75°N, 95°W), Andenes (69°N, 16°E) and Kühlungsborn (54°N, 12°E). Additionally, energy dissipation rates have been estimated from spectral width measurements using a 3 MHz Doppler radar near Andenes. Particular attention is directed to the changes of winds, turbulence and the gravity wave activity in the mesosphere in relation to the planetary wave activity in the stratosphere. Observations indicate an enhancement of planetary wave 1 activity in the mesosphere at high latitudes during major stratospheric <span class="hlt">warmings</span>. Daily mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from meteor decay times indicate that strong <span class="hlt">warming</span> events are connected with a cooling of the 90 km region by about 10 20 K. The onset of these cooling processes and the reversals of the mesospheric circulation to easterly winds occur some days before the changes of the zonal circulation in the stratosphere start indicating a downward propagation of the circulation disturbances from the MLT region to the stratosphere and troposphere during the stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events. The short-term reversal of the mesospheric winds is followed by a period of strong westerly winds connected with enhanced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1689162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1689162"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span> sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies on the blue petrel at the Kerguelen Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guinet, C.; Chastel, O.; Koudil, M.; Durbec, J. P.; Jouventin, P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Several long-term studies on Southern Ocean seabirds and seals have suggested a possible link between major declines in breeding performance and El Niño Southern Oscillation events. We report that the breeding performances and body condition of the blue petrel (Halobaena carulea) on the Kerguelen Islands is depressed by episodic, <span class="hlt">warm</span> sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in the winter before breeding. Lagged cross correlations between SSTs in the Kerguelen sector and the Southern Oscillation Index indicate that <span class="hlt">warm</span> SSTs were found south of Kerguelen Islands within a year of, and between 4.2 and 5.4 years after, an El Niño event took place. These results can be discussed with respect to the recently described Antarctic Circumpolar Wave that drives climatic anomalies eastward around the Southern Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1034D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1034D"><span>Observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at tropical cyclone genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Defforge, Cécile L.; Merlis, Timothy M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is influenced by environmental factors, and it is expected to respond to anthropogenic climate change. However, there is observational uncertainty in historical changes in TC activity, and attributing observed TC changes to anthropogenic forcing is challenging in the presence of internal climate variability. The sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is a well-observed environmental factor that affects TC intensity and rainfall. Here we show that the SST at the time of TC genesis has a significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend over the three decades of the satellite era. Though TCs are extreme events, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend at TC genesis is comparable to the trend in SST during other tropical deep convection events and the trend in SST in the TC main development regions throughout the TC season. This newly documented, observed signature of climate change on TC activity is also present in high-resolution global atmospheric model simulations that explicitly simulate TCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6104C"><span>Rapid fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">air</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the city of Bucharest (Romania)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season may trigger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while <span class="hlt">warm</span> advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1104890-reduced-diurnal-temperature-range-does-change-warming-impacts-ecosystem-carbon-balance-mediterranean-grassland-mesocosms','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1104890-reduced-diurnal-temperature-range-does-change-warming-impacts-ecosystem-carbon-balance-mediterranean-grassland-mesocosms"><span>Reduced diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range does not change <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day <span class="hlt">warming</span>, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only <span class="hlt">warming</span>, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We reportmore » on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls to create realistic diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with gradual day-night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions and elevated early morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatments, because respiration <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between asymmetric and symmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We concluded that changes in daily mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1104890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1104890"><span>Reduced diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range does not change <span class="hlt">warming</span> impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T<sub>min</sub>) has increased faster than daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T<sub>max</sub>) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day <span class="hlt">warming</span>, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only <span class="hlt">warming</span>, when in fact T<sub>min</sub> occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in T<sub>min</sub> than T<sub>max</sub>, using precise <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controls to create realistic diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with gradual day-night <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions and elevated early morning as well as night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span> (dawn T<sub>min</sub>=ambient +5ºC, afternoon T<sub>max</sub>= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatments, because respiration <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences between asymmetric and symmetric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. We concluded that changes in daily mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, rather than changes in T<sub>min</sub>/T<sub>max</sub>, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..468..351K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..468..351K"><span>Has global <span class="hlt">warming</span> modified the relationship between sunspot numbers and global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kristoufek, Ladislav</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We study time evolution of the relationship between sunspot numbers and global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 1880 and 2016 using wavelet coherence framework. The results suggest that the relationship is stable in time. Changes in the sunspot numbers precede changes in the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by more than two years as suggested by the wavelet phase differences. This leading position of the sun activity is stable in time as well. However, the relationship has been disturbed by increasing CO2 emissions since 1960s. Without controlling for the effect of possible global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, or more precisely the positive connection between increasing CO2 emissions and the global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the findings would have been quite different. Combination of the cointegration analysis and wavelet coherence framework has enabled uncovering a hidden relationship between the solar activity and global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and possibly explaining equivocal results in the topical literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808690"><span>Forced-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David</p> <p>2009-10-10</p> <p>Forced-<span class="hlt">air-warming</span> (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room.We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the <span class="hlt">air</span> near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques.Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal <span class="hlt">air</span> path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers.The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. (a) The measurement...) The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12520298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12520298"><span>Magnitude and timing of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool during deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Visser, Katherine; Thunell, Robert; Stott, Lowell</p> <p>2003-01-09</p> <p>Ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropical Pacific region have a strong influence on global heat and water vapour transport and thus constitute an important component of the climate system. Changes in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and convection in the tropical Indo-Pacific region are thought to be responsible for the interannual to decadal climate variability observed in extra-tropical regions, but the role of the tropics in climate changes on millennial and orbital timescales is less clear. Here we analyse oxygen isotopes and Mg/Ca ratios of foraminiferal shells from the Makassar strait in the heart of the Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool, to obtain synchronous estimates of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and ice volume. We find that sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased by 3.5-4.0 degrees C during the last two glacial-interglacial transitions, synchronous with the global increase in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase occurred 2,000-3,000 years before the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets melted. Our observations suggest that the tropical Pacific region plays an important role in driving glacial-interglacial cycles, possibly through a system similar to how El Niño/Southern Oscillation regulates the poleward flux of heat and water vapour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NatGe...2...46C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NatGe...2...46C"><span>Unprecedented recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conroy, Jessica L.; Restrepo, Alejandra; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Steinitz-Kannan, Miriam; Cole, Julia E.; Bush, Mark B.; Colinvaux, Paul A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Through its intimate connection with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation system, climate variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean influences climate across much of the planet. But the history of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the tropical Pacific Ocean during recent millennia is poorly known: the available annually resolved records are discontinuous and rarely span more than a few centuries. Longer records at coarser temporal resolution suggest that significant oceanographic changes, observed at multi-year to multi-century resolution, have had important effects on global climate. Here we use a diatom record from El Junco Lake, Galápagos, to produce a calibrated, continuous record of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean at subdecadal resolution, spanning the past 1,200years. Our reconstruction reveals that the most recent 50years are the warmest 50-year period within the record. Because our diatom-based sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index resembles Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions, we suggest that with continued anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean may continue to <span class="hlt">warm</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.4451K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.4451K"><span>Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the polar oceans: MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU, and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in the satellite-derived Surface Skin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) of 2003-2014 were investigated and the three datasets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU), and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically up to 1.65 K warmer at the sea ice boundary and up to 2.04 K colder in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only compared to that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm utilized a~less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally-varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three datasets (MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only) showed significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high latitude regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4025K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.4025K"><span>Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the polar oceans: MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU, and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in the satellite-derived surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) 2003-2014 were investigated and the three data sets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU), and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically warmer up to 1.65 K at the sea ice boundary and colder down to -2.04 K in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only compared to that of the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only algorithm utilized a less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three data sets (MODIS, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU and <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> only) showed significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~ 2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=274054','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=274054"><span>Infrared-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> and un-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> wheat vegetation indices coalesce using canopy-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based growing degree days</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to determine the likely effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on field-grown wheat, a “Hot Serial Cereal” experiment was conducted -- so-called “Cereal” because wheat was the crop, “Serial” because the wheat was planted about every six weeks for two years, and “Hot” because infrared heaters were deploy...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11123464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11123464"><span>A microbiological evaluation of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> hand driers with respect to hand hygiene and the washroom environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, J H; Brown, K L; Toivenen, J; Holah, J T</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>A finger rinse technique for counting micro-organisms on hands showed no significant difference in the level of recovered micro-organisms following hand drying using either <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> or paper towels. Contact plate results appeared to reflect the degree of dampness of hands after drying rather than the actual numbers of micro-organisms on the hands. In laboratory tests, a reduction in airborne count of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus of between 40 and 75% was achieved from 600 readings comparing inlets and outlets of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> hand driers. In washroom trials, the number of airborne micro-organisms was reduced by between 30 and 75%. <span class="hlt">Air</span> emitted from the outlet of the driers contained significantly fewer micro-organisms than <span class="hlt">air</span> entering the driers. Drying of hands with hand driers was no more likely to generate airborne micro-organisms than drying with paper towels. Levels of micro-organisms on external surfaces of hand driers were not significantly different to those on other washroom surfaces. This work shows that <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> hand driers, of the type used in this study, are a hygienic method of drying hands and therefore appropriate for use in both the healthcare and food industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032975"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation impacts metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in commercial oysters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farrell, Hazel; Seebacher, Frank; O'Connor, Wayne; Zammit, Anthony; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Species of Alexandrium produce potent neurotoxins termed paralytic shellfish toxins and are expanding their ranges worldwide, concurrent with increases in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The metabolism of molluscs is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, and increases in ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may influence both the abundance and distribution of Alexandrium and the dynamics of toxin uptake and depuration in shellfish. Here, we conducted a large-scale study of the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in three commercial oysters (Saccostrea glomerata and diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas, n = 252 per species/ploidy level). Oysters were acclimated to two constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, reflecting current and predicted climate scenarios (22 and 27 °C), and fed a diet including the paralytic shellfish toxin-producing species Alexandrium minutum. While the oysters fed on A. minutum in similar quantities, concentrations of the toxin analogue GTX1,4 were significantly lower in <span class="hlt">warm</span>-acclimated S. glomerata and diploid C. gigas after 12 days. Following exposure to A. minutum, toxicity of triploid C. gigas was not affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Generally, detoxification rates were reduced in <span class="hlt">warm</span>-acclimated oysters. The routine metabolism of the oysters was not affected by the toxins, but a significant effect was found at a cellular level in diploid C. gigas. The increasing incidences of Alexandrium blooms worldwide are a challenge for shellfish food safety regulation. Our findings indicate that rising ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may reduce paralytic shellfish toxin accumulation in two of the three oyster types; however, they may persist for longer periods in oyster tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22686410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22686410"><span>Drought and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> affects abundance and exoenzyme profiles of Cenococcum geophilum associated with Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herzog, C; Peter, M; Pritsch, K; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Egli, S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of drought and elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on relative abundance and functioning of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum on three oak species differing in adaptation to a <span class="hlt">warm</span> and dry climate. The experiment QUERCO comprised three Quercus species (Q. robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens) grown for 3 years under four treatments: elevated <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, drought, a combination of the two, and control. Fine root samples were analysed for relative abundance and potential extracellular enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizae of C. geophilum, a fungal species known to be drought resistant. The relative abundance of C. geophilum on the roots of the oak species was significantly increased by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, decreased by drought, but unchanged in the combined treatment compared to the control. Although the extent of treatment effects differed among oak species, no significant influence of tree species on relative abundance of C. geophilum was detected. Exoenzyme activities of C. geophilum on Q. robur and Q. petraea (but not Q. pubescens) significantly increased in the combined treatment, but for all oak species were reduced under drought and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> alone compared to the control. There was a significant negative correlation between abundance of C. geophilum and its leucine aminopeptidase activity. As this enzyme is not frequent among ectomycorrhizal fungi, this emphasises the functional importance of C. geophilum in the ectomycorrhizal community. Our results indicate that increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and drought will influence the relative abundance and enzyme activity of C. geophilum. However, both the Quercus species and C. geophilum tolerated <span class="hlt">warming</span> and strong drought.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..786K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..786K"><span>Response of El Niño sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability to greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Seon Tae; Cai, Wenju; Jin, Fei-Fei; Santoso, Agus; Wu, Lixin; Guilyardi, Eric; An, Soon-Il</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The destructive environmental and socio-economic impacts of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) demand an improved understanding of how ENSO will change under future greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Robust projected changes in certain aspects of ENSO have been recently established. However, there is as yet no consensus on the change in the magnitude of the associated sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variability, commonly used to represent ENSO amplitude, despite its strong effects on marine ecosystems and rainfall worldwide. Here we show that the response of ENSO SST amplitude is time-varying, with an increasing trend in ENSO amplitude before 2040, followed by a decreasing trend thereafter. We attribute the previous lack of consensus to an expectation that the trend in ENSO amplitude over the entire twenty-first century is unidirectional, and to unrealistic model dynamics of tropical Pacific SST variability. We examine these complex processes across 22 models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) database, forced under historical and greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> conditions. The nine most realistic models identified show a strong consensus on the time-varying response and reveal that the non-unidirectional behaviour is linked to a longitudinal difference in the surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate across the Indo-Pacific basin. Our results carry important implications for climate projections and climate adaptation pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...622543M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...622543M"><span>Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Changes over China during the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurred at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> colder than the median daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was weak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4773837','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4773837"><span>Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Changes over China during the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurred at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> colder than the median daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was weak. PMID:26931350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26931350"><span>Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Changes over China during the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun</p> <p>2016-03-02</p> <p>We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurred at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> colder than the median daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was weak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..476..243C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JNuM..476..243C"><span>Crack growth behavior of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rolled 316L austenitic stainless steel in high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> hydrogenated water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Jin, Hyung-Ha; Kwon, Junhyun; Choi, Min-Jae; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Ji Hyun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span> rolling on the crack growth of 316L austenitic stainless steel, the crack growth rate was measured and the oxide structure was characterized in high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> hydrogenated water. The <span class="hlt">warm</span>-rolled specimens showed a higher crack growth rate compared to the as-received specimens because the slip bands and dislocations produced during <span class="hlt">warm</span> rolling served as paths for corrosion and cracking. The crack growth rate increased with the dissolved hydrogen concentration. This may be attributed to the decrease in performance and stability of the protective oxide layer formed on the surface of stainless steel in high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3017747','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3017747"><span>Comparative evaluation of the hygienic efficacy of an ultra-rapid hand dryer vs conventional <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> hand dryers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Snelling, AM; Saville, T; Stevens, D; Beggs, CB</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aims: To compare an ultra-rapid hand dryer against <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> dryers, with regard to: (A) bacterial transfer after drying and (B) the impact on bacterial numbers of rubbing hands during dryer use. Methods and Results: The Airblade™ dryer (Dyson Ltd) uses two <span class="hlt">air</span> ‘knives’ to strip water from still hands, whereas conventional dryers use <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> to evaporate moisture whilst hands are rubbed together. These approaches were compared using 14 volunteers; the Airblade™ and two types of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> dryer. In study (A), hands were contaminated by handling meat and then washed in a standardized manner. After dryer use, fingers were pressed onto foil and transfer of residual bacteria enumerated. Transfers of 0–107 CFU per five fingers were observed. For a drying time of 10 s, the Airblade™ led to significantly less bacterial transfer than the other dryers (P<0·05; range 0·0003–0·0015). When the latter were used for 30–35 s, the trend was for the Airblade to still perform better, but differences were not significant (P>0·05, range 0·1317–0·4099). In study (B), drying was performed ± hand rubbing. Contact plates enumerated bacteria transferred from palms, fingers and fingertips before and after drying. When keeping hands still, there was no statistical difference between dryers, and reduction in the numbers released was almost as high as with paper towels. Rubbing when using the <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> dryers inhibited an overall reduction in bacterial numbers on the skin (P < 0·05). Conclusions: Effective hand drying is important for reducing transfer of commensals or remaining contaminants to surfaces. Rubbing hands during <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> drying can counteract the reduction in bacterial numbers accrued during handwashing. Significance and Impact of the Study: The Airblade™ was superior to the <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> dryers for reducing bacterial transfer. Its short, 10 s drying time should encourage greater compliance with hand drying and thus help reduce the spread of infectious agents</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..153..199V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QSRv..153..199V"><span>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reversal within the rapid Younger Dryas-Holocene <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the North Atlantic?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, Jessie H.; Cwynar, Les C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The onset of the Holocene has been generally considered rapid and uninterrupted in the circum-Atlantic region. Loss-on-ignition (LOI - an index of organic carbon) profiles from 18 lateglacial-aged lakes in Nova Scotia, Canada, together with chironomid-inferred <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions at 5 sites, demonstrate that the rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> from the Younger Dryas (GS-1) to the Holocene was interrupted by a cooling of 1.6-6.4 °C in summer surface lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The resulting inflection or reversal on the rising <span class="hlt">temperature</span> curve has also been identified at 35 sites outside Nova Scotia from terrestrial and marine settings, indicating that this cool step is a robust feature throughout the North Atlantic and is likely the result of major oceanic and atmospheric reorganization of the Holocene climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24293676"><span>Evaluation of bacterial contamination on surgical drapes following use of the Bair Hugger(®) forced <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Occhipinti, Lindsay L; Hauptman, Joe G; Greco, Justin J; Mehler, Stephen J</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This pilot study determined the rate of bacterial contamination on surgical drapes of small animal patients <span class="hlt">warmed</span> intra-operatively with the Bair Hugger(®) forced <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> system compared to a control method. Surgical drapes of 100 patients undergoing clean surgical procedures were swabbed with aerobic culturettes at the beginning and end of surgery. Samples were cultured on Trypticase soy agar. Contamination of the surgical drapes was identified in 6/98 cases (6.1%). There was no significant difference in the number of contaminated surgical drapes between the Bair Hugger(®) and control groups (P = 0.47).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572317"><span>Hardy exotics species in temperate zone: can "<span class="hlt">warm</span> water" crayfish invaders establish regardless of low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Veselý, Lukáš; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>The spreading of new crayfish species poses a serious risk for freshwater ecosystems; because they are omnivores they influence more than one level in the trophic chain and they represent a significant part of the benthic biomass. Both the environmental change through global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the expansion of the pet trade increase the possibilities of their spreading. We investigated the potential of four "<span class="hlt">warm</span> water" highly invasive crayfish species to overwinter in the temperate zone, so as to predict whether these species pose a risk for European freshwaters. We used 15 specimens of each of the following species: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis), the yabby (Cherax destructor), and the redclaw (Cherax quadricarinatus). Specimens were acclimatized and kept for 6.5 months at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> simulating the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime of European temperate zone lentic ecosystems. We conclude that the red swamp crayfish, marbled crayfish and yabby have the ability to withstand low winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> relevant for lentic habitats in the European temperate zone, making them a serious invasive threat to freshwater ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U53B..07J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.U53B..07J"><span>Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution, and Energy Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, M. Z.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>This study reviews and ranks major proposed solutions to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-E85 and cellulosic E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in six out of 11 categories, including the two most important, mortality and climate damage reduction. Although HFCVs are less efficient than BEVs, wind- HFCVs ranked second among all combinations. Tier 2 options provide significant benefits and are recommended. Tier 3 options are less desirable. However, hydroelectricity, which was ranked ahead of coal- CCS and nuclear with respect to climate and health, is an excellent load balancer, thus strongly recommended. The Tier-4 combinations (cellulosic- and corn-E85) were ranked lowest overall and with respect to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19122879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19122879"><span>Slow and stepped re-<span class="hlt">warming</span> after acute low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure do not improve survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinclair, Brent J; Rajamohan, Arun</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We tested that hypothesis that slow re-<span class="hlt">warming</span> rates would improve the ability of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen larvae to survive acute low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure. Four larval stages (1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd) instars and wandering stage 3(rd) instars) of four wild-type strains were exposed to -7 degrees C for periods of time expected to result in 90 % mortality. Larvae were then either directly transferred to their rearing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (21 degrees C), or returned to this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a stepwise fashion (pausing at 0 and 15 degrees C) or by slow <span class="hlt">warming</span> at 1 or 0.1 degrees C/min. We observed a reduced rapid cold-hardening effect and no general increase in survival of acute chilling in larvae re-<span class="hlt">warmed</span> in a stepwise or slow fashion, and hypothesise that slow re-<span class="hlt">warming</span> may result in accumulation of further chill injuries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767315"><span>Honeybee flight metabolic rate: does it depend upon <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, William A; Heinrich, Bernd; Stevenson, Robert D</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Differing conclusions have been reached as to how or whether varying heat production has a thermoregulatory function in flying honeybees Apis mellifera. We investigated the effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flight metabolic rate, water loss, wingbeat frequency, body segment <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and behavior of honeybees flying in transparent containment outdoors. For periods of voluntary, uninterrupted, self-sustaining flight, metabolic rate was independent of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 19 and 37 degrees C. Thorax <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T(th)) were very stable, with a slope of thorax <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 0.18. Evaporative heat loss increased from 51 mW g(-1) at 25 degrees C to 158 mW g(-1) at 37 degrees C and appeared to account for head and abdomen <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excess falling sharply over the same <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. As <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased from 19 to 37 degrees C, wingbeat frequency showed a slight but significant increase, and metabolic expenditure per wingbeat showed a corresponding slight but significant decrease. Bees spent an average of 52% of the measurement period in flight, with 19 of 78 bees sustaining uninterrupted voluntary flight for periods of >1 min. The fraction of time spent flying declined as <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. As the fraction of time spent flying decreased, the slope of metabolic rate on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> became more steeply negative, and was significant for bees flying less than 80% of the time. In a separate experiment, there was a significant inverse relationship of metabolic rate and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for bees requiring frequent or constant agitation to remain airborne, but no dependence for bees that flew with little or no agitation; bees were less likely to require agitation during outdoor than indoor measurements. A recent hypothesis explaining differences between studies in the slope of flight metabolic rate on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in terms of differences in metabolic capacity and thorax <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is supported for honeybees in voluntary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168634','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168634"><span>Increasing influence of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on upper Colorado River streamflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of <span class="hlt">warm</span> years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2174W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2174W"><span>Increasing influence of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on upper Colorado River streamflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Morino, Kiyomi; McAfee, Stephanie A.; McCabe, Gregory J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This empirical study examines the influence of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and antecedent soil moisture on upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) water year streamflow over the past century. While cool season precipitation explains most of the variability in annual flows, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be highly influential under certain conditions, with the role of antecedent fall soil moisture less clear. In both wet and dry years, when flow is substantially different than expected given precipitation, these factors can modulate the dominant precipitation influence on streamflow. Different combinations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, and soil moisture can result in flow deficits of similar magnitude, but recent droughts have been amplified by warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that exacerbate the effects of relatively modest precipitation deficits. Since 1988, a marked increase in the frequency of <span class="hlt">warm</span> years with lower flows than expected, given precipitation, suggests continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> will be an increasingly important influence in reducing future UCRB water supplies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21G0133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21G0133F"><span>Ground-based microwave measuring of middle atmosphere ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles during sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feigin, A. M.; Shvetsov, A. A.; Krasilnikov, A. A.; Kulikov, M. Y.; Karashtin, D. A.; Mukhin, D.; Bolshakov, O. S.; Fedoseev, L. I.; Ryskin, V. G.; Belikovich, M. V.; Kukin, L. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We carried out the experimental campaign aimed to study the response of middle atmosphere on a sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> in winter 2011-2012 above Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (56N, 44E). We employed the ground-based microwave complex for remote sensing of middle atmosphere developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science. The complex combines two room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> radiometers, i.e. microwave ozonometer and the stratospheric thermometer. Ozonometer is a heterodyne spectroradiometer, operating in a range of frequencies that include the rotation transition of ozone molecules with resonance frequency 110.8 GHz. Operating frequency range of the stratospheric thermometer is 52.5-5.4 GHz and includes lower frequency edge of 5 mm molecular oxygen absorption bands and among them two relatively weak lines of O2 emission. Digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers developed by "Acqiris" are employed for signal spectral analysis. The spectrometers have frequency range 0.05-1 GHz and realizes the effective resolution about 61 KHz. For retrieval vertical profiles of ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from radiometric data we applied novel method based on Bayesian approach to inverse problem solution, which assumed a construction of probability distribution of the characteristics of retrieved profiles with taking into account measurement noise and available a priori information about possible distributions of ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the middle atmosphere. Here we introduce the results of the campaign in comparison with Aura MLS data. Presented data includes one sudden stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event which took place in January 13-14 and was accompanied by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing up to 310 K at 45 km height. During measurement period, ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations were (almost) anti-correlated, and total ozone abundance achieved a local maxima during the stratosphere cooling phase. In general, results of ground-based measurements are in good agreement with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810839L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810839L"><span>Simulation and projection of summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China: a comparison between a RCM and the driving global model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Donghuan; Zhou, Tianjun; Zou, Liwei</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The regional climate model (version 3, RegCM3) with the horizontal resolution of 50 km was employed to downscale the historical and projected climate changes over CORDEX East Asia domain, nested within the global climate system model FGOALS-g2 (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2). The simulated (1986-2005) and projected (2046-2065) summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes under RCP8.5 scenario over China were compared between the RegCM3 and FGOALS-g2. The <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices used in this study included tmx (daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), t2m (daily average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and tmn (daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), and extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events included TXx (max tmx), TX90p (<span class="hlt">warm</span> days) and WSDI (<span class="hlt">warm</span> spell duration). Results indicated that both models could reasonably reproduce the climatological distribution of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Compared to the driving global climate model, the detailed characteristics of summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were better simulated in RegCM3 due to its higher horizontal resolution. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over China will increase significantly during the middle of 21st century. RegCM3 projected larger increase of tmx than tmn over most regions of China, but in the western Tibet Plateau, the increase of tmn was larger. In the projection of FGOALS-g2, the projected changes of the three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices (t2m, tmn, and tmx) were similar with larger increases over northeastern China and Tibet Plateau. Extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events were projected to increase significantly in both models. TX90p will increase more than 60% compared to present day, while WSDI will become twice of present day. Key words: Summer surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; Extreme high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> events; Regional climate model; Climate change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16251961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16251961"><span>Low-latitude seasonality of Cretaceous <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in <span class="hlt">warm</span> and cold episodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steuber, Thomas; Rauch, Markus; Masse, Jean-Pierre; Graaf, Joris; Malkoc, Matthias</p> <p>2005-10-27</p> <p>The Cretaceous period is generally considered to have been a time of <span class="hlt">warm</span> climate. Evidence for cooler episodes exists, particularly in the early Cretaceous period, but the timing and significance of these cool episodes are not well constrained. The seasonality of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is important for constraining equator-to-pole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients and may indicate the presence of polar ice sheets; however, reconstructions of Cretaceous sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are predominantly based on the oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera that do not provide information about such intra-annual variations. Here we present intra-shell variations in delta18O values of rudist bivalves (Hippuritoidea) from palaeolatitudes between 8 degrees and 31 degrees N, which record the evolution of the seasonality of Cretaceous sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in detail. We find high maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (approximately 35 to 37 degrees C) and relatively low seasonal variability (< 12 degrees C) between 20 degrees and 30 degrees N during the warmer Cretaceous episodes. In contrast, during the cooler episodes our data show seasonal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability of up to 18 degrees C near 25 degrees N, comparable to the range found today. Such a large seasonal variability is compatible with the existence of polar ice sheets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025982"><span>Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability from Chesapeake Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ~2-4oC in Chesapeake Bay (CB) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ~2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excursions during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period (~800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts, the existence of numerous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PolSc..10..199T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PolSc..10..199T"><span>Relationship between the Arctic oscillation and surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in multi-decadal time-scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Hiroshi L.; Tamura, Mina</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this study, a simple energy balance model (EBM) was integrated in time, considering a hypothetical long-term variability in ice-albedo feedback mimicking the observed multi-decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. A natural variability was superimposed on a linear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend due to the increasing radiative forcing of CO2. The result demonstrates that the superposition of the natural variability and the background linear trend can offset with each other to show the <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus for some period. It is also stressed that the rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> during 1970-2000 can be explained by the superposition of the natural variability and the background linear trend at least within the simple model. The key process of the fluctuating planetary albedo in multi-decadal time scale is investigated using the JRA-55 reanalysis data. It is found that the planetary albedo increased for 1958-1970, decreased for 1970-2000, and increased for 2000-2012, as expected by the simple EBM experiments. The multi-decadal variability in the planetary albedo is compared with the time series of the AO mode and Barents Sea mode of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It is shown that the recent AO negative pattern showing <span class="hlt">warm</span> Arctic and cold mid-latitudes is in good agreement with planetary albedo change indicating negative anomaly in high latitudes and positive anomaly in mid-latitudes. Moreover, the Barents Sea mode with the <span class="hlt">warm</span> Barents Sea and cold mid-latitudes shows long-term variability similar to planetary albedo change. Although further studies are needed, the natural variabilities of both the AO mode and Barents Sea mode indicate some possible link to the planetary albedo as suggested by the simple EBM to cause the <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus in recent years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11A1464P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS11A1464P"><span>Decadal trends of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity on the Western Mediterranean Coast ('<span class="hlt">Warm</span> Coast' of Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plaza-Jorge, F.; Fraile-Nuez, E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Important annual significant increases of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity values have been found to the north of the Almería-Orán Front (Murcia slope), with rates of 0.028±0.028°C and 0.008±0.007, respectively. This <span class="hlt">warming</span> neither depends on a seasonal nor an annual cycle. The annual rate of heat content due to this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase is 0.85±0.73 W m-2; this lies between the two values reported by Béthoux et al. [1990] and Várgas-Yáñez et al. [2002]. A positive decadal trend in the average pressure of the isopycnal levels produces an upward motion of 43 m from 100 to 180 m depth. Another phenomena detected was the presence of Western Intermediate Water (WIW) in the upper 200 m in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2004.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED035213.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED035213.pdf"><span>Summertime <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Buildings Without <span class="hlt">Air</span>-Conditioning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Loudon, A. G.</p> <p></p> <p>Many modern buildings become uncomfortably <span class="hlt">warm</span> during sunny spells in the summer, and until recently there was no simple, reliable method of assessing at the design stage whether a building would become overheated. This paper describes a method of calculating summertime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which was developed at the Building Research Station, and gives…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1326522"><span>Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Shen, Bo; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Bargach, Youssef</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Evaluation Program for Low-Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioners under high-ambient-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007890"><span>Estimation of Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over Northern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and satellite remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and remotely sensed land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and daytime land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and nighttime land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and MODIS land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, surface maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157484','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157484"><span>Changes in winter <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near Lake Michigan, 1851-1993, as determined from regional lake-ice records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Assel, R.A.; Robertson, Dale M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Records of freezeup and breakup dates for Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, are among the longest ice records available near the Great Lakes, beginning in 185 1 and 1855, respectively. The timing of freezeup and breakup results from an integration of meteorological conditions (primarily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) that occur before these events. Changes in the average timing of these ice-events are translated into changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by the use of empirical and process-driven models. The timing of freezeup and breakup at the two locations represents an integration of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over slightly different seasons (months). Records from both locations indicate that the early winter period before about 1890 was - 15°C cooler than the early winter period after that time; the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has, however, remained relatively constant since about 1890. Changes in breakup dates demonstrate a similar 1.0-1 .5”C increase in late winter and early spring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> about 1890. More recent average breakup dates at both locations have been earlier than during 1890-1940, indicating an additional <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1.2”C in March since about 1940 and a <span class="hlt">warming</span> of 1 . 1°C in January-March since about 1980. Ice records at these sites will continue to provide an early indication of the anticipated climatic <span class="hlt">warming</span>, not only because of the large response of ice cover to small changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but also because these records integrate climatic conditions during the seasons (winter-spring) when most <span class="hlt">warming</span> is forecast to occur. Future reductions in ice cover may strongly affect the winter ecology of the Great Lakes by reducing the stable environment required by various levels of the food chain. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..543M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.126..543M"><span>Recent trend analysis of mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Greece based on homogenized data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mamara, A.; Argiriou, A. Α.; Anadranistakis, M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Numerous studies analyze the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in the Mediterranean area due to the anticipated impact of climate change in this part of the world. A number of studies examined the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climate in Greece, but few are based on a large number of synoptic stations covering all regions and climatic zones and even fewer are based on homogenized data set series, despite the fact that climatological studies must use high-quality homogeneous data series. The present work reviews previous studies dealing with climatic changes in Greece and addresses changes of mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, based on a large set of homogenized data from 52 synoptic stations. A statistically significant negative trend during 1960-1976 and a positive one during 1977-2004 were revealed. During 1960-1976, the lowest negative annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend is observed in Crete. During 1977-2004, the northern region of Greece was characterized by prominent annual <span class="hlt">warming</span>, whereas the north and central Aegean Sea and the semi-mountainous area were characterized by the lowest <span class="hlt">warming</span>. All stations are characterized by high seasonal trends in summer; the most extreme trends are observed in the northern and eastern regions and in the Attica area. Positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends occur from May to October, while negative trends dominate from November to February. The most pronounced <span class="hlt">warming</span> is recorded in June and July, and the most strongly decreasing trend occurs in November. Annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in northern Greece follow the hemispheric pattern, and the overall summer <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Greece is greater than the hemisphere's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009690"><span>Foliage response of young central European oaks to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>, drought and soil type.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Vollenweider, P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Three Central European oak species, with four provenances each, were experimentally tested in 16 large model ecosystem chambers for their response to passive <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> (AW, ambient +1-2 °C), drought (D, -43 to -60% irrigation) and their combination (AWD) for 3 years on two forest soil types of pH 4 or 7. Throughout the entire experiment, the influence of the different ambient and experimental climates on the oak trees was strong. The morphological traits of the Quercus species were affected in opposing ways in AW and D treatments, with a neutral effect in the AWD treatment. Biochemical parameters and LMA showed low relative plasticity compared to the morphological and growth parameters. The high plasticity in physiologically important parameters of the three species, such as number of intercalary veins or leaf size, indicated good drought acclimation properties. The soil type influenced leaf chlorophyll concentration, C/N and area more than drought, whereas foliage mass was more dependent on drought than on soil type. Through comparison of visible symptom development with the water deficits, a drought tolerance threshold of -1.3 MPa was determined. Although Q. pubescens had xeromorphic leaf characteristics (small leaf size, lower leaf water content, high LMA, pilosity, more chlorophyll, higher C/N) and less response to the treatments than Q. petraea and Q. robur, it suffered more leaf drought injury and shedding of leaves than Q. petraea. However, if foliage mass were used as the criterion for sustainable performance under a future climate, Q. robur would be the most appropriate species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504984"><span>Local <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> across Northern Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente Jessen; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Alsos, Inger Greve; Armbruster, W Scott; Austrheim, Gunnar; Bergendorff, Claes; Birks, H John B; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Brunet, Jörg; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dahlberg, Carl Johan; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dynesius, Mats; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Hylander, Kristoffer; Klanderud, Kari; Luoto, Miska; Milbau, Ann; Moora, Mari; Nygaard, Bettina; Odland, Arvid; Ravolainen, Virve Tuulia; Reinhardt, Stefanie; Sandvik, Sylvi Marlen; Schei, Fride Høistad; Speed, James David Mervyn; Tveraabak, Liv Unn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Velle, Liv Guri; Virtanen, Risto; Zobel, Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Recent studies from mountainous areas of small spatial extent (<2500 km(2) ) suggest that fine-grained thermal variability over tens or hundreds of metres exceeds much of the climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> expected for the coming decades. Such variability in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> provides buffering to mitigate climate-change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community data, Ellenberg <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicator values, locally measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LmT) and globally interpolated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions from plant assemblages within <1000-m(2) units (community-inferred <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: CiT). We then assessed: (1) CiT range (thermal variability) within 1-km(2) units; (2) the relationship between CiT range and topographically and geographically derived predictors at 1-km resolution; and (3) whether spatial turnover in CiT is greater than spatial turnover in GiT within 100-km(2) units. Ellenberg <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0.84 °C) and 2.68 °C (SD = 1.26 °C) within the flattest and roughest units respectively. Complex interactions between topography-related variables and latitude explained 35% of variation in growing-season CiT range when accounting for sampling effort and residual spatial autocorrelation. Spatial turnover in growing-season CiT within 100-km(2) units was, on average, 1.8 times greater (0.32 °C km(-1) ) than spatial turnover in growing-season GiT (0.18 °C km(-1) ). We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.4600Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.4600Z"><span>Atmospheric forcing intensifies the effects of regional ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> on reef-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies during a coral bleaching event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhenlin; Falter, James; Lowe, Ryan; Ivey, Greg; McCulloch, Malcolm</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We investigate how local atmospheric conditions and hydrodynamic forcing contributed to local variations in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within a fringing coral reef-lagoon system during the peak of a marine heat wave in 2010-2011 that caused mass coral bleaching across Western Australia. A three-dimensional circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with a built-in <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea heat flux exchange module Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Experiment (COARE) was coupled with a spectral wave model Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) to resolve the surface heat exchange and wave-driven reef circulation in Coral Bay, Ningaloo Reef. Using realistic oceanic and atmospheric forcing, the model predictions were in good agreement with measured time series of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at various locations in the coral reef system during the bleaching event. Through a series of sensitivity analyses, we found that the difference in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between the reef and surrounding offshore waters (ΔT) was predominantly a function of both the daily mean net heat flux (Qnet>¯) and residence time, whereas diurnal variations in reef water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were dependent on the diurnal fluctuation in the net heat flux. We found that reef <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were substantially higher than offshore in the inner lagoon under normal weather conditions and over the entire reef domain under more extreme weather conditions (0.7°C-1.5°C). Although these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevations were still less than that caused by the regional ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> (2°C-3°C), the arrival of peak seasonal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the summer of 2010-2011 (when net atmospheric heat fluxes were positive and abnormally high) caused substantially higher thermal stresses than would have otherwise occurred if offshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> had reached their normal seasonal maxima in autumn (when net atmospheric heat fluxes were negative or cooling). Therefore, the degree heating weeks calculated based on offshore <span class="hlt">temperature</span> substantially underestimated the thermal stresses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20694887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20694887"><span>Effect of drink <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and endurance cycling performance in <span class="hlt">warm</span>, humid conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen; Gifford, Janelle; Shirreffs, Susan; Chapman, Phillip; Johnson, Nathan</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The aims of this study were to determine the effect of cold (4 °C) and thermoneutral (37 °C) beverages on thermoregulation and performance in the heat and to explore sensory factors associated with ingesting a cold stimulus. Seven males (age 32.8 ± 6.1 years, [V(.)]O(2peak) 59.4 ± 6.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed cold, thermoneutral, and thermoneutral + ice trials in randomized order. Participants cycled for 90 min at 65%[V(.)]O(2peak) followed by a 15-min performance test at 28 °C and 70% relative humidity. They ingested 2.3 ml x kg(-1) of a 7.4% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution every 10 min during the 90-min steady-state exercise including 30 ml ice puree every 5 min in the ice trial. Absolute changes in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (0.22 ± 1.1 °C vs. 1.14 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.02), mean body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 °C; P = 0.03), and heat storage were lower across the 90-min exercise bout for the cold compared with the thermoneutral trial. Significant improvements (4.9 ± 2.4%, P < 0.01) in performance were observed with cold but no significant differences were detected with ice. Consumption of cold beverages during prolonged exercise in the heat improves body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures and performance. Consumption of ice did not reveal a sensory response, but requires further study. Beverages consumed by athletes exercising in the heat should perhaps be cold for performance and safety reasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024308','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024308"><span>Prolonged California aridity linked to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MacDonald, Glen M.; Moser, Katrina A.; Bloom, Amy M.; Potito, Aaron P.; Porinchu, David F.; Holmquist, James R.; Hughes, Julia; Kremenetski, Konstantine V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>California has experienced a dry 21st century capped by severe drought from 2012 through 2015 prompting questions about hydroclimatic sensitivity to anthropogenic climate change and implications for the future. We address these questions using a Holocene lake sediment record of hydrologic change from the Sierra Nevada Mountains coupled with marine sediment records from the Pacific. These data provide evidence of a persistent relationship between past climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) shifts and centennial to millennial episodes of California aridity. The link is most evident during the thermal-maximum of the mid-Holocene (~8 to 3 ka; ka = 1,000 calendar years before present) and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (~1 ka to 0.7 ka). In both cases, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> corresponded with cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific despite differences in the factors producing increased radiative forcing. The magnitude of prolonged eastern Pacific cooling was modest, similar to observed La Niña excursions of 1o to 2 °C. Given differences with current radiative forcing it remains uncertain if the Pacific will react in a similar manner in the 21st century, but should it follow apparent past behavior more intense and prolonged aridity in California would result. PMID:27629520</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27629520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27629520"><span>Prolonged California aridity linked to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacDonald, Glen M; Moser, Katrina A; Bloom, Amy M; Potito, Aaron P; Porinchu, David F; Holmquist, James R; Hughes, Julia; Kremenetski, Konstantine V</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>California has experienced a dry 21(st) century capped by severe drought from 2012 through 2015 prompting questions about hydroclimatic sensitivity to anthropogenic climate change and implications for the future. We address these questions using a Holocene lake sediment record of hydrologic change from the Sierra Nevada Mountains coupled with marine sediment records from the Pacific. These data provide evidence of a persistent relationship between past climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) shifts and centennial to millennial episodes of California aridity. The link is most evident during the thermal-maximum of the mid-Holocene (~8 to 3 ka; ka = 1,000 calendar years before present) and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (~1 ka to 0.7 ka). In both cases, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> corresponded with cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific despite differences in the factors producing increased radiative forcing. The magnitude of prolonged eastern Pacific cooling was modest, similar to observed La Niña excursions of 1(o) to 2 °C. Given differences with current radiative forcing it remains uncertain if the Pacific will react in a similar manner in the 21st century, but should it follow apparent past behavior more intense and prolonged aridity in California would result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21451456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21451456"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a contributor to kidney stone formation: implications of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fakheri, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Nephrolithiasis is a common disease across the world that is becoming more prevalent. Although the underlying cause for most stones is not known, a body of literature suggests a role of heat and climate as significant risk factors for lithogenesis. Recently, estimates from computer models predicted up to a 10% increase in the prevalence rate in the next half century secondary to the effects of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, with a coinciding 25% increase in health-care expenditures. Our aim here is to critically review the medical literature relating stones to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We have categorized the body of evidence by methodology, consisting of comparisons between geographic regions, comparisons over time, and comparisons between people in specialized environments. Although most studies are confounded by other factors like sunlight exposure and regional variation in diet that share some contribution, it appears that heat does play a role in pathogenesis in certain populations. Notably, the role of heat is much greater in men than in women. We also hypothesize that the role of a significant human migration (from rural areas to warmer, urban locales beginning in the last century and projected to continue) may have a greater impact than global <span class="hlt">warming</span> on the observed worldwide increasing prevalence rate of nephrolithiasis. At this time the limited data available cannot substantiate this proposed mechanism but further studies to investigate this effect are warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633325M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...633325M"><span>Prolonged California aridity linked to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacDonald, Glen M.; Moser, Katrina A.; Bloom, Amy M.; Potito, Aaron P.; Porinchu, David F.; Holmquist, James R.; Hughes, Julia; Kremenetski, Konstantine V.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>California has experienced a dry 21st century capped by severe drought from 2012 through 2015 prompting questions about hydroclimatic sensitivity to anthropogenic climate change and implications for the future. We address these questions using a Holocene lake sediment record of hydrologic change from the Sierra Nevada Mountains coupled with marine sediment records from the Pacific. These data provide evidence of a persistent relationship between past climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>, Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) shifts and centennial to millennial episodes of California aridity. The link is most evident during the thermal-maximum of the mid-Holocene (~8 to 3 ka ka = 1,000 calendar years before present) and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (~1 ka to 0.7 ka). In both cases, climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> corresponded with cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific despite differences in the factors producing increased radiative forcing. The magnitude of prolonged eastern Pacific cooling was modest, similar to observed La Niña excursions of 1o to 2 °C. Given differences with current radiative forcing it remains uncertain if the Pacific will react in a similar manner in the 21st century, but should it follow apparent past behavior more intense and prolonged aridity in California would result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6252M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6252M"><span>Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signature of a large Pleistocene - Holocene surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in the North Alberta, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, J.; Gosnold, W.; Unsworth, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recent results from a 2.3km deep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> log in northern Alberta, Canada acquired as part of the University of Alberta Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) geothermal energy project in 2010-2011shows that there is a significant increase in thermal gradient in the granites. Inversion of the measured T-z profile between 550 - 2320 m indicates a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase of 9.6 ± 0.3 °C, at 13.0 ± 0.6 ka and that the glacial base surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was - 4.4± 0.3 °C. This inversion computation accounted for granite heat production of 3 µW/m3. This is the largest amplitude of Pleistocene - Holocene surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> in Canada inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> logs, and is compatible with the results of similar studies in Eurasia (KTB, Outokumpu, Torun-1 etc.) reported previously. Reference: Majorowicz, J., Unsworth, M., Chacko, T., Gray, A., Heaman L., Potter, D., Schmitt, D., and Babadagli, T., 2011. Geothermal energy as a source of heat for oilsands processing in northern Alberta, Canada, in: Hein, F. J., Leckie, D., Suter , J., and Larter, S., (Eds), Heavy Oil/Bitumen Petroleum Systems in Alberta and beyond, AAPG Mem., in press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59a4050F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59a4050F"><span>X-ray Thomson scattering measurement of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falk, K.; Fryer, C. L.; Gamboa, E. J.; Greeff, C. W.; Johns, H. M.; Schmidt, D. W.; Šmíd, M.; Benage, J. F.; Montgomery, D. S.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A novel platform to measure the equation of state using a combination of diagnostics, where the spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is used to obtain accurate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements of <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter (WDM) was developed for the OMEGA laser facility. OMEGA laser beams have been used to drive strong shocks in carbon targets creating WDM and generating the Ni He-alpha x-ray probe used for XRTS. Additional diagnostics including x-ray radiography, velocity interferometry and streaked optical pyrometry provided complementary measurements of density and pressure. The WDM regime of near solid density and moderate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1-100 eV) is a challenging yet important area of research in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. This platform has been used to study off-Hugoniot states of shock-released diamond and graphite at pressures between 1 and 10 Mbar and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 5 and 15 eV as well as first x-ray Thomson scattering data from shocked low density CH foams reaching five times compression and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 20-30 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019667"><span>Comparison of MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over the Continental USA Meteorological Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Thome, Kurtis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA) and MODIS Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LST) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the surface-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based urban heat island's (UHIS) signature on LST amplitude over the continental USA and to make comparisons to local <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. <span class="hlt">Air-temperature</span>-based UHIs (UHIA), calculated using the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are compared with UHIS for urban areas in different biomes during different seasons. NLCD ISA is used to define urban and rural <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to stratify the sampling for LST and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We find that the MODIS LST agrees well with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the nighttime, but tends to overestimate it during the daytime, especially during summer and in nonforested areas. The minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses show that UHIs in forests have an average UHIA of 1 C during the summer. The UHIS, calculated from nighttime LST, has similar magnitude of 1-2 C. By contrast, the LSTs show a midday summer UHIS of 3-4 C for cities in forests, whereas the average summer UHIA calculated from maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is close to 0 C. In addition, the LSTs and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> difference between 2006 and 2011 are in agreement, albeit with different magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17631417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17631417"><span>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and coral reefs: modelling the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on Acropora palmata colony growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crabbe, M James C</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Data on colony growth of the branching coral Acropora palmata from fringing reefs off Discovery Bay on the north coast of Jamaica have been obtained over the period 2002-2007 using underwater photography and image analysis by both SCUBA and remotely using an ROV incorporating twin lasers. Growth modelling shows that while logarithmic growth is an approximate model for growth, a 3:3 rational polynomial function provides a significantly better fit to growth data for this coral species. Over the period 2002-2007, involving several cycles of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) change, the rate of growth of A. palmata was largely proportional to rate of change of SST, with R(2)=0.935. These results have implications for the influence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and climate change on coral reef ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510319O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510319O"><span>Retrieval of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from crowd-sourced battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of cell phones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. The number of available <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to a server for storage. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model is calibrated with observed <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos <span class="hlt">Aires</span>, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26348782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26348782"><span>The effect of a forced-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> blanket on patients' end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressures during eye surgery under local anaesthesia: a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sukcharanjit, S; Tan, A S B; Loo, A V P; Chan, X L; Wang, C Y</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Surgical drapes used during eye surgery are impermeable to <span class="hlt">air</span> and hence risk trapping <span class="hlt">air</span> underneath them. We investigated the effect of a forced-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> blanket on carbon dioxide accumulation under the drapes in patients undergoing eye surgery under local anaesthesia without sedation. Forty patients of ASA physical status 1 and 2 were randomly assigned to either the forced-<span class="hlt">air</span> warmer (n = 20) or a control heated overblanket (n = 20). All patients were given 1 l.min(-1) oxygen. We measured transcutaneous and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressures, heart rate, arterial pressure, respiratory rate, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxygen saturation before and after draping, then every 5 min thereafter for 30 min. The mean (SD) transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in the forced-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> group stayed constant after draping at 5.7 (0.2) kPa but rose to a maximum of 6.4 (0.4) kPa in the heated overblanket group (p = 0.0001 for the difference at time points 15 min and later). We conclude that forced-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span> reduces carbon dioxide accumulation under the drapes in patients undergoing eye surgery under local anaesthesia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1494M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.1494M"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea fluxes by extratropical planetary waves and its impact during the recent surface <span class="hlt">warming</span> slowdown</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kucharski, Fred; Stockdale, Timothy N.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that natural decadal variability played a major role in the slowdown in global <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed in the 21st century, with sea surface cooling in the tropical Pacific recognized as a major contributor. However, the <span class="hlt">warming</span> pause was most pronounced during boreal winter, with Northern Hemisphere flow anomalies also playing a role. Here we quantify the contribution of extratropical heat exchanges by comparing geopotential and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies simulated by ensembles of seasonal forecasts with similar ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but different heat fluxes north of 40°N, as a result of planetary wave variability. We show that an important part of heat flux anomalies is associated with decadal variations in the phase of a specific planetary wave pattern. In model simulations covering the last three decades, this variability pattern accounts for a decrease of 0.35°C/decade in the post-1998 wintertime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend over northern continents.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295730"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> of lake Kivu.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189960"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">Warming</span> of Lake Kivu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Hecky, Robert E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. To investigate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is <span class="hlt">warming</span> at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in other East African lakes. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> increase throughout the entire water column. Though <span class="hlt">warming</span> is strongest near the surface, <span class="hlt">warming</span> rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the <span class="hlt">warming</span> in deeper waters. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient. PMID:25295730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=shelter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dshelter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990007912&hterms=shelter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dshelter"><span>Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Decreases in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The observations indicated near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687677"><span>Monitored summer peak attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Florida residences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has analyzed measured summer attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data taken for some 21 houses (three with two different roof configurations) over the last several years. The analysis is in support of the calculation within ASHRAE Special Project 152P, which will be used to estimate duct system conductance gains that are exposed to the attic space. Knowledge of prevailing attic thermal conditions are critical to the duct heat transfer calculations for estimation of impacts on residential cooling system sizing. The field data were from a variety of residential monitoring projects that were classified according to intrinsic differences in roofing configurations and characteristics. The sites were occupied homes spread around the state of Florida. There were a variety of different roofing construction types, roof colors, and ventilation configurations. Data at each site were obtained from June 1 to September 30 according to the ASHRAE definition of summer. The attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were used for the data analysis. The attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured with a shielded type-T thermocouple at mid-attic height, halfway between the decking and insulation surface. The ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was obtained at each site by thermocouples located inside a shielded exterior enclosure at a 3 to 4 m (10--12 ft) height. The summer 15-minute data from each site were sorted by the average ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> into the top 2.5% of the observations of the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Within this limited group of observations, the average outside <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, attic <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and coincident difference were reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3208S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3208S"><span>Solar activity influence on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes in caves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey</p> <p></p> <p>Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave <span class="hlt">air</span> is connected with the most general circulation of the <span class="hlt">air</span> in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the <span class="hlt">air</span> of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> of the <span class="hlt">air</span> in the zone of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (ZCT) are compared with surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in caves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPP43A0619C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMPP43A0619C"><span>Quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate - <span class="hlt">Air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tracking from Emigrant Pass Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, D. S.; Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles contain information about surface ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> histories and provide a useful complement to proxy indicators of climate change. An inherent assumption in borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions is that <span class="hlt">air</span> and ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are coupled through heat diffusion track each other at annual and longer periods. The Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO), located in the Grouse Creek Mountains of northwestern Utah, is designed to test ground-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tracking. Analyses of 10 years of observations at EPO demonstrate the following: 1) Ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> track <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at annual and longer periods exceptionally well at the site. Divergence between the observed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 1 m in the subsurface and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> modeled as a boundary layer forcing is less than 0.04 K per annum. 2) Seasonal variations in incident solar radiation are ~200 Wm-2 leading to an average annual difference between ground and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, Δ Tg-a, of 2.55 K (±0.01) from 1993-2003. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference varies from -5 K to +10 K when averaged over a diurnal cycle, and from 2.50 K to 2.60 K over an annual cycle. However, inter-annual variations in insulation are less than 1 Wm-2; consequently, solar radiation is not observed to affect the inter-annual tracking at the site. 3) Model studies snow-ground thermal interactions at EPO demonstrate that seasonal snow cover can either <span class="hlt">warm</span> or cool the ground relative to the annual mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and that the winter snow effect is an order of magnitude smaller than the summer radiation effect at the site. 4) <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> observations at various depths within the granite and soils at the site allow us to make estimates of in-situ thermal diffusivity and its changes with time. The "apparent" thermal diffusivity of the upper meter of granite at EPO ranges from 0.88-0.98 x 10-6 m2s-1 while the soil varies from 0.57-0.68 x 10-6 m2s-1. The accumulation of data at EPO leads to a quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3416502V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3416502V"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> revealed by englacial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at Col du Dôme (4250 m, Mont Blanc area)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, Christian; Le Meur, Emmanuel; Six, Delphine; Possenti, Philippe; Lefebvre, Eric; Funk, Martin</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were measured in two deep boreholes drilled at the same location in the ice at Col du Dôme (4250 m) in 1994 and 2005, providing clear evidence of atmospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The 1994 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile was already far from steady state conditions. Results from a heat transfer model reveal that the englacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase cannot be explained solely by atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise. The latent heat produced by the refreezing of surface meltwater below the surface also contributes to the englacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase. Although surface melting is normally very low at this altitude, this contribution became significant after 1980 for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the top of the borehole. Simulations for different climatic scenarios show that glaciated areas located between 3500 and 4250 m could become temperate in the future. This <span class="hlt">warming</span> could have a major impact on the stability of hanging glaciers frozen to their beds if the melting point is reached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA43A2179T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA43A2179T"><span>The Benefits of Using Dense <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensor Networks to Monitor Urban <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Kucharik, C. J.; Schatz, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that are elevated relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in the fraction of gray and green infrastructure. Studies have shown that communities most at risk for impacts from climate-related disasters (i.e., lower median incomes, higher poverty, lower education, and minorities) tend to live in the hottest areas of cities. Development of adequate climate adaptation tools for cities relies on knowledge of how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies across space and time. Traditionally, a city's urban heat island has been quantified using near-surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements from a few sites. This methodology assumes (1) that the UHI can be characterized by the difference in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from a small number of points, and (2) that these few points represent the urban and rural signatures of the region. This methodology ignores the rich information that could be gained from measurements across the urban to rural transect. This transect could traverse elevations, water bodies, vegetation fraction, and other land surface properties. Two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor networks were designed and implemented in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul, MN and Madison, WI metropolitan areas beginning in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Both networks use the same model sensor and record <span class="hlt">temperature</span> every 15 minutes from ~150 sensors. Data from each network has produced new knowledge of how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies diurnally and seasonally across the cities and how the UHI magnitude is influenced by weather phenomena (e.g., wind, snow cover, heat waves) and land surface characteristics such as proximity to inland lakes. However, the two metropolitan areas differ in size, population, structure, and orientation to water bodies. In addition, the sensor networks were established in very different manners. We describe these differences and present lessons learned from the design and ongoing efforts of these two dense networks</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531318','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4531318"><span>Scale-dependency of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L. E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Studies of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends from natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. The hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary. PMID:26259555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26259555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26259555"><span>Scale-dependency of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L E</p> <p>2015-08-11</p> <p>Studies of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends from natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. The hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=ultrasound&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78120188&CFTOKEN=21109967','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=211994&keyword=ultrasound&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78120188&CFTOKEN=21109967"><span>Associations of endothelial function and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in diabetic subjects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies consistently show that <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with changes in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the association remain largely unknown. As one index of endothelial functio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... must be made within 100 cm of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... must be made within 100 cm of the <span class="hlt">air</span>-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec90-309.pdf"><span>40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... location must be within 10 cm of the engine intake system (i.e., the <span class="hlt">air</span> cleaner, for most engines.) (b... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19515658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19515658"><span>Increases in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can promote wind-driven dispersal and spread of plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuparinen, Anna; Katul, Gabriel; Nathan, Ran; Schurr, Frank M</p> <p>2009-09-07</p> <p>Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds and pollen shapes the spatial dynamics of plant genotypes, populations and communities. Quantifying LDD is thus important for predicting the future dynamics of plants exposed to environmental changes. However, environmental changes can also alter the behaviour of LDD vectors: for instance, increasing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may enhance atmospheric instability, thereby altering the turbulent airflow that transports seed and pollen. Here, we investigate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on wind dispersal in a boreal forest using a 10-year time series of micrometeorological measurements and a Lagrangian stochastic model for particle transport. For a wide range of dispersal and life history types, we found positive relations between <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and LDD. This translates into a largely consistent positive effect of +3 degrees C <span class="hlt">warming</span> on predicted LDD frequencies and spread rates of plants. Relative increases in LDD frequency tend to be higher for heavy-seeded plants, whereas absolute increases in LDD and spread rates are higher for light-seeded plants for which wind is often an important dispersal vector. While these predicted increases are not sufficient to compensate forecasted range losses and environmental changes can alter plant spread in various ways, our results generally suggest that <span class="hlt">warming</span> can promote wind-driven movements of plant genotypes and populations in boreal forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576999','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6576999"><span>Recent variations of sea ice and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in high latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chapman, W.L.; Walsh, J.E. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Feedbacks resulting from the retreat of sea ice and snow contribute to the polar amplification of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">warming</span> projected by global climate models. A gridded sea-ice database, for which the record length is now approaching four decades for the Arctic and two decades for the Antarctic, is summarized here. The sea-ice fluctuations derived from the data set are characterized by (1) temporal scales of several seasons to several years and (2) spatial scales of 30[degrees]-180[degrees] of longitude. The ice data are examined in conjunction with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for evidence of recent climate change in the polar regions. The arctic sea-ice variations over the past several decades are compatible with the corresponding <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which show a distinct <span class="hlt">warming</span> that is strongest over northern land areas during the winter and spring. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends over the sub arctic seas are smaller and even negative in the southern Greenland region. Statistically significant decreases of the summer extent of arctic ice are apparent in the sea-ice data, and new summer minima have been achieved three times in the past 15 years. There is no significant trend of ice extent in the Arctic during winter or in the Antarctic during any season. The seasonal and geographical changes of sea-ice coverage are consistent with the more recent greenhouse experiments performed with coupled atmosphere-ocean models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27861777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27861777"><span>Direct benefits and indirect costs of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for high-elevation populations of a solitary bee.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forrest, Jessica R K; Chisholm, Sarah P M</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are required for insect flight. Consequently, <span class="hlt">warming</span> could benefit many high-latitude and high-altitude insects by increasing opportunities for foraging or oviposition. However, <span class="hlt">warming</span> can also alter species interactions, including interactions with natural enemies, making the net effect of rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on population growth rate difficult to predict. We investigated the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependence of nesting activity and lifetime reproductive output over 3 yr in subalpine populations of a pollen-specialist bee, Osmia iridis. Rates of nest provisioning increased with ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with availability of floral resources, as expected. However, warmer conditions did not increase lifetime reproductive output. Lifetime offspring production was best explained by rates of brood parasitism (by the wasp Sapyga), which increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Direct observations of bee and parasite activity suggest that although activity of both species is favored by warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, bees can be active at lower ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while wasps are active only at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Thus, direct benefits to the bees of warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were nullified by indirect costs associated with increased parasite activity. To date, most studies of climate-change effects on pollinators have focused on changing interactions between pollinators and their floral host-plants (i.e., bottom-up processes). Our results suggest that natural enemies (i.e., top-down forces) can play a key role in pollinator population regulation and should not be overlooked in forecasts of pollinator responses to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..441P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..441P"><span>Spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Toruń (Central Poland) and its causes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przybylak, Rajmund; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna; Araźny, Andrzej; Kejna, Marek; Kunz, Mieczysław; Maszewski, Rafał</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the results of an investigation into the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pattern and development (including the urban heat island (UHI)) in Toruń (central Poland) are presented. For the analysis, daily mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ti) as well as daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for 2012 gathered for 20 sites, evenly distributed in the area of city, have been taken as source data. Additionally, in order to provide more extensive characteristics of the diversity of the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the study area, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) and the number of the so-called characteristic days were calculated as well. The impact of weather conditions (cloudiness and wind speed), atmospheric circulation, urban morphological parameters and land cover on the UHI in the study area was investigated. In Toruń, according to the present study, the average UHI intensity in 2012 was equal to 1.0 °C. The rise of cloudiness and wind speed led to a decrease of the magnitude of the UHI. Generally, in most cases, anticyclonic situations favour increased thermal contrast between rural and city areas, particularly in summer. <span class="hlt">Warm</span> western circulation types significantly reduced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences in the western side of the city and enlarged them in the eastern side of the city. Eastern cold types also have a similar influence on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. Positive and statistically significant correlations have been found between the percentage of built-up areas (sealing factor) and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Conversely, sky view factor (SVF) reveals negative correlations which are statistically significant only for Tmin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6771133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6771133"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> geothermal potential of the Ojo Caliente <span class="hlt">warm</span> springs area, northern New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vuataz, F.D.; Stix, J.; Goff, F.; Pearson, C.F.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>A detailed geochemical investigation of 17 waters (thermal and cold, mineralized and dilute) was performed in the Ojo Caliente-La Madera area. Two types of thermomineral waters have separate and distinctive geologic, geochemical, and geothermal characteristics. The water from Ojo Caliente Resort emerges with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> less than or equal to 54/sup 0/C from a Precambrian metarhyolite. Its chemistry, typically Na-HCO/sub 3/, has a total mineralization of 3600 mg/l. Isotopic studies have shown that the thermal water emerges from the springs and a hot well without significant mixing with the cold shallow aquifer of the valley alluvium. However, the cold aquifer adjacent to the resort does contain varying amounts of thermal water that originates from the <span class="hlt">warm</span> spring system. Geothermometry calculations indicate that the thermal water may be as hot as 85/sup 0/C at depth before its ascent toward surface. Thermodynamic computations on the reaction states of numerous mineral phases suggest that the thermal water will not cause major scaling problems if the hot water is utilized for direct-use geothermal applications. By means of a network of very shallow holes, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and electrical conductivity anomalies have been found elsewhere in the valley around Ojo Caliente, and resistivity soundings have confirmed the presence of a plume of thermal water entering the shallow aquifer. The group of lukewarm springs around La Madera, with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> less than or equal to 29/sup 0/C, chemical type of NaCaMg-HCO/sub 3/Cl and with a total mineralization less than or equal to 1500 mg/l behaves as a different system without any apparent relation to the Ojo Caliente system. Its <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at depth is not believed to exceed 35 to 40/sup 0/C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93f3207K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93f3207K"><span>Importance of finite-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> exchange correlation for <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense matter calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karasiev, Valentin V.; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, S. B.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The effects of an explicit <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence in the exchange correlation (XC) free-energy functional upon calculated properties of matter in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> dense regime are investigated. The comparison is between the Karasiev-Sjostrom-Dufty-Trickey (KSDT) finite-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> local-density approximation (TLDA) XC functional [Karasiev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.076403] parametrized from restricted path-integral Monte Carlo data on the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and the conventional Monte Carlo parametrization ground-state LDA XC [Perdew-Zunger (PZ)] functional evaluated with T -dependent densities. Both Kohn-Sham (KS) and orbital-free density-functional theories are used, depending upon computational resource demands. Compared to the PZ functional, the KSDT functional generally lowers the dc electrical conductivity of low-density Al, yielding improved agreement with experiment. The greatest lowering is about 15% for T =15 kK. Correspondingly, the KS band structure of low-density fcc Al from the KSDT functional exhibits a clear increase in interband separation above the Fermi level compared to the PZ bands. In some density-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes, the deuterium equations of state obtained from the two XC functionals exhibit pressure differences as large as 4% and a 6% range of differences. However, the hydrogen principal Hugoniot is insensitive to the explicit XC T dependence because of cancellation between the energy and pressure-volume work difference terms in the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. Finally, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at which the HEG becomes unstable is T ≥7200 K for the T -dependent XC, a result that the ground-state XC underestimates by about 1000 K.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1769m0003V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1769m0003V"><span>Development of strategies for saving energy by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduction in <span class="hlt">warm</span> forging processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varela, Sonia; Santos, Maite; Vadillo, Leire; Idoyaga, Zuriñe; Valbuena, Óscar</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This paper is associated to the European policy of increasing efficiency in raw material and energy usage. This policy becomes even more important in sectors consuming high amount of resources, like hot forging industry, where material costs sums up to 50% of component price and energy ones are continuously raising. The <span class="hlt">warm</span> forging shows a clear potential of raw material reduction (near-net-shape components) and also of energy saving (forging <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under 1000°C). However and due to the increment of the energy costs, new solutions are required by the forging sector in order to reduce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below 900°C. The reported research is based on several approaches to reduce the forging <span class="hlt">temperature</span> applied to a flanged shaft of the automotive sector as demonstration case. The developed investigations have included several aspects: raw material, process parameters, tools and dies behavior during forging process and also metallographic evaluation of the forged parts. This paper summarizes analysis of the ductility and the admissible forces of the flanged shaft material Ck45 in as-supplied state (as-rolled) and also in two additional heat treated states. Hot compression and tensile tests using a GLEEBLE 3800C Thermo mechanical simulator have been performed pursuing this target. In the same way, a coupled numerical model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to predict the material flow, the forging loads and the stresses on the tools at lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with the new heat treatments of the raw material. In order to validate the previous development, experimental trials at 850 °C and 750 °C were carried out in a mechanical press and the results were very promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1561721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1561721"><span>Respiratory effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span> and dry <span class="hlt">air</span> at increased ambient pressure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorsen, E; Rønnestad, I; Segadal, K; Hope, A</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>We have measured in 7 divers forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1), and forced midexpiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) before and after exposure to dry or humid breathing gas of 35.3 degrees-36.8 degrees C (<span class="hlt">air</span>) when diving to pressures of 117-600 kPa. The response was compared with the subjects' reactivity to pharmacologic bronchoprovocation with methacholine. Baseline FEV1 and FEF25-75% decreased in accordance with increasing gas density. Relative to baseline, there was a significant reduction after the dives in FEV1 of 4.0 +/- 6.1% (P less than 0.05) and in FEF25-75% of 8.6 +/- 9.7% (P less than 0.01) with exposure to dry breathing gas. By analysis of variance the reduction in the lung function variables below baseline were related to the breathing gas characteristic (dry/humid) (P less than 0.01), bronchial hyperreactivity (P less than 0.02), and ambient pressure (P less than 0.02) independently of each other. There was no significant change in FVC after the exposures. Humid breathing gas was considered more comfortable than dry breathing gas, and the upper comfort limit for breathing gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was higher with humid breathing gas. Convective respiratory heat loss was negligible in these experiments, indicating that dry gas itself had a significant bronchoconstrictive effect. Bronchial hyperreactivity may cause increased risk of development of bronchial obstruction and <span class="hlt">air</span> trapping during diving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24992559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24992559"><span>Combining colour and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: A blue object is more likely to be judged as <span class="hlt">warm</span> than a red object.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Hsin-Ni; Iwai, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Junji; Nishida, Shin'ya</p> <p>2014-07-03</p> <p>It is commonly believed that reddish colour induces <span class="hlt">warm</span> feelings while bluish colour induces cold feelings. We, however, demonstrate an opposite effect when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information is acquired by direct touch. Experiment 1 found that a red object, relative to a blue object, raises the lowest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> required for an object to feel <span class="hlt">warm</span>, indicating that a blue object is more likely to be judged as <span class="hlt">warm</span> than a red object of the same physical <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Experiment 2 showed that hand colour also affects <span class="hlt">temperature</span> judgment, with the direction of the effect opposite to object colours. This study provides the first demonstration that colour can modulate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> judgments when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information is acquired by direct touch. The effects apparently oppose the common conception of red-hot/blue-cold association. We interpret this phenomenon in terms of "Anti-Bayesian" integration, which suggests that the brain integrates direct <span class="hlt">temperature</span> input with prior expectations about <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship between object and hand in a way that emphasizes the contrast between the two.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.1367S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45.1367S"><span>Unprecedented recent <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over the east Tibetan Plateau inferred from Alpine treeline dendrochronology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Chunming; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Daux, Valérie; Li, Zongshan; Carré, Matthieu; Moore, John C.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Despite instrumental records showing recent large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rises on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), only a few tree-ring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions do capture this <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend. Here, we sampled 260 trees from seven Alpine treeline locations across the southeast TP. Standardized tree-ring width chronologies of Abies squamata and Sabina squamat were produced following Regional Curve Standardization detrending. The leading principal component of these records is well correlated with the regional summer (JJA) minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MinT) (R2 = 0.47, P < 0.001, 1953-2009). Hence we produce a regional summer MinT reconstruction spanning the last 212 years. This reconstruction reveals a long-term persistent <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend, starting in the 1820s, at a rate of 0.45 ± 0.09 °C/century (1820-2009). This trend is also detected since the 1820s in the Asian summer MinT reconstruction produced by the PAGES 2K project, with a very close <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate (0.43 ± 0.08 °C/century, 1820-1989). Our record also displays an enhanced multi-decadal variability since the mid-twentieth century. The 1990s-2000s are the warmest of our whole record, due to the superposition of the gradual <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend and decadal variability during this interval. The strongest decadal cooling occurs during the 1950s and the largest <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend during the 1970s. The magnitude of <span class="hlt">warming</span> from 1973 to 2003 was larger than the total <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend from 1820s to 2009. Extreme events are also more frequent since 1950. The pattern of multi-decadal variability has similarities with the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation, suggesting common causality. CMIP5 historical simulations fail to capture both the magnitude and timing of this multi-decadal variability. The ensemble CMIP5 average produces a steady <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend starting in the 1970s, which only accounts for about 60 % of the observed <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend during this period. We conclude that TP summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could reflect a climate response to increased greenhouse gas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465896"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of sewage sludge composting process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the influence was more significant when composting was in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising process: composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> falling process: composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting <span class="hlt">temperature</span>'s responses to ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000353','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000353"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> Mass Origin in the Arctic and its Response to Future <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orbe, Clara; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Holzer, Mark; Oman, Luke; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Li, Feng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present the first climatology of <span class="hlt">air</span> mass origin in the Arctic in terms of rigorously defined <span class="hlt">air</span> mass fractions that partition <span class="hlt">air</span> according to where it last contacted the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Results from a present-day climate integration of the GEOSCCM general circulation model reveal that the Arctic lower troposphere below 700 mb is dominated year round by <span class="hlt">air</span> whose last PBL contact occurred poleward of 60degN, (Arctic <span class="hlt">air</span>, or <span class="hlt">air</span> of Arctic origin). By comparison, approx. 63% of the Arctic troposphere above 700 mb originates in the NH midlatitude PBL, (midlatitude <span class="hlt">air</span>). Although seasonal changes in the total fraction of midlatitude <span class="hlt">air</span> are small, there are dramatic changes in where that <span class="hlt">air</span> last contacted the PBL, especially above 700 mb. Specifically, during winter <span class="hlt">air</span> in the Arctic originates preferentially over the oceans, approx. 26% in the East Pacific, and approx. 20% in the Atlantic PBL. By comparison, during summer <span class="hlt">air</span> in the Arctic last contacted the midlatitude PBL primarily over land, overwhelmingly so in Asia (approx. 40 %) and, to a lesser extent, in North America (approx. 24%). Seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">air</span>-mass origin are interpreted in terms of seasonal variations in the large-scale ventilation of the midlatitude boundary layer and lower troposphere, namely changes in the midlatitude tropospheric jet and associated transient eddies during winter and large scale convective motions over midlatitudes during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092107"><span>Effect of Initial Mixture <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on Flame Speed of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-<span class="hlt">air</span> and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec89-325.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made either... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113040','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1113040"><span>Next Generation Refrigeration Lubricants for Low Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential/Low Ozone Depleting Refrigeration and <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hessell, Edward Thomas</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The goal of this project is to develop and test new synthetic lubricants that possess high compatibility with new low ozone depleting (LOD) and low global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (LGWP) refrigerants and offer improved lubricity and wear protection over current lubricant technologies. The improved compatibility of the lubricants with the refrigerants, along with improved lubricating properties, will resulted in lower energy consumption and longer service life of the refrigeration systems used in residential, commercial and industrial heating, ventilating and <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration equipment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP33B1920T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP33B1920T"><span>Local response to <span class="hlt">warm</span> Antarctic terrestrial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Eocene: evidence from terrestrial biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toney, J. L.; Bendle, J. A.; Inglis, G.; Bijl, P.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Huck, C. E.; Jamieson, S.; Huber, M.; Schouten, S.; Roehl, U.; Bohaty, S. M.; Brinkhuis, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> calculated from the Eocene runs of the Community Climate System Model version 3 and Antarctic topographic modelling are used to constrain the source region for the <span class="hlt">warm</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and soil/wetland inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.1297Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CliPa..12.1297Z"><span>1200 years of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in central Scandinavia inferred from tree-ring density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Peng; Linderholm, Hans W.; Gunnarson, Björn E.; Björklund, Jesper; Chen, Deliang</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Despite the emergence of new high-resolution <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions around the world, only a few cover the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Here we present C-Scan, a new Scots pine tree-ring density-based reconstruction of <span class="hlt">warm</span>-season (April-September) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for central Scandinavia back to 850 CE, extending the previous reconstruction by 250 years. C-Scan is based on samples collected in a confined mountain region, adjusted for their differences in altitude and local environment, and standardised using the new RSFi algorithm to preserve low-frequency signals. In C-Scan, the <span class="hlt">warm</span> peak of MCA occurs ca. 1000-1100 CE, and the Little Ice Age (LIA) between 1550 and 1900 CE. Moreover, during the last millennium the coldest decades are found around 1600 CE, and the warmest 10 and 30 years occur in the most recent century. By comparing C-Scan with other millennium-long <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions from Fennoscandia, regional differences in multi-decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability, especially during the <span class="hlt">warm</span> period of the last millennium are revealed. Although these differences could be due to methodological reasons, they may indicate asynchronous <span class="hlt">warming</span> patterns across Fennoscandia. Further investigation of these regional differences and the reasons and mechanisms behind them are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25086971"><span>Energy budget, oxidative stress and antioxidant in striped hamster acclimated to moderate cold and <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Ke-Xin; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Jun</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The mechanism of the rate of living-free radical theory suggests that higher rate of oxidative metabolism results from greater rate of mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation, leading to a consequent increase in production of free radicals. However, the relation between metabolic rate and oxidative stress is tissue dependent in animals acclimated to cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Here we examined oxidative stress, reflected by changes of antioxidant activity and other related markers, in striped hamsters acclimated to moderate cold (15°C), room (23°C) or <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (30°C) for 6 weeks, by which either higher or lower metabolic rate was induced experimentally. Energy intake and the rate of metabolism and nonshivering thermogenesis were increased at 15°C, but decreased at 30°C compared with that at 23°C. Effects of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the markers of both oxidative stress and antioxidant activities were rarely significant. The percentages of positive correlation between the 11 tissues (brain, BAT, liver, heart, lung, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, caecum and skeletal muscle) were 14.5% (8/55) for catalase (CAT), 7.3% (4/55) for the capacity of inhibition of hydroxyl free radical (CIH), 5.5% (3/55) for activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1.8% (1/55) for total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), 4.3% (2/46) for H2O2 and 11.1% (4/36) for the capacity of inhibition of hydroxyl free radical (CIH). This indicated that the tissue-dependent changes of both oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were less consistent among the different tissues. Finally the data from this study were less consistent with the prediction of the mechanism of the rate of living-free radical theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2084H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...40a2084H"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> distribution of <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump barn with different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is <span class="hlt">air</span> rising, the other is <span class="hlt">air</span> falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for <span class="hlt">air</span> source heat pump tobacco barn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3821804R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3821804R"><span>Glaciation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of convective clouds ingesting desert dust, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and smoke from forest fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenfeld, Daniel; Yu, Xing; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Yannian; Yue, Zhiguo; Dai, Jin; Dong, Zipeng; Dong, Yan; Peng, Yan</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Heavy aerosol loads have been observed to suppress <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain by reducing cloud drop size and slowing drop coalescence. The ice forming nuclei (IFN) activity of the same aerosols glaciate the clouds and create ice precipitation instead of the suppressed <span class="hlt">warm</span> rain. Satellite observations show that desert dust and heavy <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution over East Asia have similar ability to glaciate the tops of growing convective clouds at glaciation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Tg < ˜ -20°C, whereas similarly heavy smoke from forest fires in Siberia without dust or industrial pollution glaciated clouds at Tg ≤ -33°C. The observation that both smoke and <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution have same effect on reducing cloud drop size implies that the difference in Tg is due to the IFN activity. This dependence of Tg on aerosol types appears only for clouds with re-5 < 12 μm (re-5 is the cloud drop effective radius at the -5°C isotherm, above which ice rarely forms in cloud tops). For the rest of the clouds the glaciation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases strongly with re-5 with little relation to the aerosol types, reaching Tg> ˜ -15°C for the largest re-5, which are typical to marine clouds in pristine atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900015659','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900015659"><span>Effect of low <span class="hlt">air</span> velocities on thermal homeostasis and comfort during exercise at space station operational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Beumer, Ronald J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of different low <span class="hlt">air</span> velocities in maintaining thermal comfort and homeostasis during exercise at space station operational <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity was investigated. Five male subjects exercised on a treadmill for successive ten minute periods at 60, 71, and 83 percent of maximum oxygen consumption at each of four <span class="hlt">air</span> velocities, 30, 50, 80, and 120 ft/min, at 22 C and 62 percent relative humidity. No consistent trends or statistically significant differences between <span class="hlt">air</span> velocities were found in body weight loss, sweat accumulation, or changes in rectal, skin, and body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Occurrence of the smallest body weight loss at 120 ft/min, the largest sweat accumulation at 30 ft/min, and the smallest rise in rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the greatest drop in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 120 ft/min all suggested more efficient evaporative cooling at the highest velocity. Heat storage at all velocities was evidenced by increased rectal and body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> declined or increased only slightly. Body and rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases corresponded with increased perception of warmth and slight thermal discomfort as exercise progressed. At all <span class="hlt">air</span> velocities, mean thermal perception never exceeded <span class="hlt">warm</span> and mean discomfort, greatest at 30 ft/min, was categorized at worst as uncomfortable; sensation of thermal neutrality and comfort returned rapidly after cessation of exercise. Suggestions for further elucidation of the effects of low <span class="hlt">air</span> velocities on thermal comfort and homeostasis include larger numbers of subjects, more extensive skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and more rigorous analysis of the data from this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100015618','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100015618"><span>Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Soundings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> soundings performs better than assimilation of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile performs best</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12111248H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12111248H"><span>Close correlation between global <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and polar motion during 1962-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Mei; Zhu, Lin; Gong, He; Shao, Yaping</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Polar motion is an important Earth orientation parameter, but our understanding of its relation to global climate change is highly uncertain. In this study, we examine the links between polar motion excitation and annual mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the period of 1962-2013 and discuss the possible responsible mechanisms. The regions of positive correlation correspond well with the <span class="hlt">warming</span> centers. Spectral analysis shows that they have strong signals at similar frequencies. Strong correlations are also found between the polar motion and surface <span class="hlt">air</span> pressure and vertical integrated zonal wind. This implies that polar motion serves as an important indicator of global climate change, and thus, the feedbacks between the solid Earth and the climate system deserve careful considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717688"><span>Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over land.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2014-04-10</p> <p>Global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements (Td1). All existing principal global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..132H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..132H"><span>Estimation of sampling error uncertainties in observed surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Weithmann, Alexander; Wang, Huijun</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This study examines the sampling error uncertainties in the monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) change in China over recent decades, focusing on the uncertainties of gridded data, national averages, and linear trends. Results indicate that large sampling error variances appear at the station-sparse area of northern and western China with the maximum value exceeding 2.0 K2 while small sampling error variances are found at the station-dense area of southern and eastern China with most grid values being less than 0.05 K2. In general, the negative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> existed in each month prior to the 1980s, and a <span class="hlt">warming</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> began thereafter, which accelerated in the early and mid-1990s. The increasing trend in the SAT series was observed for each month of the year with the largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase and highest uncertainty of 0.51 ± 0.29 K (10 year)-1 occurring in February and the weakest trend and smallest uncertainty of 0.13 ± 0.07 K (10 year)-1 in August. The sampling error uncertainties in the national average annual mean SAT series are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusion of the persistent <span class="hlt">warming</span> in China. In addition, the sampling error uncertainties in the SAT series show a clear variation compared with other uncertainty estimation methods, which is a plausible reason for the inconsistent variations between our estimate and other studies during this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4637W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4637W"><span>Sampling Biases in Datasets of Historical Mean <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> over Land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Kaicun</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) has been reported to have risen by 0.74°C over the last 100 years. However, the definition of mean Ta is still a subject of debate. The most defensible definition might be the integral of the continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over a day (Td0). However, for technological and historical reasons, mean Ta over land have been taken to be the average of the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements (Td1). All existing principal global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses over land rely heavily on Td1. Here, I make a first quantitative assessment of the bias in the use of Td1 to estimate trends of mean Ta using hourly Ta observations at 5600 globally distributed weather stations from the 1970s to 2013. I find that the use of Td1 has a negligible impact on the global mean <span class="hlt">warming</span> rate. However, the trend of Td1 has a substantial bias at regional and local scales, with a root mean square error of over 25% at 5° × 5° grids. Therefore, caution should be taken when using mean Ta datasets based on Td1 to examine high resolution details of <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070534','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070534"><span>Possible mechanism of abrupt jump in winter surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the late 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Yeon‐Hee; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu‐Myong; Cho, Chun‐Ho</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Possible cause of an abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> in winter mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the late 1980s is investigated using observation and reanalysis data. To determine the timing of abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we use a regime shift index based on detection of the largest significant differences between the mean values of two contiguous periods. Results show that the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurred in association with a regime shift after the 1980's in which the zonal mean sea level pressure (SLP) is significantly increased (decreased) at the latitude 25–35°N (60–70°N), in the form of north‐south dipole‐like SLP anomaly spanning the subtropics and high latitude. The dipole SLP anomaly can be attributed to a northward expansion of Hadley cell, a poleward broadening and intensification of the Ferrel cell, coupled with a collapse of polar cell. During the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span>, strong anomalous southerly <span class="hlt">warm</span> advection at the surface was induced by an enhanced and expanded Ferrel circulation, in association with a northward and downward shift of maximum center of northward eddy heat flux over the midlatitudes. An intensification of polar jet subsequent to regime shift may be instrumental in sustaining the <span class="hlt">warming</span> up to more than 5 years. PMID:27818850</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12012474K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12012474K"><span>Possible mechanism of abrupt jump in winter surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the late 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Cho, Chun-Ho</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Possible cause of an abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> in winter mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the late 1980s is investigated using observation and reanalysis data. To determine the timing of abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span>, we use a regime shift index based on detection of the largest significant differences between the mean values of two contiguous periods. Results show that the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurred in association with a regime shift after the 1980's in which the zonal mean sea level pressure (SLP) is significantly increased (decreased) at the latitude 25-35°N (60-70°N), in the form of north-south dipole-like SLP anomaly spanning the subtropics and high latitude. The dipole SLP anomaly can be attributed to a northward expansion of Hadley cell, a poleward broadening and intensification of the Ferrel cell, coupled with a collapse of polar cell. During the abrupt <span class="hlt">warming</span>, strong anomalous southerly <span class="hlt">warm</span> advection at the surface was induced by an enhanced and expanded Ferrel circulation, in association with a northward and downward shift of maximum center of northward eddy heat flux over the midlatitudes. An intensification of polar jet subsequent to regime shift may be instrumental in sustaining the <span class="hlt">warming</span> up to more than 5 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC24B..07O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC24B..07O"><span>Soil Moisture and Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> equally important for Land Climate in the <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Both sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) and soil moisture (SM) are important drivers of climate variability over land. In this study we present a comprehensive comparison of SM versus SST impacts on land climate in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season. We perform ensemble experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) where we set SM or SSTs to median conditions, respectively, to remove their inter-annual variability, whereby the other component - SST or SM - is still interactively computed. In contrast to earlier experiments performed with prescribed SSTs, our experiments suggest that SM is overall as important as SSTs for land climate, not only in the midlatitudes but also in the tropics and subtropics. Mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation are reduced by 0.1-0.5 K and 0-0.2 mm, respectively, whereas their variability at different time scales decreases by 10-40% (<span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and 0-10% (precipitation) when either SM or SSTs are prescribed. Also drought occurrence is affected, with mean changes in the maximum number of cumulative dry days of 0-0.75 days. Both SM and SST-induced changes are strongest for hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (up to 0.7 K, and 50%), extreme precipitation (up to 0.4 mm, and 20%), and strong droughts (up to 2 days). Local climate changes in response to removed SM variability are controlled - to first order - by the land-atmosphere coupling and the natural SM variability. SST-related changes are partly controlled by the relation of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or precipitation with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Moreover removed SM or SST variabilities both induce remote effects by impacting the atmospheric circulation. Our results are similar for the present day and the end of the century. We investigate the inter-dependency between SM and SST and find a sufficient degree of independence for the purpose of this study. The robustness of our findings is shown by comparing the response of CESM to removed SM variability with four other global climate models. In summary, SM and SSTs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+flow+AND+measurement&id=ED415666','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+flow+AND+measurement&id=ED415666"><span>Equipment for Measuring <span class="hlt">Air</span> Flow, <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Bruce W.</p> <p></p> <p>Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50g5105C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50g5105C"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effect on titanium nitride nanometer thin film in <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cen, Z. H.; Xu, B. X.; Hu, J. F.; Ji, R.; Toh, Y. T.; Ye, K. D.; Hu, Y. F.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Titanium nitride (TiN) is a promising alternative plasmonic material to conventional novel metals. For practical plasmonic applications under the influence of <span class="hlt">air</span>, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent optical properties of TiN thin films in <span class="hlt">air</span> and its volume variation are essential. Ellipsometric characterizations on a TiN thin film at different increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> were conducted, and optical constants along with film thickness were retrieved. Below 200 °C, the optical properties varied linearly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in good agreement with other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent studies of TiN films in vacuum. The thermal expansion coefficient of the TiN thin film was determined to be 10.27  ×  10‑6 °C‑1. At higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the TiN thin film gradually loses its metallic characteristics and has weaker optical absorption, impairing its plasmonic performance. In addition, a sharp increase in film thickness was observed at the same time. Changes in the optical properties and film thickness with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 200 °C were revealed to result from TiN oxidation in <span class="hlt">air</span>. For the stability of TiN-based plasmonic devices, operation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of lower than 200 °C, or measures to prevent oxidation, are required. The present study is important to fundamental physics and technological applications of TiN thin films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017InAgr..31....9B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017InAgr..31....9B"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> prediction from <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barman, D.; Kundu, D. K.; Pal, Soumen; Pal, Susanto; Chakraborty, A. K.; Jha, A. K.; Mazumdar, S. P.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharyya, P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important factor in biogeochemical processes. On-site monitoring of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is limited in spatiotemporal scale as compared to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data inventories due to various management difficulties. Therefore, empirical models were developed by taking 30-year long-term (1985-2014) <span class="hlt">air</span> and soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for prediction of soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at three depths (5, 15, 30 cm) in morning (0636 Indian standard time) and afternoon (1336 Indian standard time) for alluvial soils in lower Indo-Gangetic plain. At 5 cm depth, power and exponential regression models were best fitted for daily data in morning and afternoon, respectively, but it was reverse at 15 cm. However, at 30 cm, exponential models were best fitted for both the times. Regression analysis revealed that in morning for all three depths and in afternoon for 30 cm depth, soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (daily, weekly, and monthly) could be predicted more efficiently with the help of corresponding mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than that of maximum and minimum. However, in afternoon, prediction of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 5 and 15 cm depths were more precised for all the time intervals when maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was used, except for weekly soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 15 cm, where the use of mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gave better prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24130095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24130095"><span>Plant responses to elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: a field study on phenological sensitivity and fitness responses to simulated climate <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Springate, David A; Kover, Paula X</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Significant changes in plant phenology have been observed in response to increases in mean global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. There are concerns that accelerated phenologies can negatively impact plant populations. However, the fitness consequence of changes in phenology in response to elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not well understood, particularly under field conditions. We address this issue by exposing a set of recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana to a simulated global <span class="hlt">warming</span> treatment in the field. We find that plants exposed to elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> flower earlier, as predicted by photothermal models. However, contrary to life-history trade-off expectations, they also flower at a larger vegetative size, suggesting that <span class="hlt">warming</span> probably causes acceleration in vegetative development. Although <span class="hlt">warming</span> increases mean fitness (fruit production) by ca. 25%, there is a significant genotype-by-environment interaction. Changes in fitness rank indicate that imminent climate change can cause populations to be maladapted in their new environment, if adaptive evolution is limited. Thus, changes in the genetic composition of populations are likely, depending on the species' generation time and the speed of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change. Interestingly, genotypes that show stronger phenological responses have higher fitness under elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, suggesting that phenological sensitivity might be a good indicator of success under elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the genotypic level as well as at the species level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815758A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815758A"><span>Xylem anatomical responses of Vaccinium myrtillus exposed to <span class="hlt">air</span> CO2 enrichment and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> at treeline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Fonti, Patrick; Dawes, Melissa; von Arx, Georg</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Plant life at treeline is limited by harsh growth conditions. In this study we used nine years of free <span class="hlt">air</span> CO2 enrichment (+200 ppm from 2001 to 2009) and six years of soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> (+4 °C from 2007 to 2012) at a treeline experimental site in the Swiss Alps to investigate xylem anatomical responses of Vaccinium myrtillus, a co-dominant dwarf shrub in many treeline communities. Our aim was to identify whether the release from limiting growth conditions induced adjustments of the water conductive and storage tissues. High-resolution images of wood anatomical microsections from the stem base of 40 individuals were captured with a digital camera mounted on a microscope. We used the specialized image analysis tool ROXAS to quantify size, density, grouping patterns, and potential hydraulic conductivity of vessels. In addition, we measured the abundance and distribution of ray parenchyma. Our preliminary results show that CO2 enrichment and soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced contrasting anatomical responses. In the last years of the CO2 enhancement vessels were larger, whereas soil <span class="hlt">warming</span> induced an immediate reduction of vessel size. Moreover, larger vessels were found when V. myrtillus was in cohabitation with pine as opposed to larch. Results for ray parenchyma measurements did not show clear trends, although <span class="hlt">warming</span> seemed to have a slightly positive effect on the fraction of uniseriate vs. multiseriate rays. These results suggest that release from the growth limiting factors can result in contrasting and partially lagged responses in the hydraulic system with little impact on the storage tissues. In addition, the overstory species seem to play a key role on the anatomy of V. myrtillus at treeline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8536F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8536F"><span>Recent changes in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, heat waves occurrences, and atmospheric circulation in Northern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fontaine, Bernard; Janicot, Serge; Monerie, Paul-Arthur</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>study documents the time evolution of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves occurrences over Northern Africa for the period 1979-2011. A significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> (1°-3°C), appearing by the mid-1960s over Sahara and Sahel, is associated with higher/lesser frequency of <span class="hlt">warm</span>/cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, as with longer duration and higher occurrences of heat waves. Heat waves episodes of at least 4 day duration have been examined after removing the long-term evolution. These episodes are associated with specific anomalies: (i) in spring, positive low-level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies over the Sahel and Sahara; low and midlevel cyclonic rotation over Morocco associated with a Rossby wave pattern, lessening the Harmattan; more/less atmospheric moisture westward/eastward to 0°; upward/downward anomalies above the western/eastern regions associated with the Rossby wave pattern; (ii) in summer, a similar but weaker positive low-level <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly (up to 3°C); less moisture westward to 10°W, a cyclonic anomaly in central Sahel favoring the monsoon eastward to 0° and a midlevel anticyclonic anomaly over the Western Sahara, increasing southward the flux divergence associated with the African Easterly Jet. In March-May, two to three heat waves propagate eastward. They are preceded by an abnormal <span class="hlt">warm</span> cell over Libya and southwesterlies over the West Sahara. A large trough stands over North Atlantic while midtropospheric subsidence and anticyclonic rotation reinforce over the continent, then migrates toward the Arabian peninsula in breaking up. These signals are spatially coherent and might suggest the role of short Rossby waves with an eastward group velocity and a baroclinic mode, possibly associated with jet stream deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3442U"><span>Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina</p> <p></p> <p>Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 45 (°) СC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1280C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53F1280C"><span><span class="hlt">AIRS</span> Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Pacific Decadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) has been providing necessary measurements for long term atmospheric and surface processes aboard NASA' s Aqua polar orbiter since May 2002. Here, we use time series of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies to show the time evolution of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in the Gulf of Alaska (lon:-144.5, lat:54.5) from 2003 to 2014. PDO is connected to the first mode of North Pacific SST variability and is tele-connected to ENSO in the tropics. Further analysis of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data can provide clarification of Pacific climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734"><span>A hierarchical model of daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using <span class="hlt">air</span>-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when <span class="hlt">air</span> and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662"><span>A hierarchical model of daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using <span class="hlt">air</span>-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when <span class="hlt">air</span> and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798"><span>A hierarchical model of daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using <span class="hlt">air</span>-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when <span class="hlt">air</span> and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428501"><span>Passive radiative cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui</p> <p>2014-11-27</p> <p>Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. <span class="hlt">Air</span> conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below that of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span>. At night, passive cooling below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=303734','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=303734"><span>Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under fully open <span class="hlt">air</span> field conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The net effect of elevated [CO2] and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy <span class="hlt">warming</span> and fully open <span class="hlt">air</span> [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880057784&hterms=gas+turbine+blade+test&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bturbine%2Bblade%2Btest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880057784&hterms=gas+turbine+blade+test&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bturbine%2Bblade%2Btest"><span>The design of an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled metallic high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> radial turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Snyder, Philip H.; Roelke, Richard J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Recent trends in small advanced gas turbine engines call for higher turbine inlet <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Advances in radial turbine technology have opened the way for a cooled metallic radial turbine capable of withstanding turbine inlet <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 2500 F while meeting the challenge of high efficiency in this small flow size range. In response to this need, a small <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled radial turbine has been designed utilizing internal blade coolant passages. The coolant flow passage design is uniquely tailored to simultaneously meet rotor cooling needs and rotor fabrication constraints. The rotor flow-path design seeks to realize improved aerodynamic blade loading characteristics and high efficiency while satisfying rotor life requirements. An up-scaled version of the final engine rotor is currently under fabrication and, after instrumentation, will be tested in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19568033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19568033"><span>Core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses and match running performance during intermittent-sprint exercise competition in <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duffield, Rob; Coutts, Aaron J; Quinn, John</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>This study investigated the thermoregulatory responses and match running performance of elite team sport competitors (Australian Rules football) during preseason games in a <span class="hlt">warm</span> environment. During 2 games in dry bulb <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 29 degrees C (>27 degrees C wet bulb globe <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), 10 players were monitored for core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tcore) via a telemetric capsule, in-game motion patterns, blood lactate ([La]), body mass changes, urine specific gravity, and pre- and postgame vertical jump performance. The results showed that peak Tcore was achieved during the final quarter at 39.3 +/- 0.7 degrees C and that several players reached values near 40.0 degrees C. Further, the largest proportion of the total rise in Tcore (2.1 +/- 0.7 degrees C) occurred during the first quarter of the match, with only small increases during the remainder of the game. The game distance covered was 9.4 +/- 1.5 km, of which 2.7 +/- 0.9 km was at high-intensity speeds (>14.4 km x h(-1)). The rise in Tcore was correlated with first-quarter high-intensity running velocity (r = 0.72) and moderate-intensity velocity (r = 0.68), second-quarter Tcore and low-intensity activity velocity (r = -0.90), second-quarter Tcore and moderate-intensity velocity (r = 0.88), fourth-quarter rise in Tcore and very-high-intensity running distance (r = 0.70), and fourth-quarter Tcore and moderate-intensity velocity (r = 0.73). Additional results included mean game [La-] values of 8.7 +/- 0.1 mmol x L(-1), change in body mass of 2.1 +/- 0.8 kg, and no change (p > 0.05) in pre- to postgame vertical jump. These findings indicate that the plateau in Tcore may be regulated by the reduction in low-intensity activity and that pacing strategies may be employed during competitive team sports in the heat to ensure control of the internal heat load.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25711935"><span>Antecedent moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Zelikova, Tamara J; LeCain, Dan R; Williams, David G; Morgan, Jack A; Pendall, Elise</p> <p>2015-02-25</p> <p>Terrestrial plant and soil respiration, or ecosystem respiration (Reco ), represents a major CO2 flux in the global carbon cycle. However, there is disagreement in how Reco will respond to future global changes, such as elevated atmosphere CO2 and <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To address this, we synthesized six years (2007-2012) of Reco data from the Prairie Heating And CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment. We applied a semi-mechanistic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-response model to simultaneously evaluate the response of Reco to three treatment factors (elevated CO2 , <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and soil water manipulation) and their interactions with antecedent soil conditions [e.g., past soil water content (SWC) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SoilT)] and aboveground factors (e.g., vapor pressure deficit, photosynthetically active radiation, vegetation greenness). The model fits the observed Reco well (R(2 ) = 0.77). We applied the model to estimate annual (March-October) Reco , which was stimulated under elevated CO2 in most years, likely due to the indirect effect of elevated CO2 on SWC. When aggregated from 2007 to 2012, total six-year Reco was stimulated by elevated CO2 singly (24%) or in combination with <span class="hlt">warming</span> (28%). <span class="hlt">Warming</span> had little effect on annual Reco under ambient CO2 , but stimulated it under elevated CO2 (32% across all years) when precipitation was high (e.g., 44% in 2009, a 'wet' year). Treatment-level differences in Reco can be partly attributed to the effects of antecedent SoilT and vegetation greenness on the apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of Reco and to the effects of antecedent and current SWC and vegetation activity (greenness modulated by VPD) on Reco base rates. Thus, this study indicates that the incorporation of both antecedent environmental conditions and aboveground vegetation activity are critical to predicting Reco at multiple timescales (subdaily to annual) and under a future climate of elevated CO2 and <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25866136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25866136"><span>The effect of slightly <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the N-back working memory task. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 23°C colder than men.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4007O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PSST...25d4007O"><span>Pulsed positive streamer discharges in <span class="hlt">air</span> at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Ryo; Kamakura, Taku</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Atmospheric-pressure <span class="hlt">air</span> pulsed positive streamer discharges are generated in a 13 mm point-plane gap in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 293 K-1136 K, and the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the streamer discharges is studied. When the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased, the product of applied voltage and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> VT proportional to the reduced electric field can be used as a primary parameter that determines some discharge parameters regardless of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For a given VT, the transferred charge per pulse, streamer diameter, product of discharge energy and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and length of secondary streamer are almost constant regardless of T, whereas the streamer velocity decreases with increasing T and the decay rate of the discharge current is proportional to 1/T. The N2(C) emission intensity is approximately determined by the discharge energy independent of T. These results are useful to predict the streamer discharge and its reactive species production when the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21153932"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions on composting process <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different <span class="hlt">air</span> flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate <span class="hlt">air</span> flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28062107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28062107"><span>Diurnal evolution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of CO2 efflux in permafrost soils under control and <span class="hlt">warm</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fouché, Julien; Keller, Catherine; Allard, Michel; Ambrosi, Jean Paul</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Cryosols contain ~33% of the global soil organic carbon. Cryosol <span class="hlt">warming</span> and permafrost degradation may enhance the CO2 release to the atmosphere through the microbial decomposition. Despite the large carbon pool, the permafrost carbon feedback on the climate remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the diurnal evolution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of CO2 efflux in Cryosols. A Histic Cryosol and a Turbic Cryosol were instrumented in tussock tundra ecosystems near Salluit (Nunavik, Canada). Open top chambers were installed during summer 2011 and the ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the soil moisture and meteorological variables were recorded hourly while the ecosystem respiration was measured three times per day every second day with opaque and closed dynamic chambers in control and <span class="hlt">warm</span> stations. Despite warmer conditions, the average CO2 efflux at the control stations at the Histic site (1.29±0.45μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) was lower than at the Turbic site (2.30±0.74μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)). The increase in CO2 efflux with <span class="hlt">warming</span> was greater in the Histic Cryosol (~39%) than in the Turbic Cryosol (~16%). Our study showed that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of the ecosystem respiration evolved during the day and decreased with the experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span>. Both sites exhibited diurnal hysteresis loops between CO2 efflux and the soil surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The width of hysteresis loops increased with the solar radiation and decreased along the growing season. We developed simple linear models that took into account the diurnal evolution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of CO2 efflux and we estimated the seasonal cumulative carbon release to the atmosphere. The calculation using solely diurnal measurements significantly differed from the seasonal carbon release modelled hourly. Our study highlighted that the time of the day when measurements are performed should be taken into account to accurately estimate the seasonal carbon release from tundra ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1583B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1583B"><span>Modeling daily average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and watershed area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model. <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gauges and a NOAA <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gauge. The daily average stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than maximum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the observed water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data ranged from 0.7 </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6060247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6060247"><span>An updated global grid point surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data set: 1851--1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>This document presents land-based monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074145"><span>Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A long-term local cooling trend in surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual <span class="hlt">warm</span> bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..17...67K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..17...67K"><span>An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Planning an <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi</p> <p></p> <p>In planning an <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioning system, supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for a cold <span class="hlt">air</span> distribution system, and that the influence of supply <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is larger than that of supply water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the long-term economics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386029"><span>Male moths optimally balance take-off thoracic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up duration to reach a pheromone source quickly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crespo, José G; Vickers, Neil J; Goller, Franz</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Animal activities, such as foraging and reproduction, are constrained by decisions about how to allocate energy and time efficiently. Overall, male moths invest less in reproduction than females, but they are thought to engage in a scramble competition for access to females that advertise readiness to mate by releasing sexual pheromones. However, before male moths can follow the pheromone, they often need to heat their flight muscles by shivering to produce sufficient power for sustained flight. Here, we show that Helicoverpa zea males that sense the female pheromone at high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> take off with higher thoracic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, shiver for less time and <span class="hlt">warm</span> up faster than males tested at lower ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These higher take-off <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> translate into higher airspeeds, underscoring the importance of thoracic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for flight performance. Furthermore, shorter combined duration for <span class="hlt">warm</span>-up and pheromone-mediated optomotor anemotaxis is consistent with the idea that males engage in scramble competition for access to females in nature. Our results strongly suggest that male moths minimize the time between perceiving the female's pheromone signal and arriving at the source by optimizing thermoregulatory behaviour and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent flight performance in accordance with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. Our finding that moths engage in a trade-off between rapid flight initiation and suboptimal flight performance suggests a sensorimotor control mechanism that involves a complex interaction with the thermal environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930083455"><span>Flame Speeds of Methane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, Propane-<span class="hlt">Air</span>, and Ethylene-<span class="hlt">Air</span> Mixtures at Low Initial <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dugger, Gordon L; Heimel, Sheldon</p> <p>1952-01-01</p> <p>Flame speeds were determined for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, propane-<span class="hlt">air</span>, and ethylene-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -73 C and for methane-<span class="hlt">air</span> mixtures at -132 C. The data extend the curves of maximum flame speed against initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> previously established for the range from room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 344 C. Empirical equations for maximum flame speed u(cm/ sec) as a function of initial mixture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> T(sub O) were determined to be as follows: for methane, for T(sub O) from 141 to 615 K, u = 8 + 0.000160 T(sub O)(exp 2.11); for propane, for T(sub O) from 200 to 616 K, u = 10 + 0.000342 T(sub O)(exp 2.00); for ethylene, for T(sub O) from 200 to 617 K, u = 10 + 0.00259 T(sub O)(exp 1.74). Relative flame speeds at low initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were predicted within approximately 20 percent by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or by the diffusion theory of Tanford and Pease. The same order was found previously for high initial <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were also found to extend the linear correlations between maximum flame speed and calculated equilibrium active-radical concentrations, which were established by the previously reported high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuPhJ..59..782L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RuPhJ..59..782L"><span>The Features of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Austenitic Steel Subjected to Low-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Subsequent <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Polekhina, N. A.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Naiden, E. P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The features of microstructure and phase composition of metastable austenitic steel subjected to thermomechanical treatment, including low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> processing accompanied by <span class="hlt">warm</span> rolling deformation, are investigated. Direct (γ → α΄) and reverse strain-induced martensitic transformations are shown to take place, followed by the formation of submicrocrystalline states and 3-4-fold increase in the yield point values. The mechanisms of formation of submicrocrystalline states and the reasons for increased strength are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1735B"><span>Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fast-response accurate <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer <span class="hlt">air-temperature</span> accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059739','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059739"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> pollution, lagged effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and mortality: The Netherlands 1979-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mackenbach, J P; Looman, C W; Kunst, A E</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE--To explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution could be the result of confounding. DESIGN--The associations between mortality and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were analysed taking into account potential confounding factors. SETTING--The Netherlands, 1979-87. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The number of deaths listed by the day on which the death occurred and by the cause of death were obtained from the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. Mortality from all causes and mortality from four large groups of causes (neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and external causes) were related to the daily levels of SO2 <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution and potential confounders (available from various sources) using log-linear regression analysis. Variables considered as potential confounders were: average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; difference between maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; amount of precipitation; <span class="hlt">air</span> humidity; wind speed; influenza incidence; and calendar year, month, and weekday. Both lagged and unlagged effects of the meteorological and influenza variables were considered. Average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was represented by two variables--'cold', <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 16.5 degrees C, and '<span class="hlt">warm</span>', those above 16.5 degrees C--to allow for the V shaped relation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality. The positive regression coefficient for the univariate effect of SO2 density on mortality from all causes dwindles to close to zero when all potential confounding variables are taken into account. The most important of these represents the lagged (one to five days) effect of low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have strong lagged effects on mortality, and often precede relatively high SO2 densities in the Netherlands. Results were similar for separate causes of death. While univariate associations suggest an effect of <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution on mortality in all four cause of death groups, multivariate analyses show these effects, including that on mortality from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51P..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51P..06M"><span>Spring <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Alone Cannot Explain Timing of Budburst of Boreal-Temperate Tree Species under Experimental <span class="hlt">Warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montgomery, R. A.; Reich, P. B.; Rich, R. L.; Stefanski, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Phenology, the timing of seasonal biological events such as budburst, blossom dates, bird migration and insect development, is critical to understanding species interactions (e.g. pollination, herbivory); determines growing season length in many (i.e. seasonal) terrestrial ecosystems; and can play a role in determining species range limits. There is ample evidence that plant and animal phenology has changed in recent decades. For trees in seasonally cold climates, change is most commonly manifested as earlier budburst, likely caused by earlier onset of <span class="hlt">warming</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in spring. Indeed, it is often assumed that one of the major phenological responses of temperate and boreal forest ecosystems to climate change will be earlier leafing and concomitantly, a longer growing season. However, spring <span class="hlt">warming</span> interacts with other factors such as winter chilling and photoperiod to determine timing of spring leafing. For example, warmer winters could reduce the duration and amount of chilling experienced by dormant buds and lead to delayed budburst. Despite knowledge that such interactions exist, we know little about the interactive mechanisms by which various cues influence budburst in forest tree species or whether species differ in sensitivity to those cues. This gap hinders our ability to predict phenological responses and their ecological impacts under future climate scenarios. Over the past three years, we have conducted studies of leafing phenology, germination, photosynthesis, respiration, and growth of seedlings of ten boreal-temperate tree species subjected to experimental <span class="hlt">warming</span> using infrared heat lamps and soil heating cables. Seedlings were planted into plots receiving ambient, +1.8°C or +3.6°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments in open, aspen forest at the Cloquet Forestry Center, Cloquet, MN, USA (46°31' N, 92°30' W, 386 m a.s.l.; 4.5°C MAT, 807 mm MAP). While all species responded to <span class="hlt">warming</span> by advancing the absolute date of budburst, several lines of evidence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13A2314L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13A2314L"><span>Short period airglow <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and emission rate oscillations in the high Arctic MLT region during stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lederman, J. I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The airglow is a photochemical glow in the upper atmosphere that occurs in thin layers corresponding to different chemical processes. The O2 Atmospheric airglow layer exists at about 94 km altitude and the hydroxyl layer at about 87 km. The intensity of the light gives information about the concentration of atomic oxygen there, while the shape of the spectrum gives accurate values of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this investigation, these are measured above Eureka in the Canadian Arctic (80N, 86W) using an instrument called SATI (Spectral Airglow <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Imager). The optical data are employed to characterize short period oscillations in rotational <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and integral emission rates of OH (6,2) Meinel and O2 (0,1) Atm. bands during a stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event from January 2015. In this presentation, SATI observations coupled with wind radiosonde data at Eureka and the ECMWF model are used to compare the January 2015 <span class="hlt">warming</span> with the major stratospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> event of January 2009, thereby providing a window into high frequency atmospheric wave dynamics at play between altitudes of 20 km - 100 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..07K"><span>Global and Regional Variations in Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Extremes in Large-Member Historical AGCM Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamae, Y.; Shiogama, H.; Imada, Y.; Mori, M.; Arakawa, O.; Mizuta, R.; Yoshida, K.; Ishii, M.; Watanabe, M.; Kimoto, M.; Ueda, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Frequency of heat extremes during the summer season has increased continuously since the late 20th century despite the global <span class="hlt">warming</span> hiatus. In previous studies, anthropogenic influences, natural variation in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST), and internal atmospheric variabilities are suggested to be factors contributing to the increase in the frequency of <span class="hlt">warm</span> extremes. Here 100-member ensemble historical simulations were performed (called "database for Probabilistic Description of Future climate"; d4PDF) to examine physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing hot summers and attribute to the anthropogenic influences or natural climate variability. 60km resolution MRI-AGCM ensemble simulations can reproduce historical variations in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">warm</span> extremes. Natural SST variability in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans contribute to the decadal variation in the frequency of hot summers in the Northern Hemisphere middle latitude. For example, the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over western North America, including California, is largely influenced by anomalous atmospheric circulation pattern associated with Pacific SST variability. Future projections based on anomalous SST patterns derived from coupled climate model simulations will also be introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=meteor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmeteor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050153817&hterms=meteor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmeteor"><span>The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpESc.......30.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RpESc.......30."><span>Discovery about <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in turbulent <span class="hlt">air</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The law of spatial fluctuations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a turbulent flow in the atmosphere was studied. The turbulent movement of <span class="hlt">air</span> in the atmosphere manifests itself in random changes in wind velocity and in the dispersal of smoke. If a miniature thermometer with sufficient sensitivity and speed of response were placed in a <span class="hlt">air</span> flow, its readings would fluctuate chaotically against the background of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This is Characteristic of practically every point of the flow. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field forms as a result of the mixing of the <span class="hlt">air</span>. A method using the relation of the mean square of the difference in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of two points to the distance between these points as the structural characteristic of this field was proposed. It was found that the dissipation of energy in a flow and the equalization of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are connected with the breaking up of eddies in a turbulent flow into smaller ones. Their energy in turn is converted into heat due to the viscosity of the medium. The law that has been discovered makes for a much broader field of application of physical methods of analyzing atmospheric phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057559&hterms=kinetics+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkinetics%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870057559&hterms=kinetics+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dkinetics%2Bmodel"><span>Assessment of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> kinetic model for ionizing <span class="hlt">air</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Park, Chul</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> chemical-kinetic model for <span class="hlt">air</span> is assessed by comparing theoretical results with existing experimental data obtained in shock-tubes, ballistic ranges, and flight experiments. In the model, named the TTv model, one <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) is assumed to characterize the heavy-particle translational and molecular rotational energies, and another <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tv) to characterize the molecular vibrational, electron translational, and electronic excitation energies. The theoretical results for nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> flow in shock tubes are obtained using the computer code STRAP (Shock-Tube Radiation Program), and for flow along the stagnation streamline in the shock layer over spherical bodies using the newly developed code STRAP (Stagnation-Point Radiation Program). Substantial agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental results for relaxation times and radiative heat fluxes. At very high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the spectral calculations need further improvement. The present agreement provides strong evidence that the two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> model characterizes principal features of nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">air</span> flow. New theoretical results using the model are presented for the radiative heat fluxes at the stagnation point of a 6-m-radius sphere, representing an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle, over a range of free-stream conditions. Assumptions, approximations, and limitations of the model are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15104905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15104905"><span>The mass and speed dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schaller, Emily L</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The speed and mass dependence of meteor <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122722"><span>Can <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> be used to project influences of climate change on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide, lack of data on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on more widely available data on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, based on <span class="hlt">air</span> temperature–stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of <span class="hlt">air</span> and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53T..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53T..02T"><span>Near Decade Long Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Specific Humidity Records from <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> for CMIP5 Model Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, B.; Fetzer, E.; Kahn, B. H.; Teixeira, J.; Manning, E.; Hearty, T. J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The peer-reviewed analyses of multi-model outputs from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments will be the most important basis for the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report (AR5). To increase the fidelity of the IPCC AR5, an Obs4MIPs project has been initiated to collect some well-established and well-documented datasets, to organize them according to the CMIP5 model output requirements, and makes them available to the science community for CMIP5 model evaluation. The NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) project has produced monthly mean tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPS project. In this paper, we first describe these two <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> datasets in terms of data description, origin, validation and caveats for model-observation comparison. We then document the climatological mean features of these two <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> datasets and compare them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data validation and CMIP5 model simulations for CMIP5 model evaluation. As expected, the 9-year <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data show several well-known climatological features of tropospheric ta and hus, such as the strong meridional and vertical gradients of tropospheric ta and hus and strong zonal gradient of tropospheric hus. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> data also show the strong connections between the tropospheric hus, atmospheric circulation and deep convection. In comparison to MERRA, <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> seems to be colder in the free troposphere but warmer in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> is wetter (~10%) in the tropical boundary layer but drier (around 30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large <span class="hlt">AIRS</span>-MERRA hus differences are mainly located in the cloudy regions, such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019905"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiler for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method is disclosed for determining Richardson Number, Ri, or its reciprocal, RRi, for clear <span class="hlt">air</span> prediction using measured potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and determining the vertical gradient of potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, d(theta)/dz. Wind vector from the aircraft instrumentation versus potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dW/D(theta), is determined and multiplies by d(theta)/dz to obtain dW/dz. Richardson number or its reciprocal is then determined from the relationship Ri = K(d theta)/dz divided by (dW/dz squared) for use in detecting a trend toward a threshold value for the purpose of predicting clear <span class="hlt">air</span> turbulence. Other equations for this basic relationship are disclosed together with the combination of other atmospheric observables using multiple regression techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090037092"><span>CARS <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Species Measurements For <span class="hlt">Air</span> Vehicle Propulsion Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for <span class="hlt">air</span> vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson <span class="hlt">Air</span> Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28076196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28076196"><span>Impacts of Lowered Urban <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Precursor Emission and Ozone <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts of decreased <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast <span class="hlt">Air</span> Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the <span class="hlt">air</span> quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient <span class="hlt">Air</span> Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone <span class="hlt">air</span> quality can be substantial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878829','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4878829"><span>The Effects of <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> on COPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Kim, Victor</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12–16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor <span class="hlt">air</span> pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor <span class="hlt">air</span> on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature—both heat and cold—have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance. PMID:26683097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC24A..08J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC24A..08J"><span>A Worldwide Plan to Eliminate Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution, and Energy Instability With Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution mortality, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses a plan to solve the problems by powering 100% of the world's energy for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industrial processes, and heating/cooling, with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) within the next 20-40 years. It reviews and ranks major proposed energy solutions to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution mortality, and energy insecurity while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, resource availability, reliability, wildlife, and catastrophic risk. It then evaluates a scenario for powering the world on the energy options determined to be the best while also considering materials, transmission infrastructure, costs, and politics. The study concludes that powering the world with WWS electric power technologies and a conversion from combustion to electricity and electrolytically-produced hydrogen is the cleanest and safest method of solving these problems. Due to the efficiency of electricity, such a conversion reduces world power demand by 30%. Methods of ensuring reliability of WWS electric power are available and will be demonstrated. We also conclude that neither liquid biofuels for transportation (including ethanol or biodiesel from any source), solid biofuels for home heating and cooking, biomass for electricity, conventional or fracked natural gas for electricity or transportation, nuclear power, nor coal with carbon capture (clean coal) are nearly so clean or safe as WWS technologies so are not recommended, either as bridge technologies or in the long term. Our plan calls for all new energy to be supplied by WWS-electricity-hydrogen resources no later than 2030 and all existing non-WWS infrastructure to be eliminated no later than 2050. We find that the plan is technically and economically feasible but politically challenging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26451763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26451763"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-induced water stress in high-latitude forests in response to natural and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trahan, Matthew W; Schubert, Brian A</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Arctic is particularly sensitive to climate change, but the independent effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2 ) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on high-latitude forests are poorly understood. Here, we present a new, annually resolved record of stable carbon isotope (δ(13) C) data determined from Larix cajanderi tree cores collected from far northeastern Siberia in order to investigate the physiological response of these trees to regional <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The tree-ring record, which extends from 1912 through 1961 (50 years), targets early twentieth-century <span class="hlt">warming</span> (ETCW), a natural <span class="hlt">warming</span> event in the 1920s to 1940s that was limited to Northern hemisphere high latitudes. Our data show that net carbon isotope fractionation (Δ(13) C), decreased by 1.7‰ across the ETCW, which is consistent with increased water stress in response to climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> and dryer soils. To investigate whether this signal is present across the northern boreal forest, we compiled published carbon isotope data from 14 high-latitude sites within Europe, Asia, and North America. The resulting dataset covered the entire twentieth century and spanned both natural ETCW and anthropogenic Late Twentieth-Century <span class="hlt">Warming</span> (~0.7 °C per decade). After correcting for a ~1‰ increase in Δ(13) C in response to twentieth century pCO2 rise, a significant negative relationship (r = -0.53, P < 0.0001) between the average, annual Δ(13) C values and regional annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies is observed, suggesting a strong control of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the Δ(13) C value of trees growing at high latitudes. We calculate a 17% increase in intrinsic water-use efficiency within these forests across the twentieth century, of which approximately half is attributed to a decrease in stomatal conductance in order to conserve water in response to drying conditions, with the other half being attributed to increasing pCO2 . We conclude that annual tree-ring records from northern high-latitude forests record the effects of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8430534W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983STIN...8430534W"><span>Requirements for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled central receivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, J. D.; Copeland, R. J.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 540 to 1000(0)C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on <span class="hlt">air</span> cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost effective thermal transport and thermal storage for <span class="hlt">air</span> cooled receivers is a critical problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......111F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......111F"><span>An analysis of surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and variability along the Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franquist, Eric S.</p> <p></p> <p>Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in this region as rises in surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest <span class="hlt">warming</span> occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..11911578D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..11911578D"><span>A 449 year <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its relation to solar activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duan, Jianping; Zhang, Qi-Bin</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>There is a close relationship between solar activity and the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but this relationship has weakened with recent global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. To better understand this puzzle, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records need to be extended, and the relationship between long-term variation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar activity needs to be examined. In this study, we reconstruct April-September <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation back to 1563 using tree ring maximum late wood density (MXD) data from Balfour spruce in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP). Spatial correlation analysis indicates that our reconstruction is representative of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over the large-scale TP. On the 22 year time scale, the reconstructed April-September <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corresponds generally to solar activity over the past three centuries. Spectral analyses also indicate that the significant periodicities of ~11 years, 54 years, and 204 years observed in the MXD chronology correspond to the Schwabe cycle, the fourth harmonic of the Suess cycle, and the Suess solar cycle, respectively. However, disparities between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and solar activity are identified in two periods, the 1880s-1900s and the 1980s-present. These results suggest that solar forcing is the critical driver for long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in the TP, but other factors may uncouple surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar activity in some periods. One possible cause of the weak effect of solar activity on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the 1880s-1900s is internal climate variability, while human-activity-induced greenhouse gas emissions have likely superseded solar forcing as the major driver of the rapid <span class="hlt">warming</span> observed since the 1980s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCli...13..896R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCli...13..896R"><span>Variations in Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Observations in the Arctic, 1979-97.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rigor, Ignatius G.; Colony, Roger L.; Martin, Seelye</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p> to the marginal seas a month later than at the pole, on 21 September. Near the North Pole, the melt season length is about 58 days, while near the margin, the melt season is about 100 days. A trend of +1°C (decade)1 is found during winter in the eastern Arctic Ocean, but a trend of 1°C (decade)1 is found in the western Arctic Ocean. During spring, almost the entire Arctic shows significant <span class="hlt">warming</span> trends. In the eastern Arctic Ocean this <span class="hlt">warming</span> is as much as 2°C (decade)1. The spring <span class="hlt">warming</span> is associated with a trend toward a lengthening of the melt season in the eastern Arctic. The western Arctic, however, shows a slight shortening of the melt season. These changes in surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Arctic Ocean are related to the Arctic Oscillation, which accounts for more than half of the surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends over Alaska, Eurasia, and the eastern Arctic Ocean but less than half in the western Arctic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375840','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4375840"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> breathing in the Arctic: influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, hypoxia, activity and restricted <span class="hlt">air</span> access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an <span class="hlt">air</span>-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe <span class="hlt">air</span>, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to <span class="hlt">air</span>; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but <span class="hlt">air</span> breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased <span class="hlt">air</span> breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when <span class="hlt">air</span> was denied in normoxia, but when <span class="hlt">air</span> was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on <span class="hlt">air</span> breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394628"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> breathing in the Arctic: influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, hypoxia, activity and restricted <span class="hlt">air</span> access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R; Nilsson, Göran E; Stecyk, Jonathan A W</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an <span class="hlt">air</span>-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters <span class="hlt">warm</span> and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe <span class="hlt">air</span>, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (Ṁ(O₂)) in normoxia (19.8 kPa P(O₂)) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to <span class="hlt">air</span>; partitioning of standard Ṁ(O₂) in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum Ṁ(O₂) and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)). Additionally, the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard Ṁ(O₂) was higher, but <span class="hlt">air</span> breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased <span class="hlt">air</span> breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard Ṁ(O₂) in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain Ṁ(O₂) through aquatic respiration when <span class="hlt">air</span> was denied in normoxia, but when <span class="hlt">air</span> was denied in hypoxia, standard Ṁ(O₂) was reduced by ∼30-50%. P(crit) was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in P(crit), gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on <span class="hlt">air</span> breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8706E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..36.8706E"><span>Is the climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> or cooling?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Easterling, David R.; Wehner, Michael F.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Numerous websites, blogs and articles in the media have claimed that the climate is no longer <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and is now cooling. Here we show that periods of no trend or even cooling of the globally averaged surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are found in the last 34 years of the observed record, and in climate model simulations of the 20th and 21st century forced with increasing greenhouse gases. We show that the climate over the 21st century can and likely will produce periods of a decade or two where the globally averaged surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shows no trend or even slight cooling in the presence of longer-term <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168...33S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.168...33S"><span>Changes in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation events in the Loess Plateau (China) during 1960-2013 under global <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Wenyi; Mu, Xingmin; Song, Xiaoyan; Wu, Dan; Cheng, Aifang; Qiu, Bing</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In recent decades, extreme climatic events have been a major issue worldwide. Regional assessments on various climates and geographic regions are needed for understanding uncertainties in extreme events' responses to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The objective of this study was to assess the annual and decadal trends in 12 extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 10 extreme precipitation indices in terms of intensity, frequency, and duration over the Loess Plateau during 1960-2013. The results indicated that the regionally averaged trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes were consistent with global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. The occurrence of <span class="hlt">warm</span> extremes, including summer days (SU), tropical nights (TR), <span class="hlt">warm</span> days (TX90), and nights (TN90) and a <span class="hlt">warm</span> spell duration indicator (WSDI), increased by 2.76 (P < 0.01), 1.24 (P < 0.01), 2.60 (P = 0.0003), 3.41 (P < 0.01), and 0.68 (P = 0.0041) days/decade during the period of 1960-2013, particularly, sharp increases in these indices occurred in 1985-2000. Over the same period, the occurrence of cold extremes, including frost days (FD), ice days (ID), cold days (TX10) and nights (TN10), and a cold spell duration indicator (CSDI) exhibited decreases of - 3.22 (P < 0.01), - 2.21 (P = 0.0028), - 2.71 (P = 0.0028), - 4.31 (P < 0.01), and - 0.69 (P = 0.0951) days/decade, respectively. Moreover, extreme <span class="hlt">warm</span> events in most regions tended to increase while cold indices tended to decrease in the Loess Plateau, but the trend magnitudes of cold extremes were greater than those of <span class="hlt">warm</span> extremes. The growing season (GSL) in the Loess Plateau was lengthened at a rate of 3.16 days/decade (P < 0.01). Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) declined at a rate of - 0.06 °C /decade (P = 0.0931). Regarding the precipitation indices, the annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT) showed no obvious trends (P = 0.7828). The regionally averaged daily rainfall intensity (SDII) exhibited significant decreases (- 0.14 mm/day/decade, P = 0.0158), whereas consecutive dry days (CDD) significantly increased (1.96 days</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..114T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..114T"><span>Evaluating CMIP5 models using <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Kahn, Brian H.; Teixeira, Joao; Manning, Evan; Hearty, Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper documents the climatological mean features of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span>) monthly mean tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ta, K) and specific humidity (hus, kg/kg) products as part of the Obs4MIPs project and compares them to those from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for validation and 16 models from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) for CMIP5 model evaluation. MERRA is warmer than <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the free troposphere but colder in the boundary layer with differences typically less than 1 K. MERRA is also drier (~10%) than <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the tropical boundary layer but wetter (~30%) in the tropical free troposphere and the extratropical troposphere. In particular, the large MERRA-<span class="hlt">AIRS</span> specific humidity differences are mainly located in the deep convective cloudy regions indicating that the low sampling of <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> in the cloudy regions may be the main reason for these differences. In comparison to <span class="hlt">AIRS</span> and MERRA, the sixteen CMIP5 models can generally reproduce the climatological features of tropospheric <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and specific humidity well, but several noticeable biases exist. The models have a tropospheric cold bias (around 2 K), especially in the extratropical upper troposphere, and a double-ITCZ problem in the troposphere from 1000 hPa to 300 hPa, especially in the tropical Pacific. The upper-tropospheric cold bias exists in the most (13 of 16) models, and the double-ITCZ bias is found in all 16 CMIP5 models. Both biases are independent of the reference dataset used (<span class="hlt">AIRS</span> or MERRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686579"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> induce transgenerational epigenetic release of RNA silencing by inhibiting siRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhong, Si-Hui; Liu, Jun-Zhong; Jin, Hua; Lin, Lin; Li, Qun; Chen, Ying; Yuan, Yue-Xing; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Hai; Qi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Vaucheret, Hervé; Chory, Joanne; Li, Jianming; He, Zu-Hua</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Owing to their sessile nature, plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly and reversibly to daily and seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. However, our knowledge of how plants sense and respond to <span class="hlt">warming</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is rather limited. Here we show that an increase in growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 22 °C to 30 °C effectively inhibited transgene-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, warmth-induced PTGS release exhibited transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. We discovered that the warmth-induced PTGS release occurred during a critical step that leads to the formation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for producing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Deep sequencing of small RNAs and RNA blot analysis indicated that the 22-30 °C increase resulted in a significant reduction in the abundance of many trans-acting siRNAs that require dsRNA for biogenesis. We discovered that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase reduced the protein abundance of SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3, as a consequence, attenuating the formation of stable dsRNAs required for siRNA biogenesis. Importantly, SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 overexpression released the warmth-triggered inhibition of siRNA biogenesis and reduced the transgenerational epigenetic memory. Thus, our study reveals a previously undescribed association between <span class="hlt">warming</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, an epigenetic system, and siRNA biogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8940S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8940S"><span>Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to <span class="hlt">warming</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wahl, Martin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754672"><span>Extensive phenotypic plasticity of a Red Sea coral over a strong latitudinal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient suggests limited acclimatization potential to <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sawall, Yvonne; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmoshin; Hohn, Sönke; Banguera-Hinestroza, Eulalia; Voolstra, Christian R; Wahl, Martin</p> <p>2015-03-10</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">warming</span> was reported to cause growth reductions in tropical shallow water corals in both, cooler and warmer, regions of the coral species range. This suggests regional adaptation with less heat-tolerant populations in cooler and more thermo-tolerant populations in warmer regions. Here, we investigated seasonal changes in the in situ metabolic performance of the widely distributed hermatypic coral Pocillopora verrucosa along 12° latitudes featuring a steep <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient between the northern (28.5°N, 21-27°C) and southern (16.5°N, 28-33°C) reaches of the Red Sea. Surprisingly, we found little indication for regional adaptation, but strong indications for high phenotypic plasticity: Calcification rates in two seasons (winter, summer) were found to be highest at 28-29°C throughout all populations independent of their geographic location. Mucus release increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and nutrient supply, both being highest in the south. Genetic characterization of the coral host revealed low inter-regional variation and differences in the Symbiodinium clade composition only at the most northern and most southern region. This suggests variable acclimatization potential to ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> of coral populations across the Red Sea: high acclimatization potential in northern populations, but limited ability to cope with ocean <span class="hlt">warming</span> in southern populations already existing at the upper thermal margin for corals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL28002N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL28002N"><span>Keeping <span class="hlt">warm</span> with fur in cold water: entrainment of <span class="hlt">air</span> in hairy surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, Anette</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Instead of relying on a thick layer of body fat for insulation as many aquatic mammals do, fur seals and otters trap <span class="hlt">air</span> in their dense fur for insulation in cold water. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we rationalize this mechanism of <span class="hlt">air</span> trapping underwater for thermoregulation. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS. Modeling the hairy texture as a network of capillary tubes, the imbibition speed of water into the hairs is obtained through a balance of hydrostatic pressure and viscous stress. In this scenario, the bending of the hairs and capillary forces are negligible. The maximum diving depth that can be achieved before the hairs are wetted to the roots is predicted from a comparison of the diving speed and imbibition speed. The amount of <span class="hlt">air</span> that is entrained in hairy surfaces is greater than what is expected for classic Landau-Levich-Derjaguin plate plunging. A phase diagram with the parameters from experiments and biological data allows a comparison of the model system and animals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...77B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp...77B"><span>Greenland coastal <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> from lower latitudes and local <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.3380L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.3380L"><span>Watershed geomorphology and snowmelt control stream thermal sensitivity to <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisi, Peter J.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Cline, Timothy J.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Walsh, Patrick B.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>How local geomorphic and hydrologic features mediate the sensitivity of stream thermal regimes to variation in climatic conditions remains a critical uncertainty in understanding aquatic ecosystem responses to climate change. We used stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen to estimate contributions of snow and rainfall to 80 boreal streams and show that differences in snow contribution are controlled by watershed topography. Time series analysis of stream thermal regimes revealed that streams in rain-dominated, low-elevation watersheds were 5-8 times more sensitive to variation in summer <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compared to streams draining steeper topography whose flows were dominated by snowmelt. This effect was more pronounced across the landscape in early summer and less distinct in late summer. Thus, the impact of climate <span class="hlt">warming</span> on freshwater thermal regimes will be spatially heterogeneous across river basins as controlled by geomorphic features. However, thermal heterogeneity may be lost with reduced snowpack and increased ratios of rain to snow in stream discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522685"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on different Salmonella serotypes during <span class="hlt">warm</span> seasons in a Mediterranean climate city, Adelaide, Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Changing trends in foodborne disease are influenced by many factors, including <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Globally and in Australia, warmer ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are projected to rise if climate change continues. Salmonella spp. are a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive pathogen and rising <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can have a substantial effect on disease burden affecting human health. We examined the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Salmonella spp. and serotype notifications in Adelaide, Australia. Time-series Poisson regression models were fit to estimate the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during warmer months on Salmonella spp. and serotype cases notified from 1990 to 2012. Long-term trends, seasonality, autocorrelation and lagged effects were included in the statistical models. Daily Salmonella spp. counts increased by 1·3% [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1·013, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·008-1·019] per 1 °C rise in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season with greater increases observed in specific serotype and phage-type cases ranging from 3·4% (IRR 1·034, 95% CI 1·008-1·061) to 4·4% (IRR 1·044, 95% CI 1·024-1·064). We observed increased cases of S. Typhimurium PT9 and S. Typhimurium PT108 notifications above a threshold of 39 °C. This study has identified the impact of <span class="hlt">warm</span> season <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on different Salmonella spp. strains and confirms higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has a greater effect on phage-type notifications. The findings will contribute targeted information for public health policy interventions, including food safety programmes during warmer weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223676','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223676"><span>Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Evaluation Program for low– global <span class="hlt">warming</span> potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioners under high-ambient-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209213','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1209213"><span>Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split <span class="hlt">Air</span> Conditioners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span> Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split <span class="hlt">air</span> conditioners under high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..891M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.127..891M"><span>Complexity analysis of the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the precipitation time series in Serbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mimić, G.; Mihailović, D. T.; Kapor, D.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we have analyzed the time series of daily values for three meteorological elements, two continuous and a discontinuous one, i.e., the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the precipitation. The analysis was done based on the observations from seven stations in Serbia from the period 1951-2010. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the complexity of the annual values for the mentioned time series and to calculate the rate of its change. For that purpose, we have used the sample entropy and the Kolmogorov complexity as the measures which can indicate the variability and irregularity of a given time series. Results obtained show that the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has increasing trends in the given period which points out a <span class="hlt">warming</span>, ranged in the interval 1-2 °C. The increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates the higher internal energy of the atmosphere, changing the weather patterns, manifested in the time series. The Kolmogorov complexity of the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series has statistically significant increasing trends, while the sample entropy has increasing but statistically insignificant trend. The trends of complexity measures for the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depend on the location. Both complexity measures for the precipitation time series have decreasing trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396587"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Transpiration Resistances of Xanthium Leaves as Affected by <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Humidity, and Wind Speed 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drake, B. G.; Raschke, K.; Salisbury, F. B.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Transpiration and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of single, attached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. were measured in high intensity white light (1.2 calories per square centimeter per minute on a surface normal to the radiation), with abundant water supply, at wind speeds of 90, 225, and 450 centimeters per second, and during exposure to moist and dry <span class="hlt">air</span>. Partitioning of absorbed radiation between transpiration and convection was determined, and transpiration resistances were computed. Leaf resistances decreased with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (down to a minimum of 0.36 seconds per centimeter). Silicone rubber replicas of leaf surfaces proved that the decrease was due to increased stomatal apertures. At constant <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, leaf resistances were higher in dry than in moist <span class="hlt">air</span> with the result that transpiration varied less than would have been predicted on the basis of the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and <span class="hlt">air</span>. The dependence of stomatal conductance on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture content of the <span class="hlt">air</span> caused the following effects. At <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> below 35 C, average leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were above <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by an amount dependent on wind velocity; increasing wind diminished transpiration. At <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above 35 C, leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were below <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and increasing wind markedly increased transpiration. Leaf <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> equaled <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near 35 C at all wind speeds and in moist as well as in dry <span class="hlt">air</span>. PMID:16657458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1168777"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span> Cooling for High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Power Electronics (Presentation)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Current emphasis on developing high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-<span class="hlt">air</span> heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and <span class="hlt">air</span> supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline <span class="hlt">air</span>-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652616','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652616"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Variations Recorded During Interinstitutional <span class="hlt">Air</span> Shipments of Laboratory Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Syversen, Eric; Pineda, Fernando J; Watson, Julie</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Despite extensive guidelines and regulations that govern most aspects of rodent shipping, few data are available on the physical environment experienced by rodents during shipment. To document the thermal environment experienced by mice during <span class="hlt">air</span> shipments, we recorded <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 1-min intervals throughout 103 routine interinstitutional shipments originating at our institution. We found that 49.5% of shipments were exposed to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (greater than 29.4 °C), 14.6% to low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (less than 7.2 °C), and 61% to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations of 11 °C or more. International shipments were more likely than domestic shipments to experience <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and large variations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Freight forwarders using passenger airlines rather than their own airplanes were more likely to have shipments that experienced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes or variations. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variations were most common during stopovers. Some airlines were more likely than others to experience inflight <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes or swings. Most domestic shipments lasted at least 24 h, whereas international shipments lasted 48 to 72 h. Despite exposure to high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, animals in all but 1 shipment arrived alive. We suggest that simple measures, such as shipping at night during hot weather, provision of nesting material in shipping crates, and specifying aircraft cargo-hold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that are suitable for rodents, could reduce <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced stress. Measures such as additional training for airport ground crews, as previously recommended by the American Veterinary Medical Association, could further reduce exposure of rodents to extreme ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during airport stopovers. PMID:18210996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008069','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008069"><span>Solar Cycle and Anthropogenic Forcing of Surface-<span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A comparison of 10-yr moving average (yma) values of Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with selected solar cycle indices (sunspot number (SSN) and the Aa geomagnetic index (Aa)), sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Nino 3.4 region, and Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) (MLCO2) atmospheric concentration measurements reveals a strong correlation (r = 0.686) between the Armagh <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and Aa, especially, prior to about 1980 (r = 0.762 over the interval of 1873-1980). For the more recent interval 1963-2003, the strongest correlation (r = 0.877) is between Armagh <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and MLCO2 measurements. A bivariate fit using both Aa and Mauna Loa values results in a very strong fit (r = 0.948) for the interval 1963-2003, and a trivariate fit using Aa, SSN, and Mauna Loa values results in a slightly stronger fit (r = 0.952). Atmospheric CO2 concentration now appears to be the stronger driver of Armagh surface-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. An increase of 2 C above the long-term mean (9.2 C) at Armagh seems inevitable unless unabated increases in anthropogenic atmospheric gases can be curtailed. The present growth in 10-yma Armagh <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is about 0.05 C per yr since 1982. The present growth in MLCO2 is about 0.002 ppmv, based on an exponential fit using 10-yma values, although the growth appears to be steepening, thus, increasing the likelihood of deleterious effects attributed to global <span class="hlt">warming</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23D..09P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23D..09P"><span>Long-term dynamics of atmospheric circulation over Siberia and its relationship with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podnebesnykh, N. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The main objective of this study is the investigation of cyclone characteristics variability in the region bounded by the coordinates 50°-70° N, 60°-110° W which includes Western Siberia and the part of Eastern Siberia for the time interval 1976-2006, as well as the establishment of statistical relationships between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions and the atmospheric circulation. For the dynamics of the climatic characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones over Siberia surface synoptic maps were used, and to study the trends of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> daily data from 169 ground-based meteorological stations and posts located in the study area were analyzed. During the period of the modern <span class="hlt">warming</span> the territory of Siberia was characterized by rapidly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase: average annual value was 0.36°C/10 years, and average monthly value was 0.83°C/10 years. The positive trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing is shown for all months except November. The total number of cyclones over the territory of under study for the period of 1976-2006 has decreased at a rate of 1.4 cyclone/10 years. For further analysis all cyclones were divided into three groups, according to their directions: north, west and south. It was found the number of south and west cyclones decreased, whole the number of cyclone from north directions increased. Such multidirectional dynamics of cyclones from different directions can be associated with the processes of strengthening and weakening of the Polar and Arctic fronts in the Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. Among characteristics of vortex activity the pressure in the centers of cyclones and anticyclones has the greatest influence on the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the total number of cyclones has the smallest. Multiple regression models have shown that in different months of a year the circulation can describe from 54% to 82% of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/538034"><span>Global surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: 1851-1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, P.D.; Raper, S.C.B.; Kelly, P.M.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Many attempts have been made to combine station surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data into an average for the Northern Hemisphere. Fewer attempts have been made for the Southern Hemisphere because of the unavailability of data from the Antarctic mainland before the 1950s and the uncertainty of making a hemispheric estimate based solely on land-based analyses for a hemisphere that is 80% ocean. Past estimates have been based largely on data from the World Weather Records (Smithsonian Institution, 1927, 1935, 1947, and U.S. Weather Bureau, 1959-82) and have been made without considerable effort to detect and correct station inhomogeneities. Better estimates for the Southern Hemisphere are now possible because of the availability of 30 years of climatological data from Antarctica. The mean monthly surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies presented in this package for the than those previously published because of the incorporation of data previously hidden away in archives and the analysis of station homogeneity before estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8787G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8787G"><span>Assessing recent <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea freshwater flux changes using a surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-salinity space framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Zika, Jan D.; Evans, Dafydd Gwyn; Skliris, Nikolaos</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A novel assessment of recent changes in <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea freshwater fluxes has been conducted using a surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-salinity framework applied to four atmospheric reanalyses. Viewed in the T-S space of the ocean surface, the complex pattern of the longitude-latitude space mean global Precipitation minus Evaporation (PME) reduces to three distinct regions. The analysis is conducted for the period 1979-2007 for which there is most evidence for a broadening of the (atmospheric) tropical belt. All four of the reanalyses display an increase in strength of the water cycle. The range of increase is between 2% and 30% over the period analyzed, with an average of 14%. Considering the average across the reanalyses, the water cycle changes are dominated by changes in tropical as opposed to mid-high latitude precipitation. The increases in the water cycle strength, are consistent in sign, but larger than in a 1% greenhouse gas run of the HadGEM3 climate model. In the model a shift of the precipitation/evaporation cells to higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is more evident, due to the much stronger global <span class="hlt">warming</span> signal. The observed changes in freshwater fluxes appear to be reflected in changes in the T-S distribution of the Global Ocean. Specifically, across the diverse range of atmospheric reanalyses considered here, there was an acceleration of the hydrological cycle during 1979-2007 which led to a broadening of the ocean's salinity distribution. Finally, although the reanalyses indicate that the <span class="hlt">warm</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tropical precipitation dominated water cycle change, ocean observations suggest that ocean processes redistributed the freshening to lower ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000050470"><span>Evidence of Lunar Phase Influence on Global Surface <span class="hlt">Air</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anyamba, Ebby; Susskind, Joel</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Intraseasonal oscillations appearing in a newly available 20-year record of satellite-derived surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are composited with respect to the lunar phase. Polar regions exhibit strong lunar phase modulation with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurs near full moon and lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at new moon, in agreement with previous studies. The polar response to the apparent lunar forcing is shown to be most robust in the winter months when solar influence is minimum. In addition, the response appears to be influenced by ENSO events. The highest mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between full moon and new moon in the polar region between 60 deg and 90 deg latitude was recorded in 1983, 1986/87, and 1990/91. Although the largest lunar phase signal is in the polar regions, there is a tendency for meridional equatorward progression of anomalies in both hemispheres so that the warning in the tropics occurs at the time of the new moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063773&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087"><span>Antarctic Sea ice variations and seasonal <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weatherly, John W.; Walsh, John E.; Zwally, H. J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Data through 1987 are used to determine the regional and seasonal dependencies of recent trends of Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea ice. Lead-lag relationships involving regional sea ice and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are systematically evaluated, with an eye toward the ice-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> feedbacks that may influence climatic change. Over the 1958-1087 period the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are positive in all seasons. For the 15 years (l973-l987) for which ice data are available, the trends are predominantly positive only in winter and summer, and are most strongly positive over the Antarctic Peninsula. The spatially aggregated trend of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for this latter period is small but positive, while the corresponding trend of ice coverage is small but negative. Lag correlations between seasonal anomalies of the two variables are generally stronger with ice lagging the summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and with ice leading the winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The implication is that summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> predispose the near-surface waters to above-or below-normal ice coverage in the following fall and winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ484206','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=earth+AND+warming&pg=5&id=EJ484206"><span>Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global <span class="hlt">warming</span>. (PR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156550','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156550"><span>Moisture rivals <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and <span class="hlt">warmed</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summer precipitation may be at least as important as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to <span class="hlt">warm</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.154..129L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.154..129L"><span>Particulate matter <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution in Europe in a +2 °C <span class="hlt">warming</span> world</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Watson, Laura; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Andersson, Camilla; Beekmann, Matthias; Colette, Augustin; Foret, Gilles; Josse, Béatrice; Marécal, Virginie; Nyiri, Agnes; Siour, Guillaume; Sobolowski, Stefan; Vautard, Robert</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In the framework of the IMPACT2C project, we have evaluated the future European particulate matter concentrations under the influence of climate change and anthropogenic emission reductions. To do so, 30-year simulations for present and future scenarios were performed with an ensemble of four regional Chemical Transport Models. +2 °C scenarios were issued from different regional climate simulations belonging to the CORDEX experiment (RCP4.5 scenario). Comparing present day simulations to observations shows that these simulations meet the requested quality criteria even if some biases do exist. Also, we showed that using regional climate models instead of meteorological reanalysis was not critical for the quality of our simulations. Present day as well as future scenarios show the large variability between models associated with different meteorology and process parameterizations. Future projections of PM concentrations show a large reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in a +2 °C climate over the European continent (especially over Benelux), which can be mostly attributed to emission reduction policies. Under a current legislation scenario, annual PM10 could be reduced by between 1.8 and 2.9 μg m-3 (14.1-20.4%). If maximum technologically feasible emission reductions were implemented, further reductions of 1.4-1.9 μg m-3 (18.6-20.9%) are highlighted. Changes due to a +2 °C <span class="hlt">warming</span>, in isolation from emission changes, are in general much weaker (-1.1 to +0.4 μg m-3,-0.3 to +5.1% for annual PM10 averaged over the European domain). Even if large differences exist between models, we have determined that the decrease of PM over Europe associated with emission reduction is a robust result. The patterns of PM changes resulting from climate change (for example the increase of PM over Spain and southern France and the decrease of PM10 over eastern Europe) are also robustly predicted even if its amplitude remains weak compared to changes associated with emission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24974822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24974822"><span>An investigation of the effects from a urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> system on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions during cryoablation treatment of the prostate: a phantom study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Favazza, C P; Gorny, K R; King, D M; Rossman, P J; Felmlee, J P; Woodrum, D A; Mynderse, L A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Introduction of urethral warmers to aid cryosurgery in the prostate has significantly reduced the incidence of urethral sloughing; however, the incidence rate still remains as high as 15%. Furthermore, urethral warmers have been associated with an increase of cancer recurrence rates. Here, we report results from our phantom-based investigation to determine the impact of a urethral warmer on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions around cryoneedles during cryosurgery. Cryoablation treatments were simulated in a tissue mimicking phantom containing a urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> catheter. Four different configurations of cryoneedles relative to urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> catheter were investigated. For each configuration, the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated with and without the urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> system activated. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> histories were recorded at various pre-arranged positions relative to the cryoneedles and urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> catheter. In all configurations, the urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> system was effective at maintaining sub-lethal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the simulated surface of the urethra. The warmer action, however, was additionally demonstrated to potentially negatively impact treatment lethality in the target zone by elevating minimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to sub-lethal levels. In all needle configurations, rates of freezing and thawing were not significantly affected by the use of the urethral warmer. The results indicate that the urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> system can protect urethral tissue during cryoablation therapy with cryoneedles placed as close as 5mm to the surface of the urethra. Using a urethral <span class="hlt">warming</span> system and placing multiple cryoneedles within 1cm of each other delivers lethal cooling at least 5mm from the urethral surface while sparing urethral tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005628','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005628"><span>Can the GEOS CCM Simulate the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response to <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool El Nino Events in the Antarctic Stratosphere?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hurwitz, M. M.; Song, I.-S.; Oman, L. D.; Newman, P. A.; Molod, A. M.; Frith, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>"<span class="hlt">Warm</span> pool" (WP) El Nino events are characterized by positive sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific. During austral spring, WP El Nino events are associated with an enhancement of convective activity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone, provoking a tropospheric planetary wave response and thus increasing planetary wave driving of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These conditions lead to higher polar stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to a weaker polar jet during austral summer, as compared with neutral ENSO years. Furthermore, this response is sensitive to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO): a stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seen in WP El Nino events coincident with the easterly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) as compared with WP El Nino events coincident with a westerly or neutral QBO. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) is used to further explore the atmospheric response to ENSO. Time-slice simulations are forced by composited SSTs from observed NP El Nino and neutral ENSO events. The modeled eddy heat flux, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind responses to WP El Nino events are compared with observations. A new gravity wave drag scheme has been implemented in the GEOS CCM, enabling the model to produce e realistic, internally generated QBO. By repeating the above time-slice simulations with this new model version, the sensitivity of the WP El Nino response to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation QBO is estimated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005602','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005602"><span>Can the GEOS CCM Simulate the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Response to <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool El Nino Events in the Antarctic Stratosphere?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hurwitz, M. M.; Song, I.-S.; Oman, L. D.; Newman, P. A.; Molod, A. M.; Frith, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>"<span class="hlt">Warm</span> pool" (WP) El Nino events are characterized by positive sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific. During austral spring. WP El Nino events are associated with an enhancement of convective activity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone, provoking a tropospheric planetary wave response and thus increasing planetary wave driving of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere. These conditions lead to higher polar stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to a weaker polar jet during austral summer, as compared with neutral ENSO years. Furthermore, this response is sensitive to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO): a stronger <span class="hlt">warming</span> is seen in WP El Nino events coincident with the easterly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) as compared with WP El Nino events coincident with a westerly or neutral QBO. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) is used to further explore the atmospheric response to ENSO. Time-slice simulations are forced by composited SSTs from observed WP El Nino and neutral ENSO events. The modeled eddy heat flux, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind responses to WP El Nino events are compared with observations. A new gravity wave drag scheme has been implemented in the GEOS CCM, enabling the model to produce a realistic, internally generated QBO. By repeating the above time-slice simulations with this new model version, the sensitivity of the WP El Nino response to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation QBO is estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4648075"><span>Hardy exotics species in temperate zone: can “<span class="hlt">warm</span> water” crayfish invaders establish regardless of low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Veselý, Lukáš; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The spreading of new crayfish species poses a serious risk for freshwater ecosystems; because they are omnivores they influence more than one level in the trophic chain and they represent a significant part of the benthic biomass. Both the environmental change through global <span class="hlt">warming</span> and the expansion of the pet trade increase the possibilities of their spreading. We investigated the potential of four “<span class="hlt">warm</span> water” highly invasive crayfish species to overwinter in the temperate zone, so as to predict whether these species pose a risk for European freshwaters. We used 15 specimens of each of the following species: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis), the yabby (Cherax destructor), and the redclaw (Cherax quadricarinatus). Specimens were acclimatized and kept for 6.5 months at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> simulating the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime of European temperate zone lentic ecosystems. We conclude that the red swamp crayfish, marbled crayfish and yabby have the ability to withstand low winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> relevant for lentic habitats in the European temperate zone, making them a serious invasive threat to freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26572317</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1569D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1569D"><span>What matters most: Are summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> more sensitive to changing <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We investigated stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to changes in both <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">warming</span>, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> relative to current <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, even under future climates when mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased from 2 to 4 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CliPa...8..215J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CliPa...8..215J"><span><span class="hlt">Warm</span> Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the Southern Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenkyns, H. C.; Schouten-Huibers, L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Although a division of the Phanerozoic climatic modes of the Earth into "greenhouse" and "icehouse" phases is widely accepted, whether or not polar ice developed during the relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods is still under debate. In particular, there is a range of isotopic and biotic evidence that favours the concept of discrete "cold snaps", marked particularly by migration of certain biota towards lower latitudes. Extension of the use of the palaeotemperature proxy TEX86 back to the Middle Jurassic indicates that relatively <span class="hlt">warm</span> sea-surface conditions (26-30 °C) existed from this interval (∼160 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (∼115 Ma) in the Southern Ocean, with a general <span class="hlt">warming</span> trend through the Late Jurassic followed by a general cooling trend through the Early Cretaceous. The lowest sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are recorded from around the Callovian-Oxfordian boundary, an interval identified in Europe as relatively cool, but do not fall below 25 °C. The early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event, identified on the basis of published biostratigraphy, total organic carbon and carbon-isotope stratigraphy, records an interval with the lowest, albeit fluctuating Early Cretaceous palaeotemperatures (∼26 °C), recalling similar phenomena recorded from Europe and the tropical Pacific Ocean. Extant belemnite δ18O data, assuming an isotopic composition of waters inhabited by these fossils of -1‰ SMOW, give palaeotemperatures throughout the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous interval that are consistently lower by ∼14 °C than does TEX86 and the molluscs likely record conditions below the thermocline. The long-term, <span class="hlt">warm</span> climatic conditions indicated by the TEX86 data would only be compatible with the existence of continental ice if appreciable areas of high altitude existed on Antarctica, and/or in other polar regions, during the Mesozoic Era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8128M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8128M"><span>On extreme rainfall intensity increases with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Paschalis, Athanasios; Gaal, Ladislav; Szolgay, Jan; Burlando, Paolo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The water vapour holding capacity of <span class="hlt">air</span> increases at about 7% per degree C according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. This is one of the arguments why a warmer future atmosphere, being able to hold more moisture, will generate higher extreme precipitation intensities. However, several empirical studies have recently demonstrated an increase in extreme rain intensities with <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above CC rates, in the range 7-14% per degree C worldwide (called super-CC rates). This was observed especially for shorter duration rainfall, i.e. in hourly and finer resolution data (e.g. review in Westra et al., 2014). The super-CC rate was attributed to positive feedbacks between water vapour and the updraft dynamics in convective clouds and lateral supply (convergence) of moisture. In addition, mixing of storm types was shown to be potentially responsible for super-CC rates in empirical studies. Assuming that convective events are accompanied by lightning, we will show on a large rainfall dataset in Switzerland (30 year records of 10-min and 1-hr data from 59 stations) that while the average rate of increase in extreme rainfall intensity (95th percentile) is 6-7% in no-lightning events and 8-9% in lightning events, it is 11-13% per degree C when all events are combined (Molnar et al., 2015). These results are relevant for climate change studies which predict shifts in storm types in a warmer climate in some parts of the world. The observation that extreme rain intensity and <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are positively correlated has consequences for the stochastic modelling of rainfall. Most current stochastic models do not explicitly include a direct rain intensity-<span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependency beyond applying factors of change predicted by climate models to basic statistics of precipitation. Including this dependency explicitly in stochastic models will allow, for example in the nested modelling approach of Paschalis et al. (2014), the random cascade disaggregation routine to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713720P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713720P"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span>-sea interactions in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> frontal region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Representation of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SST) on <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the <span class="hlt">air</span>-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247099','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247099"><span>Climate change-related <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts on <span class="hlt">warm</span> season heat mortality: a proof-of-concept methodology using BenMAP.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voorhees, A Scott; Fann, Neal; Fulcher, Charles; Dolwick, Patrick; Hubbell, Bryan; Bierwagen, Britta; Morefield, Philip</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>Climate change is anticipated to raise overall <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and is likely to increase heat-related human health morbidity and mortality risks. The objective of this work was to develop a proof-of-concept approach for estimating excess heat-related premature deaths in the continental United States resulting from potential changes in future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using the BenMAP model. In this approach we adapt the methods and tools that the US Environmental Protection Agency uses to assess <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution health impacts by incorporating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeling and heat mortality health impact functions. This new method demonstrates the ability to apply the existing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-health literature to quantify prospective changes in climate-sensitive heat-related mortality. We compared estimates of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with and without climate change and applied heat-mortality health functions to estimate relative changes in heat-related premature mortality. Using the A1B emissions scenario, we applied the GISS-II global circulation model downscaled to 36-km using MM5 and formatted using the Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor. For averaged <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> derived from the 5 years 2048-2052 relative to 1999-2003 we estimated for the <span class="hlt">warm</span> season May-September a national U.S. estimate of annual incidence of heat-related mortality to be 3700-3800 from all causes, 3500 from cardiovascular disease, and 21 000-27 000 from nonaccidental death, applying various health impact functions. Our estimates of mortality, produced to validate the application of a new methodology, suggest the importance of quantifying heat impacts in economic assessments of climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1207/ofr20151207.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1207/ofr20151207.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Air</span>- and stream-water-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in the Chesapeake Bay region, 1960-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jastram, John D.; Rice, Karen C.</p> <p>2015-12-14</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a basic, but important, measure of the condition of all aquatic environments, including the flowing waters in the streams that drain our landscape and the receiving waters of those streams. Climatic conditions have a strong influence on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which is therefore naturally variable both in time and across the landscape. Changes to natural water-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes, however, can result in a myriad of effects on aquatic organisms, water quality, circulation patterns, recreation, industry, and utility operations. For example, most species of fish, insects, and other organisms, as well as aquatic vegetation, are highly dependent on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Warming</span> waters can result in shifts in floral and faunal species distributions, including invasive species and pathogens previously unable to inhabit the once cooler streams. Many chemical processes are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, with reactions occurring faster in warmer conditions, leading to degraded water quality as contaminants are released into waterways at greater rates. Circulation patterns in receiving waters, such as bays and estuaries, can change as a result of warmer inflows from streams, thereby affecting organisms in those receiving waters. Changes in abundance of some aquatic species and (or) degradation of water quality can reduce the recreational value of water bodies as waters are perceived as less desirable for water-related activities or as sportfish become less available for anglers. Finally, increasing water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can affect industry and utilities as the thermal capacity is reduced, making the water less effective for cooling purposes.Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. Eutrophication, the enrichment of a water body with excess nutrients, has plagued the bay for decades and has led to extensive restoration efforts throughout the bay watershed. The <span class="hlt">warming</span> of stream water can exacerbate eutrophication through increased release of nutrients from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31C0054B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A31C0054B"><span>Unforced surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and their opposite relationship with the TOA energy imbalance at local and global scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, P. T.; Li, W.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Unforced global mean surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tglobal) is stable in the long-term primarily because <span class="hlt">warm</span> Tglobal anomalies are associated with enhanced outgoing longwave radiation to space and thus a negative global radiative energy imbalance (Nglobal, positive downward) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). However, it is shown here that at the local spatial scale, <span class="hlt">warm</span> unforced Tlocal anomalies tend to be associated with anomalously positive Nlocal imbalances over most of the surface of the planet. It is revealed that this occurs mainly because <span class="hlt">warm</span> Tlocal anomalies are accompanied by anomalously low surface albedo near sea ice margins and over high altitudes, anomalously low cloud albedo over much of the mid/low-latitudes and an anomalously large water-vapor greenhouse effect over the deep tropical ocean. During <span class="hlt">warm</span> Tglobal years, the largest negative Nlocal anomalies primarily occur over regions of cool or near-neutral Tlocal anomalies. These results help explain how TOA energy imbalances can act to damp unforced Tglobal anomalies while simultaneously amplifying unforced Tlocal anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17440833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17440833"><span>Investigating the <span class="hlt">warming</span> and cooling rates of human cadavers by development of a gel-filled model to validate core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eagle, M J; Rooney, P; Kearney, J N</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Tissue Services (within NHS Blood and Transplant) plans to bring deceased donors to its state of the art retrieval suite at its new centre in Speke, Liverpool in <span class="hlt">air</span>-conditioned transport at circa 20 degrees C but without dedicated active cooling. The aim of this study was to determine how quickly a refrigerated body would <span class="hlt">warm</span> at different ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> using a gel-filled model. Two models of a human body were prepared consisting of neoprene wetsuits filled with approximately 7 or 18 l of a viscous solution, which once set has similar properties to ballistics gel. This gel consisted of 47.5% distilled water, 47.5% glycerol and 5% agar. Final "dummy" weights were 7.4 and 18.6 kg respectively, representing "virtual" weights of approximately 40 kg and 70 kg. A K-class thermocouple probe was then inserted into a "rectal" position within each model and the models were cooled to a series of different core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 15 degrees C and then were placed in an orbital incubator set at 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The rate of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase, in the dummy, was measured, until the model's core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was close to the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This was done in triplicate for each size model and ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Data indicate that increase in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depends on the size of the model and the initial core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For an equivalent donor weight of 70 kg and background <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 20 degrees C, core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rises from 5 degrees C to 9.2 degrees C; 10 degrees C to 13.3 degrees C and 15 degrees C to 15.5 degrees C after 2 h. The final core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> after 2 h are likely to retard bacterial growth, movement or contamination during transport. Cooling rate data indicated that a 70 kg donor equivalent cooled from 37 degrees C to 15 degrees C within 6 h in a cold room at 4 degrees C. This work has shown that a body can be transported without refrigeration and not cause further tissue deterioration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPYP2066S"><span>Generation of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">air</span> plasma for food processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in <span class="hlt">air</span> and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24406632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24406632"><span>Soil and water <span class="hlt">warming</span> accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-<span class="hlt">air</span> CO2 enrichment (FACE).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-<span class="hlt">air</span> CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water <span class="hlt">warming</span> accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950032432&hterms=regional+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dregional%2Bclimate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950032432&hterms=regional+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dregional%2Bclimate"><span>Regional climates in the GISS general circulation model: Surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hewitson, Bruce</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>One of the more viable research techniques into global climate change for the purpose of understanding the consequent environmental impacts is based on the use of general circulation models (GCMs). However, GCMs are currently unable to reliably predict the regional climate change resulting from global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, and it is at the regional scale that predictions are required for understanding human and environmental responses. Regional climates in the extratropics are in large part governed by the synoptic-scale circulation and the feasibility of using this interscale relationship is explored to provide a way of moving to grid cell and sub-grid cell scales in the model. The relationships between the daily circulation systems and surface <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for points across the continental United States are first developed in a quantitative form using a multivariate index based on principal components analysis (PCA) of the surface circulation. These relationships are then validated by predicting daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using observed circulation and comparing the predicted values with the observed <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The relationships predict surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accurately over the major portion of the country in winter, and for half the country in summer. These relationships are then applied to the surface synoptic circulation of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM control run, and a set of surface grid cell <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are generated. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, based on the larger-scale validated circulation, may now be used with greater confidence at the regional scale. The generated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are compared to those of the model and show that the model has regional errors of up to 10 C in individual grid cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19713927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19713927"><span>2,000-year-long <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hydrology reconstructions from the Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oppo, Delia W; Rosenthal, Yair; Linsley, Braddock K</p> <p>2009-08-27</p> <p>Northern Hemisphere surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions suggest that the late twentieth century was warmer than any other time during the past 500 years and possibly any time during the past 1,300 years (refs 1, 2). These <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions are based largely on terrestrial records from extra-tropical or high-elevation sites; however, global average surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes closely follow those of the global tropics, which are 75% ocean. In particular, the tropical Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">warm</span> pool (IPWP) represents a major heat reservoir that both influences global atmospheric circulation and responds to remote northern high-latitude forcings. Here we present a decadally resolved continuous sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) reconstruction from the IPWP that spans the past two millennia and overlaps the instrumental record, enabling both a direct comparison of proxy data to the instrumental record and an evaluation of past changes in the context of twentieth century trends. Our record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia, exhibits trends that are similar to a recent Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction. Reconstructed SST was, however, within error of modern values from about ad 1000 to ad 1250, towards the end of the Medieval <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Period. SSTs during the Little Ice Age (approximately ad 1550-1850) were variable, and approximately 0.5 to 1 degrees C colder than modern values during the coldest intervals. A companion reconstruction of delta(18)O of sea water-a sea surface salinity and hydrology indicator-indicates a tight coupling with the East Asian monsoon system and remote control of IPWP hydrology on centennial-millennial timescales, rather than a dominant influence from local SST variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28099549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28099549"><span><span class="hlt">Warming</span> up for mechanosynthesis - <span class="hlt">temperature</span> development in ball mills during synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kulla, Hannes; Wilke, Manuel; Fischer, Franziska; Röllig, Mathias; Maierhofer, Christiane; Emmerling, Franziska</p> <p>2017-02-04</p> <p>We present a first direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during milling combined with in situ Raman spectroscopy monitoring. The data reveal a low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase due to the mechanical impact and clear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as a consequence of the reaction heat. Based on the data, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rises as postulated in the magma plasma and hot spot theory can be excluded for soft matter milling syntheses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28..129B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdAtS..28..129B"><span>Simulation of the effect of an increase in methane on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bi, Yun; Chen, Yuejuan; Zhou, Renjun; Yi, Mingjian; Deng, Shumei</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The infrared radiative effect of methane was analyzed using the 2D, interactive chemical dynamical radiative SOCRATES model of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Then, a sensitivity experiment, with the methane volume mixing ratio increased by 10%, was carried out to study the influence of an increase of methane on <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results showed that methane has a heating effect through the infrared radiative process in the troposphere and a cooling effect in the stratosphere. However, the cooling effect of the methane is much smaller than that of water vapor in the stratosphere and is negligible in the mesosphere. The simulation results also showed that when methane concentration is increased by 10%, the <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lowers in the stratosphere and mesosphere and increases in the troposphere. The cooling can reach 0.2 K at the stratopause and can vary from 0.2-0.4 K in the mesosphere, and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise varies by around 0.001-0.002 K in the troposphere. The cooling results from the increase of the infrared radiative cooling rate caused by increased water vapor and O3 concentration, which are stimulated by the increase in methane in most of the stratosphere. The infrared radiation cooling of methane itself is minor. The depletion of O3 stimulated by the methane increase results indirectly in a decrease in the rate of solar radiation heating, producing cooling in the stratopause and mesosphere. The tropospheric <span class="hlt">warming</span> is mainly caused by the increase of methane, which produces infrared radiative heating. The increase in H2O and O3 caused by the methane increase also contributes to a rise in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the troposphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1527.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.U13A..05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.U13A..05J"><span>The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global <span class="hlt">Warming</span>, <span class="hlt">Air</span> Pollution, and Energy Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobson, M. Z.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Three major global problems of our times are global <span class="hlt">warming</span>, <span class="hlt">air</span> pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020106"><span>Pd-modified Reactive <span class="hlt">Air</span> Braze for Increased Melting <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Darsell, Jens T.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Complex high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> devices such as planar solid oxide fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks often require a two-step sealing process. For example, in pSOFC stacks the oxide ceramic fuel cell plates might be sealed into metallic support frames in one step. Then the frames with the fuel plates sealed to them would be joined together in a separate sealing step to form the fuel cell stack. In this case, the initial seal should have a sufficiently high solidus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that it will not begin to remelt at the sealing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the material used for the subsequent sealing step. Previous experience has indicated that, when heated at a rate of 10°C/min, Ag-CuO reactive <span class="hlt">air</span> braze (RAB) compositions have solidus and liquidus <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the approximate range of 925 to 955°C. Therefore, compositionally modifying the original Ag-CuO braze with Pd-additions such that the solidus <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the new braze is between 1025 and 1050°C would provide two RAB compositions with a difference in melting points large enough to allow reactive <span class="hlt">air</span> brazing of both sets of seals in the fuel cell stack. This study determines the appropriate ratio of Pd to Ag in RAB required to achieve a solidus in the desired range and discusses the wettability of the resulting Pd-Ag-CuO brazes on YSZ substrates. The interfacial microstructures and flexural strengths of Pd-Ag-CuO joints in YSZ will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...36..109D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ClDy...36..109D"><span>Impact of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Florida during North Atlantic cold spells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donders, Timme H.; de Boer, Hugo Jan; Finsinger, Walter; Grimm, Eric C.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Reichart, Gert Jan; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Recurrent phases of increased pine at Lake Tulane, Florida have previously been related to strong stadials terminated by so-called Heinrich events. The climatic significance of these pine phases has been interpreted in different ways. Using a pollen-climate inference model, we quantified the climate changes and consistently found that mean summer precipitation ( P JJA) increased (0.5-0.9 mm/day) and mean November <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased (2.0-3.0°C) during pine phases coeval with Heinrich events and the Younger Dryas. Marine sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records indicate that potential sources for these moisture and heat anomalies are in the Gulf of Mexico and the western tropical Atlantic. We explain this low latitude <span class="hlt">warming</span> by an increased Loop Current facilitated by persistence of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Pool during summer. This hypothesis is supported by a climate model sensitivity analysis. A positive heat anomaly in the Gulf of Mexico and equatorial Atlantic best approximates the pollen-inferred climate reconstructions from Lake Tulane during the (stadials around) Heinrich events and the Younger Dryas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135619','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135619"><span>Rising <span class="hlt">air</span> and stream-water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Chesapeake Bay region, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Monthly mean <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) at 85 sites and instantaneous stream-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (WT) at 129 sites for 1960–2010 are examined for the mid-Atlantic region, USA. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> anomalies for two periods, 1961–1985 and 1985–2010, relative to the climate normal period of 1971–2000, indicate that the latter period was statistically significantly warmer than the former for both mean AT and WT. Statistically significant temporal trends across the region of 0.023 °C per year for AT and 0.028 °C per year for WT are detected using simple linear regression. Sensitivity analyses show that the irregularly sampled WT data are appropriate for trend analyses, resulting in conservative estimates of trend magnitude. Relations between 190 landscape factors and significant trends in AT-WT relations are examined using principal components analysis. Measures of major dams and deciduous forest are correlated with WT increasing slower than AT, whereas agriculture in the absence of major dams is correlated with WT increasing faster than AT. Increasing WT trends are detected despite increasing trends in streamflow in the northern part of the study area. Continued <span class="hlt">warming</span> of contributing streams to Chesapeake Bay likely will result in shifts in distributions of aquatic biota and contribute to worsened eutrophic conditions in the bay and its estuaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25002870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25002870"><span>The impact of "unseasonably" <span class="hlt">warm</span> spring <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on acute myocardial infarction hospital admissions in Melbourne, Australia: a city with a temperate climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel; Loughnan, Terence</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The effects of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health have been well described. However, the adverse health effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span> weather that occurs outside the summer period have had little attention. We used daily anomalous AMI morbidity and daily anomalous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to determine the impact of "unseasonable" <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on human health. The "unseasonably" <span class="hlt">warm</span> weather was attributed to a slow moving high pressure system to the east of Melbourne. No morbidity displacement was noted during either of these periods suggesting that morbidity due to "unseasonable" <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is avoidable. An increase in warmer weather during the cooler months of spring may result in increased morbidity, and an alert system based on summer thresholds may not be appropriate for early season heat health warnings. A straightforward alert system based on calculating anomalous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from daily weather forecasts may reduce the public health impact of "unseasonably" <span class="hlt">warm</span> weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4066945','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4066945"><span>The Impact of “Unseasonably” <span class="hlt">Warm</span> Spring <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in Melbourne, Australia: A City with a Temperate Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tapper, Nigel; Loughnan, Terence</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The effects of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health have been well described. However, the adverse health effects of <span class="hlt">warm</span> weather that occurs outside the summer period have had little attention. We used daily anomalous AMI morbidity and daily anomalous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to determine the impact of “unseasonable” <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on human health. The “unseasonably” <span class="hlt">warm</span> weather was attributed to a slow moving high pressure system to the east of Melbourne. No morbidity displacement was noted during either of these periods suggesting that morbidity due to “unseasonable” <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is avoidable. An increase in warmer weather during the cooler months of spring may result in increased morbidity, and an alert system based on summer thresholds may not be appropriate for early season heat health warnings. A straightforward alert system based on calculating anomalous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from daily weather forecasts may reduce the public health impact of “unseasonably” <span class="hlt">warm</span> weather. PMID:25002870</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F"><span>North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global <span class="hlt">warming</span> context: possible consequences for Western North American daily precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean daily sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and daily frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and daily precipitation/cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of daily precipitation and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., <span class="hlt">air</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364005','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364005"><span>EXCITATION <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> OF THE <span class="hlt">WARM</span> NEUTRAL MEDIUM AS A NEW PROBE OF THE Lyα RADIATION FIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray, Claire E.; Lindner, Robert R.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Pingel, Nickolas M.; Lawrence, Allen; Babler, Brian L.; Goss, W. M.; Jencson, Jacob; Heiles, Carl; Dickey, John; Hennebelle, Patrick</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We use the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to conduct a high-sensitivity survey