Science.gov

Sample records for air toxic compounds

  1. Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  2. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  3. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  4. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  5. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  6. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM A COMMUNITY-BASED AIR TOXICS MONITORING NETWORK IN DEER PARK, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This RARE Project with EPA Region 6 was a spatial analysis study of select volatile organic compounds (VOC) collected using passive air monitors at outdoor residential locations in the Deer Park, Texas area near the Houston Ship Channel. Correlation analysis of VOC species confi...

  7. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  8. Air toxics: sources and monitoring in Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, D R

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, federal legislation has required industries to publicly report their annual emissions of toxic compounds. Industry reports show the largest contributor to toxic emission levels in Texas is the massive concentration of petrochemical industries along the Gulf Coast. It is interesting to note that although Texas produces over 50% of the nation's synthetic chemicals, it discharges less than 8% of the nation's toxic emissions. However, in response to growing concerns about the effects of these toxic emissions, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) initiated a long-term program for monitoring toxic chemicals in the air. This article provides details of this monitoring program as well as industry-funded toxic monitoring networks in Texas. This includes information on the technology currently being used for sample collection and analysis as well as plans for implementing methods that are on the technological horizon. Finally, details of some key measurements from the state's air toxics monitoring network will be provided along with an explanation of how they impact current air quality trends in Texas. PMID:8549477

  9. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  10. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  11. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Clifford P

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is a respiratory disease whose prevalence has been increasing since the mid 1970s and that affects more than 14.6 million residents of the United States. Environmental triggers of asthma include air pollutants that are respiratory irritants. Air toxics emitted into the ambient air are listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) if they can adversely affect human health, including the respiratory tract. HAPs include particulate and gaseous-phase pollutants, individual organic compounds and metals, and mixtures. Associations between asthma exacerbation and both particles and indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs), often referred to as indoor air quality, have been reported. Studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Europe over the past two decades have shown that most people living in the developed countries spend the majority of their time indoors and that the air concentrations of many air toxics or HAPs are higher indoors than in the ambient air in urban, suburban, and rural settings. Elevated indoor air concentrations result from emissions of air toxics from consumer products, household furnishings, and personal activities. The Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was designed to oversample homes in close proximity to ambient sources, excluding residences where smokers lived, to determine the contribution of ambient emissions to air toxics exposure. The ratios of indoor to outdoor air concentrations of some VOCs in homes measured during RIOPA were much greater than one, and for most other VOCs that had indoor-to-outdoor ratios close to unity in the majority of homes, elevated ratios were found in the paired samples with the highest concentration. Thus, although ambient emissions contribute to exposure of some air toxics indoors as well as outdoors, this was not true for all of the air toxics and especially for the higher end of exposures to most volatile organic air toxics examined

  12. Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenggang; Crooks, Peter A; Wei, Xiaochen; de Leon, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Five dipyridyl isomers, 2,2'-, 2,3'-, 2,4'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-dipyridyl, are products resulting from the pyrolytic degradation of tobacco products and degradation of the herbicide paraquat, and therefore may be present in the environment. In this article, the toxicological properties of these dipyridyl isomers in humans and animals are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that cancerous skin lesions in workers involved in the manufacturing of paraquat may be associated with exposure to dipyridyl compounds. Experimental animal studies suggest that dipyridyl isomers may have several toxicological effects. Three of the dipyridyl isomers (the 2,2', 2,4', and 4,4' isomers) appear to be inducers of some metabolic enzymes. The 2,2'-dipyridyl isomer, an iron chelator, appears to influence vasospasm in primate models of stroke. The cytotoxic effects of 2,2'-dipyridyl on several leukemia cell lines have been reported, and a potent teratogenic effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl has been observed in rats. Based on the results of paraquat studies in experimental animal models, it has been proposed that paraquat may have deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons. These findings support the epidemiological evidence that paraquat exposure may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Studies designed to determine an association between paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease are complicated by the possibility that metabolic changes may influence the neurotoxicity of paraquat and/or its metabolites. Preliminary unpublished data in mice show that 300-mg/kg doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl are neurotoxic, and 300-mg/kg doses of 2,4'- and 4,4'-dipyridyls are lethal. These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact.

  13. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  14. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  15. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  16. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  17. Toxic effects of chromium and its compounds.

    PubMed

    Baruthio, F

    1992-01-01

    Chromium was discovered in 1797 by Vauquelin. Numerous industrial applications raised chromium to a very important economic element. At the same time, with the development of its uses, the adverse effects of chromium compounds in human health were being defined. Trivalent chromium is an essential trace element in humans and in animals. Chromium as pure metal has no adverse effect. Little toxic effect is attributed to trivalent chromium when present in very large quantities. Both acute and chronic toxicity of chromium are mainly caused by hexavalent compounds. The most important toxic effects, after contact, inhalation, or ingestion of hexavalent chromium compounds are the following: dermatitis, allergic and eczematous skin reactions, skin and mucous membrane ulcerations, perforation of the nasal septum, allergic asthmatic reactions, bronchial carcinomas, gastro-enteritis, hepatocellular deficiency, and renal oligo anuric deficiency. Prevention of occupational risks, biological monitoring of workers, and treatment of poisoning are also reported.

  18. Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Peirce, Jeffrey; Cho, Ki Don

    Determining the amount and rate of degradation of toxic pollutants in soil and groundwater is difficult and often requires invasive techniques, such as deploying extensive monitoring well networks. Even with these networks, degradation rates across entire systems cannot readily be extrapolated from the samples. When organic compounds are degraded by microbes, especially nitrifying bacteria, oxides or nitrogen (NO x) are released to the atmosphere. Thus, the flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil to the lower troposphere can be used to predict the rate at which organic compounds are degraded. By characterizing and applying biogenic and anthropogenic processes in soils the rates of degradation of organic compounds. Toluene was selected as a representative of toxic aromatic compounds, since it is inherently toxic, it is a substituted benzene compound and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 12 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Measured toluene concentrations in soil, microbial population growth and NO fluxes in chamber studies were used to develop and parameterize a numerical model based on carbon and nitrogen cycling. These measurements, in turn, were used as indicators of bioremediation of air toxic (i.e. toluene) concentrations. The model found that chemical concentration, soil microbial abundance, and NO production can be directly related to the experimental results (significant at P < 0.01) for all toluene concentrations tested. This indicates that the model may prove useful in monitoring and predicting the fate of toxic aromatic contaminants in a complex soil system. It may also be useful in predicting the release of ozone precursors, such as changes in reservoirs of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. As such, the model may be a tool for decision makers in ozone non-attainment areas.

  19. An assessment of air toxics in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pratt, G C; Palmer, K; Wu, C Y; Oliaei, F; Hollerbach, C; Fenske, M J

    2000-09-01

    We used monitoring and modeling to assess the concentrations of air toxics in the state of Minnesota. Model-predicted concentrations for 148 hazardous air pollutants were from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cumulative Exposure Project (1990 data). Monitoring data consisted of samples of volatile organic compounds, carbonyls, and particulate matter [Less than and equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter collected at 25 sites throughout the state for varying periods of time (up to 8 years; 1991-1998). Ten pollutants exceeded health benchmark values at one or more sites by modeling, monitoring, or both (including acrolein, arsenic, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, chloroform, ethylene dibromide, formaldehyde, and nickel). Polycyclic organic matter also exceeded the benzo[a]pyrene health benchmark value assumed to represent this class of pollutants. The highest modeled and monitored concentrations of most pollutants were near the center of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area; however, many smaller cities throughout the state also had elevated concentrations. Where direct comparisons were possible, monitored values often tended to exceed model estimates. Upper-bound excess lifetime inhalation cancer risks were estimated to range from 2.7 [times] 10(-5) to 140. 9 [times] 10(-5) (modeling) and 4.7 [times] 10(-5) to 11.0 [times] 10(-5) (using a smaller set of monitored carcinogens). Screening noncancer hazard indices summed over all end points ranged from 0.2 to 58.1 (modeling) and 0.6 to 2.0 (with a smaller set of monitored pollutants). For common sets of pollutants, the concentrations, cancer risks, and noncancer hazard indices were comparable between model-based estimates and monitored values. The inhalation cancer risk was apportioned to mobile sources (54%), area sources (22%), point sources (12%), and background (12%). This study provides evidence that air toxics are a public health concern in Minnesota.

  20. Analysis of mobile source air toxics (MSATs)–Near-Road VOC and carbonyl concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to mobile source air toxics (MSATs) have been associated with numerous adverse health effects. While thousands of air toxic compounds are emitted from mobile sources, a subset of compounds are considered high priority due to their significant contribution to cancer and...

  1. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  2. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  3. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1990-12-01

    A joint conference for the fifth straight year cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association's EM-3, EM-4, and ITF-2 technical committees, and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. The technical program consisted of 187 presentations, held in 20 technical sessions, on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants found in ambient and source atmospheres. Covering a wide range of measurement topics and supported by 66 exhibitors of instrumentation and consulting services, the symposium was attended by more than 850 professionals from the US and other countries. This overview highlights a selection of the technical presentations. A synopsis of the keynote address to the symposium is also included. Presentations include: (1) radon, (2) atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants, (3) supercritical fluid extraction, (4) acidic deposition, (5) determination of polar and volatile organic pollutants in ambient air, (6) Delaware Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) study, (7) mobile sources emissions characterization, (8) Superfund site air monitoring, (9) exposure assessment, (10) chemometrics and environmental data analysis, (11) nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke, (12) source monitoring, (13) effects of air toxics on plants, (14) measurement of volatile organic pollutants, (15) general, (16) air pollution dispersion modeling, (17) measurement of hazardous waste emissions, (18) measurement of indoor toxic air contaminants, and (19) environmental quality assurance.

  5. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  6. Toxic effects of air freshener emissions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether emissions of a commercial air freshener produced acute toxic effects in a mammalian species, the authors allowed male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of one commercial-brand solid air freshener for 1 h. Sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation were evaluated with the ASTM-E-981 test. A computerized version of this test measured the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration--two parameters subject to alteration via respiratory effects of airborne toxins. Measurements of expiratory flow velocity indicated changes in airflow limitation. The authors then subjected mice to a functional observational battery, the purpose of which was to probe for changes in nervous system function. Emissions of this air freshener at several concentrations (including concentrations to which many individuals are actually exposed) caused increases in sensory and pulmonary irritation, decreases in airflow velocity, and abnormalities of behavior measured by the functional observational battery score. The test atmosphere was subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and the authors noted the presence of chemicals with known irritant and neurotoxic properties. The Material Safety Data Sheet for the air freshener indicated that there was a potential for toxic effects in humans. The air freshener used in the study did not diminish the effect of other pollutants tested in combination. The results demonstrated that the air freshener may have actually exacerbated indoor air pollution via addition of toxic chemicals to the atmosphere.

  7. Environmental air toxics: role in asthma occurrence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Gary L; Beskid, Craig; Shirnamé-Moré, Lata

    2002-08-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted its first scientific workshop in 1994 that focused on possible relationships between air toxics and asthma. From that meeting came recommendations for future research including a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that determinations of personal exposures to pollutants could be made. In the spring of 2001, NUATRC held a second such workshop to review progress made in this area during the intervening 7 years. Peer-reviewed articles from the workshop are published in this issue of (italic)Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements(/italic). As in 1994, academic, government, and industry scientists participated. Dave Guinnup of the Environmental Protection Agency discussed the nature of air toxics, their definition, and the basis for federal regulation. George Leikauf from the University of Cincinnati reviewed the 1994 workshop and subsequent research in this field. Current research funded by NUATRC that is addressing individual personal exposure was presented by Clifford Weisel (Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey), Patrick Kinney (Columbia University) and Candis Claiborn (Washington State University). David Corry from Baylor College of Medicine highlighted new insights into asthma pathogenesis while Stephen Redd from the Centers for Disease Control presented an overview of asthma epidemiology as well as the societal costs of the disease. Mary White (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) discussed recent epidemiologic investigations by public health agencies into community concerns about asthma and hazardous air pollutants. David Peden (University of North Carolina) reviewed scientific studies into the links between asthma and air toxics as well as criteria air pollutants. In a session on occupational asthma, Lee Petsonk (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) discussed

  8. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings.

    PubMed Central

    Olden, K; Guthrie, J

    1996-01-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of dose/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early waming signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. PMID:8933026

  9. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  10. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  11. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  12. NATIONAL-SCALE ASSESSMENT OF AIR TOXICS RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The national-scale assessment of air toxics risks is a modeling assessment which combines emission inventory development, atmospheric fate and transport modeling, exposure modeling, and risk assessment to characterize the risk associated with inhaling air toxics from outdoor sour...

  13. Groundwater air stripping: Effect on water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, R.B.; Simpson, C.W.; Elliott, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    An air stripping unit was designed to reduce groundwater hydrocarbon content and biotoxicity to acceptable levels. A pilot plant study was conducted to determine the water treatability and to optimize the commercial unit design conditions. A measurement of the pilot plant effluent toxicity was obtained from {open_quotes}Microtox{close_quotes} analysis and rigorous bio-assays. These results indicated that reduction of the water hydrocarbon content to permitted discharge limits was accompanied by the elimination of water toxicity. The Onda mass transfer model was used to prepare the commercial unit design. A post-installation evaluation indicated that the model gave a good representation of the commercial unit performance. Toxicity reductions observed in the pilot plant were also observed in the commercial unit. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A BIOGENIC ROLE IN EXPOSURE TO TWO TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic sources play an important role in ozone and particulate concentrations through emissions of volatile organic compounds. The same emissions also contribute to chronic toxic exposures from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde because each compound arises through primary and se...

  15. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  16. A Novel Energy Efficient Plasma Chemical Process for the Destruction of Volatile Toxic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    2000-06-01

    The objective is to develop a novel plasma chemical process for the destruction of low concentrations (below several percent) of toxic volatile compounds from contaminated air streams. Such contaminated air streams are encountered in air stripping of highly-contaminated water and soil, and also in the incineration of combustible hazardous wastes. Our technique is based on the efficient dissociation of molecules via enhanced electron attachment to highly-excited states of the molecules produced in a glow discharge.

  17. Chemical and Radiological Toxicity of Uranium and Its Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tansky, R.R.

    2001-07-26

    The concentration of uranyl nitrate required to deliver the radiation dose limit for soluble uranium compounds is larger than the toxicity-based concentration limits. Therefore, for soluble uranium compounds, health consequences of exposure are primarily due to their chemical toxicity. For insoluble compounds of uranium, health consequences (e.g., fibrosis and/or carcinogenesis of the lung) are primarily due to irradiation of pulmonary tissues from inhaled respirable particles.

  18. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ``packing``. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel.

  19. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, George M. Smith, Roy L.

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  20. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  1. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  2. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  3. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity.

  4. Nitroaromatic compounds: Environmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, therapy and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2014-08-01

    Vehicle pollution is an increasing problem in the industrial world. Aromatic nitro compounds comprise a significant portion of the threat. In this review, the class includes nitro derivatives of benzene, biphenyls, naphthalenes, benzanthrone and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plus nitroheteroaromatic compounds. The numerous toxic manifestations are discussed. An appreciable number of drugs incorporate the nitroaromatic structure. The mechanistic aspects of both toxicity and therapy are addressed in the context of a unifying mechanism involving electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidants.

  5. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity.

  6. A Novel Energy-Efficient Plasma Chemical Process for the Destruction of Volatile Toxic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Ma, Cheng-YU

    1999-06-01

    Removal of low-concentrations (below several percent) of volatile toxic compounds (VTCs) from contaminated air streams is encountered at DOE waste sites in two instances: (i) Off-gases resulting from air-stripping of contaminated soil and water. (ii) Effluent from the incineration of highly-concentrated combustible hazardous wastes The objective of our research program is to develop a novel plasma chemical process for the destruction of VTC's in low-concentration waste streams.

  7. Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F; Adams, Earle

    2009-06-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 volatile organic compounds (including 14 hazardous air pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the 'Air Toxics Under the Big Sky' program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/Western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student's homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations.

  8. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  9. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  10. Multiple Air-Toxics Exposure Study Working Paper Number 3. Urban air-toxics exposure model: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District of California completed a Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES) that examines the additive risk from a number of air toxics on an urban area. The project, though partially funded by EPA, is an example of how a State or local agency may approach assessing their local air-toxics risks as is encouraged by EPA's Urban Air Toxics Program which results from EPA's Air Toxic Strategy. The report is a summary of the methods used by the California agency. Though not intended as an endorsement of the entire contents of the report, EPA is reproducing their report (Working Paper Number 3) to benefit and encourage other agencies that may be contemplating such an assessment.

  11. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  12. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  13. Toxicity prediction of compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Chempakam, B

    2010-10-01

    Turmeric belongs to the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Currently, cheminformatics approaches are not employed in any of the spices to study the medicinal properties traditionally attributed to them. The aim of this study is to find the most efficacious molecule which does not have any toxic effects. In the present study, toxicity of 200 chemical compounds from turmeric were predicted (includes bacterial mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenicity and human hepatotoxicity). The study shows out of 200 compounds, 184 compounds were predicted as toxigenic, 136 compounds are mutagenic, 153 compounds are carcinogenic and 64 compounds are hepatotoxic. To cross validate our results, we have chosen the popular curcumin and found that curcumin and its derivatives may cause dose dependent hepatotoxicity. The results of these studies indicate that, in contrast to curcumin, few other compounds in turmeric which are non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-hepatotoxic, and do not have any side-effects. Hence, the cost-effective approach presented in this paper could be used to filter toxic compounds from the drug discovery lifecycle.

  14. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  15. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  16. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  17. Toxicity, uptake, and mutagenicity of particulate and soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, G G; Rossetto, F E; Turnbull, J D; Nieboer, E

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity testing in AS52 cells (24-hr exposures) gave LC50 values of 2 to 130 micrograms Ni/ml for particulate nickel compounds and 45 to 60 micrograms Ni/ml for water-soluble salts (NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(CH3COO)2). The Ni(OH)2, NiCO3, and sulfides (Ni3S2, Ni7S6, "amorphous NiS") exhibited similar toxicities (LC50's of 2 to 8 micrograms Ni/ml), while three nickel oxides were more variable and less toxic (LC50's of 18 to 130 micrograms Ni/ml). Most compounds displayed nuclear to cytoplasmic nickel ratios of approximately 1:1.5 to 1:5 (except approximately 1:20 for nickel salts). At the LC50's, a 75-fold range in exposure levels occurred compared to a 10-fold range in cytoplasmic and nuclear nickel concentrations, [Ni]. Cellular nickel distribution indicated three groupings: inert compounds (green NiO, lithium nickel oxide, relatively low nuclear and cytosolic [Ni]); water-soluble salts (very low nuclear [Ni]; high cytosolic [Ni]), and slightly soluble compounds (relatively high cytosolic and nuclear [Ni]). Nickel compounds are considered to be only weak or equivocal mutagens. In this study, a low but significant increase in mutation rate at the gpt locus was shown. Although the results would not be sufficient to deem nickel compounds mutagenic by traditional criteria, characterization by PCR analysis indicated that the spontaneous and nickel-induced mutants exhibited different and compound-specific mutational spectra (thus confirming nickel compound involvement). The results reported illustrate some of the methodologic problems involved in testing "weak" mutagens and indicate that alternative approaches may be necessary in classifying the mutagenicity of nickel and other compounds. PMID:7843140

  18. Toxic Properties Of Dialkylnitrosamines and Some Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1962-01-01

    The title compounds, which have some commercial applications, are described, and their toxic action is reviewed. Most results refer to rats. Their main acute effect is hepatic centrilobular necrosis, though lung lesions may appear. The compounds also induce tumours in liver, lung, and kidney. One, dimethylnitrosamine, has been shown to cause kidney tumours after a single dose. The necrotic and carcinogenic doses of the compounds are closely related. The relation between structure and toxicity is discussed. Analogous formamides are much less toxic (the LD50's in rats by intraperitoneal injection of dimethyl- and diethyl-formamides are 3,800 mg./kg. and 1,740 mg./kg.) and they do not cause centrilobular necrosis or tumours. Nitrosamines are oxidized in vivo and by liver preparations in vitro. Their toxic action is due to the release of powerful alkylating agents in the liver. They also inhibit protein synthesis and alkylate liver protein and ribonucleic acid. In all cases the effective agent appears to be a metabolite. The possible hazard to man in the uses of these compounds is emphasized.

  19. Toxicity of six heterocyclic nitrogen compounds to Daphnia pulex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Cynthia M.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1988-01-01

    We determined the relative toxicities to the aquatic crustacean Daphniz pulex of six heterocyclic nitrogen compunds. These compounds were selected because they were detected in lake trout or walleyes and were commercially available. Stress to the daphnid populations may affect forage fish populations that depend either directly or indirectly on zooplankton as a food source in the Great Lakes.

  20. Air toxics and asthma: Impacts and end points

    SciTech Connect

    Eschenbacher, W.L.; Holian, A.; Campion, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted a medical/scientific workshop (February 1994) focused on possible asthma/air toxics relationships, with the results of the NUATRC`s first research contract with the University of Cincinnati as the point of discussion. The workshop explored the impact of various environmental factors, including air toxics, on asthma incidence and exacerbation; and emphasis was placed on future research directions. The information presented at the workshop suggested a possible association of asthma exacerbations with ozone and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}); however, direct relationships between worsening asthma and air toxic ambient levels were not established. Possible respiratory health effects associated with air toxics will require considerably more investigation, especially in the area of human exposure assessment. Two major recommendations for future research resulted form this workshop and an accompanying NUATRC Scientific Advisory Panel meeting: a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that accurate determinations of actual personal exposures to various pollutants can be made; and a need for field experiments utilizing biomarkers of exposure and effect to more accurately assess the extent and variability of the biological effects, if any, of individual air toxics. 8 refs.

  1. The National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, much attention has been directed at understanding the impact of mobile sources on near-road air quality, especially PM and its components, NOx and CO, but little information exists for mobile source air toxics (MSATs). MSATs of interest to this project are 1,3-butadiene...

  2. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  3. Biodegradation of toxic organic compounds using electrolytic respirometry

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that may affect the concentration of a chemical in an aquatic system. Of all these mechanisms, biodegradation is the most important because it can mineralize toxic pollutants and render them harmless. Experiments have been conducted using an electrolytic respirometer to collect oxygen uptake data of 56 toxic compounds. Biokinetic parameters; maximum specific rate constant, {mu}m, half saturation constant, K{sub s} and yield coefficient, Y were determined for 27 compounds which degraded under experimental conditions. The effect of different factors; temperature, compound concentration, biomass concentration and biomass source, on kinetic constant have been studied for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, phenol, 2,4-dimethyl phenol, resorcinol and dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and butyl benzyl phthalates. The results obtained will help in design of wastewater treatment plant and in determining the fate of these toxic compounds in natural and engineered environments. A method based on group contribution, to predict first-order biodegradation rate constant and Monod constants is developed and validated. More kinetic data is required to further extend this prediction method.

  4. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of silver compounds: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Ratte, H.T.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed that bioaccumulation of silver in soil is rather low, even if the soil is amended with silver-containing sewage sludge. Plants grown on tailings of silver mines were found to have silver primarily in the root systems. In marine and freshwater systems, the highest reported bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were observed in algae, probably because of adsorption of the dissolved silver to the cell surface. In herbivorous organisms, the BCF was lower by about two orders of magnitude. Low amounts of silver were assimilated from food with no substantial biomagnification. In carnivores (e.g., fish), the BCF was also lower by one order of magnitude with no indication of biomagnification. Toxicity of silver occurs mainly in the aqueous phase and depends on the concentration of active, free Ag{sup +} ions. Accordingly, many processes and water characteristics reduce silver toxicity by stopping the formation of free Ag{sup +}, binding Ag{sup +}, or preventing binding of Ag{sup +} to the reactive surfaces of organisms. The solubility of a silver compound, and the presence of complexing agents dissolved organic carbon, and competing ions are important. In soil, sewage sludge, and sediment, in which silver sulfide predominates, the toxicity of silver, even at high total concentrations, is very low. The highly soluble silver thiosulfate complex has low toxicity, which can be attributed to the silver complexed by thiosulfate. Silver nitrate is one of the most toxic silver compounds. The toxic potential of silver chloride complexes in seawater is and will be an important issue for investigation. Aquatic chronic tests, long-term tests, and tests including sensitive life stages show lower toxicity thresholds. The organisms viewed as most sensitive to silver are small aquatic invertebrates, particularly embryonic and larval stages.

  5. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  6. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-08-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  7. Toxicity of Compound 1080 livestock protection collars to sheep.

    PubMed

    Burns, R J; Connolly, G E

    1995-02-01

    The toxicity of Compound 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) livestock protection collars (LPCs) to sheep was investigated. Lambs wearing punctured LPCs were observed to determine dermal toxicity, sheep were fed hay treated with LPC solution to find a lethal concentration, hay treated with a lethal concentration was subjected to sun and simulated rain to assess weathering influences, and sheep were held on pasture treated with LPC solution to evaluate grazing effects. Five lambs that wore punctured LPCs for up to seven days showed no dermal erythema or edema, but three died after ingesting 1080 from LPCs. All sheep died after eating 1.0 kg of hay treated with 3.75 ml, or more, of 1.0% LPC solution. Weathering 1.0 kg of hay treated with 3.75 ml of LPC solution in the sun for up to 12 weeks, reduced, but did not eliminate, toxicity; one inch or more of simulated rain eliminated toxicity. Survival of sheep in 250 m2 pens containing 1.1 m2 of forage treated with different amounts of LPC solution depended on the treatment and amount of treated forage consumed. LPC solution poses no dermal toxicity or irritation to sheep, and toxic effects on sheep from LPC solution on hay and forage was variable and situation dependent. Under conditions of exaggerated hazard, sheep can be poisoned by ingesting LPC solution, but adverse effects from normal LPC use are rare.

  8. EVALUATION OF CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducts and sponsors research on technology to reduce or eliminate emissions of potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from industrial/commercial sources. The r...

  9. Toxicity of six heterocyclic nitrogen compounds to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, C.M.; Smith, S.B.

    1988-10-01

    The authors determined the relative toxicities to the aquatic crustacean Daphnia pulex of the six heterocyclic nitrogen compounds: 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridine (nicotine), 2-pyrrolidinone, 1-methylpyrrolidine, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyridine, 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyridine, and 2-amino-4,7(1H,8H)-pteridinedione(isoxanthopterin). These compounds were selected because they were detected in lake trout or walleyes and were commercially available. Daphnia pulex was used as the test organism because it is endemic to the Great Lakes, is easy to culture, has parthenogenic reproduction, constant genetic makeup over generations, and is sensitive to ecological stress.

  10. Air toxics and asthma: impacts and end points.

    PubMed

    Eschenbacher, W L; Holian, A; Campion, R J

    1995-09-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted a medical/scientific workshop focused on possible asthma/air toxics relationships, with the results of the NUATRC's first research contract with the University of Cincinnati as the point of discussion. The workshop was held at the Texas Medical Center on 4 February 1994 and featured presentations by distinguished academic, government, and industry scientists. This one-day session explored the impact of various environmental factors, including air toxics, on asthma incidence and exacerbation; an emphasis was placed on future research directions to be pursued in the asthma/air toxics area. A key research presentation on the association of air toxics and asthma, based on the study sponsored by NUATRC, was given by Dr. George Leikauf of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Additional presentations were made by H. A. Boushey, Jr., Cardiovascular Research Institute/University of California at San Francisco, who spoke on of the Basic Mechanisms of Asthma; K. Sexton, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who spoke on hazardous air pollutants: science/policy interface; and D. V. Bates, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology at the University of British Columbia, who spoke on asthma epidemiology. H. Koren, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and M. Yeung, of the Respiratory Division/University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, discussed occupational health impacts on asthma. Doyle Pendleton, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, reviewed air quality measurements in Texas. The information presented at the workshop suggested a possible association of asthma exacerbations with ozone and particulate matter (PM10); however, direct relationships between worsening asthma and air toxic ambient levels were not established. Possible respiratory health effects associated with air toxics will require considerably more investigation, especially in the area of human exposure assessment

  11. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  12. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  13. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, G D; Kline, S; Albert, R E; Baxter, C S; Bernstein, D I; Buncher, C R

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admissions or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. Inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SOx, NOx, O3, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM10)] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particulate and gaseous air toxics, has been associated with an increase in asthma among children. In addition, current associations of adverse health effects with existing pollution measurements are often noted at concentrations below those that produce effects in controlled animal and human exposures to each pollutant alone. These findings imply that adverse responses are augmented when persons are exposed to irritant mixtures of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. An evaluation of dose-response information for urban air toxics and biological

  14. AIR QUALITY MODELING OF PM AND AIR TOXICS AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current interest in fine particles and toxics pollutants provide an impetus for extending air quality modeling capability towards improving exposure modeling and assessments. Human exposure models require information on concentration derived from interpolation of observati...

  15. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  16. In vitro toxicity and transformation potency of nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, K; Stern, R M

    1983-01-01

    An in vitro bioassay utilizing BHK-21 cells in culture is used to determine the relative transformation potential of a number of nickel compounds including, as relatively insoluble particulates a known carcinogen (Ni3S2) and several oxides either of commercial interest or found in the working environment in the metal industry (e.g., NiO), and a soluble salt [Ni(CH3COO)2]. Although a wide range of transformation potency is found as a function of the dose of Ni per area of culture, all substances produce the same number of transformed colonies at the same degree of toxicity (e.g., 50% survival). If toxicity is a direct measure of intracellular concentration, then apparently nickel per se is the ultimate transforming agent independent of source or uptake mechanism. PMID:6641656

  17. Integrating the federal and California air toxics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses California`s existing air toxic program and presents an approach for integrating the program with the federal program. Competitiveness can be enhanced by a strong federal program, but a smooth integration is essential to maintain an effective state program. Flexibility and good communication are essential to ensure a smooth integration and successful implementation.

  18. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  19. A novel energy-efficient plasma chemical process for the destruction of volatile toxic compounds. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1998-06-01

    'Removal of low-concentrations (below several percent) of volatile toxic compounds (VTCs) from contaminated air streams is encountered at DOE waste sites in two instances: (1) off-gases resulting from air-stripping of contaminated soils; and (2) effluent from the incineration of highly-concentrated combustible hazardous wastes The objective of the research program is to develop a novel plasma chemical process for the destruction of VTC''s in low-concentration waste streams.'

  20. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  1. Use of NMR techniques for toxic organophosphorus compound profiling.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri

    2010-05-15

    This review presents with selected examples the versatility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the analysis of toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds, i.e. OP pesticides and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Several NMR applications of biological importance, like studies on inhibition mechanism, metabolism, and exposure determination, are presented. The review also concerns with the environmental analysis of OP compounds by NMR spectroscopy. Residue analysis of environment and food samples as well as characterization of degradation in environment is discussed. Some of the NMR studies that have been done to support the Chemical Weapons Convention, i.e. the development of suitable CWA detoxification means and the method development of verification analysis for CWAs and their degradation products, are outlined. PMID:19939751

  2. Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

    1973-01-01

    A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

  3. POPULATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODEL FOR AIR TOXICS: A BENZENE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing a human exposure and dose model called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) to characterize population exposure to air toxics in support of the National Air ...

  4. Measurement of air toxics using extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lacoss, J.P.; Ogle, L.D.; Shareef, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is investigating air toxics emissions from natural gas industry sources. Included in this effort are measurements from internal combustion engines, one of the source categories targeted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) based regulations by the year 2000. Formaldehyde and other aldehydes are the air toxics potentially present in engine exhaust. Since there are no EPA approved methods available for quantifying aldehydes in engine exhaust, GRI initiated a field test to validate an extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) based method according to U.S. EPA Method 301 {open_quotes}Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods for Various Media{close_quotes}. The extended paper presents the results of this validation testing for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein conducted to support this validation testing.

  5. [Evaluation of pulmonary toxicity of heavy metal compounds].

    PubMed

    Hirano, S

    1996-02-01

    The present report describes toxicological approaches to evaluate inflammatory potency of heavy metal compounds deposited in the lung. Although inhalation exposure is a well-accepted method to study effects of pulmonary toxicants, it requires expensive facilities and many man-hours to complete experiments. Intratracheal (i.t.) instillation, an alternative and simple method to expose animals to toxicants via airways, has been proved to be useful to investigate the pulmonary clearance of heavy metals. However, acute inhalation exposure caused more severe inflammatory lung injury than i. t. instillation when the same amount of nickel sulfate was administered in the rat. Among several biochemical inflammatory indices such as some enzyme activities and the protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity increased linearly with a wide range of doses of heavy metals. The increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in BAL fluid, a cytological index of inflammatory responses of the lung, is believed to reflect pulmonary toxicity of heavy metals. However, more extensive study is required to elucidate the mechanism of transpulmonary PMN infiltration upon heavy metal insult. In addition to the linearity between LDH activity in BAL fluid and doses of heavy metals, the increase in this cytosolic enzyme activity is associated with cell lysis in the bronchoalveolar milieu and appears to be the best index to evaluate pulmonary inflammatory potency of heavy metals.

  6. Toxic air contaminants in urban atmospheres: Experience in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiber, James N.

    In addition to the criteria gaseous and particulate air pollutants which have been the subject of intensive regulation for many years in the U.S., there exists in the atmosphere of cities and surrounding areas a number of trace toxic contaminants which are of increasing public health and regulatory concern. In California, these Toxic Air Contaminants (TACs) are assessed and regulated by a multi-step process required by legislation. Risk assessment for chemicals which are considered potential TACs involves the gathering and analysis of information on emissions, exposures, toxicology, and epidemiology by two California Agencies, the Air Resources Board and Department of Health Services (now linked by the California Environmental Protection Agency) and an independent Scientific Review Panel. Eighteen chemicals have been designated as TACs since the process started in 1982, including perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, and 1,3-butadiene which are mentioned in some detail in this review. Future challenges for risk assessment and management are posed by such issues as gross mixtures, for example, from products of incomplete combustion; transport and deposition out of the originating air basin; contributions of natural sources to ambient levels; and the impact of the list of 189 hazardous air pollutants in the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments on California's TAC identification-regulation process. The issues involved in a vigorous pursuit of risk reduction from TACs are discussed based upon experience in California.

  7. Within compound, from Guard Tower, looking north Beale Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower, looking north - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  8. Low-Toxicity Diindol-3-ylmethanes as Potent Antifouling Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Li, Yongxin; Han, Zhuang; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, eight natural products that belonged to di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) family were isolated from Pseudovibrio denitrificans UST4-50 and tested for their antifouling activity against larval settlement (including both attachment and metamorphosis) of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. All diindol-3-ylmethanes (DIMs) showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 18.57 to 1.86 μM and could be considered as low-toxicity antifouling compounds since their LC50/EC50 ratios were larger than 15. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4-(di(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (DIM-Ph-4-OH)-treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h. DIM also showed comparable antifouling performance to the commercial antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211(™) in the field test over a period of 5 months, which further confirmed that DIMs can be considered as promising candidates of environmentally friendly antifouling compounds.

  9. Low-Toxicity Diindol-3-ylmethanes as Potent Antifouling Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Li, Yongxin; Han, Zhuang; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, eight natural products that belonged to di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) family were isolated from Pseudovibrio denitrificans UST4-50 and tested for their antifouling activity against larval settlement (including both attachment and metamorphosis) of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. All diindol-3-ylmethanes (DIMs) showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 18.57 to 1.86 μM and could be considered as low-toxicity antifouling compounds since their LC50/EC50 ratios were larger than 15. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4-(di(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (DIM-Ph-4-OH)-treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h. DIM also showed comparable antifouling performance to the commercial antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211(™) in the field test over a period of 5 months, which further confirmed that DIMs can be considered as promising candidates of environmentally friendly antifouling compounds. PMID:26239187

  10. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed

  11. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  12. Concentrations of air toxics in motor vehicle-dominated environments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Arnott, William P; Chow, Judith C

    2011-02-01

    We at the Desert Research Institute (DRI*) measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including several mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), particulate matter with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) on highways in Los Angeles County during summer and fall 2004, to characterize the diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations related to volume and mix of traffic. Concentrations of on-road pollutants were then compared to corresponding measurements at fixed monitoring sites. The on-road concentrations of CO and MSATs were higher in the morning under stable atmospheric conditions and during periods of higher traffic volumes. In contrast, BC concentrations, measured as particulate light absorption, were higher on truck routes during the midday sampling periods despite more unstable atmospheric conditions. Compared to the measurements at the three near-road sites, the 1-hour averages of on-road BC concentrations were as much as an order of magnitude higher. The peak 1-minute average concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher for BC and were between two and six times higher for PM2.5 mass. The on-road concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during the summer were 3.5 +/- 0.7 and 1.2 +/- 0.6 times higher during morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively, compared to annual average 24-hour concentrations measured at air toxic monitoring network sites. These ratios were higher during the fall, with smaller diurnal differences (4.8 +/- 0.7 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 for morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively). Ratios similar to those for BTEX were obtained for 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene. On-road concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were up to two times higher than at air toxics monitoring sites, with fall ratios slightly higher than summer ratios. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor

  13. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  14. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  15. SIMULATING URBAN AIR TOXICS OVER CONTINENTAL AND URBAN SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is evaluating a version of the CMAQ model to support risk assessment for the exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The model uses a variant of the CB4 chemical mechanism to simulate ambient concentrations of twenty HAPs that exist primarily as gaseous compounds...

  16. Exposure, metabolism, and toxicity of rare earths and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, S; Suzuki, K T

    1996-01-01

    For the past three decades, most attention in heavy metal toxicology has been paid to cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and tin because these metals widely polluted the environment. However, with the development of new materials in the last decade, the need for toxicological studies on those new materials has been increasing. A group of rare earths (RE) is a good example. Although some RE have been used for superconductors, plastic magnets, and ceramics, few toxicological data are available compared to other heavy metals described above. Because chemical properties of RE are very similar, it is plausible that their binding affinities to biomolecules, metabolism, and toxicity in the living system are also very similar. In this report, we present an overview of the metabolism and health hazards of RE and related compounds, including our recent studies. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C PMID:8722113

  17. Air toxics emissions from gas-fired engines

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, H.N. Jr. )

    1992-07-01

    In 1190, 14 natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines (ICE's) in oilfield service were tested in Santa Barbara County, CA, to satisfy California air toxics legislation. The combustion exhaust was tested for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, xylences, naphthalene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel was tested for aromatics to enable calculation of destruction efficiencies. Two-stroke and four-stroke engines were tested. Four-stroke engines ranging from 39 to 208 hp were used in pumping unit and constant load service. Emissions from four-stroke engines were unrelated to size and service. The two-stroke engines produced considerably higher emissions than the four-stroke engines. This paper reports that test results indicate natural-gas-fired ICE's produce toxic substances in small amounts. Formaldehyde and benzene dominated the toxic emission profile.

  18. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2 μg cm−2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μg ml−1) and to 0.7 μg cm−2 silver or 2.1 μg cm−2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

  19. Identifying developmental vascular disruptor compounds using a predictive signature and alternative toxicity models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying Developmental Vascular Disruptor Compounds Using a Predictive Signature and Alternative Toxicity Models Presenting Author: Tamara Tal Affiliation: U.S. EPA/ORD/ISTD, RTP, NC, USA Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide...

  20. Mobile Laboratory Measurements of On-Road Vehicle Air Toxics Emissions in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.; Herndon, S. C.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, B.; Marr, L. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The direct emission of toxic organic pollutants from mobile sources is an issue of growing concern. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have identified formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, acrolein, 1.3 butadiene, and diesel particulate matter (PM), including associated organic compounds, as mobile emissions of priority concern. Real-time trace gas and fine PM sensors deployed on the Aerodyne Research Mobile Laboratory have been used to characterize both fleet average and individual vehicle class on-road emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and diesel particulate matter (PM), including associated organic compounds in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Data for these air toxics emissions will be reviewed and compared to similar data taken in Boston and New York City, where available. The prospects for future on-road real-time monitoring of acroleinand1.3 butadiene will be discussed.

  1. Discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level for ionizable compounds: Effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin J; Zhang, Xu J; Wang, Xiao H; Wang, Shuo; Yu, Yang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2016-03-01

    The toxic effect can be affected by pH in water through affecting the degree of ionization of ionizable compounds. Wrong classification of mode of action can be made from the apparent toxicities. In this paper, the toxicity data of 61 compounds to Daphnia magna determined at three pH values were used to investigate the effect of pH on the discrimination of excess toxicity. The results show that the apparent toxicities are significantly less than the baseline level. Analysis on the effect of pH on bioconcentration factor (BCF) shows that the log BCF values are significantly over-estimated for the strongly ionizable compounds, leading to the apparent toxicities greatly less than the baseline toxicities and the toxic ratios greatly less than zero. A theoretical equation between the apparent toxicities and pH has been developed basing on the critical body residue (CBR). The apparent toxicities are non-linearly related to pH, but linearly to fraction of unionized form. The determined apparent toxicities are well fitted with the toxicities predicted by the equation. The toxicities in the unionized form calculated from the equation are close to, or greater than the baseline level for almost all the strongly ionizable compounds, which are very different from the apparent toxicities. The studied ionizable compounds can be either classified as baseline, less inert or reactive compounds in D. magna toxicity. Some ionizable compounds do not exhibit excess toxicity at a certain pH, due not to their poor reactivity with target molecules, but because of the ionization in water.

  2. A32A-0126: A BIOGENIC ROLE IN EXPOSURE TO TWO TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic sources play an important role in ozone and particulate concentrations through emissions of volatile organic compounds. The same emissions also contribute to chronic toxic exposures from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde because each compound arises through primary and sec...

  3. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  4. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

  5. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Tom; DeVera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel; Beck, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  6. International Space Station Air Quality Assessed According to Toxicologically-Grouped Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Beck, Steve; Cheng, Patti F.; deVera, Vanessa J.; Hand, Jennifer; Macatangay, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Scores of compounds are found in the International Space Station (ISS) atmospheric samples that are returned to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory for analysis. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are set with the view that each compound is present as if there were no other compounds present. In order to apply SMACs to the interpretation of the analytical data, the toxicologist must employ some method of combining the potential effects of the aggregate of compounds found in the atmospheric samples. The simplest approach is to assume that each quantifiable compound has the potential for some effect in proportion to the applicable SMAC, and then add all the proportions. This simple paradigm disregards the fact that most compounds have potential to adversely affect only a few physiological systems, and their effects would be independent rather than additive. An improved approach to dealing with exposure to mixtures is to add the proportions only for compounds that adversely affect the same physiological system. For example, toxicants that cause respiratory irritation are separated from those that cause neurotoxicity or cardio-toxicity. Herein we analyze ISS air quality data according to toxicological groups with a view that this could be used for understanding any crew symptoms occurring at the time of the sample acquisition. In addition, this approach could be useful in post-flight longitudinal surveys where the flight surgeon may need to identify post-flight, follow-up medical studies because of on-orbit exposures that target specific physiological systems.

  7. Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program. PMID:24959874

  8. Tropospheric gas at potentially toxic levels in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    Forest fires and emission of air pollutants, such as fumes from vehicles running on diesel and slow burning of coal and charcoal, release isocyanic acid in the troposphere. In 2011, scientists first detected isocyanic acid in the ambient atmosphere at levels toxic to human populations; at concentrations exceeding 1 part per billion by volume (ppbv), human beings could experience tissue decay when exposed to the toxin. For the first time, using a chemical transport model designed to estimate the distribution and budget of isocyanic acid in the troposphere, Young et al. showed that in several parts of the world, local emissions may increase the concentration of isocyanic acid in the ambient atmosphere, thereby exposing large populations to potentially toxic levels of the acid.

  9. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  10. Biocatalytic synthesis of polycatechols from toxic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ward, Gary; Parales, Rebecca E; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2004-09-15

    A process is described in which toxic aromatic compounds are converted by toluene dioxygenase and in turn toluene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase to catechols which are further polymerized by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation producing polycatechols. Three approaches for obtaining catechols were employed: (1) addition of halogenated aromatics to P. putida F1, resulting in the accumulation of halogenated catechols; (2) inhibition of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase of P. putida F1 by known aromatic and aliphatic inhibitors; and (3) overexpression of toluene dioxygenase and toluene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase genes in E. coli JM109. The process is suitable for producing novel catechols that upon oxidation may yield polymers with unique properties, presenting a tool for producing tailor-made biopolymers. Formation of 3-chlorocatechol from chlorobenzene, 3,4-dichlorocatechol from 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and catechol from benzene and their subsequent oxidation and polymerization was demonstrated. Oxidation of catechol yielded polymers with molecular weights of up to 4000 Daltons. Their apparently high water solubility eliminates the need for water-miscible solvents. In aqueous solution oxidation of catechols was rapid, yet the presence of 20%, 30%, and 40% ethanol, resulted in a rate decrease of 31%, 95%, and 93%, respectively. The advantage is that significantly less peroxidase is required for performing the reactions if miscible solvents are not employed. Furthermore, water-soluble polymers may be desirable for many applications.

  11. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  12. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  13. Spatial variations of particulate matter and air toxics in communities adjacent to the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Lau, Virginia; Martien, Philip T

    2013-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) sponsored the West Oakland Monitoring Study (WOMS) to provide supplemental air quality monitoring that will be used by the BAAQMD to evaluate local-scale dispersion modeling of diesel emissions and other toxic air contaminants for the area within and around the Port of Oakland. The WOMS was conducted during two seasonal periods of 4 weeks in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Monitoring data showed spatial patterns of pollutant concentrations that were generally consistent with proximity to vehicle traffic. Concentrations of directly emitted pollutants were highest on heavily traveled roads with consistently lower concentrations away from the roadways. Pollutants that have higher emission rates from diesel trucks (nitric oxide, black carbon) tended to exhibit sharper gradients than pollutants that are largely associated with gasoline vehicles, such as carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX concentrations in West Oakland were similar to those measured at the three air toxics monitoring network sites in the Bay Area (San Francisco, Fremont, and San Jose). Aldehyde levels were higher in Fremont and San Jose than in West Oakland, reflecting greater contributions from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons downwind of the Bay Area. A 2005 modeling-based health risk assessment of diesel particulate matter concentrations is consistent with aerosol carbon concentrations measured during the WOMS after adjusting for recent mitigation measures and improved estimates of heavy-duty truck traffic volumes.

  14. Distribution of toxic and radiation components in air particulates.

    PubMed

    Rausch, H; Sziklai, I L; Borossay, J; Torkos, K; Rikker, T; Zemplén-Papp, E

    1995-12-01

    The concentrations of several toxic heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various types of Hungarian fly-ash fine particulates were investigated by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. Within a power station, particulate samples were taken from the boiler zone (BO), from the electrostatic dust filter chamber (FI) and from the flue-gas at the top of the stack (ST). Enrichment rates of the toxic metals both in FI and ST particulate fractions related to the BO concentrations were calculated to enable the temperature dependence on the adsorption of the toxic components to be studied. In addition, both the total amounts of the VOCs and their partial distributions in accordance with the number of carbon atoms were also studied in fly-ash particulates. From them, 31 organic species were identified and determined. Since Hungarian brown coals have high uranium and thorium contents, the specific radioactivities of the daughter isotopes of both the 232Th and 238U decay series were also measured and are discussed.

  15. Heterocyclic compounds: toxic effects using algae, daphnids, and the Salmonella/microsome test taking methodical quantitative aspects into account.

    PubMed

    Eisentraeger, Adolf; Brinkmann, Corinna; Hollert, Henner; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Neuwoehner, Judith

    2008-07-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen (NSO-HET), have been detected in air, soil, sewage sludge, marine environments, and freshwater sediments. Since toxicity data on this class of substances are scarce, the present study focuses on possible implications NSO-HET have for ecotoxicity (algae and daphnids) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/microsome test). A combination of bioassays and chemical-analytical quantification of the test compounds during toxicity assays should aid in determination of the hazard potential. Samples of the test concentrations of 14 NSO-HET were taken at the beginning and end of the bioassays; these samples were then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The toxicity potential of the substances was evaluated and compared with the toxicity calculated with the nominal concentrations. Significantly different results were obtained primarily for volatile or highly hydrophobic NSO-HET. The concentration of heterocyclic hydrocarbons can change significantly during the algae and Daphnia test. The EC50 values (effective concentration value: the concentration of a chemical that is required to produce a 50% effect) calculated with the nominal concentrations underestimate the toxicity by a factor of up to 50. Prioritizing the tested compounds according to toxicity, the mutagenic and toxic compounds quinoline, 6-methylquinoline, and xanthene have to be listed first. The greatest ecotoxic potential on algae and daphnids was determined for dibenzothiophene followed by acridine. In the Daphnia magna immobilization test, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, 2-methylbenzofuran, and 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran and also carbazole are ecotoxicologically relevant with EC50 values below 10 mg/L. These substances are followed by indole with a high ecotoxic effect to daphnids and less effect to algae. Only minor toxic effects were observed for 2-methylpyridine and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine.

  16. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Kline, S.; Albert, R.E.; Baxter, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admission or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SO{sub x}NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM{sub 10})] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. 179 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. 3 CFR - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air... Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule Memorandum for the Administrator of... the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule for power plants (the “MATS Rule”) represents a...

  18. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  19. Multisorbent tubes for collecting volatile organic compounds in spacecraft air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. L.; Beck, S. W.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    2000-01-01

    The sampling capability of Tenax-TA tubes, used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's solid sorbent air sampler to trap and concentrate contaminants from air aboard spacecraft, was improved by incorporating two sorbents within the tubes. Existing tubes containing only Tenax-TA allowed highly volatile compounds to "break through" during collection of a 1.5 L air sample. First the carbon molecular sieve-type sorbents Carboxen 569 and Carbosieve S-III were tested for their ability to quantitatively trap the highly volatile compounds. Breakthrough volumes were determined with the direct method, whereby low ppm levels of methanol or Freon 12 in nitrogen were flowed through the sorbent tubes at 30 mL/min, and breakthrough was detected by gas chromatography. Breakthrough volumes for methanol were about 9 L/g on Carboxen 569 and 11 L/g on Carbosieve S-III; breakthrough volumes for Freon 12 were about 7 L/g on Carboxen 569 and > 26 L/g on Carbosieve S-III. Next, dual-bed tubes containing either Tenax-TA/Carbosieve S-III, Tenax-TA/Carboxen 569, or Carbotrap/Carboxen 569 to a 10-component gas mixture were exposed, in dry and in humidified air (50% relative humidity), and percentage recoveries of each compound were determined. The Tenax-TA/Carboxen 569 combination gave the best overall recoveries (75-114% for the 10 compounds). Acetaldehyde had the lowest recovery (75%) of the 10 compounds, but this value was still an improvement over either the other two sorbent combinations or the original single-sorbent tubes.

  20. Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review ofconcentrations measured in North America since 1990

    SciTech Connect

    ATHodgson@lbl.gov

    2003-04-01

    Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed. Data were obtained from published cross-sectional studies of residential and office buildings conducted in North America from 1990through the present. VOC concentrations in existing residences reported in 12 studies comprise the majority of the data set. Central tendency and maximum concentrations are compared between new and existing residences and between existing residences and office buildings. Historical changes in indoor VOC concentrations since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are explored by comparing the current data set with two published reviews of previous data obtained primarily in the 1980s. These historical comparisons suggest average indoor concentrations of some toxic air contaminants, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane have decreased.

  1. Polyfluorinated compounds in residential and nonresidential indoor air.

    PubMed

    Langer, Vera; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-11-01

    Indoor air concentrations of fifteen volatile per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (five fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), three fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), three perfluorinated sulfonamido ethanols (FASEs), and three perfluorinated sulfonamides (FASAs)) were determined in residential and nonresidential indoor air environments. Air samples were taken with passive samplers, consisting of XAD-4 impregnated polyurethane foam (PUF) disks in steel housings. Impregnated PUF disks were extracted by fluidized bed extraction (FBE) using methyl-tert-butyl ether/acetone (1:1) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total PFC indoor air concentrations ranged from 8.2 to 458 ng m(-3). Individual PFC concentrations were between 42 pg m(-3) (6:2 FTA) and 209 ng m(-3) (8:2 FTOH). Concentrations of total FTOHs, FTAs, and FASAs + FASEs ranged from 0.2 to 152 ng m(-3) (FTAs), from 3.3 to 307 ng m(-3) (FTOHs), and from 4.4 to 148 ng m(-3) (FASAs + FASEs). Most elevated individual, group, and total PFC concentrations were detected in two stores selling outdoor equipment, one furniture shop, and one carpet shop. Indoor air concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher than published outdoor air concentrations indicating indoor air environments as sources for PFCs to the atmosphere. Concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to investigated PFCs.

  2. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    PubMed

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process.

  3. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    SciTech Connect

    Corburn, Jason . E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

    2007-03-15

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

  4. Investigation on modes of toxic action to rats based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds and comparison with fish toxicity based on exposure routes.

    PubMed

    He, Jia; Li, Jin J; Wen, Yang; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-06-01

    The modes of toxic action (MOAs) play an important role in the assessment of the ecotoxicity of organic pollutants. However, few studies have been reported on the MOAs in rat toxicity. In this paper, the toxic contributions of functional groups in 1255 aromatic compounds were calculated from regression and were then compared with the toxic contributions in aliphatic compounds. The results show that some functional groups have same toxic contributions both in aromatic and aliphatic compounds, but some have not. To investigate the MOAs in rat toxicity, the distribution of toxic ratio (TR) was examined for well-known baseline and less inert compounds and thresholds of log TR=0.3 and 0.5 were used to classify baseline, less inert and reactive compounds. The results showed that some compounds identified as baseline compounds in fish toxicity were also classified as baseline compounds in rat toxicity. Except for phenols and anilines which were identified as less inert compounds in fish toxicity, aromatic compounds with functional groups such as ether, nitrile, nitrophenol, isocyanatoe and chloro were identified as less inert chemicals in rat toxicity. Reactive compounds identified in fish toxicity exhibit greater toxicity to rats. These compounds can undergo nucleophilic substitution, acylation and Schiff base formation with biological macromolecules. The critical body residues (CBRs) calculated from absorption and bioconcentration show that log 1/CBRs in rat toxicity are not equal to that in fish for some compounds. It suggests that the exposure route can affect the identification of MOAs between these two species for these compounds.

  5. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  6. Analysis and prediction of structure-reactive toxicity relationships of substituted aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.T.; Wang, L.S.; Chen, S.P.; Li, W.; Yu, H.X.

    1996-12-31

    The fundamental differentiation of toxicity is between reactive and nonreactive toxicity. Reactive toxicity is associated with a specific mechanism for the reaction with an enzyme or inhibition of a metabolic pathway, and nonreactive toxicity is related directly to the quantity of toxicant acting upon the cell. The quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been successfully used in the nonreactive toxicity, such as prediction of the toxicity of nonreactive compounds based on their solubility in the lipids of organisms. The elements of molecular structure that are most closely related to nonreactive toxicity are those that describe the partitioning of the toxicant into the organism, while QSARs for the reactive toxicity are less common in the environmental toxicology literature. With the recent increase in the use of synthetic substituted benzenes as industrial chemicals, the accurate analysis of the effect of reactive toxic chemicals has become recognized with QSAR. For this purpose, we selected the fish (Carassias auratus) as the test organism, measured the acute toxicity of 50% lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) of the chemicals and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the liver cells for the organism. These determined the relationships of the acute toxicity of some substituted benzenes with their physicochemical structural parameters. The effects on the ATP content was also compared to predict biological reactivities of the chemicals, so as to find some clues to explain the mode of mechanism of the toxicity. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  8. A model to predict rate of dissolution of toxic compounds into seawater from an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Riazi, M R; Roomi, Y A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a semianalytical model has been proposed to predict the rate at which oil components dissolve in water when an oil spill occurs in a marine environment. The model breaks the oil into a number of pseudocomponents proportional to the number of compounds originally present in the oil and calculates the rate of dissolution for each component. In addition, the components are divided into paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbon types and the amount of dissolution of each pseudocomponent is calculated versus time. In this method the concentration of most toxic components of oil (mainly monoaromatics) is determined. The model considers variable surface area and slick thickness and requires oil specifications (i.e., American Petroleum Institute [API] gravity and boiling point) in addition to air and water temperatures and speeds. The model has been applied to a Kuwaiti crude oil and its products naphtha and kerosene samples at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The results could be useful in selection of an appropriate method for oil spill clean up as well as simulation of environmental impact of oil spill from toxicity points of view. PMID:19037808

  9. Air quality modeling of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the Houston urban and industrial airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarfa, Violeta Florentina

    2007-12-01

    Air toxics, also called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Their study is important in the Houston area, where point sources, mostly located along the Ship Channel, mobile and area sources contribute to large emissions of such toxic pollutants. Previous studies carried out in this area found dangerous levels of different HAPs in the atmosphere. This thesis presents several studies that were performed for the aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the HGA. For these studies we developed several tools: (1) a refined chemical mechanism, which explicitly represents 18 aromatic air toxics that were lumped under two model species by the previous version, based on their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical; (2) an engineering version of an existing air toxics photochemical model that enables us to perform much faster long-term simulations compared to the original model, that leads to a 8--9 times improvement in the running time across different computing platforms; (3) a combined emission inventory based on the available emission databases. Using the developed tools, we quantified the mobile source impact on a few selected air toxics, and analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in a few regions within the Houston area; these regions were characterized by different emissions and environmental conditions.

  10. Air-sea transfer of gas phase controlled compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Bell, T. G.; Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Brooks, I. M.; Nightingale, P. D.

    2016-05-01

    Gases in the atmosphere/ocean have solubility that spans several orders of magnitude. Resistance in the molecular sublayer on the waterside limits the air-sea exchange of sparingly soluble gases such as SF6 and CO2. In contrast, both aerodynamic and molecular diffusive resistances on the airside limit the exchange of highly soluble gases (as well as heat). Here we present direct measurements of air-sea methanol and acetone transfer from two open cruises: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The transfer of the highly soluble methanol is essentially completely airside controlled, while the less soluble acetone is subject to both airside and waterside resistances. Both compounds were measured concurrently using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer, with their fluxes quantified by the eddy covariance method. Up to a wind speed of 15 m s-1, observed air-sea transfer velocities of these two gases are largely consistent with the expected near linear wind speed dependence. Measured acetone transfer velocity is ∼30% lower than that of methanol, which is primarily due to the lower solubility of acetone. From this difference we estimate the “zero bubble” waterside transfer velocity, which agrees fairly well with interfacial gas transfer velocities predicted by the COARE model. At wind speeds above 15 m s-1, the transfer velocities of both compounds are lower than expected in the mean. Air-sea transfer of sensible heat (also airside controlled) also appears to be reduced at wind speeds over 20 m s-1. During these conditions, large waves and abundant whitecaps generate large amounts of sea spray, which is predicted to alter heat transfer and could also affect the air-sea exchange of soluble trace gases. We make an order of magnitude estimate for the impacts of sea spray on air-sea methanol transfer.

  11. Acute Neurobehavorial Toxicity of Flame Retardant Replacement Compounds in Zebrafish Larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are phased out, numerous compounds areemerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronicproducts. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of thesereplacements. This study evaluated t...

  12. Plant-Associated Bacterial Degradation of Toxic Organic Compounds in Soil

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Martina; Dowling, David

    2009-01-01

    A number of toxic synthetic organic compounds can contaminate environmental soil through either local (e.g., industrial) or diffuse (e.g., agricultural) contamination. Increased levels of these toxic organic compounds in the environment have been associated with human health risks including cancer. Plant-associated bacteria, such as endophytic bacteria (non-pathogenic bacteria that occur naturally in plants) and rhizospheric bacteria (bacteria that live on and near the roots of plants), have been shown to contribute to biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil and could have potential for improving phytoremediation. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds (either naturally occurring or genetically enhanced) in contaminated soil in the environment could have positive implications for human health worldwide and is the subject of this review. PMID:19742157

  13. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity of soluble and insoluble cobalt compounds.

    PubMed

    Behl, Mamta; Stout, Matthew D; Herbert, Ronald A; Dill, Jeffrey A; Baker, Gregory L; Hayden, Barry K; Roycroft, Joseph H; Bucher, John R; Hooth, Michelle J

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure to cobalt is of widespread concern due to its use in a variety of industrial processes and the occurrence of occupational disease. Due to the lack of toxicity and carcinogenicity data following exposure to cobalt, and questions regarding bioavailability following exposure to different forms of cobalt, the NTP conducted two chronic inhalation exposure studies in rats and mice, one on soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate, and a more recent study on insoluble cobalt metal. Herein, we compare and contrast the toxicity profiles following whole-body inhalation exposures to these two forms of cobalt. In general, both forms were genotoxic in the Salmonella T98 strain in the absence of effects on micronuclei. The major sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity in both chronic inhalation studies were the respiratory tract in rats and mice, and the adrenal gland in rats. In addition, there were distinct sites of toxicity and carcinogenicity noted following exposure to cobalt metal. In rats, carcinogenicity was observed in the blood, and pancreas, and toxicity was observed in the testes of rats and mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that both forms of cobalt, soluble and insoluble, appear to be multi-site rodent carcinogens following inhalation exposure.

  14. Toxic smoke compounds and inhalation injury--a review.

    PubMed

    Prien, T; Traber, D L

    1988-12-01

    Although the role of inhalation injury in contributing to the mortality of burn patients has received increasing attention, the available information on the toxic and injurious effects of smoke generated from uncontrolled fires is scarce. This is because each fire generates its own variety of smoke, depending on the nature of the combusting materials and the burning conditions. This review summarizes the actions of the primary smoke components, heat, particulate materials, asphyxiants (carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide), and pulmonary irritants, without covering the whole field of smoke toxicity. In addition, emergency measures to counteract carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide poisoning are discussed. PMID:2855039

  15. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  16. Removal of gasoline volatile organic compounds via air biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.S.; Saberiyan, A.G.; Esler, C.T.; DeSantis, P.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by vapor extraction and air-stripping systems can be biologically treated in an air biofiltration unit. An air biofilter consists of one or more beds of packing material inoculated with heterotrophic microorganisms capable of degrading the organic contaminant of concern. Waste gases and oxygen are passed through the inoculated packing material, where the microorganisms will degrade the contaminant and release CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. Based on data obtained from a treatability study, a full-scale unit was designed and constructed to be used for treating gasoline vapors generated by a vapor-extraction and groundwater-treatment system at a site in California. The unit is composed of two cylindrical reactors with a total packing volume of 3 m{sup 3}. Both reactors are packed with sphagnum moss and inoculated with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms of Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter spp. The two reactors are connected in series for air-flow passage. Parallel lines are used for injection of water, nutrients, and buffer to each reactor. Data collected during the startup program have demonstrated an air biofiltration unit with high organic-vapor-removal efficiency.

  17. Measurement of total reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaker, N.R.; Rajala, G.E.; Pengilly, D.

    1986-05-01

    Methods for the determination of total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds in the ambient air based on coulometric detection (Philips Model PW 9700 analyzer) and thermal oxidation followed by detection using pulsed fluorescence (Teco Model 43 analyzer) have been evaluated. Analytical response factors, relative to H/sub 2/S, were determined for both the individual TRS compounds and compounds such as terpenes and carbonyl sulfide that may be a potential source of interference. The results for COS and terpenes indicate that in a typical monitoring situation normally encountered concentrations of these compounds are not expected to cause significant measurement bias. The results for the individual TRS compounds indicate that while variations in TRS composition are not a factor in assessing measurement bias for the thermal oxidation/pulsed fluorescence method, they are a factor for the Philips coulometric method; i.e., increasing positive measurement bias maybe introduced as the TRS composition shifts toward relatively less H/sub 2/S. Philips-Teco comparison data collected at a single site in the vicinity of three operating kraft pupil mills are compatible with these expectations. 8 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  18. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic air toxics from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest, and there were several sources for wh...

  19. Analysis of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATS)–Near-Road VOC and CarbonylConcentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation examines data from a year-long study of measured near-road mobile source air toxic (MSAT) concentrations and compares these data with modeled 2005 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) results. Field study measurements were collected during a field campaign in ...

  20. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  1. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  2. Interactions of cyclodextrins and their derivatives with toxic organophosphorus compounds

    PubMed Central

    Letort, Sophie; Balieu, Sébastien; Erb, William; Gouhier, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current use of cyclodextrins against organophosphorus compound intoxications. Organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents play a determinant role in the inhibition of cholinesterases. The cyclic structure of cyclodextrins and their toroidal shape are perfectly suitable to design new chemical scavengers able to trap and hydrolyze the organophosphorus compounds before they reach their biological target. PMID:26977180

  3. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic. PMID:24375845

  4. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic.

  5. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  6. Toxicity Assessment of Air-delivered Particle-bound Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47, 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particle-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  7. 1991 EPA/AWMA international symposium on measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the measurement of toxic and related air pollutants. The conference included presentations on the following: ozone precursors; atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants; measurement of particulates and acidic aerosols; cloud water chemistry; asbestos exposure assessment; Staten Island/NJ Urban Air Toxics Assessment Project; personal exposure monitors; mobile sources emissions characterization; VOC monitoring for Clean Air Act Amendment requirement; product emission measurement in test chambers; USA/USSR joint air pollution study; VOC monitoring techniques; measurement of VOCs; measurement of polar volatile organics; exposure assessment; remote sensing for emissions monitoring; measurement methods development; measurement of hazardous waste emissions; chemometrics and environmental data analysis; source monitoring; air pollution dispersion modeling; measurement and data analysis of indoor toxic air contaminants; and environmental quality assurance. Two hundred seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  9. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  10. Comparison of Liver Toxicity Potencies of Three Dinitrotoluene Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Munitions compounds 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) are the two of the six most common isomers of dinitrotoluene (DNT). Technical grade dinitrotoluene (tgDNT) is a mixture of the six DNT isomers and is comprised of 76% 2,4-DNT and 19% 2,6-DNT with t...

  11. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  12. [Elimination of volatile compounds of leaf tobacco from air emissions using biofiltration].

    PubMed

    Zagustina, N A; Misharina, T A; Vepritskiĭ, A A; Zhukov, V G; Ruzhitskiĭ, A O; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Kulikova, A K; Popov, V O

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of various leaf tobacco brands and their blends has been studied. The differences in the content of nicotine, solanone, tetramethyl hexadecenol, megastigmatrienones, and other compounds, determining the specific tobacco smell, have been revealed. A microbial consortium, which is able to deodorize simulated tobacco emissions and decompose nicotine, has been formed by long-term adaptation to the VOCs of tobacco leaves in a laboratory reactor, functioning as a trickle-bed biofilter. Such a biofilter eliminates 90% of the basic toxic compound (nicotine) and odor-active compounds; the filtration efficiency does not change for tobacco brands with different VOC concentrations or in the presence of foreign substances. The main strains, isolated from the formed consortium and participating in the nicotine decomposition process, belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Rhodococcus. An examination of the biofilter trickling fluid has shown full decomposition of nicotine and odor-active VOCs. The compounds, revealed in the trickling fluid, did not have any odor and were nontoxic. The obtained results make it possible to conduct scaling of the biofiltration process to eliminate odor from air emissions in the tobacco industry.

  13. Thermal decomposition of captan and formation pathways of toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Mackie, John C; Kennedy, Eric M; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates the thermal decomposition of a widely used fungicide, captan, under gas phase conditions, similar to those occurring in fires, cigarette burning, and combustion of biomass treated or contaminated with pesticides. The laboratory-scale apparatus consisted of a plug flow reactor equipped with sampling trains for gaseous, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and condensed products, with analysis performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Under oxidative conditions, the thermal decomposition of captan generated gaseous pollutants including carbon disulfide, thiophosgene, phosgene, and hydrogen cyanide. The VOC analysis revealed the formation of tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, and benzonitrile. Quantum chemical calculations indicated that captan decomposes unimolecularly, via fission of the C-S bond, with the ensuing radicals reacting with O(2). The results of the present study provide an improved understanding of the formation pathways of toxic air pollutants in the accidental or deliberate combustion of captan.

  14. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  15. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  16. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  17. Determination of phenolic compounds in air by using cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers.

    PubMed

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela R; Ponce-Català, Patricia; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina; Amorós, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method for the determination of phenolic compounds in air samples based on the use of cyclodextrin-silica hybrid microporous composite samplers is proposed. The method allows the determination of phenol, guaiacol, cresol isomers, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in workplaces according to the Norm UNE-EN 1076:2009 for active sampling. Therefore, the proposed method offers an alternative for the assessment of the occupational exposure to phenol and cresol isomers. The detection limits of the proposed method are lower than those for the NIOSH Method 2546. Storage time of samples almost reaches 44 days. Recovery values for phenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol and 4-ethylphenol are 109%, 99%, 102%, 94%, 94%, 91%, 95% and 102%, respectively with a coefficient of variation below 6%. The method has been applied to the assessment of exposure in different areas of a farm and regarding the quantification of these compounds in the vapors generated by burning incense sticks and an essential oil marketed as air fresheners. The acquired results are comparable with those provided from a reference method for a 95% of confidence level. The possible use of these samplers for the sampling of other toxic compounds such as phthalates is evaluated by qualitative analysis of extracts from incense sticks and essential oil samples.

  18. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  19. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-08-05

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  20. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  1. Case study of municipal air pollution policies: Houston's Air Toxic Control Strategy under the White Administration, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Bruhl, Rebecca J; Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Local government has traditionally played only a minor role in regulating airborne toxic pollutants. However, from 2004 to 2009, the City of Houston implemented a novel, municipality-based air toxics reduction strategy to address what it considered unacceptable health risks and an insufficient regulatory response from state and federal agencies. The city's effort to exert local control over stationary sources of air toxics represents a unique opportunity to study the selection and performance of policy tools and to consider their ramifications for the design of future air pollution control strategies. The results of this case study demonstrate the potential for municipal government to use a combination of cooperative and confrontational policies to stimulate responses from private industry and state and federal regulators as part of a strategy to address local air quality problems.

  2. A quantitative structure-activity relationship approach for assessing toxicity of mixture of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chang, C M; Ou, Y H; Liu, T-C; Lu, S-Y; Wang, M-K

    2016-06-01

    Four types of reactivity indices were employed to construct quantitative structure-activity relationships for the assessment of toxicity of organic chemical mixtures. Results of analysis indicated that the maximum positive charge of the hydrogen atom and the inverse of the apolar surface area are the most important descriptors for the toxicity of mixture of benzene and its derivatives to Vibrio fischeri. The toxicity of mixture of aromatic compounds to green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is mainly affected by the electron flow and electrostatic interactions. The electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum positive charge of the hydrogen atom are found to be the most important descriptors for the joint toxicity of aromatic compounds.

  3. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  4. Determination of Monod kinetics of toxic compounds by respirometry for structure-biodegradability relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Govind, R.; Desai, S.; Tabak, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The key to the evaluation of the fate of toxic organic chemicals in the environment is dependant on evaluating their susceptibility to biodegradation. Biodegradation is one of the most important mechanisms in controlling the concentration of chemicals in an aquatic system because toxic pollutants can be mineralized and rendered harmless. Experiments using an electrolytic respirometer have been conducted to collect oxygen consumption data of toxic compounds from the list of RCRA and RCRA land banned chemicals (phenols and phthalates). The estimation of Monod kinetic parameters were obtained for all the compounds by a graphical method. The first order kinetic constants for the substituted phenols were related to the structure of the compounds by the group contribution method.

  5. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  6. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  7. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  8. Toxicity of Myristica fagrans seed compounds against Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Jang, Young-Su; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Chong-Kyu; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-05-01

    The insecticidal constituents of hexane-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of the seeds from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) against adult females of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal activity of 13 Myristica seed compounds against female B. germanica was examined by using the filter-paper contact toxicity and vapor phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the other 23 known compounds of Myristica seed and currently used insecticides: dichlorvos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and propoxur. In contact toxicity tests using female B. germanica, (IS)-(-) -beta-pinene (0.06 mg/cm2) was the most toxic insecticide, based on 24-h LD50 values. The insecticidal activity of this compound was comparable with that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2). (1R)-(+) -Camphor, (1S)-(-) -camphor, dipentene, (1R)-(+) -3-pinene, and (+)-alpha-terpineol (0.10-0.14 mg/cm2) were more toxic than propoxur (0.19 mg/cm2). (E)-Sabinene hydrate and propoxur were almost equitoxic. Potent insecticidal activity also was observed with (R)-(+) -citronellal, (S)-(-) -citronellal, (R)-(-) -alpha-phellandrene, (1S)-(-) -alpha-pinene, (1R)-(+) -alpha-pinene, and safrole (0.27-0.48 mg/cm2). In vapor phase toxicity tests, the compounds tested were effective in closed but not in open containers. These results indicate that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Myristica seed compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides or as leads for the control of cockroaches.

  9. Multi-class Mode of Action Classification of Toxic Compounds Using Logic Based Kernel Methods.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Huma; Muggleton, Stephen; Sternberg, Mike J E

    2010-09-17

    Toxicity prediction is essential for drug design and development of effective therapeutics. In this paper we present an in silico strategy, to identify the mode of action of toxic compounds, that is based on the use of a novel logic based kernel method. The technique uses support vector machines in conjunction with the kernels constructed from first order rules induced by an Inductive Logic Programming system. It constructs multi-class models by using a divide and conquer reduction strategy that splits multi-classes into binary groups and solves each individual problem recursively hence generating an underlying decision list structure. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach for chemoinformatics problems like predictive toxicology, we apply it to toxicity classification in aquatic systems. The method is used to identify and classify 442 compounds with respect to the mode of action. The experimental results show that the technique successfully classifies toxic compounds and can be useful in assessing environmental risks. Experimental comparison of the performance of the proposed multi-class scheme with the standard multi-class Inductive Logic Programming algorithm and multi-class Support Vector Machine yields statistically significant results and demonstrates the potential power and benefits of the approach in identifying compounds of various toxic mechanisms.

  10. CAAA implementation & legislation combustion strategy, air toxics, etc.

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, S.

    1995-12-31

    Information is presented that deals with the status of the Clean Air Act implementation and legislation; the Republicans and the environment; the status of Superfund legislation in the Senate and the House; the Safe Drinking Water Act reauthorization bill; the Endangered Species Act; Section 112(g) of the Clean Air Act; the Comprehensive Regulatory Reform Act of 1995; and air Pollution.

  11. Toxic treatments 'in-situ' steam/hot-air stripping technology. Applications analysis report. Rept. for Jun 89-Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.

    1991-03-01

    A SITE Demonstration of the Toxic Treatment (USA) Inc. in-situ steam/hot-air stripping technology (Detoxifier) was conducted beginning in the fall of 1989 at the GATX Annex Terminal site located in San Pedro, CA. The chemical storage and transfer facility was contaminated with various solvents due to spillage and a fire. Contamination extended into the salt water table (1.8 meters). Based on the SITE Demonstration and other data, it was concluded that 85% of the volatile organic compounds and 50% of the semivolatile organic compounds were removed from the soil. Fugitive air emissions are very low, and lateral and downward migration of contaminants due to the treatment were minimal. Finally, it was concluded that this in-situ process is cost competitive.

  12. Sources of volatile organic compounds in Cairo's ambient air.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2009-10-01

    The greater Cairo area suffers from extreme levels of gas and particulate phase air pollutants. In order to reduce the levels of ambient pollution, the USAID and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) have supported the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). As part of this project, two intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 22 to March 4 and October 27 to November 27, 1999. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. During the February/March study, samples were collected daily, while in the October/November study samples were collected every other day. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. High levels of NMHC were observed at all locations. NMHC concentrations ranged from 365 ppb C at Helwan to 1,848 ppb C at El Qualaly during winter, 1999 and from 461 ppb C at Kaha to 2,037 ppb C at El Qualaly during fall, 1999. El Qualaly, the site chosen to represent mobile emissions, displayed the highest average NMHC concentrations of any site, by a factor of 2 or more. The highest mobile source contributions were estimated at this site. The major contributors to NMHC at all sites were mobile emissions, lead smelting, and compressed natural gas. PMID:18843549

  13. Application of stable isotope-labeled compounds in metabolism and in metabolism-mediated toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Mutlib, Abdul E

    2008-09-01

    Stable isotope-labeled compounds have been synthesized and utilized by scientists from various areas of biomedical research during the last several decades. Compounds labeled with stable isotopes, such as deuterium and carbon-13, have been used effectively by drug metabolism scientists and toxicologists to gain better understanding of drugs' disposition and their potential role in target organ toxicities. The combination of stable isotope-labeling techniques with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which allows rapid acquisition and interpretation of data, has promoted greater use of these stable isotope-labeled compounds in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies. Examples of the use of stable isotope-labeled compounds in elucidating structures of metabolites and delineating complex metabolic pathways are presented in this review. The application of labeled compounds in mechanistic toxicity studies will be discussed by providing an example of how strategic placement of a deuterium atom in a drug molecule mitigated specific-specific renal toxicity. Other examples from the literature demonstrating the application of stable isotope-labeled compounds in understanding metabolism-mediated toxicities are presented. Furthermore, an example of how a stable isotope-labeled compound was utilized to better understand some of the gene changes in toxicogenomic studies is discussed. The interpretation of large sets of data produced from toxicogenomics studies can be a challenge. One approach that could be used to simplify interpretation of the data, especially from studies designed to link gene changes with the formation of reactive metabolites thought to be responsible for toxicities, is through the use of stable isotope-labeled compounds. This is a relatively unexplored territory and needs to be further investigated. The employment of analytical techniques, especially mass spectrometry and NMR, used in conjunction

  14. Prediction of human population responses to toxic compounds by a collaborative competition.

    PubMed

    Eduati, Federica; Mangravite, Lara M; Wang, Tao; Tang, Hao; Bare, J Christopher; Huang, Ruili; Norman, Thea; Kellen, Mike; Menden, Michael P; Yang, Jichen; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhong, Rui; Xiao, Guanghua; Xia, Menghang; Abdo, Nour; Kosyk, Oksana; Friend, Stephen; Dearry, Allen; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R; Rusyn, Ivan; Wright, Fred A; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Xie, Yang; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations. We measured the cytotoxicity of 156 compounds in 884 lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 1000 Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict interindividual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds. 179 submitted predictions were evaluated against an experimental data set to which participants were blinded. Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations (Pearson's r < 0.28), consistent with complex trait genomic prediction. In contrast, predictions of population-level response to different compounds were higher (r < 0.66). The results highlight the possibility of predicting health risks associated with unknown compounds, although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal. PMID:26258538

  15. Prediction of human population responses to toxic compounds by a collaborative competition

    PubMed Central

    Eduati, Federica; Mangravite, Lara M.; Wang, Tao; Tang, Hao; Bare, J. Christopher; Huang, Ruili; Norman, Thea; Kellen, Mike; Menden, Michael P.; Yang, Jichen; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhong, Rui; Xiao, Guanghua; Xia, Menghang; Abdo, Nour; Kosyk, Oksana; Friend, Stephen; Dearry, Allen; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond; Rusyn, Ivan; Wright, Fred A.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Xie, Yang; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations. We measured the cytotoxicity of 156 compounds in 884 lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 1000-Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict inter-individual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds. 179 submitted predictions were evaluated against a blinded experimental dataset. Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations (Pearson’s r<0.28), consistent with complex trait genomic prediction. In contrast, predictions of population-level response to different compounds were higher (r<0.66). The results highlight the possibility of predicting health risks associated with unknown compounds, although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal. PMID:26258538

  16. Prediction of human population responses to toxic compounds by a collaborative competition.

    PubMed

    Eduati, Federica; Mangravite, Lara M; Wang, Tao; Tang, Hao; Bare, J Christopher; Huang, Ruili; Norman, Thea; Kellen, Mike; Menden, Michael P; Yang, Jichen; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhong, Rui; Xiao, Guanghua; Xia, Menghang; Abdo, Nour; Kosyk, Oksana; Friend, Stephen; Dearry, Allen; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R; Rusyn, Ivan; Wright, Fred A; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Xie, Yang; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations. We measured the cytotoxicity of 156 compounds in 884 lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 1000 Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict interindividual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds. 179 submitted predictions were evaluated against an experimental data set to which participants were blinded. Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations (Pearson's r < 0.28), consistent with complex trait genomic prediction. In contrast, predictions of population-level response to different compounds were higher (r < 0.66). The results highlight the possibility of predicting health risks associated with unknown compounds, although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal.

  17. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, Louis A.; Chase, Peter J.; Gross, Michael P.

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  18. Comparison of the toxicity of fluoridation compounds in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Rice, Julie R; Boyd, Windy A; Chandra, Dave; Smith, Marjolein V; Den Besten, Pamela K; Freedman, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Fluorides are commonly added to drinking water in the United States to decrease the incidence of dental caries. Silicofluorides, such as sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2 SiF6 ) and fluorosilicic acid (H2 SiF6 ), are mainly used for fluoridation, although fluoride salts such as sodium fluoride (NaF) are also used. Interestingly, only the toxicity of NaF has been examined and not that of the more often used silicofluorides. In the present study, the toxicities of NaF, Na2 SiF6 , and H2 SiF6 were compared. The toxicity of these fluorides on the growth, feeding, and reproduction in the alternative toxicological testing organism Caenorhabditis elegans was examined. Exposure to these compounds produced classic concentration-response toxicity profiles. Although the effects of the fluoride compounds varied among the 3 biological endpoints, no differences were found between the 3 compounds, relative to the fluoride ion concentration, in any of the assays. This suggests that silicofluorides have similar toxicity to NaF.

  19. An assessment of indoor air concentrations and health risks of volatile organic compounds in three primary schools.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Aslan, Guler; Inal, Fikret; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, in classrooms, kindergartens, and outdoor playgrounds of three primary schools were measured in spring, winter, and fall terms in İzmir, Turkey. A health-risk assessment was conducted for odor detection, sensory irritation, chronic toxic effects, and cancer. Active sampling was applied for VOCs and formaldehyde on Tenax TA and DNPH tubes, respectively. VOCs were analyzed in a thermal desorption-GC-MS system. Formaldehyde analysis was performed using an HPLC instrument. Benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde were the most abundant compounds with 95th percentile indoor air concentrations of 29, 87, and 106 μg/m(3), respectively. Naphthalene and xylenes followed them with an order of magnitude lower concentrations. Two isomers of dichlorobenzene (1,3 and 1,4) were the other notable compounds. The concentrations were utilized to classify the indoor air pollutants with respect to potential health effects. In addition, carcinogenic and chronic toxic risks were estimated using Monte-Carlo simulation. Formaldehyde appears to be the most concerning pollutant with high chronic toxic and carcinogenic risk levels according to the health assessment followed by naphthalene, benzene, and toluene due to their chronic effects.

  20. Biological Mimics: A New Paradigm in the Detection of Toxic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monty, Chelsea Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce a new idea: using biological mimics in the detection of toxic compounds. Biological mimics imitate the active site of a given enzyme or have catalytic chemistry similar to enzymes and can be used in place of biological molecules to provide longer stability and simpler operation. In the following text the…

  1. Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu; Liu, Jie; Wei, Lixin; Jingfeng, Yang; Chernick, Melissa; Hinton, David E

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to 0.001-10 µM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha), and β-HgS (Zuotai) from stage 10 (6-7 hpf) to 10 days post fertilization (dpf). Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg) proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2), both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Both α-HgS and β-HgS were less toxic than MeHg and HgCl2. Total RNA was extracted from survivors three days after exposure to MeHg (0.1 µM), HgCl2 (1 µM), α-HgS (10 µM), or β-HgS (10 µM) to examine toxicity-related gene expression. MeHg and HgCl2 markedly induced metallothionein (MT) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), while α-HgS and β-HgS failed to induce either gene. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity. PMID:27635309

  2. Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wei, Lixin; Jingfeng, Yang; Chernick, Melissa; Hinton, David E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to 0.001–10 µM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha), and β-HgS (Zuotai) from stage 10 (6–7 hpf) to 10 days post fertilization (dpf). Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg) proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2), both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Both α-HgS and β-HgS were less toxic than MeHg and HgCl2. Total RNA was extracted from survivors three days after exposure to MeHg (0.1 µM), HgCl2 (1 µM), α-HgS (10 µM), or β-HgS (10 µM) to examine toxicity-related gene expression. MeHg and HgCl2 markedly induced metallothionein (MT) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), while α-HgS and β-HgS failed to induce either gene. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity. PMID:27635309

  3. Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wei, Lixin; Jingfeng, Yang; Chernick, Melissa; Hinton, David E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to 0.001–10 µM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha), and β-HgS (Zuotai) from stage 10 (6–7 hpf) to 10 days post fertilization (dpf). Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg) proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2), both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Both α-HgS and β-HgS were less toxic than MeHg and HgCl2. Total RNA was extracted from survivors three days after exposure to MeHg (0.1 µM), HgCl2 (1 µM), α-HgS (10 µM), or β-HgS (10 µM) to examine toxicity-related gene expression. MeHg and HgCl2 markedly induced metallothionein (MT) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), while α-HgS and β-HgS failed to induce either gene. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity.

  4. Cyclic Guanidine Compounds from Toxic Newts Support the Hypothesis that Tetrodotoxin is Derived from a Monoterpene.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Mebs, Dietrich; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2016-07-18

    The biosynthesis of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent neurotoxin consisting of a 2,4-dioxaadamantane skeleton and a guanidine moiety, is an unsolved problem in natural product chemistry. Recently, the first C5-C10 directly bonded TTX analogue, 4,9-anhydro-10-hemiketal-5-deoxyTTX, was obtained from toxic newts and its carbon skeleton suggested a possible monoterpene origin. On the basis of this hypothesis, screening of predicted biosynthetic intermediates of TTX was performed using two MS-guided methods. Herein, five novel cyclic guanidine compounds from toxic newts are reported which commonly contain a cis-fused bicyclic structure including a six-membered cyclic guanidine. These structures could be biosynthetically derived from geranyl guanidine through oxidation, cyclization, and/or isomerization steps. LC-MS analysis confirmed the widespread distribution of the five novel compounds in toxic newt species. These results support the hypothesis that TTX is derived from a monoterpene. PMID:27248052

  5. Cyclic Guanidine Compounds from Toxic Newts Support the Hypothesis that Tetrodotoxin is Derived from a Monoterpene.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Mebs, Dietrich; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2016-07-18

    The biosynthesis of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent neurotoxin consisting of a 2,4-dioxaadamantane skeleton and a guanidine moiety, is an unsolved problem in natural product chemistry. Recently, the first C5-C10 directly bonded TTX analogue, 4,9-anhydro-10-hemiketal-5-deoxyTTX, was obtained from toxic newts and its carbon skeleton suggested a possible monoterpene origin. On the basis of this hypothesis, screening of predicted biosynthetic intermediates of TTX was performed using two MS-guided methods. Herein, five novel cyclic guanidine compounds from toxic newts are reported which commonly contain a cis-fused bicyclic structure including a six-membered cyclic guanidine. These structures could be biosynthetically derived from geranyl guanidine through oxidation, cyclization, and/or isomerization steps. LC-MS analysis confirmed the widespread distribution of the five novel compounds in toxic newt species. These results support the hypothesis that TTX is derived from a monoterpene.

  6. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  7. Odor and volatile organic compound removal from wastewater treatment plant headworks ventilation air using a biofilter.

    PubMed

    Converse, B M; Schroeder, E D; Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J; Deshusses, M A

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments and field studies were performed to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters for sequential removal of hydrogen sulfide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plant waste air. The biofilter was designed for spatially separated removal of pollutants to mitigate the effects of acid production resulting from hydrogen sulfide oxidation. The inlet section of the upflow units was designated for hydrogen sulfide removal and the second section was designated for VOC removal. Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was accomplished at loading rates of 8.3 g H2S/(m3 x h) (15-second empty bed retention time [EBRT]) and 33 g MTBE/(m3 x h) (60-second EBRT), respectively. In field studies performed at the Hyperion Treatment Plant in Los Angeles, California, excellent removal of hydrogen sulfide, moderate removal of nonchlorinated VOCs such as toluene and benzene, and poor removal of chlorinated VOCs were observed in treating the headworks waste air. During spiking experiments on the headworks waste air, the percentage removals were similar to the unspiked removals when nonchlorinated VOCs were spiked; however, feeding high concentrations of chlorinated VOCs reduced the removal percentages for all VOCs. Thus, biofilters offer a distinct advantage over chemical scrubbers currently used at publicly owned treatment works in that they not only remove odor and hydrogen sulfide efficiently at low cost, but also reduce overall toxicity by partially removing VOCs and avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals.

  8. APPLICATION OF FINE SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ TO HAPEM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For t...

  9. EPA'S CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO ASSISTING STATES AND REGIONS WITH AIR TOXICS PROBLEMS: FIVE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. he strategy calls for state and local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role. he shift in emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's Offices of Research ...

  10. Photoactivation and toxicity of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in marine sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.C.; Ferraro, S.P.; Lamberson, J.O.; Cole, F.A.; Ozretich, R.J.; Boese, B.L.; Schults, D.W.; Behrenfeld, M.; Ankley, G.T.

    1997-10-01

    The direct toxicity and photoinduced toxicity of sediment-associated acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were determined for the marine amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. The four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were spiked into sediment in a concentration series of either single compounds or as approximately equitoxic mixtures of all four compounds. Standard 10-d sediment toxicity tests were conducted under fluorescent lighting. After 10 d, survivors were exposed for 1 h to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the absence of sediment and then tested for their ability to bury in uncontaminated sediment. The 10-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were 2.31 mg acenaphthene/g organic carbon (OC), 2.22 mg phenanthrene/g OC, 3.31 mg fluoranthene/g OC, and 2.81 mg pyrene/g OC. These LC50s were used to calculate the sum of toxic units ({Sigma}TU) of the four PAHs in the approximately equitoxic mixtures. The {Sigma}TU LC50 was then calculated for the mixture treatments. If the toxicologic interaction of a mixture of contaminants is additive, {Sigma}TU LC50 = 1.0. The observed LC50 (1.55 {Sigma}TU) was slightly, but significantly, greater than unity, indicating that the interaction of PAHs in the mixture was less than additive. Exposure to UV radiation enhanced the toxic effects of fluoranthene and pyrene, but did not affect the toxicity of acenaphthene and phenanthrene. Effects of UV radiation on the toxicity of the mixture of four PAHs could be explained by the photoactivation of fluoranthene and pyrene alone. These results are consistent with predictions based on photophysical properties of PAH compounds.

  11. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-02-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes - lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compound, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes. The author focuses on four of the classes. The PAHs are products of fuel combustion and components of fossil fuels. The other three classes principally originate from industrial applications (alkyl halides), as fossil fuels, insecticides, solvents, and in perfumes (cyclic alkanes); and as herbicides and insecticides (heterocyclic nitrogen compounds). The authors purpose is to report results of static acute toxicity tests in which larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as the test fish and to compare results of acute toxicity tests with previous studies.

  12. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  13. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  14. Acute toxicity of some hydrazine compounds to salamander larvae, Ambystoma spp

    SciTech Connect

    Slonim, A.R.

    1986-11-01

    Although hydrazine compounds have been used extensively by industry for a very long time, they have become important in recent years as propellants for aerospace operations. The study of hydrazine compounds in this laboratory began about two decades ago and developed into a large pharmacological and toxicological research program that included also environmental considerations. Subsequently, acute toxicity studies were conducted on the common guppy (Lebistes reticulatus Peters) using four hydrazine compounds of interest. The toxicity of these propellants were evaluated next on other species of aquatic organisms such as mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) and amphibians. Two different studies were conducted on amphibians: One utilized amphibian eggs and the other amphibian larvae. The larvae of spotted and marbled salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum and A. opacum, respectively) were used primarily in numerous static bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of hydrazine, UDMH and Aerozine-50 on these organisms. The remaining larvae were used in other tests mainly to corroborate previous experimental results (e.g., to see whether toxicity is affected by organism size, aeration of test solutions, and water hardness). The results on the larvae are presented in this paper.

  15. Coping with toxic plant compounds--the insect's perspective on iridoid glycosides and cardenolides.

    PubMed

    Dobler, Susanne; Petschenka, Georg; Pankoke, Helga

    2011-09-01

    Specializing on host plants with toxic secondary compounds enforces specific adaptation in insect herbivores. In this review, we focus on two compound classes, iridoid glycosides and cardenolides, which can be found in the food plants of a large number of insect species that display various degrees of adaptation to them. These secondary compounds have very different modes of action: Iridoid glycosides are usually activated in the gut of the herbivores by β-glucosidases that may either stem from the food plant or be present in the gut as standard digestive enzymes. Upon cleaving, the unstable aglycone is released that unspecifically acts by crosslinking proteins and inhibiting enzymes. Cardenolides, on the other hand, are highly specific inhibitors of an essential ion carrier, the sodium pump. In insects exposed to both kinds of toxins, carriers either enabling the safe storage of the compounds away from the activating enzymes or excluding the toxins from sensitive tissues, play an important role that deserves further analysis. To avoid toxicity of iridoid glycosides, repression of activating enzymes emerges as a possible alternative strategy. Cardenolides, on the other hand, may lose their toxicity if their target site is modified and this strategy has evolved multiple times independently in cardenolide-adapted insects.

  16. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  17. Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

  18. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF LOW LEVEL AIR TOXICS WITH MODIFIED UV DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understand near source impacts, EPA is working to develop open-path optical techniques for spatiotemporal-resolved measurement of air pollutants. Of particular interest is near real time quantification of mobile-source generated CO, Nox and hydrocarbons measured in cl...

  20. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties.

  1. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties. PMID:27208746

  2. Aquatic toxicity testing for multicomponent compounds with special reference to preparation of test solution

    SciTech Connect

    Tadokoro, H.; Maeda, M.; Kawashima, Y.; Kitano, M.; Hwang, D.F.; Yoshida, T. )

    1991-02-01

    An adequate method of determining the toxicity of a compound consisting of multiple components, such as creosote, coal tar, and coal tar pitch, was studied for different test solution preparation methods, i.e., direct dosing without filtration, diluting the stock solution of saturated concentration, and dispersing with acetone. Killifish, Oryzias latipes, as a freshwater fish; red sea bream, Pagrus major, as a saltwater fish; and daphnia, Daphnia magna, as a representative crustacean, were used for testing. The chemical analysis of each preparation of test solution with gas chromatography revealed an entirely different profile of the components. The highest toxicity was obtained with preparation by acetone dispersion. That was followed by the preparations with direct dosing method and with the method of dilution of saturated concentration stock solution. Considering the results obtained, the direct dosing method with a suitable settling time may provide useful information enabling extrapolation of the test results to the natural environment for complex multicomponent compounds.

  3. Gustatory Receptors Required for Avoiding the Toxic Compound Coumarin in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Seeta; Lee, Youngseok

    2016-04-30

    Coumarin is a phenolic compound that mainly affects the liver due to its metabolization into a toxic compound. The deterrent and ovicidal activities of coumarin in insect models such as Drosophila melanogaster have been reported. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which these insects protect themselves and their eggs from this toxic plant metabolite. Coumarin was fatal to the flies in a dosage-dependent manner. However, coumarin feeding could be inhibited through activation of the aversive gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), but not the olfactory receptor neurons. Furthermore, three gustatory receptors, GR33a, GR66a, and GR93a, functioned together in coumarin detection by the proboscis. However, GR33a, but not GR66a and GR93a, was required to avoid coumarin during oviposition, with a choice of the same substrates provided as in binary food choice assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that anti-feeding activity and oviposition to avoid coumarin occur via separate mechanisms.

  4. Toxicity of selected tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds to Spodoptera frugiperda and Heliothis zea.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F; Cole, R J; Vesonder, R F

    1988-12-01

    A series of tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds were tested for oral toxicity to the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and corn earworm (Heliothis zea) by incorporation of materials into artificial diets and examining mortality and weights after 7 days. Significant mortality to both insect species was caused with dihydroxyaflavinine and roseotoxin B, while significant mortality to H. zea was also caused by penitrem A at 25 ppm. After 7 days, weighs of larvae treated with 25 ppm penitrem A, roseotoxin B, and verruculogen were less than 50% of controls for both insect species. Weights of H. zea larvae treated with 25 ppb of penitrem A were less than 50% those of control larvae. Relative toxicities of the tremorgens and related compounds to insects compared to vertebrates are discussed. PMID:3209479

  5. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 2: experiences of compounding pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Bill; Cabaleiro, Joe; Latta, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. This article summarizes discussions from compounding pharmacists and their experiences with air sampling devices.

  7. Simplified preparation of TO14 and Title III air toxic standards using a Windows software package and dynamic dilution schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cardin, D.B.; Galoustian, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    The preparation of Air Toxic standards in the laboratory can be performed using several methods. These include injection of purge and trap standards, static dilution from pure compounds, and dynamic dilution from NIST traceable standards. A software package running under Windows has been developed that makes calculating dilution parameters for even complex mixtures fast and simple. Compound parameters such are name, molecular weight, boiling point, and density are saved in a data base for later access. Gas and liquid mixtures can be easily defined and saved as an inventory item, with preparation screens that calculate appropriate transfer volumes of each analyte. These mixtures can be utilized by both the static and dynamic dilution analysis windows to calculate proper flow rates and injection volumes for obtaining requested concentrations. A particularly useful approach for making accurate polar VOC standards will be presented.

  8. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume.

  9. FINAL REPORT: MEMBRANE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes feasibility tests of a two-step strategy for air pollution control applicable to exhaust air contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting aircraft. In the first step, the VOC-contaminated air passes over coated, polypropylene, hollow-fibe...

  10. Review of the Toxicity of the Metallic Compounds Proposed for Use in the New Green Missile Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to modernize and minimize hazards posed by the toxic components of missile propellant, the USACHPPM has been tasked to provide a comparison of the toxicity of compounds currently in use as missile propellants and the suite of compounds proposed to replace them. This report deals with the portion of this work concerning the toxicity of the organometallic compounds used in these formulations. Toxicity assessments of the organic compounds used in these formulations are published elsewhere. In general, toxicity data were available for all the metal compounds of concern or for closely related compounds that can serve as surrogates for the assessment of toxicity. We have high confidence in the reliability of these comparisons. This report is organized by element to provide the reader with an in-depth assessment with a minimum of redundancy. The narrative will first describe general concepts about the toxicity of each metal and then provide a summary of the toxicological information available for the specific compound.

  11. [Assessment of the relationship of properties of chemical compounds and their toxicity to a unified hygienic standardization for chemicals].

    PubMed

    Trushkov, V F; Perminov, K A; Sapozhnikova, V V; Ignatova, O L

    2013-01-01

    The connection of thermodynamic properties and parameters of toxicity of chemical substances was determined. Obtained data are used for the evaluation of toxicity and hygienic rate setting of chemical compounds. The relationship between enthalpy and toxicity of chemical compounds has been established. Orthogonal planning of the experiment was carried out in the course of the investigations. Equation of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism is presented. Prospects of determination of toxicity and methodology of unified hygienic rate setting in combined, complex, conjunct influence on the organism are presented

  12. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    PubMed Central

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Yusof, Mohd Yasim

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24790603

  13. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children air toxics monitoring station between 1990 and 2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  14. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children < age 6, and 19,209 controls from California birth records within 2km (1.3 miles) (ALL) and 6km (3.8 miles) (AML) of an air toxics monitoring station between 1990–2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3rd trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95%CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child’s first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children. PMID:24472648

  15. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes. PMID:26503801

  16. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  17. Toxic organic compounds from energy production. Final technical report, March 1, 1987--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hites, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research supported by this grant has focused on the identification of toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion processes, the elucidation of the fates of these compounds in the environment, and the development of analytical methodology for making these measurements. Studies of the atmospheric transport and fate of combustion generated compounds and research on fundamental mass spectrometry have been major areas of emphasis. These projects are all responsive to the DOE`s interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere and on new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements. Over the years, this grant supported the training of about 20 graduate students and post-doctoral associates, many of whom are now doing environmental chemistry research in industrial or governmental laboratories.

  18. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-10-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  19. Spatial variation of volatile organic compounds in a “Hot Spot” for air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xianlei; Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Wu, Xiangmei; Meng, Qingyu; Wang, Sheng-wei; Tang, Xiaogang; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Georgopoulos, Panos; Zhang, Junfeng; Bonanno, Linda; Held, Joann; Lioy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The spatial variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were characterized in the Village of Waterfront South neighborhood (WFS), a “hot spot” for air toxics in Camden, NJ. This was accomplished by conducting “spatial saturation sampling” for 11 VOCs using 3500 OVM passive samplers at 22 sites in WFS and 16 sites in Copewood/Davis Streets (CDS) neighborhood, an urban reference area located ∼1000 m east of the WFS. Sampling durations were 24 and 48 h. For all 3 sampling campaigns (2 in summer and 1 in winter), the spatial variations and median concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) were found significantly higher (p < 0.05) in WFS than in CDS, where the spatial distributions of these compounds were relatively uniform. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (maximum of 159 μg m−3) were always found at one site close to a car scrapping facility in WFS during each sampling campaign. The spatial variation of benzene in WFS was found to be marginally higher (p = 0.057) than in CDS during one sampling campaign, but similar in the other two sampling periods. The results obtained from the analyses of correlation among all species and the proximity of sampling site to source indicated that local stationary sources in WFS have significant impact on MTBE and BTEX air pollution in WFS, and both mobile sources and some of the stationary sources in WFS contributed to the ambient levels of these species measured in CDS. The homogenous spatial distributions (%RSD < 24%) and low concentrations of chloroform (0.02–0.23 μg m−3) and carbon tetrachloride (0.45–0.51 μg m−3) indicated no significant local sources in the study areas. Further, results showed that the sampling at the fixed monitoring site may under- or over-estimate air pollutant levels in a “hot spot” area, suggesting that the “spatial saturation sampling” is necessary for conducting accurate assessment of air pollution and personal exposure in a

  20. INDOOR AIR QUALITY DATA BASE FOR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the compilation of a data base for concentrations of organic compounds measured indoors. ased on a review of the literature from 1979 through 1990, the data base contains information on over 220 compounds ranging in molecular weight from 30 to 446. he ...

  1. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  2. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  3. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  4. DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURES TO AIR TOXICS AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals are exposed to wide variety of air toxics in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments during the course of their daily activities. Sources of emissions include a wide variety of indoor and outdoor sources, including stationary and mobile sources, building material...

  5. Temporal and modal characterization of DoD source air toxic emission factors: final report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project tested three, real-/near real-time monitoring techniques to develop air toxic emission factors for Department of Defense (DoD) platform sources. These techniques included: resonance enhanced multi photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) for o...

  6. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  7. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  8. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  9. Biogeochemical toxicity and phytotoxicity of nitrogenous compounds in a variety of arctic soils.

    PubMed

    Anaka, Alison; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2008-08-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) is a common water pollutant associated with many industrial and municipal activities. One solution to reduce exposure of sensitive aquatic systems to nitrogenous compounds is to atomize (atmospherically disperse in fine particles) contaminated water over the Arctic tundra, which will reduce nitrogen loading to surface water. The toxicity of ammonium nitrate to Arctic soils, however, is poorly understood. In the present study, we characterized the biogeochemical toxicity and phytotoxicity of ammonium nitrate solutions in four different Arctic soils and in a temperate soil. Soil was exposed to a range of ammonium nitrate concentrations over a 90-d period. Dose responses of carbon mineralization, nitrification, and phytotoxicity endpoints were estimated. In addition to direct toxicity, the effect of ammonium nitrate on ecosystem resilience was investigated by dosing nitrogen-impacted soils with boric acid. Ammonium nitrate had no effect on carbon mineralization activity and only affected nitrification in one soil, a polar desert soil from Cornwallis Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. In contrast, ammonium nitrate applications (43 mmol N/L soil water) significantly impaired seedling emergence, root length, and shoot length of northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus). Concentrations of ammonium nitrate in soil water that inhibited plant parameters by 20% varied between 43 and 280 mmol N/L soil water, which corresponds to 2,100 to 15,801 mg/L of ammonium nitrate in the application water. Arctic soils were more resistant to ammonium nitrate toxicity compared with the temperate soil under these study conditions. It is not clear, however, if this represents a general trend for all polar soils, and because nitrogen is an essential macronutrient, nitrogenous toxicity likely should be considered as a special case for soil toxicity.

  10. The effects of forced air flow and oxygen concentration on flammability, smoke density, and pyrolytic toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauers, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The question is posed whether forced air flow should be incorporated into flammability tests as a relevant variable. A test apparatus is described which permits tests to be conducted on small test specimens in a forced flow which is (continuously) variable over flow velocities from zero to 300 feet per minute (1.52 m/s). The effects of air-flow rate and oxygen concentration on flame propagation rate, maximum smoke density, and pyrolytic product toxicity were measured for a single material and were statistically evaluated. Regression analysis was used to graph the resulting relationships. It is concluded that air velocity is an important variable for laboratory flammability testing.

  11. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630

  12. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO. PMID:22694753

  13. Organic colloid as a mode of transport for toxic halogenated organic compounds in the Mississippi river

    SciTech Connect

    Rostad, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Suspended material was isolated from water samples from sixteen sites on the Mississippi River and its major tributaries from Minneapolis, Minn., to New Orleans, La., during the summer and fall of 1991 and the spring of 1992. The suspended material was separated into silt and colloid fractions in order to determine the proportion of associated toxic hydrophobic halogenated organic compounds transported on the colloid. The silt fraction (63 {mu}m to 1 {mu}m in diameter) was isolated first by centrifugation, then the colloidal fraction (1 {mu}m to 0.005 {mu}m in diameter) was isolated by tangential-flow ultrafiltration. The colloid averaged about 10 percent by weight of the total suspended material. Organic carbon content of the colloid ranged from 7 to 30 percent by weight. Silt organic carbon content ranged from 2 to 5 percent by weight. The proportion of suspended organic carbon transport in the river associated with the colloids averaged 35 percent of the total suspended organic carbon transport. Toxic halogenated organic compounds associated with both fractions included PCBs, chlordane, DCPA, hexachlorobenzene, and trifluralin. In some cases, transport of these compounds by the colloid fraction in the Mississippi River was greater than by the silt fraction.

  14. The effect of treatment stages on the coking wastewater hazardous compounds and their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Zi-yang; Fan, Qing-lan; Yuan, Xiao-ying; Guo, Dong-sheng

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the change of hazardous materials in coking wastewater at different treatment stages (anaerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic/photo degradation, anaerobic/aerobic/ozone oxidation treatment) and the effects of them on the development of maize embryos and the activity of amylase and protease in maize seeds. Moreover the interaction of refractory organic matters in the wastewater at different treatment stages with amylase and protease also were determined in vitro. The results show that the biodegradable and the refractory organic compounds in the wastewater both can affect maize embryo development (germination inhibition rate is 19.3% for biodegradable organic compounds). As the treatment stage preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the development of the maize embryo (for germination inhibition rates change from 49.3% to 24.6%) and on enzymatic activity (inhibition rates change from 63.9% to 22.4% for amylase) decreases gradually, but the photo-degradation treatment to anaerobic/aerobic effluent can increase its toxicity. The changes in the ability of the refractory organic compounds to bind with enzyme proteins, combined with the analysis of the organic components by GC/MS, show that in the process of coking wastewater treatment no new toxic chemicals were produced. PMID:23022415

  15. RESOLVING FINE SCALE IN AIR TOXICS MODELING AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ITS SUB-GRID VARIABILITY FOR EXPOSURE ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation explains the importance of the fine-scale features for air toxics exposure modeling. The paper presents a new approach to combine local-scale and regional model results for the National Air Toxic Assessment. The technique has been evaluated with a chemical tra...

  16. [Toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel and its compounds. A review of the current status (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Raithel, H J; Schaller, K H

    1981-01-01

    Since half a century the toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel and its compounds is in discussion. Problems coming therefrom are of high relevance concerning occupational medicine. According to the new national and international literature the present findings are described and discussed. Starting from occurrence, refining and occupational hazards, in the first part, toxicologic mechanisms and characteristic symptoms are represented in detail. Inorganic and organic Ni-compounds are handled separately. In the second part of this study we are giving opinion to the questions of carcinogenicity. Experiences to occupationally nickel-exposed workers as well as a review about the topical findings in animal experiments are described. Of importance there are questions referring to the different carcinogenic potential of nickel and its compounds and the influence to techniques of application. Current results to the mechanism of carcinogenesis, which can be derived from animal experiments, are shown. The carcinogenicity for nickel and some especial water insoluble Ni-compounds in human beings must be seen as a fact. Malignoms in the respiratory tract are regarded by workers breathing dust/aerosols of metallic nickel, nickel subsulfide, Ni-oxide and in electrolysis. By critical review of the present literature a cancerogenicity of nickel-carbonyl has to be assumed too. According to this review measures in the field of occupational hygiene and medicine are required. Illness caused by nickel or its compounds should be included to the valid list of occupational diseases in the FRG. PMID:6455890

  17. Detection of ruminal bacteria that degrade toxic dihydroxypyridine compounds produced from mimosine.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, M J; Hammond, A C; Jones, R J

    1990-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala, a tropical leguminous shrub, contains a toxic amino acid, mimosine. Successful utilization of leucaena as a ruminant forage depends on colonization of the rumen by bacteria that degrade dihydroxypyridines (DHP), which are toxic intermediates in the metabolism of mimosine. Populations in the rumina of animals in some parts of the world, however, do not include bacteria that are able to carry out this degradation. We thus describe tests for the presence of DHP degraders in ruminal populations that are based on degradation (loss) of DHP compounds from culture media. Results obtained with the tests indicate that DHP degraders were not part of microbial populations in the rumina of cattle, sheep, and goats in Iowa, while most rumen samples examined from animals from the Virgin Islands and Haiti contained DHP degraders. These results confirm and extend the findings of others about geographic limits to the distribution of these important ruminal bacteria. PMID:2317038

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  19. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  20. Acute-toxicity evaluation of nitroaromatic compounds. Final report, 29 Sep 89-29 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, G.B.; Austin, A.; DiGuilio, N.

    1991-03-01

    The nitroaromatics 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 1,2,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and N-methyl-n,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (tetryl) have been detected as environmental contaminants of water and soil near production waste sites and at military test grounds. Acute toxicity evaluations were carried out with these compounds to develop environmental and health effects criteria. Dermal and eye irritation tests and acute dermal sensitization (Buehler) tests in guinea pigs were conducted according to EPA standard protocols. The sensitization tests showed that DNB and tetryl are not skin sensitizers while TNB caused a mild allergic reaction. None of these compounds produced skin irritation but positive (DNB) to severe (TNB, tetryl) eye irritation potentials were observed.

  1. Mechanism of toxicity of nitro compounds used in the chemotherapy of trichomoniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, S N; Docampo, R

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism of the trichomonicidal activity of metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles appears to depend on the ferredoxin-mediated reduction of their nitro group, with generation of a reactive metabolite or metabolites which interact with DNA leading to a subsequent inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Redox cycling of these compounds under aerobic conditions appears to be a detoxification reaction by inhibiting net reduction of the drugs, thereby inhibiting their uptake. On the other hand, redox cycling of nitrofurans or other compounds with more positive reduction potential results in formation of high steady-state concentrations of oxygen-derived metabolites that might be of toxicological significance. It seems likely that reduced metabolites of nitroimidazoles (perhaps through covalent binding to tissue macromolecules and/or thiols depletion) are also involved in the nitroimidazoles' toxic effects to animal tissues and in their mutagenic and carcinogenic action. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:3830698

  2. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-11-09

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  3. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  4. Using a Disposable Pipet for Preparing Air-Sensitive Compounds for Melting Point Determinations or Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2004-01-01

    A thin-wall disposable Pasteur pipet is used as a vacuum-tight receptacle for air-sensitive compounds to ascertain their melting points. This technique is easy, economical, and successfully used for many years to develop air-sensitive samples for melting point determinations.

  5. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  6. Current data regarding the structure-toxicity relationship of boron-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, E D; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Ciprés-Flores, F J; Padilla-Martínez, I I; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-01

    Boron is ubiquitous in nature, being an essential element of diverse cells. As a result, humans have had contact with boron containing compounds (BCCs) for a long time. During the 20th century, BCCs were developed as antiseptics, antibiotics, cosmetics and insecticides. Boric acid was freely used in the nosocomial environment as an antiseptic and sedative salt, leading to the death of patients and an important discovery about its critical toxicology for humans. Since then the many toxicological studies done in relation to BCCs have helped to establish the proper limits of their use. During the last 15 years, there has been a boom of research on the design and use of new, potent and efficient boron containing drugs, finding that the addition of boron to some known drugs increases their affinity and selectivity. This mini-review summarizes two aspects of BCCs: toxicological data found with experimental models, and the scarce but increasing data about the structure-activity relationship for toxicity and therapeutic use. As is the case with boron-free compounds, the biological activity of BCCs is related to their chemical structure. We discuss the use of new technology to discover potent and efficient BCCs for medicinal therapy by avoiding toxic effects. PMID:27329537

  7. Gustatory Receptors Required for Avoiding the Toxic Compound Coumarin in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Seeta; Lee, Youngseok

    2016-01-01

    Coumarin is a phenolic compound that mainly affects the liver due to its metabolization into a toxic compound. The deterrent and ovicidal activities of coumarin in insect models such as Drosophila melanogaster have been reported. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which these insects protect themselves and their eggs from this toxic plant metabolite. Coumarin was fatal to the flies in a dosage-dependent manner. However, coumarin feeding could be inhibited through activation of the aversive gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), but not the olfactory receptor neurons. Furthermore, three gustatory receptors, GR33a, GR66a, and GR93a, functioned together in coumarin detection by the proboscis. However, GR33a, but not GR66a and GR93a, was required to avoid coumarin during oviposition, with a choice of the same substrates provided as in binary food choice assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that anti-feeding activity and oviposition to avoid coumarin occur via separate mechanisms. PMID:26912085

  8. Current data regarding the structure-toxicity relationship of boron-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, E D; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Ciprés-Flores, F J; Padilla-Martínez, I I; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-01

    Boron is ubiquitous in nature, being an essential element of diverse cells. As a result, humans have had contact with boron containing compounds (BCCs) for a long time. During the 20th century, BCCs were developed as antiseptics, antibiotics, cosmetics and insecticides. Boric acid was freely used in the nosocomial environment as an antiseptic and sedative salt, leading to the death of patients and an important discovery about its critical toxicology for humans. Since then the many toxicological studies done in relation to BCCs have helped to establish the proper limits of their use. During the last 15 years, there has been a boom of research on the design and use of new, potent and efficient boron containing drugs, finding that the addition of boron to some known drugs increases their affinity and selectivity. This mini-review summarizes two aspects of BCCs: toxicological data found with experimental models, and the scarce but increasing data about the structure-activity relationship for toxicity and therapeutic use. As is the case with boron-free compounds, the biological activity of BCCs is related to their chemical structure. We discuss the use of new technology to discover potent and efficient BCCs for medicinal therapy by avoiding toxic effects.

  9. Gustatory Receptors Required for Avoiding the Toxic Compound Coumarin in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Seeta; Lee, Youngseok

    2016-04-30

    Coumarin is a phenolic compound that mainly affects the liver due to its metabolization into a toxic compound. The deterrent and ovicidal activities of coumarin in insect models such as Drosophila melanogaster have been reported. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which these insects protect themselves and their eggs from this toxic plant metabolite. Coumarin was fatal to the flies in a dosage-dependent manner. However, coumarin feeding could be inhibited through activation of the aversive gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), but not the olfactory receptor neurons. Furthermore, three gustatory receptors, GR33a, GR66a, and GR93a, functioned together in coumarin detection by the proboscis. However, GR33a, but not GR66a and GR93a, was required to avoid coumarin during oviposition, with a choice of the same substrates provided as in binary food choice assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that anti-feeding activity and oviposition to avoid coumarin occur via separate mechanisms. PMID:26912085

  10. Effect of phenolic compounds against Aβ aggregation and Aβ-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Jagota, Seema; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into fibrillar structures that is rich in β-sheets is implicated as the cause of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy is to prevent or alter Aβ aggregation. Phenolic compounds are natural substances that are composed of one or more aromatic phenolic rings and present in wine, tea, fruits, vegetables and a wide variety of plants. In this work, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid, morin, quercetin and gossypol against Aβ aggregation. From the ThT and turbidity assays, it is observed that in addition to the fibril aggregate, another type of aggregate is formed in the presence of morin, quercetin, and gossypol. On the other hand, ferulic acid did not prevent fibril formation, but it did appear to reduce the average length of fibrils compared to Aβ alone. To study the protective effects of phenolic compounds on Aβ-induced toxicity, we utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an in vivo model organism, human Aβ is expressed intracellularly in the body wall muscle. We found that exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ferulic acid give more protection against Aβ toxicity than morin, quercetin and gossypol. PMID:21858698

  11. Reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor based on estrogenic properties of the compound and its estrogenic metabolite, hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Chapin, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Methoxychlor is an organochlorine pesticide having a weak estrogenicity, which is estimated to be approximately 1000- to 14,000-fold less potent to a natural ligand, 17β-estradiol. However, its active metabolite, hydroxyphenyltrichloroethane, has much more potent estrogenic activity and probably acts in the target organs of animals exposed to methoxychlor at least 100 times stronger than the parent compound. A variety of in vivo reproductive toxicity studies have shown that treatment with methoxychlor exerts typical endocrine-disrupting effects manifest as estrogenic effects, such as formation of cystic ovaries resulting in ovulation failures, uterine hypertrophy, hormonal imbalances, atrophy of male sexual organs, and deteriorations of sperm production in rats and/or mice, through which it causes serious reproductive damages in both sexes of animals at sufficient dose levels. However, methoxychlor is not teratogenic. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of methoxychlor among reliable experimental animal studies in terms of the reproductive toxicity is 10 ppm (equivalent to 0.600 mg/kg/day) in a two-generation reproduction toxicity study.

  12. Comparative toxicity and availability of dissociable compounds to fishes as affected by ambient pH

    SciTech Connect

    Buckler, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The primary contaminants of interest were aluminum, singly and in combination with other inorganic compounds, and single components and complex fractions of a Wyoming crude oil. The species of consideration included the rainbow trout, the Atlantic salmon, the fathead minnow, and the striped bass. Several hypotheses were tested in the various studies within this research project. The primary hypothesis was the ambient pH can influence the availability and thus, the toxicity of chemical contaminants to fish. Preliminary studies tested the hypothesis that low pH is detrimental to the survival and growth of fish. The results of these studies were used to define no observable effect levels for pH for several species of fish. Other studies tested the hypothesis that the water soluble fraction of Wyoming crude oil is toxic to rainbow trout and fathead minnows. Additional studies tested the hypothesis that the availability and toxicity of aluminum and an inorganic contaminant mixture to fish are dependent upon ambient pH.

  13. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  14. First Principles Calculations of Electronic and Thermal Properties of AIRE (RE = La, Ce and Pr) Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vipul; Aynyas, M.; Rajagopalan, M.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2008-04-01

    Electronic properties of non-magnetic cubic B2-type AIRE (RE = La, Ce and Pr) compounds have been derived from self-consistent tight binding linear muffin tin orbital method at ambient pressure. These compounds show metallic behaviour under ambient conditions. While thermal properties like Debye temperature and Grüneisen constant are calculated at T = 0 K within the Debye-Grüneisen model and compared with the others theoretical results. We have also performed a pressure induced variation of Debye temperature. We have found a decrease in Debye temperature around 40 kbar in all the AIRE compounds.

  15. Weighted Feature Significance: A Simple, Interpretable Model of Compound Toxicity Based on the Statistical Enrichment of Structural Features

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high–throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) data from Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutagenicity assays conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and (3) hepatotoxicity data published in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Enrichments of structural features in toxic compounds are evaluated for their statistical significance and compiled into a simple additive model of toxicity and then used to score new compounds for potential toxicity. The predictive power of the model for cytotoxicity was validated using an independent set of compounds from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tested also at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. We compared the performance of our WFS approach with classical classification methods such as Naive Bayesian clustering and support vector machines. In most test cases, WFS showed similar or slightly better predictive power, especially in the prediction of hepatotoxic compounds, where WFS appeared to have the best performance among the three methods. The new algorithm has the important advantages of simplicity, power, interpretability, and ease of implementation. PMID:19805409

  16. Effects of Toxic Compounds in Montipora capitata on Exogenous and Endogenous Zooxanthellae Performance and Fertilization Success

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia; Zuchowicz, Nikolas; Johnston, Erika; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline; Gunasekera, Sarath; Paul, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. and have displayed antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in cultured cells. The ecological role of these toxic compounds is currently unclear. This study examines the role these toxins play in reproduction. Toxins were found in the eggs and larvae of the coral Montipora capitata. Releasing these toxins by crushing both the eggs and larvae resulted in irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis in endogenous and exogenous zooxanthellae within minutes. Moreover, these toxins were stable, as frozen storage of eggs and larvae did not affect toxicity. Photosynthetic competency of Porites compressa zooxanthellae treated with either frozen or fresh, crushed eggs was inhibited similarly (P > 0.05, ANCOVA). Addition of toxic eggs plugs to live P. compressa fragments caused complete tissue necrosis under the exposed area on the fragments within 1 week. Small volumes of M. capitata crushed eggs added to sperm suspensions reduced in vitro fertilization success by killing the sperm. After 30 min, untreated sperm maintained 90 ± 1.9% SEM motility while those treated with crushed eggs were rendered immotile, 4 ± 1.4% SEM. Flow cytometry indicated membrane disruption of the immotile sperm. Fertilization success using untreated sperm was 79 ± 4% SEM, whereas the success rate dropped significantly after exposure to the crushed eggs, 1.3 ± 0% SEM. Unlike the eggs and the larvae, M. capitata sperm did not reduce the photosynthetic competency of P. compressa zooxanthellae, suggesting the sperm was nontoxic. The identity of the toxins, cellular mechanism of action, advantage of the toxins for M. capitata and their role on the reef are still unknown. PMID:25714606

  17. Effects of toxic compounds in Montipora capitata on exogenous and endogenous zooxanthellae performance and fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia; Zuchowicz, Nikolas; Johnston, Erika; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline; Gunasekera, Sarath; Paul, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Studies have identified chemicals within the stony coral genus Montipora that have significant biological activities. For example, Montiporic acids A and B and other compounds have been isolated from the adult tissue and eggs of Montipora spp. and have displayed antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity in cultured cells. The ecological role of these toxic compounds is currently unclear. This study examines the role these toxins play in reproduction. Toxins were found in the eggs and larvae of the coral Montipora capitata. Releasing these toxins by crushing both the eggs and larvae resulted in irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis in endogenous and exogenous zooxanthellae within minutes. Moreover, these toxins were stable, as frozen storage of eggs and larvae did not affect toxicity. Photosynthetic competency of Porites compressa zooxanthellae treated with either frozen or fresh, crushed eggs was inhibited similarly (P > 0.05, ANCOVA). Addition of toxic eggs plugs to live P. compressa fragments caused complete tissue necrosis under the exposed area on the fragments within 1 week. Small volumes of M. capitata crushed eggs added to sperm suspensions reduced in vitro fertilization success by killing the sperm. After 30 min, untreated sperm maintained 90 ± 1.9% SEM motility while those treated with crushed eggs were rendered immotile, 4 ± 1.4% SEM. Flow cytometry indicated membrane disruption of the immotile sperm. Fertilization success using untreated sperm was 79 ± 4% SEM, whereas the success rate dropped significantly after exposure to the crushed eggs, 1.3 ± 0% SEM. Unlike the eggs and the larvae, M. capitata sperm did not reduce the photosynthetic competency of P. compressa zooxanthellae, suggesting the sperm was nontoxic. The identity of the toxins, cellular mechanism of action, advantage of the toxins for M. capitata and their role on the reef are still unknown. PMID:25714606

  18. Segregation and black/white differences in exposure to air toxics in 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Russ

    2002-01-01

    I examined non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White differences in exposure to noncriteria air pollutants in 44 U.S. Census Bureau-defined metropolitan areas with populations greater than one million, using data on air toxics concentrations prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of its Cumulative Exposure Project combined with U.S. census data. I measured differences in exposure to air toxics through the calculation of a net difference score, which is a statistical measure used in income inequality analysis to measure inequality over the whole range of exposures. The scores ranged from 11.52 to 83.60. In every metropolitan area, non-Hispanic Blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to be living in tracts with higher total modeled air toxics concentrations. To assess potential reasons for such a wide variation in exposure differences, I performed a multiple regression analysis with the net difference score as the dependent variable. Independent variables initially included were as follows: the dissimilarity index (to measure segregation), Black poverty/White poverty (to control for Black/White economic differences), population density and percentage of persons traveling to work who drive to work (alone and in car pools), and percentage of workforce employed in manufacturing (factors affecting air quality). After an initial analysis I eliminated from the model the measures of density and the persons driving to work because they were statistically insignificant, they did not add to the predictive power of the model, and their deletion did not affect the other variables. The final model had an R(2) of 0.56. Increased segregation is associated with increased disparity in potential exposure to air pollution. PMID:11929740

  19. Analysis of organic compounds (VOC) in the forest air of the Southern Black Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Juettner, F.

    1986-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds of forest air (Kaelbelescheuer, Southern Black Forest) and, for comparison, suburban air (Tuebingen) were qualitatively analyzed by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. 94 Individual compounds were identified, 6 of them belonged to biogenic monoterpenes (..cap alpha..-pinene, ..delta..3-carene, myrcene, limonene, eucalyptol, camphene). While the monoterpenes were enriched in forest air, a similar collection of the pollution products was observed in both locations. Predominant substances were aromatic compounds (toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, xylenes, ethyltoluenes, pseudocumene and naphthalene) which can be regarded as constituents of vehicle exhaust fumes and incineration processes. Other important substances in forest air were various solvents, of which butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, butanol-1, and several ketones were prominent species.

  20. Toxicity of mercury and mercury compounds. May 1978-August 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for May 1978-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxic effects of mercury and mercury compounds on biological systems. Mercury halides, organic mercury compounds, mercury metal, mercury vapors, and other compounds are discussed. Metabolism, toxicology, occupational exposure, symptoms of exposure, mechanisms of interaction with biological systems, demographics of mercury accumulation and poisoning, and case reports are considered. Heavy-metal pollution and bioaccumulation are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 204 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  2. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  3. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  4. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. PM pollution is a complex mixture containing dozens of different compounds; the composition of PM can vary dramatically among different locations depending on the sources of pa...

  5. Detection of volatile organic compounds indicative of human presence in the air.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae; Geier, Brian A; Fan, Maomian; Gogate, Sanjay A; Rinehardt, Sage A; Watts, Brandy S; Grigsby, Claude C; Ott, Darrin K

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds were collected and analyzed from a variety of indoor and outdoor air samples to test whether human-derived compounds can be readily detected in the air and if they can be associated with human occupancy or presence. Compounds were captured with thermal desorption tubes and then analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Isoprene, a major volatile organic compound in exhaled breath, was shown to be the best indicator of human presence. Acetone, another major breath-borne compound, was higher in unoccupied or minimally occupied areas than in human-occupied areas, indicating that its majority may be derived from exogenous sources. The association of endogenous skin-derived compounds with human occupancy was not significant. In contrast, numerous compounds that are found in foods and consumer products were detected at elevated levels in the occupied areas. Our results revealed that isoprene and many exogenous volatile organic compounds consumed by humans are emitted at levels sufficient for detection in the air, which may be indicative of human presence.

  6. Environmental feedbacks and engineered nanoparticles: mitigation of silver nanoparticle toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by algal-produced organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Louise M; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles.

  7. Environmental Feedbacks and Engineered Nanoparticles: Mitigation of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Algal-Produced Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Louise M.; Dickson, Helen; Klanjscek, Tin; Keller, Arturo A.; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of nanotoxicity studies measures the effect of exposure to a toxicant on an organism and ignores the potentially important effects of the organism on the toxicant. We investigated the effect of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at different phases of batch culture growth and show that the AgNPs are most toxic to cultures in the early phases of growth. We offer strong evidence that reduced toxicity occurs because extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds produced by the algal cells themselves mitigate the toxicity of AgNPs. We analyzed this feedback with a dynamic model incorporating algal growth, nanoparticle dissolution, bioaccumulation of silver, DOC production and DOC-mediated inactivation of nanoparticles and ionic silver. Our findings demonstrate how the feedback between aquatic organisms and their environment may impact the toxicity and ecological effects of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:24086348

  8. Contribution of ammonia, metals, and nonpolar organic compounds to the toxicity of sediment interstitial water from an Illinois River tributary

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Ankley, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Toxicity of Illinois River bulk sediment, sediment interstitial (pore) water and elutriates to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was compared to determine the most representative aqueous fraction for toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. Toxicity of pore water corresponded better than elutriates to bulk sediment toxicity. Subsequent TIE procedures conducted with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia indicated that ammonia, metals and nonpolar organic compounds (nonylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenes, long-chain hydrocarbons) were responsible for toxicity of the sediment pore water. Results of TIE manipulations also suggested that methods for recovering pore water that include filtration may eliminate, a priori, a major component of the sediment contaminants responsible for toxicity.

  9. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago; Guihéneuf, Solène; Le Guével, Rémy; Biard, Pierre-François; Paquin, Ludovic; Amrane, Abdeltif; Couvert, Annabelle

    2016-04-15

    Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF6(-), NTf2(-) and NfO(-). Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD28 of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation. PMID:26785216

  10. Stationary source sampling report: Volatile organic compounds testing, 300-M area air stripper exhaust stack

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-25

    An air stripping column was used in the 300-M area to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater. Tests were performed October 29, 1985, at the air stripper exhaust stack to measure the emissions of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane for compliance purposes. Three absorbent sampling train (AST) runs (yielding duplicate samples for each run) and three velocity traverses were performed at the air stripper exhaust stack. Ambient air sampling was not performed as scheduled because of inclement weather conditions.

  11. Municipal waste incinerators: air and biological monitoring of workers for exposure to particles, metals, and organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, A; Collot-Fertey, D; Anzivino, L; Marques, M; Hours, M; Stoklov, M

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate occupational exposure to toxic pollutants at municipal waste incinerators (MWIs). Methods: Twenty nine male subjects working near the furnaces in two MWIs, and 17 subjects not occupationally exposed to combustion generated pollutants were studied. Individual air samples were taken throughout the shift; urine samples were collected before and after. Stationary air samples were taken near potential sources of emission. Results: Occupational exposure did not result in the infringement of any occupational threshold limit value. Atmospheric exposure levels to particles and metals were 10–100 times higher in MWIs than at the control site. The main sources were cleaning operations for particles, and residue transfer and disposal operations for metals. MWI workers were not exposed to higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons than workers who are routinely in contact with vehicle exhaust. The air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes were low and did not appear to pose any significant threat to human health. Only the measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels would seem to be a reliable marker for the combustion of plastics. Urine metal levels were significantly higher at plant 1 than at plant 2 because of high levels of pollutants emanating from one old furnace. Conclusion: While biological monitoring is an easy way of acquiring data on long term personal exposure, air monitoring remains the only method that makes it possible to identify the primary sources of pollutant emission which need to be controlled if occupational exposure and environmental pollution are to be reduced. PMID:12883016

  12. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J

    2015-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers.

  13. Exchange of organohalogen compounds between air and tree bark in the Yellow River region.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Organohalogen compound concentrations in paired air and bark samples from the Yellow River region were determined. Overall, the organohalogen compound concentrations were higher in the samples from the lower than from the upper Yellow River region. The polybrominated diphenyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyl, and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were 310-5200, 0.92-3.8, and 120-6700 pg m(-3), respectively, in the air samples and 29,000-190,0000, 220-1400, and 49,000-220,0000 pg g(-1) lipid weight, respectively, in the bark samples. The concentrations in the air samples were significantly positively correlated with the concentrations in the bark samples. Constant B, related to the partitioning of a contaminant between the gas and particle phases in the air, was calculated for each compound. This was the first time constant B was simultaneously been determined for a range of different organohalogen compounds. An air-tree bark exchange model was calibrated and verified. The exchange coefficients (K(BA)) that were determined were compared with the model results, and the optimum K(OA) values for use in the model were found to be 10(9)-10(16). The compound of interest needed to be detected in more than 50% of the samples for the model results to be valid. PMID:27035385

  14. Comparative acute toxicity of four nickel compounds to F344 rat lung.

    PubMed

    Benson, J M; Henderson, R F; McClellan, R O; Hanson, R L; Rebar, A H

    1986-08-01

    Nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2), nickel chloride (NiCl2), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and nickel oxide (NiO) are compounds of widely differing solubility encountered in the nickel-refining and electroplating industries. Inhalation is a common route of exposure and toxicity to the respiratory tract is possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biochemical, cytological, and morphological changes in lung following administration of these compounds by intratracheal instillation. F344/Crl rats were administered a single dose of nickel compound containing 0.0, 0.01, 0.10, or 1.0 mumol Ni by intratracheal instillation. Rats were sacrificed at 1 or 7 days after compound administration, with half the animals in each exposure group taken for determination of nickel lung burden and the remaining half used for evaluation of biochemical, cytological, and histological changes. In the latter group, the right lung was lavaged and the fluid obtained was analyzed for indicators of pulmonary inflammation: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-glucuronidase (BG), total protein (TP), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), and sialic acid (SA). Total and differential cell counts on cells recovered in lavage fluid were also determined. The left lobe was examined for morphological changes. Clearance of nickel from the lung was most rapid for NiCl2 and NiSO4, followed by Ni3S2 and NiO. Minimal changes in all parameters were observed at 1 day after exposure. No significant changes in any parameter occurred in rats exposed to NiO, while Ni3S2, NiSO4, and NiCl2 caused increased in LDH, BG, TP, GR, SA, and total nucleated cells at 7 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3758551

  15. Air monitoring at Alert in the high Arctic: Results of one year of monitoring of organochlorine compounds and PAH

    SciTech Connect

    Toom, D.; Barrie, L.; Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D.; Muir, D.; Grift, B.; Lockhart, L.; Billick, B.

    1994-12-31

    In January 1992, an air toxics sampler was set up at Alert, on Northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic (82.5{degree} N, 62.3{degree} W) as part of an arctic air toxics monitoring and assessment program. Since then, three more sites were added to the network: Tagish, Yukon Territory near Whitehorse, Dunai Island in the former Soviet Union, and Cape Dorset on Baffin Island. Organochlorines (OCs) and PAHs were sampled weekly to determine the types, concentrations and vapor-particle relationships. High volume samplers with a 10 micrometer size selective inlet were used with a collection cartridge consisting of glass fiber filter(s) for particulates followed by two 20 cm diameter 5 cm thick polyurethane foam plugs for vapors, with a weekly sample volume of approximately 11,000 m{sup 3}. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron capture detection and confirmation by GC/MS. This paper will focus on selected compounds for 1992 at Alert: a volatile OC hexachlorobenzene, a semi-volatile OC DDT, and the PAHs, pyrene, benzo(e) and benzo(a)pyrene. The authors will present annual average concentrations as well as weekly integrated values to look for potential seasonal variation through temporal profiles and their distribution between the particle and gas phases.

  16. Uptake and toxicity of organic compounds: studies with an aquatic macrophyte (Lemna minor)

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, W.L.; de March, B.G.F.; Billeck, B.N.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1981-10-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have been the subjects of relatively little research attention, either for their ability to accumulate pollutants or for their susceptibility to any toxic action of pollutants. Duckweed (Lemna minor) clones were maintained in axenic culture and were exposed to several carbon-14 (/sup 14/C) labeled compounds added to the culture medium. Transfer of radioactivity from media to plants (bioconcentration) was described empirically with regression equations incorporating exposure times and concentrations, partition coefficients, and types of water used to make the culture media. In separate experiments, the growth of cultures in terms of frond numbers was described as a function of exposure time for several concentrations of the herbicides terbutryn, ethalfluralin, and fluridone. Bioconcentration and growth equations were then used to estimate those herbicide residues that should be associated with reductions in culture growth.

  17. Source characterization of volatile organic compounds affecting the air quality in a coastal urban area of South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-09-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  18. Source Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds Affecting the Air Quality in a Coastal Urban Area of South Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marciano; Karnae, Saritha; John, Kuruvilla

    2008-01-01

    Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emitted from various anthropogenic sources including industries and motor vehicles act as primary precursors of ozone, while some VOC are classified as air toxic compounds. Significantly large VOC emission sources impact the air quality in Corpus Christi, Texas. This urban area is located in a semi-arid region of South Texas and is home to several large petrochemical refineries and industrial facilities along a busy ship-channel. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has setup two continuous ambient monitoring stations (CAMS 633 and 634) along the ship channel to monitor VOC concentrations in the urban atmosphere. The hourly concentrations of 46 VOC compounds were acquired from TCEQ for a comprehensive source apportionment study. The primary objective of this study was to identify and quantify the sources affecting the ambient air quality within this urban airshed. Principal Component Analysis/Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA/APCS) was applied to the dataset. PCA identified five possible sources accounting for 69% of the total variance affecting the VOC levels measured at CAMS 633 and six possible sources affecting CAMS 634 accounting for 75% of the total variance. APCS identified natural gas emissions to be the major source contributor at CAMS 633 and it accounted for 70% of the measured VOC concentrations. The other major sources identified at CAMS 633 included flare emissions (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (9%), refinery operations (7%), and vehicle exhaust (2%). At CAMS 634, natural gas sources were identified as the major source category contributing to 31% of the observed VOC. The other sources affecting this site included: refinery operations (24%), flare emissions (22%), secondary industrial processes (12%), fugitive gasoline emissions (8%) and vehicle exhaust (3%). PMID:19139530

  19. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn).

    PubMed

    Theunissen, P T; Robinson, J F; Pennings, J L A; van Herwijnen, M H; Kleinjans, J C S; Piersma, A H

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO-BP) were identified after 24h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO-BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO-BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO-BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  20. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    SciTech Connect

    Theunissen, P.T.; Robinson, J.F.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  1. Bibliography of work on the photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D.M.

    1994-05-01

    This is a bibliography of information in the open literature on work that has been done to date on the photocatalytic oxidation of compounds, principally organic compounds. The goal of the listing is removing hazardous oompounds from water or air. It contains lists of substances and literature citations. The bibliography includes information obtained through the middle of 1993 and some selected references for the balance of that year.

  2. Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments

    SciTech Connect

    King, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    Bacteria able to degrade either 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or phenanthrene (PHEN) were isolated from polluted freshwater environments. Two isolates able to degrade each compound were tested for mineralization with a sensitive /sup 14/C assay and for survival in lake water and sewage using a selective medium. One DCP isolate was identified as Alcaligenes paradoxus and the other as Alcaligenes sp. One PHEN isolate was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and the other as Pseudomonas sp. All four isolates survived and grew in sterile environments which indicated that starvation would not be a factor in survival of these strains. The number of organisms declined immediately in number in nonsterile lake water. However, they did survive or even grow in nonsterile sewage for a short period before declining in number. Biotic factors appeared to be influential for survival and mineralization of target compounds in many environments. The removal of protozoa, which prey on bacteria, improved survival of the added cells, but had no influence on the mineralization of 10 ..mu..g DCP/L. In comparison, degradation of 10 and 25 mg DCP/L stopped after a few days. Yeast nitrogen base appeared to overcome the lack of nutrient regeneration, a function attributed to protozoa. The additional nutrients increased toxicant mineralization, especially when seeded with appropriate species. Thus, protozoa may limit growth of added cells but appear to be needed for mineralization of higher concentrations of DCP.

  3. Toxic compounds and health and reproductive effects in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales

    SciTech Connect

    Beland, P.; Michaud, R. ); DeGuise, S. Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, St-Hyacinthe, Quebec ); Girard, C.; Lagace, A. ); Martineau, D. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY ); Muir, D.C.G. ); Norstorm, R.J. ); Pelletier, E. ); Ray, S. )

    1993-01-01

    An epidemiologic study was carried out over a period of 9 years on an isolated population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) residing in the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). More than 100 individual deaths were aged, and/or autopsied and analyzed for toxic compounds, and the population was surveyed for size and structure. Arctic belugas and other species of whales and seals from the St. Lawrence were used for comparison. Population dynamics: Population size appeared to be stable and modeling showed this stable pattern to result from low calf production and/or low survival to adulthood. Toxicology: St. Lawrence belugas had higher or much higher levels of mercury, lead, PCBs, DDT, Mirex, benzo[a]pyrene metabolites, equivalent levels of dioxins, furans, and PAH metabolites, and much lower levels of cadmium than Arctic belugas. In other St. Lawrence cetaceans, levels of PCBs and DDT were inversely related to body size, as resulting from differences in metabolic rate, diet, and trophic position, compounded by length of residence in the St. Lawrence basin. St. Lawrence belugas had much higher levels than predicted from body size alone; levels increased with age in both sexes, although unloading by females through the placenta and/or lactation was evidenced by overall lower levels in females and very high burdens in some calves. 45 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Survey of volatile organic compounds found in indoor and outdoor air samples from Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erika; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Yagi, Masahiro; Tsuno, Masahiko; Arao, Masa; Ikemoto, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakashima, Ayako; Shimizu, Yuri; Otsubo, Yasufumi; Ando, Masanori; Jinno, Hideto; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air quality is currently a growing concern, mainly due to the incidence of sick building syndrome and building related illness. To better understand indoor air quality in Japan, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected from 50 residences in Iwate, Yamanashi, Shiga, Hyogo, Kochi and Fukuoka Prefectures. More than 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. The most abundant class of compounds present in the indoor air samples were identified (i.e. alkanes, alkylbenzenes and terpenes). For 30% of the indoor air samples, the sum of each VOC exceeded the current provisional guideline value for total VOC (TVOC, 400 microg/m3). The major component of these samples included linear and branched-chain alkanes (possibly derived from fossil fuels), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (a moth repellent), alpha-pinene (emission from woody building materials) and limonene (probably derived from aroma products). As an unexpected result, one residence was polluted with an extremely high concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (720 microg/m3), suggesting accidental leakage from a household appliance such as a refrigerator. The results presented in this paper are important in establishing the Japanese target compound list for TVOC analysis, as well as defining the current status of indoor air quality in Japan.

  5. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the antifoulant compound Irgarol 1051 to the mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Meaghean C; Pittman, Sherry; DeLorenzo, Marie E

    2009-01-01

    Irgarol 1051 is an algistatic compound used in copper-based antifoulant paints. It is a widespread and persistent pollutant of the estuarine environment. Ilyanassa obsoleta, the Eastern mud snail, is a common intertidal gastropod that inhabits mud flats and salt marshes along the east coast of North America. It is an important inhabitant of the estuarine environment; contributing to nutrient regeneration and regulating microbial processes in the sediments. The toxicity of irgarol to estuarine gastropods has not been previously examined, although they have the potential to be exposed to antifoulants through both aqueous and sediment routes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate irgarol's effects on I. obsoleta survival, reproductive status (imposex occurrence and testosterone levels), chemoreceptive function, and cellular respiration (cytochrome-c oxidase activity). Irgarol was moderately toxic to I. obsoleta; adult aqueous 96-h LC(50) = 3.73 mg/L, larval aqueous 96-h LC(50) = 3.16 mg/L, and adult sediment 10-day LC(50) = 12.21 mg/kg. Larval snails were not significantly more sensitive to irgarol than adult snails. A chronic 45-day aqueous irgarol exposure (0.005-2.5 mg/L) did not induce imposex or affect free-testosterone levels. The 45-day chronic LC(50 )of 1.88 mg/L was significantly lower than the 96-h acute value. A 96-h acute aqueous irgarol exposure (0.375-1.5 mg/L) caused a decrease in normal response to chemosensory cues such as the presence of food or predators. There was a significant increase in cytochrome-c oxidase activity at 2.5 mg/L, which might indicate irgarol's disruption of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequently ATP synthesis. Although the toxicity values determined for I. obsoleta exceeded irgarol concentrations measured in surface waters, results from this toxicity assessment will provide valuable information to environmental resource managers faced with decisions regarding the use and regulation of antifoulant paints in the

  6. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Peng, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia A.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from tobacco smoke are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers to VOCs from secondhand smoke (SHS) in vehicles using mercapturic acid metabolites. Methods Fourteen nonsmokers were individually exposed in the backseat to one hour of SHS from a smoker seating in the driver’s seat who smoked 3 cigarettes at 20 minute intervals in a stationary car with windows opened by 10 cm. Baseline and 0-8 h post-exposure mercapturic acid metabolites of 9 VOCs were measured in urine. Air-to-urine VOC ratios were estimated based on respirable particulates (PM2.5) or air nicotine concentration, and lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene was estimated for adults. Results The greatest increase in 0-8 h post-exposure concentrations of mercapturic acids from baseline was MHBMA-3 (parent, 1,3-butadiene) (2.1-fold), then CNEMA (acrylonitrile) (1.7-fold), PMA (benzene) (1.6-fold), MMA (methylating agents) (1.6-fold), and HEMA (ethylene oxide) (1.3-fold). The LER of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene in SHS for 5 hour a week ranged from 15.5×10−6 to 28.1×10−6 for adults, using air nicotine and PM2.5 to predict air VOC exposure, respectively. Conclusion Nonsmokers have significant intake of multiple VOCs from breathing SHS in cars, corresponding to health risks that exceed the acceptable level. Impact Smoking in cars may be associated with increased risks of cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases among nonsmokers. PMID:25398951

  7. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  8. Gas-fired boiler and turbine air toxics summary report. Final report, January-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi-Lane, C.; Stein, D.; Himes, R.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the report is to provide a summary of the criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from a variety of gas-fired stationary sources including utility boilers, utility turbines, and turbines used for natural gas transmission. The report provides emission factors for each compound measured as a function of load to support general use during the preparation of Title V permit applications.

  9. Polyfluorinated Compounds in Serum Linked to Indoor Air in Office Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Alicia J; Webster, Thomas F; Watkins, Deborah J; Nelson, Jessica W; Stapleton, Heather M; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Shoeib, Mahiba; Vieira, Verónica M; McClean, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of indoor office air on exposure to polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) among office workers. Week-long, active air sampling was conducted during the winter of 2009 in 31 offices in Boston, MA. Air samples were analyzed for fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Serum was collected from each participant (n=31) and analyzed for twelve PFCs including PFOA and PFOS. In air, FTOHs were present in the highest concentrations, particularly 8:2-FTOH (GM=9,920 pg/m3). FTOHs varied significantly by building with the highest levels observed in a newly constructed building. PFOA in serum was significantly correlated with air levels of 6:2-FTOH (r=0.43), 8:2-FTOH (r=0.60), and 10:2-FTOH (r=0.62). Collectively, FTOHs in air significantly predicted PFOA in serum (p < 0.001) and explained approximately 36% of the variation in serum PFOA concentrations. PFOS in serum was not associated with air levels of FOSAs/FOSEs. In conclusion, FTOH concentrations in office air significantly predict serum PFOA concentrations in office workers. Variation in PFC air concentrations by building is likely due to differences in the number, type, and age of potential sources such as carpeting, furniture and/or paint. PMID:22148395

  10. Toxicity change patterns and its mechanism during the degradation of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds by O(3)/UV.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Wang, Xiao-mao

    2007-10-01

    Many nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) are toxic and recalcitrant contaminants that need to be degraded by advanced oxidation processes. In this study, quinoline, isoquinoline and indole were selected to investigate their toxicity patterns during the degradation by O(3)/UV. It was found that for all the three NHCs there was some H(2)O(2) formed in the degradation process, which caused the sharp increase of toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum. The toxicity decreasing patterns after H(2)O(2) elimination were different for quinoline (or isoquinoline) and indole. After H(2)O(2) elimination, for quinoline or isoquinoline the toxicity decreased concurrently with the decrease of its concentration, while for indole the toxicity lagged behind its removal rate. The rate constant of the NHC with O(3) (k(D)) was the decisive parameter of its toxicity pattern because of its critical role in determining the degradation rate of the NHC. Two quantitative structure-activity relationship equations for the k(D) values of simple NHCs and homocyclic aromatics were successfully established, which would be useful to predict their toxicity patterns.

  11. COST ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON VERSUS PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR REMOVING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cost comparison has been conducted of 1 m3/s indoor air cleaners using granular activated carbon (GAC) vs. photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) for treating a steady-state inlet volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of 0.3 mg/m3. The commercial GAC unit was costed assuming t...

  12. LINKING AIR TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CMAQ TO THE HAPEM5 EXPOSURE MODEL AT NEIGHORHOOD SCALES FOR THE PHILADELPHIA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For ...

  13. An Evaluation of EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with Benzene Measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial reso...

  14. FURTHER REFINEMENTS AND TESTING OF APEX3.0: EPA'S POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC INHALATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX(3.0)) is a PC-based model that was derived from the probabilistic NAAQS Exposure Model for carbon monoxide (pNEM/CO). APEX will be one of the tools used to estimate human population exposure for criteria and air toxic pollutants as part ...

  15. Is UV radiation changing the toxicity of compounds to zebrafish embryos?

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Rita; Andrade, Thayres S; Burkina, Viktoriia; Fedorova, Ganna; Loureiro, Susana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês

    2015-12-01

    At ecosystems level, environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and intensity of UV radiation (UVR) have an important role on the efficiency of organisms' physiological and behavioral performances and consequently on the capacity of response to contaminants. Insignificant alterations of these parameters may compromise this response. In addition, these parameters can additionally alter chemical compounds by inducing their degradation, producing thereafter other metabolites. Understanding the combined effects of chemicals and environmental parameters is absolutely necessary for an adequate prediction of risk in aquatic environments. According to this scenario, this work aims at studying the combined toxicity of UVR and three xenobiotics: the biocide triclosan (TCS), the metal chromium (as potassium dichromate, PD) and the fungicide prochloraz (PCZ). To achieve this goal zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (3h post fertilization (hpf)) were exposed to several concentrations of each chemical combined with different UV intensities; mortality and eggs were recorded every 24h for the all test duration (96 h). Results showed different response patterns depending on the toxicant, stress levels and duration of exposure. The combination of UVR and TCS indicated a dose ratio deviation where synergism was observed when UVR was the dominant stressor (day 2). The combination of UVR and PD presented a dose level dependency at day 3 indicating antagonism at low stress levels, changing with time where at day 4, a dose ratio deviation showed statistically that synergism occurred at higher PD concentrations. Finally, UVR combined with PCZ indicated a dose ratio at day 3 and dose level deviation at day 4 of exposure, suggesting a synergistic response when PCZ is the dominant stressor in the combination. The obtained results in this study highlighted the importance of taking into account the possible interaction of stressors and time of exposure to

  16. Toxicity of explosive compounds to the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in aqueous exposures.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gunther; Lotufo, Guilherme R

    2007-10-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of the explosive compounds, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were assessed in separate water only exposures to the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Toxicity endpoints included survival and byssal thread formation in adults, and larval development success of embryos, in 96- and 48-h exposures, respectively. The larval development endpoint was over an order of magnitude more sensitive to TNT compared to adult survival, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.75 and 19.5mgL(-1) (3.30 and 74.1micromolL(-1)), respectively. Byssal thread formation (48h EC50=6.57mgL(-1); 29.3micromolL(-1)) was also impaired at sublethal concentrations. The highest RDX and HMX concentrations tested (28.4 and 1.9mgL(-1) [124 and 6.43micromolL(-1)], respectively) failed to promote any significant toxicological effect in exposed mussels. Median lethal residues (LR50) of 14.0microg g(-1) (51.0nmolg(-1)) ww for TNT in the adults were similar to those measured for other marine invertebrates in previous studies, while body residues as high as 19.6 and 0.92microg g(-1) (86 and 3.1nmolg(-1)) ww were not associated with any toxicity for RDX and HMX, respectively.

  17. Semivolatile Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Paired Indoor and Outdoor Air in Two Northern California Communities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the health effects of potential endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that are high production volume chemicals used in consumer products has made exposure assessment and source identification a priority. We collected paired indoor and outdoor air samples in 40 nonsmoking homes in urban, industrial Richmond, CA, and 10 in rural Bolinas, CA. Samples were analyzed by GC-MS for 104 analytes, including phthalates (11), alkylphenols (3), parabens (3), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (3), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (24), pesticides (38), and phenolic compounds (19). We detected 39 analytes in outdoor air and 63 in indoor air. For many of the phenolic compounds, alkylphenols, phthalates, and PBDEs, these represent some of the first outdoor measures and the first analysis of the relative importance of indoor and outdoor sources in paired samples. Data demonstrate higher indoor concentrations for 32 analytes, suggesting primarily indoor sources, as compared with only 2 that were higher outdoors. Outdoor air concentrations were higher in Richmond than Bolinas for 3 phthalates, 10 PAHs, and o-phenylphenol, while indoor air levels were more similar between communities, except that differences observed outdoors were also seen indoors. Indoor concentrations of the most ubiquitous chemicals were generally correlated with each other (4-t-butylphenol, o-phenylphenol, nonylphenol, several phthalates, and methyl phenanthrenes; Kendall correlation coefficients 0.2−0.6, p < 0.05), indicating possible shared sources and highlighting the importance of considering mixtures in health studies. PMID:20681565

  18. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range.

  19. Biofiltration of odors, toxics and volatile organic compounds from publicly owned treatment works

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.S.; Devinny, J.S.; Torres, E.M.; Basrai, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    Increasing federal and state regulation has made it necessary to apply air pollution control measures at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). Traditional control technologies may not be suitable for treating the low and variable contaminant concentrations often found in POTW off-gases. An alternative control technology, biofiltration, was studied. An experiment using bench- and pilot-scale reactors established optimal operating conditions for a full-scale conceptual design. The waste airstream contained ppmv levels of hydrogen sulfide and ppbv levels of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Granular activated carbon (GAC) and yard waste compost (YWG) were tested as possible biofilter media with and without pH control. The 16-month field study bench reactors achieved 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide, 53 to 98% removal of aromatic hydrocarbons, 37 to 95% removal of aldehydes and ketones, and 0 to 85% removal of chlorinated compounds. The GAC and YWC pilot reactors removed more than 80% and 65% of the total VOCs at 17 second and 70 second empty bed retention times, respectively. The YWC reactors performed poorly at empty bed retention times of 30 and 45 seconds, removing less than 40% of total VOCs. Declining pH had little negative effect on contaminant removal, suggesting costly control measures may not be necessary. Biofiltration appears to be a feasible alternative to traditional control technologies in treating off-gases from POTWs. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of Crude Antifungal Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Chang, Hae-Choon; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and subacute oral toxicity of crude antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the acute toxicity study, the crude antifungal compounds (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 g/kg) did not produce mortality, significant changes in general behavior, or changes in the gross appearance of the organs. In the subacute toxicity study, the crude antifungal compounds were administered orally to rats at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg daily for 28 days. There were no test article-related deaths, abnormal clinical signs, or body weight changes. The study also showed no significant differences between the control and treated groups in hematological and serum biochemical parameters, histopathological examination, or any other findings. These results suggest that acute or subacute oral administration of crude antifungal compounds from L. plantarum HD1 is not toxic in rats. PMID:26451356

  1. Role of P27 -P55 operon from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the resistance to toxic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The P27-P55 (lprG-Rv1410c) operon is crucial for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, during infection in mice. P55 encodes an efflux pump that has been shown to provide Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG with resistance to several drugs, while P27 encodes a mannosylated glycoprotein previously described as an antigen that modulates the immune response against mycobacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the individual contribution of the proteins encoded in the P27-P55 operon to the resistance to toxic compounds and to the cell wall integrity of M. tuberculosis. Method In order to test the susceptibility of a mutant of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in the P27-P55 operon to malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate, ethidium bromide, and first-line antituberculosis drugs, this strain together with the wild type strain and a set of complemented strains were cultivated in the presence and in the absence of these drugs. In addition, the malachite green decolorization rate of each strain was obtained from decolorization curves of malachite green in PBS containing bacterial suspensions. Results The mutant strain decolorized malachite green faster than the wild type strain and was hypersensitive to both malachite green and ethidium bromide, and more susceptible to the first-line antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid and ethambutol. The pump inhibitor reserpine reversed M. tuberculosis resistance to ethidium bromide. These results suggest that P27-P55 functions through an efflux-pump like mechanism. In addition, deletion of the P27-P55 operon made M. tuberculosis susceptible to sodium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting that the lack of both proteins causes alterations in the cell wall permeability of the bacterium. Importantly, both P27 and P55 are required to restore the wild type phenotypes in the mutant. Conclusions The results clearly indicate that P27 and P55 are functionally connected in

  2. Biomarkers for assessing body burden from exposure to toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.M.; O'Neill, H.J.; Moschandreas, D.J. ); Lewis, R.G.; Wilson, N.K. )

    1988-09-01

    The body burden of airborne toxic chemicals resulting from all routes of human exposure cannot be determined by traditional techniques, which only measure the concentrations of these chemicals in air. Human exposure has been related to biological endpoints in several studies using biochemical markers. It may be possible to relate human exposure to breath concentrations, biological endpoints, and ultimately body burden, using noninvasive techniques (breath and urine analysis). Preliminary chamber studies in their laboratory have shown that subjects exposed to selected air pollutants at near-normal ambient levels eliminate them in breath at measurable decay rates. This study seeks to determine expired-air decay rates for selected air pollutants and their blood/breath partition coefficients. Such data could lead to correlations with the primary biomarkers directly related to biological endpoints (e.g., DNA or protein adducts, glutathione conjugates, chromosomal damage, immune function impairment). If an association can be established between noninvasive data and primary biomarkers, then an integrated approach should be possible for measuring biological endpoints noninvasively by monitoring human expired breath or urine.

  3. [Health effects of solar cell component material. Toxicity of indium compounds to laboratory animals determined by intratracheal instillations].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the increasing interest being paid to the issue of the global environment, the production of solar cells has increased rapidly in recent years. Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a new efficient thin film used in some types of solar cell. Indium is a constitutive element of CIGS thin-film solar cells. It was thought that indium compounds were not harmful until the beginning of the 1990s because there was little information regarding the adverse health effects on humans or animals arising from exposure to indium compounds. After the mid-1990s, data became available indicating that indium compounds can be toxic to animals. In animal studies, it has been clearly demonstrated that indium compounds cause pulmonary toxicity and that the dissolution of indium compounds in the lungs is considerably slow, as shown by repeated intratracheal instillations in experimental animals. Thus, it is necessary to pay much greater attention to human exposure to indium compounds, and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are paramount with regard to health management.

  4. Uncertainty for data with non-detects: Air toxic emissions from combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.C.; Frey, H.C.

    2006-12-15

    Air toxic emission factor datasets often contain one or more points below a single or multiple detection limits and such datasets are referred to as 'censored.' Conventional methods used to deal with censored datasets include removing non-detects, replacing the censored points with zero, half of the detection limit, or the detection limit. However, the estimated means of the censored dataset by conventional methods are usually biased. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and bootstrap simulation have been demonstrated as a statistically robust method to quantify variability and uncertainty of censored datasets and can provide asymptotically unbiased mean estimates. The MLE/bootstrap method is applied to 16 cases of censored air toxic emission factors, including benzene, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, total chromium, chromium VI and lead from coal, fuel oil, and/or wood waste external combustion sources. The proportion of censored values in the emission factor data ranges from 4 to 80%. Key factors that influence the estimated uncertainty in the mean of censored data are sample size and inter-unit variability. The largest range of uncertainty in the mean was obtained for the external coal combustion benzene emission factor, with 95 confidence interval of the mean equal to minus 93 to plus 411%.

  5. Assessing the Renal Toxicity of Capstone Depleted Uranium Oxides and Other Uranium Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Roszell, Laurie E.; Hahn, Fletcher; Lee, Robyn B.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

    2009-02-26

    The primary target for uranium toxicity is the kidney. The most frequently used guideline for uranium kidney burdens is the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) value of 3 µg U/g kidney, a value that is based largely upon chronic studies in animals. In the present effort, we have developed a risk model equation to assess potential outcomes of acute uranium exposure. Twenty-seven previously published case studies in which workers were acutely exposed to soluble compounds of uranium (as a result of workplace accidents) were analyzed. Kidney burdens of uranium for these individuals were determined based on uranium in the urine, and correlated with health effects observed over a period of up to 38 years. Based upon the severity of health effects, each individual was assigned a score (- to +++) and then placed into an Effect Group. A discriminant analysis was used to build a model equation to predict the Effect Group based on the amount of uranium in the kidneys. The model equation was able to predict the Effect Group with 85% accuracy. The risk model was used to predict the Effect Group for Soldiers exposed to DU as a result of friendly fire incidents during the 1991 Gulf War. This model equation can also be used to predict the Effect Group of new cases in which acute exposures to uranium have occurred.

  6. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): a review on occurrence, fate and toxicity in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang; Cui, Fang; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Min; Yang, Zhong-zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang; Zhu, Meng-ying; Shen, Liu-qing

    2015-06-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely applied in household and industrial products. Most uses of QACs can be expected to lead to their release to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and then dispersed into various environmental compartments through sewage effluent and sludge land application. Although QACs are considered to be aerobically biodegradable, the degradation is affected by its chemical structures, dissolved oxygen concentration, complexing with anionic surfactants, etc. High abundance of QACs has been detected in sediment and sludge samples due to its strong sorption and resistance to biodegradation under anoxic/anaerobic conditions. QACs are toxic to a lot of aquatic organisms including fish, daphnids, algae, rotifer and microorganisms employed in wastewater treatment systems. And antibiotic resistance has emerged in microorganisms due to excessive use of QACs in household and industrial applications. The occurrence of QACs in the environment is correlated with anthropogenic activities, such as wastewater discharge from WWTPs or single source polluters, and sludge land application. This article also reviews the analytical methods for determination of QACs in environmental compartments including surface water, wastewater, sewage sludge and sediments. PMID:25770948

  7. Structure of a cation-bound multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiao; Szewczyk, Paul; Karyakin, Andrey; Evin, Mariah; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey

    2010-10-26

    Transporter proteins from the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family are vital in metabolite transport in plants, directly affecting crop yields worldwide. MATE transporters also mediate multiple-drug resistance (MDR) in bacteria and mammals, modulating the efficacy of many pharmaceutical drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. MATE transporters couple substrate transport to electrochemical gradients and are the only remaining class of MDR transporters whose structure has not been determined. Here we report the X-ray structure of the MATE transporter NorM from Vibrio cholerae determined to 3.65 {angstrom}, revealing an outward-facing conformation with two portals open to the outer leaflet of the membrane and a unique topology of the predicted 12 transmembrane helices distinct from any other known MDR transporter. We also report a cation-binding site in close proximity to residues previously deemed critical for transport. This conformation probably represents a stage of the transport cycle with high affinity for monovalent cations and low affinity for substrates.

  8. Structures of multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters and their mechanistic implications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance poses grand challenges to the effective treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. Integral membrane proteins from the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family contribute to multidrug resistance by exporting a wide variety of therapeutic drugs across cell membranes. MATE proteins are conserved from bacteria to humans and can be categorized into the NorM, DinF and eukaryotic subfamilies. MATE transporters hold great appeal as potential therapeutic targets for curbing multidrug resistance, yet their transport mechanism remains elusive. During the past 5 years, X-ray structures of 4 NorM and DinF transporters have been reported and guided biochemical studies to reveal how MATE transporters extrude different drugs. Such advances, although substantial, have yet to be discussed collectively. Herein I review these structures and the unprecedented mechanistic insights that have been garnered from those structure-inspired studies, as well as lay out the outstanding questions that present exciting opportunities for future work. PMID:26488689

  9. Analysis of a ToxCast™ HTS Toxicity Signature for putative Vascular Disruptor Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown the importance of blood vessel formation during embryo development and the strong correlation to developmental toxicity. Several developmental toxicants, such as thalidomide, have been identified which specifically target the forming embryonic vasculatur...

  10. PHOTOACTIVATION AND TOXICITY OF MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The direct toxicity and photoinduced toxicity of sediment-associated acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were determined for the marine amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. The four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were spiked into sediment in a concentration se...

  11. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of arsenic and arsenic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This document describes the properties of arsenic and arsenic compounds as air pollutants, defines production and use patterns, identifies source categories of air emissions, and provides emission factors. Arsenic is emitted as an air pollutant from external combustion boilers, municipal and hazardous waste incineration, primary copper and zinc smelting, glass manufacturing, copper ore mining, and primary and secondary lead smelting. Emissions of arsenic from these activities are due to the presence of trace amounts of arsenic in fuels and materials being processed. In such cases, the emissions may be quite variable because the trace presence of arsenic is not constant. Arsenic emissions also occur from agricultural chemical production and application, and also from metal processing due to the use of arsenic in these activities. In addition to the arsenic source information, information is provided that specifies how individual sources of arsenic may be tested to quantify air emissions.

  12. Semivolatile organic compounds in residential air along the Arizona - Mexico border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, R.W.; Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Robertson, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about indoor air quality and the potential effects on people living in these environments are increasing as more reports about the toxicities and the potential indoor air exposure levels of household-use chemicals and chemicals fromhousingandfurnishingmanufactureinairarebeingassessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to confirm numerous airborne contaminants obtained from the analysis of semipermeable membrane devices deployed inside of 52 homes situated along the border between Arizona and Mexico. We also describe nontarget analytes in the organochlorine pesticide fractions of 12 of these homes; this fraction is also the most likelytocontainthebroadestscopeofbioconcentratablechemicals accumulated from the indoor air. Approximately 400 individual components were identified, ranging from pesticides to a wide array of hydrocarbons, fragrances such as the musk xylenes, flavors relating to spices, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and phthalate esters, and other miscellaneous types of chemicals. The results presented in this study demonstrate unequivocally that the mixture of airborne chemicals present indoors is far more complex than previously demonstrated. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. A new analytical protocol for the determination of 62 endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Laborie, Stéphanie; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Desportes, Annie; Oziol, Lucie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new analytical protocol for simultaneous determination of 62 semi-volatile organic compounds in both phases of indoor air. Studied compounds belong to several families: polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, phthalates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, parabens, tetrabromobisphenol A, bisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, triclosan, alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, synthetic musks (galaxolide and tonalide) and pesticides (lindane and cypermethrin). A medium volume sampling system was used to collect simultaneously these endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) from the gaseous and particulate phases. An accelerated solvent extraction method was optimized to obtain all EDCs in a single extract by atmospheric phase. Their extraction from the sorbents and their analysis by liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, GC/MS and GC/MS/MS) was validated using spiked sorbents (recovery study and analytical uncertainty analysis by fully nested design). The developed protocol achieved low limits of quantification (<0.5ng m(-3)) and low uncertainty values (<5ng m(-3)) for all compounds. Once validated, the method was applied to indoor air samples from four locations (a house, an apartment, a day nursery and an office) and compared to literature to confirm its efficiency. All target EDCs were quantified in the samples and were primarily present in the gaseous phase. The major contaminants found in indoor air were, in descending order, phthalates, synthetic musks, alkylphenols and parabens. PMID:26592587

  14. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  15. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  16. Characterization of Odorous Compounds (VOC and Carbonyl Compounds) in the Ambient Air of Yeosu and Gwangyang, Large Industrial Areas of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Baek, Sung-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Odorous compounds play an important role in air pollution in industrial areas and the residential areas surrounding them. This study measured the odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbonyl compounds at Yeosu and Gwangyang, two large industrial areas of South Korea, during four seasons of 2008-2009. Along with these two cities, the same odorous compounds were measured at Suncheon, which was selected as a control site. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyl compounds that were listed as odorous air pollutants by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea are discussed. Benzene and formaldehyde were included in the target analytes because of their carcinogenic nature. Most researchers only examined the concentration of odorous compounds in ambient air but the present study evaluated the odor intensity, which is a new parameter that will help better understand the precise odor perceived by people. This paper describes the seasonal variations and spatial distribution of the above-mentioned odorous compounds at the specified sites. Pearson correlation coefficients between the odorous compounds and other air pollutants, such as ozone, CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10, and meteorological conditions, such as temperature and wind speed, provide the source information of odorous VOC and carbonyl compounds. PMID:25309959

  17. Overview of toxicity data and risk assessment methods for evaluating the chemical effects of depleted uranium compounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H. M.; Monette, F. A.; Avci, H. I.; Environmental Assessment

    2000-10-01

    In the United States, depleted uranium is handled or used in several chemical forms by both governmental agencies and private industry (primarily companies producing and machining depleted uranium metal for military applications). Human exposure can occur as a result of handling these compounds, routine low-level effluent releases to the environment from processing facilities, or materials being accidentally released from storage locations or during processing or transportation. Exposure to uranium can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity, but in most instances chemical toxicity is of greater concern. This article discusses the chemical toxic effects from human exposure to depleted uranium compounds that are likely to be handled during the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) inventories in the United States. It also reviews representative publications in the toxicological literature to establish appropriate reference values for risk assessments. Methods are described for evaluating chemical toxicity caused by chronic low-level exposure and acute exposure. Example risk evaluations are provided for illustration. Preliminary results indicate that chemical effects of chronic exposure to uranium compounds under normal operating conditions would be negligibly small. Results also show that acute exposures under certain accident conditions could cause adverse chemical effects among the populations exposed.

  18. Using quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling to quantitatively predict the developmental toxicity of halogenated azole compounds.

    PubMed

    Craig, Evisabel A; Wang, Nina Ching; Zhao, Q Jay

    2014-07-01

    Developmental toxicity is a relevant endpoint for the comprehensive assessment of human health risk from chemical exposure. However, animal developmental toxicity data remain unavailable for many environmental contaminants due to the complexity and cost of these types of analyses. Here we describe an approach that uses quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling as an alternative methodology to fill data gaps in the developmental toxicity profile of certain halogenated compounds. Chemical information was obtained and curated using the OECD Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Toolbox, version 3.0. Data from 35 curated compounds were analyzed via linear regression to build the predictive model, which has an R(2) of 0.79 and a Q(2) of 0.77. The applicability domain (AD) was defined by chemical category and structural similarity. Seven halogenated chemicals that fit the AD but are not part of the training set were employed for external validation purposes. Our model predicted lowest observed adverse effect level values with a maximal threefold deviation from the observed experimental values for all chemicals that fit the AD. The good predictability of our model suggests that this method may be applicable to the analysis of qualifying compounds whenever developmental toxicity information is lacking or incomplete for risk assessment considerations.

  19. QSTR modeling for predicting aquatic toxicity of pharmacological active compounds in multiple test species for regulatory purpose.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita

    2015-02-01

    High concentrations of pharmacological active compounds (PACs) detected in global drinking water resources and their toxicological implications in aquatic life has become a matter of concern compelling for the development of reliable QSTRs (qualitative/quantitative structure-toxicity relationships) for their risk assessment. Robust QSTRs, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were established by experimental toxicity data of structurally diverse PACs in daphnia using molecular descriptors for predicting toxicity of new untested compounds in multiple test species. Developed models were rigorously validated using OECD recommended internal and external validation procedures and predictive power tested with external data of different trophic level test species (algae and fish). Classification QSTRs (DTB, DTF) rendered accuracy of 98.73% and 97.47%, respectively in daphnia and 84.38%, 85.94% (algae), 78.46% and 79.23% (fish). On the other hand, the regression QSTRs (DTB, DTF) yielded squared correlation coefficient values of 0.831, 0.852 (daphnia), 0.534, 0.556 (algae) and 0.620, 0.637 (fish). QSTRs developed in this study passed the OECD validation criteria and performed better than reported earlier for predicting toxicity of PACs, and can be used for screening the new untested compounds for regulatory purpose.

  20. Toxicity of Zanthoxylum piperitum and Zanthoxylum armatum oil constituents and related compounds to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-09-01

    Zanthoxylum plants (Rutaceae) have drawn attention because they contain insecticidal principles against insects. An assessment was made of the insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate and Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, their 28 constituents, and eight structurally related compounds against female stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Results were compared with those of two organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos. Potent fumigant toxicity was observed with cuminaldehyde, thymol, (1S)-(-)-verbenone, (-)-myrtenal, carvacrol, (S)-(Z)-verbenol, Zanthoxylum piperitum steam distillate, cuminyl alcohol, Zanthoxylum armatum seed oil, piperitone, (-)-(Z)-myrtanol, and citronellal (LC50, 0.075-0.456 microg/cm3). However, they were five orders of magnitude less toxic than either chlorpyrifos or dichlorvos. An in vitro bioassay using female fly heads indicates that strong AChE inhibition was produced by citronellyl acetate, alpha-pinene, thymol, carvacrol, and alpha-terpineol (1.20-2.73 mM), but no direct correlation between fly toxicity and AChE inhibition by the test compounds was observed. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as carbon skeleton, degrees of saturation and types of functional groups, and vapor pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicities of the test monoterpenoids to stable flies. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on Z. piperitum and Z. armatum oil-derived materials as potential insecticides for the control of stable fly populations.

  1. Surfactants, aromatic and isoprenoid compounds, and fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitors suppress Staphylococcus aureus production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Peter J; Syverson, Rae Ellen; Milligan-Myhre, Kathy; Frolova, Olga; Schroeder, Sarah; Kidder, Joshua; Hoang, Thanh; Proctor, Richard A

    2009-05-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening illness manifest through the actions of Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Previous studies have shown that tampon additives can influence staphylococcal TSST-1 production. We report here on the TSST-1-suppressing activity of 34 compounds that are commonly used additives in the pharmaceutical, food, and perfume industries. Many of the tested chemicals had a minimal impact on the growth of S. aureus and yet were potent inhibitors of TSST-1 production. The TSST-1-reducing compounds included surfactants with an ether, amide, or amine linkage to their fatty acid moiety (e.g., myreth-3-myristate, Laureth-3, disodium lauroamphodiacetate, disodium lauramido monoethanolamido, sodium lauriminodipropionic acid, and triethanolamine laureth sulfate); aromatic compounds (e.g. phenylethyl and benzyl alcohols); and several isoprenoids and related compounds (e.g., terpineol and menthol). The membrane-targeting and -altering effects of the TSST-1-suppressing compounds led us to assess the activity of molecules that are known to inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., cerulenin, triclosan, and hexachlorophene). These compounds also reduced S. aureus TSST-1 production. This study suggests that more additives than previously recognized inhibit the production of TSST-1.

  2. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. [Volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  3. Activity-guided chemo toxic profiling of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds: detection of toxic compounds in body fluids of CO-exposed patients and experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Gati Krushna; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Mudiam, Mohana K R; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Raisuddin, S; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-15

    Our prior studies have shown an association between the deaths of children and consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds. However, the chemicals responsible for the CO poisoning are not known. Therefore, the present study was designed to identify the key moieties in CO seeds and their cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Activity-guided sequential extraction and fractionation of the seeds followed by GC-MS analysis identified the toxic compounds in the CO seeds. These identified compounds were subsequently detected and quantified in blood and urine samples from CO-exposed rats and CO poisoning human study cases. GC-MS analysis of different fractions of methanol extracts of CO seeds revealed the presence of five anthraquinones (AQs), viz. physcion, emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol. Interestingly, these AQs were detected in serum and urine samples from the study cases and CO-exposed rats. Cytotoxicity analysis of the above AQs in rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells revealed that rhein is the most toxic moiety, followed by emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol. These studies indicate that AQ aglycones are responsible for producing toxicity, which may be associated with symptoms of hepatomyoencephalopathy in CO poisoning cases.

  4. Three phase biological treatment process for chlorinated compounds in air streams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, W.J.; Collins, J.; Wells, J.; Kennedy, K.

    1999-07-01

    A combination of experimental and modeling studies were carried out to evaluate the potential for biological treatment of air streams containing chlorinated organics in a hybrid process. The proposed process consists of a scrubbing column for transferring chlorinated compounds from the gas to the liquid phase and a high rate anaerobic reactor for biodegradation of the compounds. Carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane were employed as target compounds in this study to assess compounds with a range of chemical, physical and biological properties. Batch tests provided conclusive evidence that the target compounds strongly partition to vegetable oil. Continuous flow test results suggested that high removal efficiencies for all three compounds ({gt}90%) could be obtained with gas-liquid flow ratios less than 200. It was found that the Onda correlations did not fit the experimental data of vegetable oil very well, hence the Onda correlations were modified by assuming that the gas phase resistance was controlling mass transfer. The assumption appeared to be valid for the compounds with lower gas-oil partitioning coefficients (CT and PCE). DCM appeared to have some component of liquid phase control. Experiments were conducted in high rate anaerobic reactors to evaluate the impact of cosubstrate loading and hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of the target compounds. Removals approached 100% for all three target compounds when the UASB was operated at high values of OLR and HRT. Removals for PCE and DCM decreased when the UASB was run under more strenuous conditions. A hybrid anaerobic reactor that consisted of a liquid-liquid mass transfer zone and an anaerobic biodegradation zone was operated to assess the processes potential to degrade the target compounds when they entered in a vegetable oil matrix.

  5. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  6. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  7. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  8. Applying membrane technology to air stripping effluent for remediation of groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.J.; Erickson, M.D.; Beskid, N.J.

    1993-12-31

    Remediation groundwater contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires cost- and technically-effective solutions. This paper reviews the options for VOC removal from remediation air streams, focusing on membrane separation. The basic separation science and technology, results of performance tests, and results of cost studies for membrane separation are presented. Competing technologies are discussed and compared with membrane separation. Membrane separation combined with air stripping will provide an economically and environmentally safe technology for remediation of VOC-contaminated groundwater and, as it matures, may become the preferred method. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Investigation of volatile organic compounds and phthalates present in the cabin air of used private cars.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Otmar; Tirendi, Salvatore; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    The presence of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aromatic, aliphatic compounds and low molecular weight carbonyls, and a target set of phthalates were investigated in the interior of 23 used private cars during the summer and winter. VOC concentrations often exceeded levels typically found in residential indoor air, e.g. benzene concentrations reached values of up to 149.1 microg m(-3). Overall concentrations were 40% higher in summer, with temperatures inside the cars reaching up to 70 degrees C. The most frequently detected phthalates were di-n-butyl-phthalate and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in concentrations ranging from 196 to 3656 ng m(-3). PMID:19729200

  10. An exploratory study of ambient air toxics exposure in pregnancy and the risk of neuroblastoma in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S.; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. In this study, we examined maternal exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy in relation to neuroblastoma in the child. We ascertained all cases of neuroblastoma listed in the California Cancer Registry 1990-2007 that could be linked to a California birth certificate, and controls were selected at random from California birth records. Average air toxics exposures during pregnancy were determined based upon measures from community-based air pollution monitors. The study included 75 cases and 14,602 controls who lived with 5 kilometers of an air pollution monitor, and we additionally examined results for those living within a smaller radius around the monitor (2.5 km). Logistic regression was used to determine the risk of neuroblastoma with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Neuroblastoma risk was increased with higher maternal exposure to carbon tetrachloride (OR=2.65, 95%CI 1.07, 6.53) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.39, 95%CI 1.05, 1.84), particularly indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene. Hexavalent chromium was associated with neuroblastoma at the 5 km distance (OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74) but not at the 2.5 km distance. This is one of the first studies to report associations between neuroblastoma and these air toxics. PMID:24139061

  11. Evaluation of the pollution of the surface waters of Greece from the priority compounds of list II, 76/464/EEC directive, and other toxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lekkas, Themistokles; Kolokythas, George; Nikolaou, Anastasia; Kostopoulou, Maria; Kotrikla, Anna; Gatidou, Georgia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Golfinopoulos, Spyros; Makri, Christina; Babos, Damianos; Vagi, Maria; Stasinakis, Athanasios; Petsas, Andreas; Lekkas, Demetris F

    2004-10-01

    The pollution of the surface waters of Greece from the priority compounds of 76/464/EEC Directive was evaluated. The occurrence of 92 toxic compounds, 64 of which belong to priority compounds of List II, candidates for List I, of 76/464/EEC Directive, was studied in surface waters and wastewater through the developed network of 62 sampling stations, which covers the whole Greek territory. The analytical determination was performed by Purge and Trap-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs), Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection for organochlorine insecticides, Gas Chromatography-Nitrogen Phosphorous Detection for organophosphorous insecticides, High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection for herbicides, and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for metals and the toluene extractable organotin compounds. The concentrations of VOCs and insecticides detected in the surface waters of Greece were very low, whereas the concentrations of herbicides and metals ranged generally at moderate levels. VOCs were detected almost exclusively in the rivers and very rarely in the lakes, while the frequency of occurrence of insecticides, herbicides and metals was similar for rivers and lakes. Water quality objectives (WQO) and emission limit values (ELV) have been laid down in national legal framework for a number of compounds detected in the samples, in order to safeguard the quality of surface waters from any future deterioration. PMID:15337345

  12. 77 FR 16981 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of a Group of Four...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ozone State Implementation Plans'' (Interim Guidance) (70 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AO17 Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds... organic compounds (VOCs) for purposes of preparing State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to attain...

  13. Physical linkage of metabolic genes in fungi is an adaptation against the accumulation of toxic intermediate compounds.

    PubMed

    McGary, Kriston L; Slot, Jason C; Rokas, Antonis

    2013-07-01

    Genomic analyses have proliferated without being tied to tangible phenotypes. For example, although coordination of both gene expression and genetic linkage have been offered as genetic mechanisms for the frequently observed clustering of genes participating in fungal metabolic pathways, elucidation of the phenotype(s) favored by selection, resulting in cluster formation and maintenance, has not been forthcoming. We noted that the cause of certain well-studied human metabolic disorders is the accumulation of toxic intermediate compounds (ICs), which occurs when the product of an enzyme is not used as a substrate by a downstream neighbor in the metabolic network. This raises the hypothesis that the phenotype favored by selection to drive gene clustering is the mitigation of IC toxicity. To test this, we examined 100 diverse fungal genomes for the simplest type of cluster, gene pairs that are both metabolic neighbors and chromosomal neighbors immediately adjacent to each other, which we refer to as "double neighbor gene pairs" (DNGPs). Examination of the toxicity of their corresponding ICs shows that, compared with chromosomally nonadjacent metabolic neighbors, DNGPs are enriched for ICs that have acutely toxic LD50 doses or reactive functional groups. Furthermore, DNGPs are significantly more likely to be divergently oriented on the chromosome; remarkably, ∼40% of these DNGPs have ICs known to be toxic. We submit that the structure of synteny in metabolic pathways of fungi is a signature of selection for protection against the accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates.

  14. Physical linkage of metabolic genes in fungi is an adaptation against the accumulation of toxic intermediate compounds

    PubMed Central

    McGary, Kriston L.; Slot, Jason C.; Rokas, Antonis

    2013-01-01

    Genomic analyses have proliferated without being tied to tangible phenotypes. For example, although coordination of both gene expression and genetic linkage have been offered as genetic mechanisms for the frequently observed clustering of genes participating in fungal metabolic pathways, elucidation of the phenotype(s) favored by selection, resulting in cluster formation and maintenance, has not been forthcoming. We noted that the cause of certain well-studied human metabolic disorders is the accumulation of toxic intermediate compounds (ICs), which occurs when the product of an enzyme is not used as a substrate by a downstream neighbor in the metabolic network. This raises the hypothesis that the phenotype favored by selection to drive gene clustering is the mitigation of IC toxicity. To test this, we examined 100 diverse fungal genomes for the simplest type of cluster, gene pairs that are both metabolic neighbors and chromosomal neighbors immediately adjacent to each other, which we refer to as “double neighbor gene pairs” (DNGPs). Examination of the toxicity of their corresponding ICs shows that, compared with chromosomally nonadjacent metabolic neighbors, DNGPs are enriched for ICs that have acutely toxic LD50 doses or reactive functional groups. Furthermore, DNGPs are significantly more likely to be divergently oriented on the chromosome; remarkably, ∼40% of these DNGPs have ICs known to be toxic. We submit that the structure of synteny in metabolic pathways of fungi is a signature of selection for protection against the accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates. PMID:23798424

  15. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  16. Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Leached stopper components found in parenteral solutions produced by several manufacturers were identified and quantitated. Their toxicity potential was determined by comparing the types and quantities of the leached components with known toxicity levels and/or harmful effects. Toxicity potentials for benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene are listed. Breakdown products of dextrose (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), which may also have harmful effects, were quantitated.

  17. Degradation of volatile organic compounds in a non-thermal plasma air purifier.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Stefan; Jecklin, Matthias C; Zenobi, Renato

    2010-03-01

    The degradation of volatile organic compounds in a commercially available non-thermal plasma based air purifying system was investigated. Several studies exist that interrogate the degradation of VOCs in closed air systems using a non-thermal plasma combined with a heterogeneous catalyst. For the first time, however, our study was performed under realistic conditions (normal indoor air, 297.5K and 12.5 g m(-3) water content) on an open system, in the absence of an auxiliary catalyst, and using standard operating air flow rates (up to 320 L min(-1)). Cyclohexene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylene isomers were nebulized and guided through the plasma air purifier. The degradation products were trapped by activated charcoal tubes or silica gel tubes, and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Degradation efficiencies of 11+/-1.6% for cyclohexene, <2% for benzene, 11+/-2.4% for toluene, 3+/-1% for ethylbenzene, 1+/-1% for sigma-xylene, and 3+/-0.4% for m-/rho-xylene were found. A fairly wide range of degradation products could be identified. On both trapping media, various oxidized species such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and one epoxide were observed. The formation of adipaldehyde from nebulized cyclohexene clearly indicates an ozonolysis reaction. Other degradation products observed suggests reactions with OH radicals. We propose that mostly ozone and OH radicals are responsible for the degradation of organic molecules in the plasma air purifier. PMID:20167347

  18. Multipass membrane air-stripping (MAS) for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactant micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Luo, Jian; Sabatini, David A

    2009-10-30

    Air-stripping is one of the most effective technologies for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surfactant solutions, although the presence of surfactant poses some unique challenges. This study evaluated the effect of a mixed surfactant system on the apparent Henry's law constant of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and the efficiency of PCE removal from surfactant solutions using a lab-scale hollow fiber membrane contactor. Results show that the presence of surfactant significantly reduced the apparent Henry's law constant of PCE, and the reduction was proportional to the total surfactant concentration. PCE removal efficiency by membrane air-stripping (MAS) decreased as the surfactant system transitioned from solubilization to supersolubilization. Besides significantly reducing the apparent volatility of VOCs, the presence of surfactant brings additional mass transfer resistance in air-stripping, which makes it difficult to achieve high levels of contaminant removal, even at very high air/liquid (A/L) ratios. In contrast, multipass/multistage MAS operated at low A/L ratios could achieve near 100% contaminant removal because of less mass transfer limitation during each stripping pass/stage. Experimental results, together with model calculations demonstrate multipass (and multistage) air-stripping as a cost-effective alternative for removing VOCs from surfactant micellar solutions compared to the options of using large air strippers or operating at high A/L ratios.

  19. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  20. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  1. [Volatile organic compounds concentrations and sources inside new air-conditioned bus].

    PubMed

    You, Ke-Wei; Ge, Yun-Shan; Qian, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Feng, Bo; Zhang, Yan-Ni; Ning, Zhan-Wu; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Shou-Tang

    2008-05-01

    The distributing profile and concentration level inside new air-conditioned buses with 53 seats have been determined using the method of thermal desorption-capillary GC/MS under vehicle static conditions. Compounds were identified from their mass spectral data by using US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST02). The total numbers of identified components were 33 inside buses, including alkenes (15,45.4%), aromatic compounds (9,27.3%), alcohols (4,12.1%), ketones (3,9.1%) and esters (2,6.1%), especially in the range of C6-C10. The top 5 compounds measured inside buses were decane (8.01 mg/m3), 3-methylhexane (7.10 mg/m3), heptane (5.10 mg/m3), isoheptane (4.20 mg/m3) and 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene (3.56 mg/m3), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) > 52.5 mg/m3. The main sources of in-vehicle hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds comes from cabin components and interior trim materials (e.g., sealants, carpets, adhesives, paints, leather, plastics, PU foam and PE foam) that may retain certain VOCs during manufacturing, and/or emit these compounds over an extended period of time from off-gassing, aging-related breakdown products, heating/cooling and so on.

  2. Rate of biodegradiation of toxic organic compounds while in contact with organics which are actively composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Results are presented of a study to biodegrade toxic organic wastes and to determine the degree of breakdown of compounds while in contact with high-rate composting. An artificial compost mixture consisting of shredded newspaper, manure, wastewater treatment plant sludge, sawdust, peat moss, soil, powdered milk, and fertilizer was prepared. Toxic organic chemicals were mixed with this actively composting mixture to obtain a concentration of about 500 mg/kg. Samples were analyzed after seven days of composting and again after 30 days. Thirty-two of the 59 chemicals tested were found to be moderately to highly susceptible to biodegradation. The potential for success is shown to be very high for using high-rate composting to degrade organic wastes. The possibility of accelerating the decomposition of toxic wastes in soils is suggested.

  3. Characterization and control of organic compounds emitted from air pollution sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, J.J.; Kleeman, M.J.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1998-04-01

    A dilution source sampling system is used to quantify the air pollutant emissions from major urban air pollution sources. The emissions from catalyst-equipped gasoline powered-motor vehicles, noncatalyst gasoline-powered motor vehicls, diesel trucks, meat charbroiling, the cooking of vegetables with seed oils, fireplace combustion of softwood and hardwood, cigarette combustion, and paint spray coating operations are characterized. Semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds in the diluted source emissions are collected simultaneously by both a traditional filter/PUF (polyurethane foam) sampling train and by an advanced organic compound-based denuder/filter/PUF sampling train to provide information on the gas/particle phase distribution of the semi-volatile organic compounds. Emission rates of hundreds of organic compounds, spanning carbon number from C1 to C29 are determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Fine partile mass emission rates and fine particle elemental chemical composition are measured as well.

  4. Ecotoxicological studies of environmental samples from Buenos Aires area using a standardized amphibian embryo toxicity test (AMPHITOX).

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Perez-Coll, Cristina; Herkovits, Francisco D

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of 34 environmental samples from potentially polluted and reference stations were evaluated by means of the AMPHITOX test from acute to chronic exposure according to the toxicity found in each sample. The samples were obtained from surface and ground water, leaches, industrial effluents and soils. The data, expressed in acute, short-term chronic and chronic Toxicity Units (TUa, TUstc and TUc) resulted in a maximal value of 1000 TUc, found in a leach, while the lower toxicity value was 1.4 TUa corresponding to two surface water samples. In five samples (four providing from reference places) no toxicity was detected. The results point out the possibility of evaluating the toxicity of a wide diversity of samples by means of AMPHITOX as a customized toxicity test. The fact that almost all samples with suspected toxicity in rivers and streams from the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city resulted toxic, indicates the need of enhanced stewardship of chemical substances for environmental and human health protection purposes. PMID:11808551

  5. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  6. Validation of an in vitro exposure system for toxicity assessment of air-delivered nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Peters, Thomas M.; O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of in vitro exposure of submerged lung cells to nanoparticles (NPs), we validated an integrated low flow system capable of generating and depositing airborne NPs directly onto cells at an air–liquid interface (ALI). The in vitro exposure system was shown to provide uniform and controlled dosing of particles with 70.3% efficiency to epithelial cells grown on transwells. This system delivered a continuous airborne exposure of NPs to lung cells without loss of cell viability in repeated 4 h exposure periods. We sequentially exposed cells to air-delivered copper (Cu) NPs in vitro to compare toxicity results to our prior in vivo inhalation studies. The evaluation of cellular dosimetry indicated that a large amount of Cu was taken up, dissolved and released into the basolateral medium (62% of total mass). Exposure to Cu NPs decreased cell viability to 73% (p < 0.01) and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 that mirrored our findings from subacute in vivo inhalation studies in mice. Our results show that this exposure system is useful for screening of NP toxicity in a manner that represents cellular responses of the pulmonary epithelium in vivo. PMID:22981796

  7. Organic compounds in indoor air—their relevance for perceived indoor air quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    It is generally believed that indoor air pollution, one way or another may cause indoor air complaints. However, any association between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations and increase of indoor climate complaints, like the sick-building syndrome symptoms, is not straightforward. The reported symptom rates of, in particular, eye and upper airway irritation cannot generally be explained by our present knowledge of common chemically non-reactive VOCs measured indoors. Recently, experimental evidence has shown those chemical reactions between ozone (either with or without nitrogen dioxide) and unsaturated organic compounds (e.g. from citrus and pine oils) produce strong eye and airway irritating species. These have not yet been well characterised by conventional sampling and analytical techniques. The chemical reactions can occur indoors, and there is indirect evidence that they are associated with eye and airway irritation. However, many other volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have not generally been measured which could equally well have potent biological effects and cause an increase of complaint rates, and posses a health/comfort risk. As a consequence, it is recommended to use a broader analytical window of organic compounds than the classic VOC window as defined by the World Health Organisation. It may include hitherto not yet sampled or identified intermediary species (e.g., radicals, hydroperoxides and ionic compounds like detergents) as well as species deposited onto particles. Additionally, sampling strategies including emission testing of building products should carefully be linked to the measurement of organic compounds that are expected, based on the best available toxicological knowledge, to have biological effects at indoor concentrations.

  8. Pyrolysis of polymeric materials. I - Effect of chemical structure, temperature, heating rate, and air flow on char yield and toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Various polymeric materials, including synthetic polymers and cellulosic materials, were evaluated at different temperatures, heating rates and air flow rates for thermophysical and toxicological responses. It is shown that char yields appeared to be a function of air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. It is stated that the sensitivity of the apparent thermal stability of some materials to air access is so marked that thermogravimetric studies in oxygen-free atmospheres may be a consistently misleading approach to comparing synthetic polymers intended to increase fire safety. Toxicity also appeared to be a function of temperature and air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. Toxicity of the gases evolved seemed to increase with increasing char yield for some polymers.

  9. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  10. Influence of polychlorinated aromatic compounds on the biotransformation and toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OP) to the Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopii, V.; Zagrebin, A.; Sherstneva, L.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of different polychlorinated aromatics (DDT, Aroclor 1254, certain polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans) on the toxicity of OP (DDVP paraoxon, malaoxon) to Daphnia magna was studied. Pretreatment of daphnids with chlorinated compounds during 72 hours in nontoxic concentrations (1/5--1/20 CL{sub 50}) has been shown to reduce the toxicity of OP for hydrobionts. For study of influence of chlorinated compounds on biotransformation of OP the activity of enzymes which are hydrolyzing the OP was investigated in Daphnia`s homogenates or microsomes. The activity of carboxylesterase (tributyrinase, aliesterase) and arylesterase (phosphorylphosphatase) with usage as substrates accordingly {alpha}-naphthylacetate and paraoxon was measured. Besides that the activity of cholinesterase with application of propionylthiocholine as substrate was determined. After polychlorinated aromatic compounds treatment of daphnids activities of both aryl-and carboxylesterase increased markedly. It decreased the inhibition of Daphnia`s cholinesterase caused by incubation with OP in concentrations 0.5--1.0 CL{sub 50}. Thus the induction by chlorinate aromatics of OP metabolizing enzymes seems to play the important role in reduction of OP toxicity to Daphnia magna. Perhaps the aryl- and carboxylesterase of Daphnia can be used as biomarkers of pollution by polychlorinated aromatics in water.

  11. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Assessing Aircraft Supply Air to Recommend Compounds for Timely Warning of Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Richard B.

    Taking aircraft out of service for even one day to correct fume-in-cabin events can cost the industry roughly $630 million per year in lost revenue. The quantitative correlation study investigated quantitative relationships between measured concentrations of contaminants in bleed air and probability of odor detectability. Data were collected from 94 aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) bleed air tests from an archival data set between 1997 and 2011, and no relationships were found. Pearson correlation was followed by regression analysis for individual contaminants. Significant relationships of concentrations of compounds in bleed air to probability of odor detectability were found (p<0.05), as well as between compound concentration and probability of sensory irritancy detectability. Study results may be useful to establish early warning levels. Predictive trend monitoring, a method to identify potential pending failure modes within a mechanical system, may influence scheduled down-time for maintenance as a planned event, rather than repair after a mechanical failure and thereby reduce operational costs associated with odor-in-cabin events. Twenty compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of odor detectability (dependent variable 1). Seventeen compounds (independent variables) were found statistically significant as related to probability of sensory irritancy detectability (dependent variable 2). Additional research was recommended to further investigate relationships between concentrations of contaminants and probability of odor detectability or probability of sensory irritancy detectability for all turbine oil brands. Further research on implementation of predictive trend monitoring may be warranted to demonstrate how the monitoring process might be applied to in-flight application.

  13. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS MEASURED AT A HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Miller, Terry L.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) are of growing concern due to recent studies linking health risk to residency near heavily traveled roadways. Few research studies on MSAT emissions have been performed due to several factors; those factors include: the difficulty of measuring MSATs due to their semi-volatile nature, lower relative concentration in comparison to NOx and other criteria emissions, and fewer regulations on MSATs. In this paper, measurements of MSATs at a "hot spot" of poor air quality created by a high population of idling heavy-duty trucks are presented. The study area was the Watt Road-Interstate-40/75 interchange just west of Knoxville, TN where approximately 20,000 heavy-duty trucks travel along the interstate each day and hundreds of heavy-duty trucks idle at three large truck stops near the interchange. The air quality in the local area surrounding the interchange is affected negatively by the high number of mobile sources as well as geographic and meteorological conditions; the interchange lies in a valley between two ridges which slows long range transport of pollutants especially in winter months when temperature inversion occurs frequently. Ambient air quality was measured during summer and winter months of two separate years at three sites: a site in one of the truckstops, a site near the interstate roadway, and a site on top of one of the surrounding ridges chosen as a background site for comparison. Results of criteria pollutants measured at these sites are reported in a companion paper by Miller et. al.; the results presented here include measurements of MSATs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and other species obtained via collection on di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) filters. Also, preliminary measurements of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. The results indicate that emissions from idling heavy-duty trucks are a primary contributor of MSATs to local air quality near areas of high static truck traffic; furthermore

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. R.; Yang, M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Rowland, F. S.

    2009-05-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District of California issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A dairy study funded by the California Air Resources Board commenced shortly after the report was issued. Our University of California Irvine group teamed with California State University Fresno to determine the major sources of VOCs from various dairy operations and from a variety of dairy types. This study identified ethanol and methanol as two gases produced in major quantities throughout the dairies in the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the target oxygenates in the valley air shed. Their sources, emission profiles, and emission rates were determined from whole air samples collected at various locations at the six dairies studied. An assessment of the impact of dairy emissions in the valley was achieved by using data obtained on low altitude NASA DC-8 flights through the valley, and from ground level samples collected though out the valley in a grid like design. Our data suggest that a significant amount of O3 production in the valley may come from methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde (a photochemical by-product ethanol oxidation). Our findings indicate that improvement to valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations.

  15. Diagnosis of air quality through observation and modeling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as pollution tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Tzu; Hsieh, Hsin-Cheng; Chen, Sheng-Po; Chang, Julius S.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2012-08-01

    This study used selected ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as pollution tracers to study the effects of meteorology on air quality. A remote coastal site was chosen as a receptor to monitor pollutants transported upwind from urban traffic and industrial sources. Large concentration variability in VOC concentrations was observed at the coastal site due to rapid changes in meteorology, which caused periodic land-sea exchange of air masses. To assure the quality of the on-line measurements, uniform concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) were exploited as an internal check of the instrument's stability and the resulting data quality. A VOC speciated air quality model was employed to simulate both temporal and spatial distributions of VOC plumes. The model successfully captured the general features of the variations of toluene as a pollution tracer, which suggests that emissions and meteorology were reasonably well simulated in the model. Through validation by observation, the model can display both the temporal and spatial distribution of air pollutants in a dynamic manner. Thus, a more insightful understanding of how local air quality is affected by meteorology can be obtained.

  16. Stationary source sampling report: Ambient and source volatile organic compound testing, Production air stripper unit 1 (PASU-1) and pilot air stripper (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-05

    Tests were performed to measure the ambient concentrations of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in the A/M area and to determine, for compliance purposes, the emissions and concentrations of those compounds issued from the Production Air Stripper Unit 1 (PASU-1) column and from the Pilot Air Stripper (PAS) column.

  17. Organophosphorus compound esterase profiles as predictors of therapeutic and toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Makhaeva, Galina F; Radchenko, Eugene V; Palyulin, Vladimir A; Rudakova, Elena V; Aksinenko, Alexey Yu; Sokolov, Vladimir B; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Richardson, Rudy J

    2013-03-25

    Certain organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) inhibit various serine esterases (EOHs) via phosphorylation of their active site serines. We focused on 4 EOHs of particular toxicological interest: acetylcholinesterase (AChE: acute neurotoxicity; cognition enhancement), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE: inhibition of drug metabolism and/or stoichiometric scavenging of EOH inhibitors; cognition enhancement), carboxylesterase (CaE: inhibition of drug metabolism and/or stoichiometric scavenging of EOH inhibitors), and neuropathy target esterase (NTE: delayed neurotoxicity, OPIDN). The relative degree of inhibition of these EOHs constitutes the "esterase profile" of an OPC and serves as a major determinant of its net physiological effects. Thus, understanding and controlling the esterase profile of OPC activity and selectivity toward these 4 target enzymes is a significant undertaking. In the present study, we analyzed the inhibitor properties of 52 OPCs against the 4 EOHs, along with pairwise and multitarget selectivities between them, using 2 QSAR approaches: Hansch modeling and Molecular Field Topology Analysis (MFTA). The general formula of the OPCs was (RO)(2)P(O)X, where R = alkyl, X = - SCH(Hal)COOEt (Hal = Cl, Br), -SCHCl(2), -SCH(2)Br, -OCH(CF(3))R(1) (R(1) = C(6)H(5), CF(3), COOEt, COOMe). The Hansch model showed that increasing neuropathic potential correlated with rising R hydrophobicity; moreover, OPC binding to scavenger EOHs (BChE and CaE) had different effects on potential acute and delayed neurotoxicity. Predicted protective roles of BChE and CaE against acute toxicity were enhanced with increasing hydrophobicity, but projected protection against OPIDN was decreased. Next, Molecular Field Topology Analysis (MFTA) models were built, considering atomic descriptors, e.g., effective charge, van der Waals radius of environment, and group lipophilicity. Activity/selectivity maps confirmed predictions from Hansch models and revealed other structural factors affecting

  18. Assessment of Sociodemographic and Geographic Disparities in Cancer Risk from Air Toxics in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson’s chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  19. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC.

  20. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  1. Hydroxytyrosol, a dietary phenolic compound forestalls the toxic effects of methylmercury-induced toxicity in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vishnu; Das, Shubhankar; Rao, Satish B S

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the protective potential of hydroxytyrosol (HT), an olive oil phenol, against methylmercury (MeHg)-induced neurotoxicity using IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line. HT inhibited MeHg-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as confirmed by MTT, micronucleus, and comet assays. Cells preconditioned with HT showed reduction of MeHg-induced cellular oxidative stress along with the maintenance of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-tranferase, and catalase. Fluorescence microscopy and DNA ladder assays indicated the inhibitory effect of HT against MeHg-induced apoptosis, which was further established by Western blotting. An effective concentration of 5 µM HT caused downregulation of p53, bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 and upregulation of prosurvival proteins including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and metallothionein. This work indicates the cytoprotective potential of HT against MeHg-induced toxicity primarily by the lowering of oxidative stress, which may be endorsed to its antigenotoxic and antiapoptotic potential, in addition to its free radical scavenging ability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1264-1275, 2016.

  2. Hydroxytyrosol, a dietary phenolic compound forestalls the toxic effects of methylmercury-induced toxicity in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vishnu; Das, Shubhankar; Rao, Satish B S

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the protective potential of hydroxytyrosol (HT), an olive oil phenol, against methylmercury (MeHg)-induced neurotoxicity using IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line. HT inhibited MeHg-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as confirmed by MTT, micronucleus, and comet assays. Cells preconditioned with HT showed reduction of MeHg-induced cellular oxidative stress along with the maintenance of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-tranferase, and catalase. Fluorescence microscopy and DNA ladder assays indicated the inhibitory effect of HT against MeHg-induced apoptosis, which was further established by Western blotting. An effective concentration of 5 µM HT caused downregulation of p53, bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 and upregulation of prosurvival proteins including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and metallothionein. This work indicates the cytoprotective potential of HT against MeHg-induced toxicity primarily by the lowering of oxidative stress, which may be endorsed to its antigenotoxic and antiapoptotic potential, in addition to its free radical scavenging ability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1264-1275, 2016. PMID:25736103

  3. New Approaches for the Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Toxicity of Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from 2-Cyanomethylbenzo[c]imidazole.

    PubMed

    Mohareb, Rafat M; Mohamed, Abeer A; Abdallah, Amira E M

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of ethyl cyanoacetate with o-phenylenediamine gave the 2-cyanomethylbenzo[c]imidazole (1). The latter compound was used as the key starting material to synthesise biologically active heterocyclic derivatives. Thus, the reaction of 1 with cyclohexanone and either of benzaldehyde, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde or 4-chlorobenzaldehyde gave the annulated derivatives 2a-c, respectively. The antitumor evaluations of the newly synthesized products against the three cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast adeno-carcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (CNS cancer) showed that compounds 2b, 6, 11b, 11c, 12b, 16a, 16b and 18a exhibited optimal cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the nM range. Bioactive compounds are often toxic to shrimp larvae. Thus, in order to monitor these chemicals in vivo lethality to shrimp larvae (Artemia salina), Brine-Shrimp Lethality Assay was used. Compounds 11b, 12b and 16b showed no toxicity against the tested organisms. PMID:27333544

  4. First results from the oil sands passive air monitoring network for polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Su, Ky; Mihele, Cristian; Eng, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Results are reported from an ongoing passive air monitoring study for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed for consecutive 2-month periods from November 2010 to June 2012 at 17 sites. Samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, dibenzothiophene and its alkylated derivatives (DBTs). Relative to parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs and DBTs are enriched in bitumen and therefore considered to be petrogenic markers. Concentrations in air were in the range 0.03-210 ng/m(3), 0.15-230 ng/m(3) and 0.01-61 ng/m(3) for ∑PAHs, ∑alkylated PAHs and ΣDBTs, respectively. An exponential decline of the PAC concentrations in air with distance from mining areas and related petrogenic sources was observed. The most significant exponential declines were for the alkylated PAHs and DBTs and attributed to their association with mining-related emissions and near-source deposition, due to their lower volatility and greater association with depositing particles. Seasonal trends in concentrations in air for PACs were not observed for any of the compound classes. However, a forest fire episode during April to July 2011 resulted in greatly elevated PAH levels at all passive sampling locations. Alkylated PAHs and DBTs were not elevated during the forest fire period, supporting their association with petrogenic sources. Based on the results of this study, an "Athabasca PAC profile" is proposed as a potential source marker for the oil sands region. The profile is characterized by ∑PAHs/∑Alkylated PAHs = ∼0.2 and ∑PAHs/∑DBTs = ∼5.

  5. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate.

  6. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate. PMID:23448024

  7. Geographic boundaries in breast, lung and colorectal cancers in relation to exposure to air toxics in Long Island, New York

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Greiling, Dunrie A

    2003-01-01

    Background This two-part study employs several statistical techniques to evaluate the geographic distribution of breast cancer in females and colorectal and lung cancers in males and females in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. In this second paper, we compare patterns in standardized morbidity ratios (SMR values), calculated from New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) data, to geographic patterns in overall predicted risk (OPR) from air toxics using exposures estimated in the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment database. Results We identified significant geographic boundaries in SMR and OPR. We found little or no association between the SMR of colorectal and breast cancers and the OPR for each cancer from exposure to the air toxics. We did find boundaries in male and female lung cancer SMR and boundaries in lung cancer OPR to be closer to one another than expected. Conclusion While consistent with a causal relationship between air toxics and lung cancer incidence, the boundary analysis does not demonstrate the existence of a causal relationship. However, now that the areas of overlap between boundaries in lung cancer incidence and potential airborne exposures have been identified, we can begin to evaluate local- as well as large-scale determinants of lung cancer. PMID:12633502

  8. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  9. CHANGES IN HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND LUNG FUNCTION OBSERVED IN NC PATROL TROOPERS EXPOSED TO PM AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Lung Function in NC Patrol Troopers exposed to PM and Air Toxics

    Michael Riediker1, Wayne E Cascio1, Robert B Devlin2, Thomas Griggs1&4, Margaret Herbst1, Ronald W Williams3, Steve P McCorquodale4, Philip A Bromberg1
    1) University o...

  10. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the first two years of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) were evaluated to determine spatial and temporal characteristics in concentrations of mobile source air toxics (MSATs). Outdoor concentrations of MSATs were significantly higher in samples co...

  11. Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation to Engage High School Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a problem-based chemistry education model in which students perform scientific research on a local environmentally relevant problem. The project is a collaboration among The University of Montana and local high schools centered around Missoula, Montana. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky" involves high school students in collecting…

  12. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; James, Wesley; Kedia, Satish

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from the 2000 United States Census. The association was examined using multivariable geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis. The risk difference between African American and White concentrated areas was defined as the absolute disparity, and the percent difference as the relative disparity. GWR analyses show that cancer risks increase with respect to increasing percent of African Americans at the census tract level. Individuals in African American concentrated tracts bear 6% more cancer risk burden than in White concentrated tracts. The distribution of major roads causes the largest absolute disparity and the distribution of industrial facilities causes the largest relative disparity. Effective strategies for reduction in environmental disparity should especially target sources of large absolute disparities. PMID:25089776

  13. Automated High-Content Assay for Compounds Selectively Toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a Myoblastic Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Cotillo, Ignacio; Presa, Jesús L.; Cantizani, Juan; Peña, Imanol; Bardera, Ana I.; Martín, Jose J.; Rodriguez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS) of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6) and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs. Conclusions/Significance We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite. PMID:25615687

  14. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Karen L; White, Andrew; Mudianta, I Wayan; Winters, Anne E; Quezada, Michelle; Capon, Robert J; Mollo, Ernesto; Garson, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed. PMID:26788920

  15. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Karen L.; White, Andrew; Mudianta, I. Wayan; Winters, Anne E.; Quezada, Michelle; Capon, Robert J.; Mollo, Ernesto; Garson, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A—a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes—which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed. PMID:26788920

  16. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Karen L; White, Andrew; Mudianta, I Wayan; Winters, Anne E; Quezada, Michelle; Capon, Robert J; Mollo, Ernesto; Garson, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  17. GIS modeling of air toxics releases from TRI-reporting and non-TRI-reporting facilities: impacts for environmental justice.

    PubMed

    Dolinoy, Dana C; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2004-12-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) requires facilities with 10 or more full-time employees that process > 25,000 pounds in aggregate or use > 10,000 pounds of any one TRI chemical to report releases annually. However, little is known about releases from non-TRI-reporting facilities, nor has attention been given to the very localized equity impacts associated with air toxics releases. Using geographic information systems and industrial source complex dispersion modeling, we developed methods for characterizing air releases from TRI-reporting as well as non-TRI-reporting facilities at four levels of geographic resolution. We characterized the spatial distribution and concentration of air releases from one representative industry in Durham County, North Carolina (USA). Inclusive modeling of all facilities rather than modeling of TRI sites alone significantly alters the magnitude and spatial distribution of modeled air concentrations. Modeling exposure receptors at more refined levels of geographic resolution reveals localized, neighborhood-level exposure hot spots that are not apparent at coarser geographic scales. Multivariate analysis indicates that inclusive facility modeling at fine levels of geographic resolution reveals exposure disparities by income and race. These new methods significantly enhance the ability to model air toxics, perform equity analysis, and clarify conflicts in the literature regarding environmental justice findings. This work has substantial implications for how to structure TRI reporting requirements, as well as methods and types of analysis that will successfully elucidate the spatial distribution of exposure potentials across geographic, income, and racial lines. PMID:15579419

  18. Sorption and toxicity reduction of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting chemicals in the presence of colloidal humic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Injeong; Kim, Hyo-Dong; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity changes and sorption of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupters in the presence of humic acid (HA). For the sorption experiment, a dead end filtration (DEF) system was used to separate bound and free-form target compounds. An algae growth inhibition test and E-screen assay were conducted to estimate the toxic effect of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), respectively. The permeate concentration was confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the sorption test, we observed significant sorption of PhACs and EDCs on colloidal HA, except for sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The values of log KCOC derived from DEF determinations ranged from 4.40 to 5.03. The removal efficiency varied with the HA concentration and the target chemical properties. Tetracycline and 4-octylphenol showed the highest sorption or removal efficiency (≈50%), even at 5 mg C/L HA. The algal growth inhibition of PhACs and the estrogenic effects of EDCs were significantly decreased in proportion to HA concentrations, except for SMX. In addition, the chemical analysis results showed a positive relationship with the bioassay results. Consequently, the sorption of PhACs and EDCs onto colloidal HA should be emphasized in natural environments because it significantly reduces bioavailable concentrations and toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:27533865

  19. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

    2012-04-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses — most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

  20. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses - most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980’s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties. PMID:22206756

  1. Economic evaluation of air stripping to remove volatile organic compounds from water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, H.H.; Ball, R.O.; Maloney, S.W.

    1987-12-01

    This report documents the results of a study conducted to provide a basis for estimating the costs of installing and using air stripping to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water. The air-stripping technology was found to be a very economical and efficient method for contaminant removal. The technology is simple, relatively inexpensive to install, and has low labor and maintenance requirements. VOC removal rates range from 90 to 99.99%. Estimated costs, in terms of percentage of total production costs, were found to be 40% for capital costs, 50% for operational costs, and 10% for maintenance costs, according to literature sources. Results of a survey conducted during this study generally agree with these percentages, except that maintenance costs reported on the survey were lower due to the highly automated nature of new installations.

  2. Cleaning air from multicomponent impurities of volatile organic compounds by pulsed corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, I. E.; Uvarin, V. V.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    2016-09-01

    The relative efficiency of the removal of impurities from airflow under the action of pulsed corona discharge has been studied by processing model mixtures of air with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A method is proposed that allows the influence of the VOC structure on its reactivity to be directly determined. For this purpose, it is suggested to calculate a relative energy parameter characterizing the reactivity of a given impurity component in the framework of the method employed. This approach significantly intensifies the process of determination of the energy parameters of impurity removal and can be used as a criterion for comparative estimation of the efficiency of various methods employing nonequilibrium plasma for cleaning air from VOCs.

  3. Plasma-catalyst coupling for volatile organic compound removal and indoor air treatment: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenet, F.; Sivachandiran, L.; Guaitella, O.; Barakat, C.; Rousseau, A.

    2014-06-01

    The first part of the review summarizes the problem of air pollution and related air-cleaning technologies. Volatile organic compounds in particular have various effects on health and their abatement is a key issue. Different ways to couple non-thermal plasmas with catalytic or adsorbing materials are listed. In particular, a comparison between in-plasma and post-plasma coupling is made. Studies dealing with plasma-induced heterogeneous reactivity are analysed, as well as the possible modifications of the catalyst surface under plasma exposure. As an alternative to the conventional and widely studied plasma-catalyst coupling, a sequential approach has been recently proposed whereby pollutants are first adsorbed onto the material, then oxidized by switching on the plasma. Such a sequential approach is reviewed in detail.

  4. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air from Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece): Natural versus anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Tassi, F; Capecchiacci, F; Giannini, L; Vougioukalakis, G E; Vaselli, O

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the chemical composition of VOCs in air and gas discharges collected at Nisyros Island (Dodecanese Archipelago, Greece). The main goals are i) to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic VOC sources and ii) to evaluate their impact on local air quality. Up to 63 different VOCs were recognized and quantitatively determined in 6 fumaroles and 19 air samples collected in the Lakki caldera, where fumarolic emissions are located, and the outer ring of the island, including the Mandraki village and the main harbor. Air samples from the crater area show significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, cyclic, aromatics, and S- and O-bearing heterocycles directly deriving from the hydrothermal system, as well as secondary O-bearing compounds from oxidation of primary VOCs. At Mandraki village, C6H6/Σ(methylated aromatics) and Σ(linear)/Σ(branched) alkanes ratios <1 allow to distinguish an anthropogenic source related to emissions from outlet pipes of touristic and private boats and buses. PMID:23747819

  5. Diffusive sampling and measurement of microbial volatile organic compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Araki, A; Eitaki, Y; Kawai, T; Kanazawa, A; Takeda, M; Kishi, R

    2009-10-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), chemicals emitted from various microorganisms, in indoor air have been of concern in recent years. For large field studies, diffusive samplers are widely used to measure indoor environments. Since the sampling rate of a sampler is a fundamental parameter to calculate concentration, the sampling rates of eight MVOC with diffusive samplers were determined experimentally using a newly developed water-bubbling method: air was supplied to the MVOC-solutions and the vapor collected in an exposure bag, where diffusive and active samplers were placed in parallel for comparison. Correlations between the diffusive and active samplings gave good linear regressions. The sampling rates were 30-35 ml/min and the detection limits were 0.044-0.178 microg/m(3), as determined by GC/MS analysis. Application of the sampling rates in indoor air was validated by parallel sampling of the diffusive and active sampling method. 5% Propan-2-ol/CS(2) was the best solvent to desorb the compounds from absorbents. The procedure was applied to a field study in 41 dwellings. The most frequently detected compounds were hexan-2-one and heptan-2-one, with 97.5% detection rates and geometric mean values of 0.470 and 0.302 microg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that diffusive samplers are applicable to measure indoor MVOC levels. Practical Implications At present, there are still limited reports on indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOC) levels in general dwellings and occupants' health. Compared with active sampling methods, air sampling using a diffusive sampler is particularly advantageous for use in large field studies due to its smallness, light-size, easy-handling, and cost-effectiveness. In this study, sampling rates of selected MVOC of the diffusive sampler were determined using the water-bubbling method: generating gases by water-bubbling and exposing the diffusive and active samplers at the same time. The obtained sampling rates

  6. Endocrine disrupting compounds in gaseous and particulate outdoor air phases according to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Gasperi, Johnny; Cladière, Mathieu; Mandin, Corinne; Moukhtar, Sophie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated, for the first time in France, the spatial and temporal patterns of 55 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in ambient air at three sites (urban, suburban and forest) under two climatic periods (warm/cold) for 2 successive years. All EDCs, except tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), were encountered with various frequencies of up to 100%. Phthalate diesters (PAEs) were the most abundant chemicals with total concentrations as the sum of compounds, ranging from 10 to 100 ng m(-3) of total air, followed by alkylphenols (APs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were both approximately 1 ng m(-3). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations were notably lower (approximately 0.1 ng m(-3)). Air concentrations, depending on the considered compounds, were from 1.2 to 2 times higher in the urban than the suburban area and from 2 to 5 times higher in the urban than the forest site. PAH emissions were higher in the cold period, due to combustion processes. This finding is contrary to the other EDCs that are more abundant in the summer and governed by volatilisation. Most of the EDCs were largely distributed in the gaseous phase (>80% in the summer). The octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA) and vapour pressure (Vp) were relevant parameters for predicting EDC partitioning and direct relationships (p < 0.001) were observed i) between log K particle/gas partitioning (log Kp) and log KOA and ii) between EDC ratios in the gaseous phase and log vapour pressure (log Vp). PMID:26714291

  7. The importance of toxicity in determining the impact of hazardous air pollutants on the respiratory health of children in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta J H; Hotchkiss, Julie L

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory diseases, exacerbated through point source pollution, are currently among the leading causes of hospitalization of children in the United States. This paper investigates the relationship between the proximity of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities and the number of children diagnosed in hospitals with a respiratory disease in Tennessee. The importance of controlling for toxicity of those HAPs is of particular interest. Hospital discharge, socioeconomic, TRI emission, and HAP toxicity data are used to estimate, via Generalized Linear Methods, a logistic regression model describing the relationship between the percent of children living in a zip code area treated for respiratory illness and the average annual emissions over the previous 10 years of HAPs from TRI sites in that area. Controlling for area socioeconomic characteristics, we find that accounting for toxicity is important in uncovering the relationship between HAP emissions and respiratory health of children. A one standard deviation increase in toxicity-weighted emissions per 100 square miles is associated with an increase in the number of children diagnosed with asthma (chronic bronchitis) by about 1205 (260). The evidence suggests that, with a goal to improving children's respiratory health, monitoring the toxicity of chemicals being emitted is at least as important as simply monitoring total emission levels. This suggests that the EPA should consider making efforts toward establishing toxicity adjusted emission guidelines. PMID:27342000

  8. Toxicity of halogenated organic compounds. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning health and environmental effects of halogenated organic compounds. Topics include laboratory and field investigations regarding bioaccumulation and concentration, metabolic aspects, and specific site studies in industrial and commercial operations. Pesticides, solvents, and a variety of industrial compounds are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    PubMed

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  10. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  11. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  13. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    PubMed Central

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool (12.93%), and germacrene D (5.35%). Bioactivities-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of two compounds: safrole and linalool. Safrole showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species and (LD50 = 8.54 for S. zeamais; 4.67 µg/adult for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than linalool (LD50 = 24.88 for S. zeamais; 8.12 µg/adult for T. castaneum). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 13.83 and 6.33 µg/adult, respectively. Linalool also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 10.02 for S. zeamais; 9.34 mg/L for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than safrole (LD50 = 32.96 and 38.25 mg/L), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 14.62 and 16.22 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that the essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests. PMID:22236213

  14. Toxicity of the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark and its constituent compounds towards two grain storage insects.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sha Sha; Wang, Cheng Fang; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Shao Liang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool (12.93%), and germacrene D (5.35%). Bioactivities-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of two compounds: safrole and linalool. Safrole showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species and (LD₅₀ = 8.54 for S. zeamais; 4.67 µg/adult for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than linalool (LD₅₀ = 24.88 for S. zeamais; 8.12 µg/adult for T. castaneum). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD₅₀ values of 13.83 and 6.33 µg/adult, respectively. Linalool also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC₅₀ = 10.02 for S. zeamais; 9.34 mg/L for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than safrole (LD₅₀ = 32.96 and 38.25 mg/L), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC₅₀ values of 14.62 and 16.22 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that the essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

  15. Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus restricted to endogenous air in tampons.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Hinzman, S J; Bergdoll, M S

    1987-08-01

    All types of four brands of tampons were tested in triplicate by a tampon sac method for their effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). In this method the available air is limited to that which is in the tampon sac. Tampons were weighed and inserted into dialysis sacs inoculated with a TSST-1-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain; the sacs were submerged into brain heart infusion agar, which was allowed to harden around the sacs, and were incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C. The tampons were removed, weighed, and extracted; the CFU of staphylococci and the amount of toxin present in the extracts were determined. Glass wool was used in place of the tampons as one control, and inoculated empty sacs were used as a second control. The total CFU were consistently greater than 2 X 10(11) for the tampons and glass wool and less than or equal to 10(11) for the empty sac control. Total toxin production for all tampons tested and the glass wool was 2 to 10 times higher than the toxin produced with the empty sac control. These results indicate that tampons provide increased surface area for the staphylococci to grow and adequate oxygen for toxin production. No significant inhibition of growth of the staphylococci or TSST-1 production by any of the tampons tested was noted.

  16. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  17. Comparison of the contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and other unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants to the total toxic equivalents in air of steel plant areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Mei; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.01-0.69 pg WHO-TEQN m(-3), 0.001-0.089 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.002-0.011 pg TEQ Nm(-3), 0.004-0.02 pg TEQ Nm(-3), and 0.02-0.12 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas.

  18. Investigation and estimation of emission sources of 54 volatile organic compounds in ambient air in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Jun-ya; Amano, Saeko; Sasaki, Yuko; Korenaga, Takashi

    Atmospheric concentrations of 52 hydrocarbons and two aldehydes at roadside and urban sites in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC. Monthly sampling was conducted during April 2003-March 2005. Annual average concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the roadside site were 1.7-1.9 times higher than at the urban site, suggesting that vehicle exhausts strongly affect VOC concentrations. Since high temperatures and under the stagnant meteorological conditions might increase VOC concentrations in air, the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons rose in summer and autumn in 2003 and 2004. The VOCs concentrations against benzene (VOCs/Bz) suggest classifying three groups of VOCs: those mainly from mobile emission sources, those mainly from stationary sources, and those comprising unstable compounds such as aldehydes and 1,3-butadiene. The VOC/Bz technique was applied to registered VOC data from the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR). Results show that these VOCs in ambient air in Tokyo reflect the PRTR estimated release amounts. The VOC/Bz technique based on environmental monitoring data is useful to estimate non-registered VOCs such as butane and isopentane. Results show the possibility of estimating emission sources using VOC/Bz ratios from environmental monitoring data, even when sufficient information on the emission sources are not available.

  19. Small-size mass spectrometer for determining gases and volatile compounds in air during breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, V. T.; Kozlenok, A. V.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.; Lebedev, D. S.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Moroshkin, V. S.; Berezina, A. V.; Viktorova-Leclerc, O. S.; Vlasov, S. A.; Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an automated mass spectrometer for diagnostics of deceases from the composition of exhaled air. It includes a capillary system, which performs a rapid direct feeding of the sample to the instrument without changing substantially its composition and serves for studying the dynamics of variation of the ratio between various components of exhaled air. The membrane system for introducing the sample is intended for determining low concentrations of volatile organic compounds which are biomarkers of pathologies. It is characterized by selective transmittance and ensures the detection limits of target compounds at the parts per million-parts per billion (ppm-ppb) level. A static mass analyzer operating on permanent magnets possesses advantages important for mobile devices as compared to its dynamic analogs: it is more reliable in operation, has a larger dynamic range, and can be used for determining the concentration of components in the mixture one-by-one or simultaneously. The curvilinear output boundary of the magnetic lens of the mass analyzer makes it possible to reduce its weight and size by 2.5 times without deteriorating the mass resolution. We report on the results of testing of the instrument and consider the possibility of its application for early detection of deceases of respiratory and blood circulation system, gastrointestinal tract, and endocrine system.

  20. Solid-phase microextraction fiber development for sampling and analysis of volatile organohalogen compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Attari, Seyed Ghavameddin; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Heidari, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    A green, environmental friendly and sensitive method for determination of volatile organohalogen compounds was described in this paper. The method is based on a homemade sol-gel single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite coated solid-phase microextraction to develop for sampling and analysis of Carbon tetrachloride, Benzotrichloride, Chloromethyl methyl ether and Trichloroethylene in air. Application of this method was investigated under different laboratory conditions. Predetermined concentrations of each analytes were prepared in a home-made standard chamber and the influences of experimental parameters such as temperature, humidity, extraction time, storage time, desorption temperature, desorption time and the sorbent performance were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the use of single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber showed good performance, high sensitive and fast sampling of volatile organohalogen compounds from air. For linearity test the regression correlation coefficient was more than 98% for analyte of interest and linear dynamic range for the proposed fiber and the applied Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector technique was from 1 to 100 ngmL(-1). Method detection limits ranged between 0.09 to 0.2 ngmL(-1) and method quantification limits were between 0.25 and 0.7 ngmL(-1). Single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite fiber was highly reproducible, relative standard deviations were between 4.3 to 11.7 percent. PMID:25279223

  1. Functional characterization of Brucella melitensis NorMI, an efflux pump belonging to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family.

    PubMed

    Braibant, Martine; Guilloteau, Laurence; Zygmunt, Michel S

    2002-09-01

    Two putative proteins (NorMI and NorMII) similar to the multidrug efflux protein NorM of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are encoded by the Brucella melitensis 16 M genome. We show that a drug-hypersusceptible Escherichia coli strain overexpressing NorMI displays increased resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetraphenylphosphonium ion, acriflavine, and berberine. This elevated resistance was proven to be mediated by an energy-dependent efflux mechanism. NorMI belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family and is the first multidrug efflux protein identified in Brucella spp.

  2. Acute toxicity of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium-accumulator plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) accumulating plants, such as Astragalus spp. and Aster spp., can accumulate up to 8,000 to 13,000 ppm selenium and can cause acute toxicity when consumed by livestock or wildlife. Recent research has shown that much of the selenium in some Se-accumulating plants is stored as selenate ...

  3. Toxicity Profiles In Vivo in Mice and Antitumour Activity in Tumour-Bearing Mice of Di- and Triorganotin Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Willem, R.; Dalil, H.; de Vos, D.; Kuiper, C. M.; Peters, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo toxicity profiles in mice and the antitumour activity in tumour bearing mice were screened for four di-n-butyltin and five triorganotin carboxylates, di-n-butyltin diterebate (5), bis(phenylacetate) (6), bis(deoxycholate) (7), bis(lithocholate) (8), tri-n-butyltin terebate (9), cinnamate (10), and triphenyltin terebate (11). At their maximum tolerated dosis (MTD), no antitumour effect (T/C ~1) was observed for the compounds 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11. The compounds 6 (T/C = 0.51) and 8 (T/C = 0.42) showed clear antitumour activity after single dose administration and might therefore be of interest for further antitumour activity studies. PMID:18475827

  4. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    The human health risk assessment (HRA), initiated by the onset of nuclear industry, has been a well established methodology for assessing the impacts of human created contamination on an individual human being and entire population. The wide spread of applications and tools grown upon this methodology allows one not only to identify the hazards, but also to manage the risks. Recently, there has existed an increased awareness of the need to conduct ecological risk assessments (ERA) in addition to HRAs. The ERAs are, by and large, more complex than typical HRAs and involve not only different species but whole ecological systems. Such complex analyses require a thorough understanding of the processes underway in the ecosystem, including the contaminant transport through the food web, population dynamics as well as intra- and inter-specific relationships. The exposure pathways change radically depending on the consumer tier. Plants produce their nutriment from the sunlight and raw inorganic compounds. Animals and other living forms obtain energy by eating plants, other animals and detritus. Their double role as food consumers and food producers causes a trophic structure of the ecological system, where nutrients and energy are transferred from one trophic level to another. This is a dynamic process of energy flow, mostly in the form of food, varying with time and space. In order to conduct an efficient ERA, a multidisciplinary framework is needed. This framework can be enhanced by analyzing predator-prey interactions during the environmental disturbances caused by a pollutant emission, and by assessing the consequences of such disturbances. It is necessary to develop a way to describe how human industrial activity affects the ecosystems. Existing ecological studies have mostly been focused either on pure ecological interdependencies or on limited perspectives of human activities. In this study, we discuss the issues of air pollution and its ecological impacts from the

  5. Human reactions to a mixture of indoor air volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars; Pedersen, Ole F.

    A controlled experimental study of human reactions to a mixture of 22 volatile organic compounds often found in indoor air was performed in a climate chamber. Twenty-one healthy subjects were compared with a group of 14 subjects suffering from the 'sick building syndrome' (SBS subjects), i.e. having symptoms related to the indoor environment (irritated mucous membranes, headache, etc.) as defined by WHO in 1982. In groups of 4 these subjects were exposed during two successive periods to either 0 and 0 mg m -3, 25 and 0 mg m -3, or 0 and 25 mg m -3; 25 mg m -3 is equivalent to the highest concentrations expected in a new building. The study was double blinded, and a latin square design was used to balance out effects of day in the week and season. Both groups reacted subjectively to the air reporting worse odor, worse indoor air quality as defined by the subject, and more irritated mucous membranes in eye, throat and nose than in the clean environment. A tendency to a stronger response was seen among the SBS subjects. Objective measures indicated among others an exposure related reduction in lung function among SBS subjects. Both groups had an increased number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in tear fluid as a result of exposure. This was not seen for nasal secretions. Psychological performance tests indicated an exposure related diminished ability to learn. In conclusion, the experiment indicates that exposure to volatile organic compounds in low concentrations as seen in new houses causes both subjective complaints and objective signs in normal healty subjects; but more so in subjects from the sick building syndrome.

  6. Polyfluorinated compounds in ambient air from ship- and land-based measurements in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    Neutral volatile and semi-volatile polyfluorinated organic compounds (PFC) and ionic perfluorinated compounds were determined in air samples collected at two sites in the vicinity of Hamburg, Germany, and onboard the German research vessel Atair during a cruise in the German Bight, North Sea, in early November 2007. PUF/XAD-2/PUF cartridges and glass fiber filters as sampling media were applied to collect several fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE) in the gas- and particle-phase as well as a set of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCA) and sulfonates (PFSA) in the particle-phase. This study presents the distribution of PFC in ambient air of the German North Sea and in the vicinity of Hamburg for the first time. Average total PFC concentrations in and around Hamburg (180 pg m -3) were higher than those observed in the German Bight (80 pg m -3). In the German Bight, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 17-82 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 2.6-10 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 10-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-4.4 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were determined. In the vicinity of Hamburg, minimum-maximum gas-phase concentrations of 32-204 pg m -3 for ΣFTOH, 3-26 pg m -3 for ΣFTA, 3-18 pg m -3 for ΣFASA, and 2-15 pg m -3 for ΣFASE were detected. Concentrations of perfluorinated acids were in the range of 1-11 pg m -3. FTOH clearly dominated the substance spectrum; 8:2 FTOH occurred in maximum proportions. Air mass back trajectories, cluster, and correlation analyses revealed that the air mass origin and thus medium to long range atmospheric transport was the governing parameter for the amount of PFC in ambient air. Southwesterly located source regions seemed to be responsible for elevated PFC concentrations, local sources appeared to be of minor importance.

  7. Quantile regression of indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    PubMed

    Schlink, Uwe; Thiem, Alexander; Kohajda, Tibor; Richter, Matthias; Strebel, Kathrin

    2010-08-15

    There are many factors determining the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. On the basis of 601 population-based measurements we develop an explicit exposure model that includes factors, such as renovation, furniture, flat size, smoking, and education level of the occupants. As a novel method for the evaluation of concentrations of indoor air pollutants we use quantile regression, which has the advantages of robustness against non-Gaussian distributions (and outliers) and can adjust for unbalanced frequencies of observations. The applied bi- and multivariate quantile regressions provide (1) the VOC burden that is representative for the population of Leipzig, Germany, and (2) an inter-comparison of the effects of the studied factors and their levels. As a result, we find strong evidence for factors of general impact on most VOC components, such as the season, flooring, the type of the room, and the size of the apartment. Other impact factors are very specific to the VOC components. For example, wooden flooring (parquet) and new furniture increase the concentration of terpenes as well as the modifying factors high education and sampling in the child's room. Smokers ventilate their flats in an extent that in general reduces the VOC concentrations, except for benzene (contained in tobacco smoke), which is still higher in smoking than in non-smoking flats. Very often dampness is associated with an increased VOC burden in indoor air. An investigation of mixtures emphasises a high burden of co-occurring terpenes in very small and very large apartments.

  8. Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsai-Yin; Sree, Usha; Tseng, Sen-Hong; Chiu, Kong Hwa; Wu, Chien-Hou; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day and night variations at some of the sampling site. The highest among the 26 sites for total concentration of VOC at CPC was 2506 ppbv near waste burning stack. High concentrations of VOC were also detected at the wastewater management area and the east gate of the plant. The values were 10-18 times higher than those probed in Kaohsiung city. The meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction played vital roles in the distribution of ambient air VOC concentrations and affected the petrochemical complex emissions. The application of UV-DOAS for online monitoring of criteria pollutants appears feasible though the accuracy of the technique is not fully controlled.

  9. Volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elements in the air of ten urban homes.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, M R; Scheff, P A

    2001-03-01

    Ten homes were monitored at regular intervals from June 1994 through April 1995 as part of a Public Health Assessment in Southeast Chicago for exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and elements. Simultaneous 24-h indoor and outdoor samples were collected. VOCs were and analyzed using USEPA Method TO-14 with Selected Ion Monitoring Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). PAHs were analyzed using USEPA Method TO-13 with GC/MS. Elements were collected on quartz fiber filters and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma (ICP) spectroscopy or Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA). Continuous measurements of CO2 and temperature were recorded for each indoor sample. Twenty-four h total CO2 emissions were determined from occupancy and estimated gas stove usage and were moderately correlated (R2 = 0.19) with 24 h average indoor CO2 concentrations. Modeled 24-h air exchange rates ranged from 0.04 to 3.76 air changes h-1 (ACH), with mean of 0.52 ACH. Median particle penetration was 0.89. Emission rates were calculated for each pollutant sampled. Using a detailed housing survey and field sampling questionnaires, it was possible to evaluate associations between housing characteristics and source activities, and pollutant source rates. The data indicate that several predictor variables, including mothball storage, air freshner use, and cooking activities, are reasonable predictors for emission rates for specific pollutants in the homes studied.

  10. Can ornamental potted plants remove volatile organic compounds from indoor air? A review.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Christensen, Jan H; Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found in indoor air, and many of these can affect human health (e.g. formaldehyde and benzene are carcinogenic). Plants affect the levels of VOCs in indoor environments, thus they represent a potential green solution for improving indoor air quality that at the same time can improve human health. This article reviews scientific studies of plants' ability to remove VOCs from indoor air. The focus of the review is on pathways of VOC removal by the plants and factors affecting the efficiency and rate of VOC removal by plants. Laboratory based studies indicate that plant induced removal of VOCs is a combination of direct (e.g. absorption) and indirect (e.g. biotransformation by microorganisms) mechanisms. They also demonstrate that plants' rate of reducing the level of VOCs is influenced by a number of factors such as plant species, light intensity and VOC concentration. For instance, an increase in light intensity has in some studies been shown to lead to an increase in removal of a pollutant. Studies conducted in real-life settings such as offices and homes are few and show mixed results.

  11. A simple method for screening emission sources of carbonyl compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shohei; Kume, Kazunari; Horiike, Toshiyuki; Honma, Nobuyuki; Fusaya, Masahiro; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi

    2010-06-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building and furnishing materials are frequently observed in high concentrations in indoor air. Nondestructive analytical methods that determine the main parameters influencing concentration of the chemical substances are necessary to screen for sources of VOC emissions. Toward this goal, we have developed a new flux sampler, referred to herein as an emission cell for simultaneous multi-sampling (ECSMS), that is used for screening indoor emission sources of VOCs and for determining the emission rates of these sources. Because the ECSMS is based on passive sampling, it can be easily used on-site at a low cost. Among VOCs, low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde are frequently detected at high concentrations in indoor environments. In this study, we determined the reliability of the ECSMS for the collection of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds emitted from wood-based composites of medium density fiberboards and particleboards. We then used emission rates determined by the ECSMS to predict airborne concentrations of formaldehyde emitted from a bookshelf in a large chamber, and these data were compared to formaldehyde concentrations that were acquired simultaneously by means of an active sampling method. The values obtained from the two methods were quite similar, suggesting that ECSMS measurement is an effective method for screening primary sources influencing indoor concentrations of formaldehyde. PMID:20149530

  12. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  13. Mineral dust aerosols promote the formation of toxic nitropolycyclic aromatic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Takayuki; Azumi, Eri; Fukushima, Aki; Tang, Ning; Matsuki, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuta; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), which have been shown to have adverse health effects such as carcinogenicity, are formed in part through nitration reactions of their parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about heterogeneous nitration rates of PAHs by gaseous NO2 on natural mineral substrates, such as desert dust aerosols. Herein by employing kinetic experiments using a flow reactor and surface analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with pyridine adsorption, we demonstrate that the reaction is accelerated on acidic surfaces of mineral dust, particularly on those of clay minerals. In support of this finding, we show that levels of ambient particle-associated NPAHs in Beijing, China, significantly increased during heavy dust storms. These results suggest that mineral dust surface reactions are an unrecognized source of toxic organic chemicals in the atmosphere and that they enhance the toxicity of mineral dust aerosols in urban environments. PMID:27075250

  14. Evaluation of control strategies for volatile organic compounds in indoor air (journal article)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.; Debler, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses research which evaluates the application of adsorption techniques to the control of indoor organic vapors. The adsorption on activated carbon of three compounds representing three classes of organic species was studied at 30 C in the concentration range zero to 200 ppb using a microbalance. The three were benzene (aromatic), acetaldehyde (oxygenated aliphatic), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (halogenated aliphatic). Three sorbents (a wood base carbon, a coal base carbon, and a coconut shell base carbon) were examined. Uptakes for all the compounds on all the carbons were low (on the order of 10 to the minus 7th power gmol/g carbon). Simulation of a packed bed of carbon indicated that carbon adsorption may not be practical for continuous removal, but may be applicable to sudden releases (e.g., spills). Potential alternatives to activated carbon adsorption are discussed. Potentially toxic organic vapors are emitted from a wide variety of building materials, consumer products, and human activities. Control of indoor organic vapors generally involves removing the source and/or increasing the ventilation rate. The ubiquitous nature of sources of organic vapors generally makes source removal impractical. Increased ventilation causes increased energy usage with its resultant economic penalties. Therefore, practical removal methods are needed.

  15. Prioritizing testing of organic compounds detected as gas phase air pollutants: structure-activity study for human contact allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R; Macina, O T; Graham, C; Rosenkranz, H S; Cass, G R; Karol, M H

    1997-01-01

    Organic compounds that are used or generated anthropogenically in large quantities in cities can be identified through their presence in the urban atmosphere and in air pollutant source emissions. Compounds identified by this method were screened to evaluate their potential to act as contact allergens. The CASE and MULTICASE computer programs, which are based on the detection of structure-activity relationships (SAR), were used to evaluate this potential. These relationships first are determined by comparing chemical structures to biological activity within a learning set comprised of 458 compounds, each of which had been tested experimentally in human trials for its sensitization potential. Using the information contained in this learning set, CASE and MULTICASE predicted the activity of 238 compounds found in the atmosphere for their ability to act as contact allergens. The analysis finds that 21 of 238 compounds are predicted to be active contact allergens (probability >0.5), with potencies ranging from mild to very strong. The compounds come from chemical classes that include chlorinated aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons, N-containing compounds, phenols, alkenes, and an S-containing compound. Using the measured airborne concentrations or emission rates of these compounds as an indication of the extent of their use, together with their predicted potencies, provides an efficient method to prioritize the experimental assessment of contact sensitization of untested organic compounds that can be detected as air pollutants. Images Figure 1. PMID:9300925

  16. Glioblastoma Treatment: Bypassing the Toxicity of Platinum Compounds by Using Liposomal Formulation and Increasing Treatment Efficiency With Concomitant Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Leon; Fortin, David; Mathieu, David; Paquette, Benoit

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Treatments of glioblastoma with cisplatin or oxaliplatin only marginally improve the overall survival of patients and cause important side effects. To prevent adverse effects, improve delivery, and optimize the tumor response to treatment in combination with radiotherapy, a potential approach consists of incorporating the platinum agent in a liposome. Methods and Materials: In this study, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, Lipoplatin (the liposomal formulation of cisplatin), and Lipoxal (the liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin) were tested on F98 glioma orthotopically implanted in Fischer rats. The platinum compounds were administered by intracarotid infusion and were assessed for the ability to reduce toxicity, improve cancer cell uptake, and increase survival of animals when combined or not combined with radiotherapy. Results: The tumor uptake was 2.4-fold more important for Lipoxal than the liposome-free oxaliplatin. Lipoxal also improved the specificity of oxaliplatin as shown by a higher ratio of tumor to right hemisphere uptake. Surprisingly, Lipoplatin led to lower tumor uptake compared with cisplatin. However, Lipoplatin had the advantage of largely reducing the toxicity of cisplatin and allowed us to capitalize on the anticancer activity of this agent. Conclusion: Among the five platinum compounds tested, carboplatin showed the best increase in survival when combined with radiation for treatment of glioma implanted in Fischer rats.

  17. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. PMID:26336260

  18. Are luminescent bacteria suitable for online detection and monitoring of toxic compounds in drinking water and its sources?

    PubMed

    Woutersen, Marjolijn; Belkin, Shimshon; Brouwer, Bram; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Heringa, Minne B

    2011-05-01

    Biosensors based on luminescent bacteria may be valuable tools to monitor the chemical quality and safety of surface and drinking water. In this review, an overview is presented of the recombinant strains available that harbour the bacterial luciferase genes luxCDABE, and which may be used in an online biosensor for water quality monitoring. Many bacterial strains have been described for the detection of a broad range of toxicity parameters, including DNA damage, protein damage, membrane damage, oxidative stress, organic pollutants, and heavy metals. Most lux strains have sensitivities with detection limits ranging from milligrams per litre to micrograms per litre, usually with higher sensitivities in compound-specific strains. Although the sensitivity of lux strains can be enhanced by various molecular manipulations, most reported detection thresholds are still too high to detect levels of individual contaminants as they occur nowadays in European drinking waters. However, lux strains sensing specific toxic effects have the advantage of being able to respond to mixtures of contaminants inducing the same effect, and thus could be used as a sensor for the sum effect, including the effect of compounds that are as yet not identified by chemical analysis. An evaluation of the suitability of lux strains for monitoring surface and drinking water is therefore provided.

  19. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships.

  20. Characterization of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in cleaning reagents and air fresheners in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Yan; Chan, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. In this study, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) method was applied for the determination of BVOCs compositions in three categories of cleaning products including floor cleaners (FC), kitchen cleaners (KC) and dishwashing detergents (DD), and also air fresheners (AF). The analysis results demonstrated that chemical composition and concentration of individual BVOC varied broadly with household products in the view of their different functions and scents as indicated on the labels. The concentration of total BVOCs for sample FC1 was the highest up to 4146.0 μg g -1, followed by FC2 of 264.6 μg g -1, FC4 of 249.3 μg g -1 and FC3 of 139.2 μg g -1. D-limonene was the most abundant detected BVOCs in KC samples with the chemical composition varying from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 1513.0 ± 37.1 μg g -1. For dishwashing detergents, only D-limonene was detected and quantified. The BVOCs compositions of air freshener samples are much more complicated. It was estimated that the consumption of floor cleaners contributed 51% of the total BVOCs amount indoors in Hong Kong, followed by air fresheners 42%, kitchen cleaners 5% and dishwashing detergents 2%.

  1. Widespread use of toxic skin lightening compounds: medical and psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Ladizinski, Barry; Mistry, Nisha; Kundu, Roopal V

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpigmentation disorders and skin lightening treatments have a significant impact on the dermatologic, physiologic, psychologic, economic, social, and cultural aspects of life. Skin lightening compounds, such as hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids, are often used to treat hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, or lighten skin for cosmetic purposes. Despite their established effectiveness, a multitude of dermatologic and systemic complications have been associated with these agents. Regulatory agencies have also recognized the adverse effects of skin lighteners and many countries around the world now forbid the production and sale of these compounds, although this prohibition has not significantly curtailed distribution. Dermatologists and users of cosmetic products should be aware of the various components in bleaching compounds, their potential adverse effects, and alternative options for skin lightening.

  2. Comparison of extracts and toxicities of organic compounds in drinking water concentrated by single and composite XAD resins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Xiang, Lunhui; Wu, Fenghong; Peng, Xiaoling; Xie, Hong; Wang, Jiachun; Yang, Kedi; Lu, Wenqing; Wu, Zhigang

    2013-12-01

    We compared extracts and toxicities of organic compounds (OCs) in drinking water concentrated by composite XAD-2/8 resin (mixed with an equal volume of XAD-2 and XAD-8 resins) with those extracted by single XAD-2 (non-polar) and XAD-8 (polar) resins. Drinking water was processed from raw water of the Han River and the Yangtze River in Wuhan section, China. The extraction efficiency of all resins was controlled at 30%. The types of extracted OCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and comet assays, respectively, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our results showed that XAD-2/8 extracted a larger variety of OCs, compared with XAD-8 and XAD-2. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of extracted OCs were in the order of XAD-8> XAD-2/8> XAD-2 at almost all tested concentrations after 24 h treatment (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that single XAD resin selectively extracts either polar or non-polar OCs, which would lead to over- or under-estimation of the toxicity of drinking water. Nevertheless, composite resin extracts both polar and non-polar OCs, and could be utilized as a useful extraction technique to evaluate the level and toxicity of OCs in drinking water.

  3. Measurement of 16 volatile organic compounds in restaurant air contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Vainiotalo, S; Väänänen, V; Vaaranrinta, R

    2008-11-01

    Tobacco smoke-related air pollutant levels were studied in ten Finnish restaurants. Markers of tobacco smoke were measured together with other compounds typical of tobacco smoke and indoor air. The measurements were carried out at stationary sampling points in smoking and non-smoking areas of the restaurants in 2005-2006, when at least half of the service area had to be non-smoking according to the Finnish Tobacco Act. The average concentrations (geometric mean, microg/m3) of the 16 airborne contaminants measured in the smoking area were: nicotine 18.1; toluene 10.6; isoprene 10.2; m,p-xylene 5.0; limonene 4.8; benzene 3.3; furfuryl aldehyde 3.2; 1,3-butadiene 2.7; 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) 2.5; phenol 2.1; ethyl benzene 1.7; pyridine 1.6; o-xylene 1.5; 3-picoline 1.4; styrene 1.2; and naphthalene 0.45. A good correlation (r=0.90-0.99, p<0.001) was obtained between tobacco-specific markers (3-EP and nicotine) and 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, pyridine, furfuryl aldehyde, 3-picoline, phenol, and styrene. A poor or no correlation (r=0.19-0.60) was obtained between 3-EP or nicotine and the rest of the compounds. The average concentrations of all compounds were significantly lower in the non-smoking area than in the smoking area (p<0.05). In the non-smoking area, the average concentration of 3-EP was 0.35 microg/m3 and that of nicotine 1.6 microg/m3. In three restaurants, the area design and ventilation were effective: the average level of 3-EP in the non-smoking section was <3% from that in the smoking section. In the other restaurants, tobacco smoke was spreading more freely and the corresponding value was 14-76%. A sensitive method was applied for the measurement of airborne 1,3-butadiene. The air samples were collected into Carbopack X adsorption tubes and analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass selective detection. The precision of the method was 4.2% (at 100 ng/sample) and the limit of quantification 0.02 microg/m3.

  4. The current practice of health risk assessment: Potential impact on standards for toxic air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Jernigan, J.D.; Finley, B.L.; Ripple, S.R.; Keenan, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Since the Bhopal incident, the public has placed pressure on regulatory agencies to set community exposure limits for the dozens of chemicals that may be released by manufacturing facilities. More or less objective limits can be established for the vast majority of these chemicals through the use of risk assessment. However, each step of the risk assessment process (i.e., hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of pitfalls that scientists need to avoid to ensure that valid limits are established. For example, in the hazard identification step there has been little discrimination among animal carcinogens with respect to mechanism of action or the epidemiology experience. In the dose-response portion, rarely is the range of plausible estimated risks presented. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models should be used to understand the difference between the tissue doses and the administered dose, as well as the difference in target tissue concentrations of the toxicant between rodents and humans. Biologically-based models like the Moolgavkar-Knudson-Venzon (MKV) should be developed and used, when appropriate. The exposure assessment step can be significantly improved by using more sensitive and specific sampling and analytical methods, more accurate exposure parameters, and computer models that can account for complex environmental factors. Whenever possible, model predictions of exposure and uptake should be validated by biological monitoring of exposed persons (urine, blood, adipose) or by field measurements of plants, soil, fish, air, or water. In each portion of an assessment, the weight of evidence approach should be used to identify the most defensible value. 129 refs.

  5. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Cyperus rotundus steam distillate constituents and related compounds to insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Park, Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the toxicity of 17 steam distillate constituents of Cyperus rotundus (L.) rhizome, another seven known compounds of C. rotundus rhizome, and 14 structurally related compounds to females from an insecticide-susceptible KSS strain and two field-collected SEL and DJN colonies of Blattella germanica (L.). High contact + fumigant toxicity to KSS females was produced by p-cymene, nerol, linalool, o-cymene, (S)-(-)-citronellal, (1S)-(-)-camphor, terpinolene, and m-cymene (LD50, 0.29-0.47 mg/cm2). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical against females from any of the three strains, even though SEL and DJN females were resistant to six acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and three pyrethroids (resistance ratio, 9-154 and 12-195). These results indicate that the compounds and insecticides do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The test compounds were effective in closed but not in open containers against SEL females, indicating that their route of insecticidal action was largely a result of vapor action. Structure-activity relationship indicates that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, appear to play a role in determining the terpenoid toxicities to B. germanica. C. rotundus rhizome steam distillate constituents and related compounds described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of resistant cockroach populations in light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in indoor environments.

  6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Stoenner, Christof; Klüpfel, Thomas; Sauvage, Carina; Crowley, John; Phillips, Gavin; Parchatka, Uwe; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In summer 2014 a comprehensively instrumented measurement campaign (CYPHEX) was conducted in northwest Cyprus in order to investigate atmospheric oxidation chemistry in the Mediterranean region. The site was periodically influenced by the northerly Etesian winds advecting air from Eastern Europe (Turkey and Greece) and from westerly winds bringing more photochemically processed emissions from Western Europe (Spain and France). In this study the data from a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) are analyzed. Generally, oxidized volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as methanol and acetone were measured in high mixing ratios (max. 9.5 ppb, min. 1.3 ppb, average 3.2 ppb for methanol, max. 7.9 ppb, min. 1.3 ppb, average 2.4 ppb for acetone ) while precursors like propane showed low values (max. 500 ppt). This demonstrates that the air measured was oxidized to a high degree over the Mediterranean Sea. Low values of acetonitrile throughout the campaign indicated no significant influence of biomass burning on the data. Temporal variations in VOC mixing ratios and precursor/product ratios over the campaign can be explained by using the HYSPLIT backward trajectory model which delineated air masses originating from Eastern and Western Europe. Diel variations of reactive VOCs such as isoprene and terpenes were also observed at the site. A sharp increase in isoprene and monoterpenes at circa 9:00 local time indicated that the 600 m hilltop site was influenced by ascending boundary layer air at this time. In this study, particular emphasis is placed on acetic (ethanoic) acid measured by PTR- TOF-MS and calibrated by a permeation source. Acetic acid is an atmospheric oxidation product of multiple volatile organic compounds, emitted directly from vegetation, and found in abundance in the Mediterranean region (max. 2.7 ppb, min. 0.2 ppb, average 0.8 ppb). Acetic acid contributes to the acidity of precipitation in remote areas, can be incorporated

  7. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  8. Air monitoring of volatile organic compounds at relevant receptors during hydraulic fracturing operations in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Hynds, Erin S; Panko, Julie M

    2016-07-01

    A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected. The ambient air at both sites was monitored during four distinct periods of unconventional natural gas extraction activity: an inactive period prior to fracturing operations, during fracturing operations, during flaring operations, and during another inactive period after operations. The results of the continuous monitoring during fracturing and flaring sampling periods for total volatile organic compounds were similar to the results obtained during inactive periods. Total volatile organic compound 24-hour average concentrations ranged between 0.16 and 80 ppb during all sampling periods. Several individual volatile compounds were detected in the 24-hour samples, but they were consistent with background atmospheric levels measured previously at nearby sampling sites and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation demonstrated that the detected volatile organic compounds were well below health-protective levels. The primary finding of this study was that the operation of a hydraulic fracturing well pad in Washington County did not substantially affect local air concentrations of total and individual volatile organic compounds. PMID:27312253

  9. Air monitoring of volatile organic compounds at relevant receptors during hydraulic fracturing operations in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Maskrey, Joshua R; Insley, Allison L; Hynds, Erin S; Panko, Julie M

    2016-07-01

    A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected. The ambient air at both sites was monitored during four distinct periods of unconventional natural gas extraction activity: an inactive period prior to fracturing operations, during fracturing operations, during flaring operations, and during another inactive period after operations. The results of the continuous monitoring during fracturing and flaring sampling periods for total volatile organic compounds were similar to the results obtained during inactive periods. Total volatile organic compound 24-hour average concentrations ranged between 0.16 and 80 ppb during all sampling periods. Several individual volatile compounds were detected in the 24-hour samples, but they were consistent with background atmospheric levels measured previously at nearby sampling sites and in other areas in Washington County. Furthermore, a basic yet conservative screening level evaluation demonstrated that the detected volatile organic compounds were well below health-protective levels. The primary finding of this study was that the operation of a hydraulic fracturing well pad in Washington County did not substantially affect local air concentrations of total and individual volatile organic compounds.

  10. Secondary compounds in floral rewards of toxic rangeland plants: Impacts on pollinators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of plant secondary chemistry has been essential in understanding plant consumption by herbivores. There is growing evidence that secondary compounds also occur in floral rewards, including nectar and pollen. Many pollinators are generalist nectar and pollen foragers and thus are exposed to...

  11. Liver Toxicity of Munition Compounds 2,4-and 2,6- and Technical Grade Dinitrotoluene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Munitions compounds 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) are the two most common of the six isomers of dinitrotoluene (DNT). Technical grade dinitrotoluene (tgDNT) is a mixture of the six DNT isomers and is comprised of 76% 2,4-DNT and 19% 2,6-DNT with t...

  12. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBs. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site.

  13. Gaseous chemical compounds in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Tomizawa, Takuya; Tokoro, Asumo; Aoki, Manami; Hishiki, Mayu; Yamada, Tomomi; Tanaka, Reiko; Sakamoto, Hironari; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    A nationwide survey of indoor air quality in Japan was conducted using four types of diffusive samplers. Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer. Four kinds of diffusive samplers were used in this study: DSD-BPE/DNPH packed with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine and trans-1,2-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylene coated silica for ozone and carbonyls; VOC-SD packed with Carboxen 564 particles for volatile organic compounds; DSD-TEA packed with triethanolamine impregnated silica for acid gases; and DSD-NH3 packed with phosphoric acid impregnated silica for basic gases. These samplers are small and lightweight and do not require a power source, hence, it was possible to obtain a large number of air samples via mail from throughout Japan. Almost all compounds in indoor air were present at higher levels in summer than in winter. In particular, formaldehyde, toluene, and ammonia were strongly dependent on temperature, and their levels increased with temperature. The nitrogen dioxide concentration in indoor air particularly increased only during winter and was well correlated with the formic acid concentration (correlation coefficient=0.959). Ozone concentrations in indoor air were extremely low compared with the outdoor concentrations. Ozone flowing from outdoor air may be decomposed quickly by chemical compounds in indoor air; therefore, it is suggested that the indoor/outdoor ratio of ozone represents the ventilation of the indoor environment. PMID:25601740

  14. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. PMID:20210131

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  16. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations

  17. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  18. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations

  19. ToxAlerts: a Web server of structural alerts for toxic chemicals and compounds with potential adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Sushko, Iurii; Salmina, Elena; Potemkin, Vladimir A; Poda, Gennadiy; Tetko, Igor V

    2012-08-27

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  20. ToxAlerts: A Web Server of Structural Alerts for Toxic Chemicals and Compounds with Potential Adverse Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  1. Air/water oxidative desulfurization of coal and sulfur-containing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warzinski, R. P.; Freidman, S.; LaCount, R. B.

    1981-02-01

    Air/water Oxydesulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major U. S. coal basins. The applicability at present of this treatment for producing an environmentally acceptable coal has been restricted by recently proposed SO2 emission standards for utility boilers. The product would, however, be attractive to the many smaller industrial coal users who cannot afford to operate and maintain flue gas desulfurization systems. It is also possible that the utility industry could realize a benefit by using chemically cleaned coal with partial flue gas scrubbing. The higher cost of the cleaned coal would be offset by the reduction in capital and operating costs resulting from decreased FGD requirements. The susceptibility of sulfur in coal to oxidative removal varies with the nature of the sulfur-containing species. The inorganic sulfur compounds, primarily pyrite, marcasite, and iron sulfate, are more amenable to treatment than the organically bound sulfur which exhibits varying degrees of resistance depending on its chemical environment. Air/water Oxydesulfurization consistently removes in excess of 90 percent of the pyritic sulfur; the extent and efficiency of organic sulfur removal however, depends on the type of coal and severity of treatment used. In general, the organic sulfur of the higher rank coals exhibits more resistance to treatment than that of the lower rank coals; however, the accompanying heating value is greater for the latter. Similar treatment of sulfur-containing model compounds further illustrates the relative susceptibilities of different chemical species to oxidation. Application of these data to the understanding of the complex chemistry involved in the treatment of coal is a preliminary step toward improving the efficiency of Oxydesulfurization.

  2. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  3. Evaluation of Fungal Metabolic Compounds Released to the Air in a Restricted Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    The metabolic action of selected fungi species on common components of the interior of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be tested. When present, volatile organic chemicals will be collected on porous polymer adsorbent columns. Using thermal desorption, the volatile compounds will be passed onto a gas chromatographic column for analysis. The Space Station Freedom (SSF) modular complex will largely be individually self contained and the established air environment will not be easily adjusted. The development and maintenance of a safe working environment offers a considerable challenge. Present plans for use of SSF acknowledge periods of manned activities and alternate times when the station is unmanned. The obvious necessity for clean and safe air and water during periods of use have been pursued as fundamental systems to SSF success. Somewhat less obvious, although perhaps of no less importance to the success of long term cyclic usage, are those periods of inactivity. It is during these periods when spores from microorganisms may be afforded the best conditions to germinate and in the vegetative form react with the complex synthetic chemical polymers which compose the furnishings and hardware of SSF nodes. Biodegradation could constitute a real hygiene problem, if the organisms form and release volatile organic chemicals. Similar problems have been documented in closed and improperly ventilated buildings and work spaces. Many of the metabolic products of fungi and bacterial growth create a variety of health problems. Analytical chemical techniques will first be used to document the growth of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium fungal species on the potential substrates Nomex and Kevlar. Any volatile organics that are released will be measured using the spectrum of gas adsorption chromatography. The level of microbial contamination that is necessary to produce such volatile compounds and the relative amounts expected to accumulate will be estimated.

  4. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which

  5. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which

  6. Potential toxic effects of aircraft de-icers and wastewater samples containing these compounds.

    PubMed

    Mohiley, A; Franzaring, J; Calvo, O C; Fangmeier, A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major problems of airport operation is the impact of pollution caused by runoff waters. Runoff waters at an airport may contain high concentrations of different contaminants resulting from various activities of its operation. High quantities of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids are used annually at airports worldwide. Aircraft de-icers and anti-icers may have negative environmental impacts, but their effects on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown. In order to address this issue, aircraft de-icers, pavement de-icers and wastewater samples were obtained from a regional airport. To evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs), two bio-tests were performed: the Lemna growth inhibition test according to OECD guideline 221 and the luminescent bacteria test according to ISO guideline 11348-2. In the Lemna growth inhibition test, phytotoxicity was assessed using the endpoints frond number and frond area. The luminescent bacteria test involved the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The estimates of effective concentrations (EC50) values were determined using the free software R and the "drc" library. Aquatic plants and marine bacteria showed a higher sensitivity towards ADAFs than to wastewater samples. Experiments showed that aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids and wastewater samples were relatively more toxic towards Lemna gibba L. in comparison to V. fischeri. PMID:25925142

  7. Potential toxic effects of aircraft de-icers and wastewater samples containing these compounds.

    PubMed

    Mohiley, A; Franzaring, J; Calvo, O C; Fangmeier, A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major problems of airport operation is the impact of pollution caused by runoff waters. Runoff waters at an airport may contain high concentrations of different contaminants resulting from various activities of its operation. High quantities of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids are used annually at airports worldwide. Aircraft de-icers and anti-icers may have negative environmental impacts, but their effects on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown. In order to address this issue, aircraft de-icers, pavement de-icers and wastewater samples were obtained from a regional airport. To evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs), two bio-tests were performed: the Lemna growth inhibition test according to OECD guideline 221 and the luminescent bacteria test according to ISO guideline 11348-2. In the Lemna growth inhibition test, phytotoxicity was assessed using the endpoints frond number and frond area. The luminescent bacteria test involved the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The estimates of effective concentrations (EC50) values were determined using the free software R and the "drc" library. Aquatic plants and marine bacteria showed a higher sensitivity towards ADAFs than to wastewater samples. Experiments showed that aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids and wastewater samples were relatively more toxic towards Lemna gibba L. in comparison to V. fischeri.

  8. Separate and Unequal: Residential Segregation and Estimated Cancer Risks Associated with Ambient Air Toxics in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between racial residential segregation and estimated ambient air toxics exposures and their associated cancer risks using modeled concentration estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. We combined pollutant concentration estimates with potencies to calculate cancer risks by census tract for 309 metropolitan areas in the United States. This information was combined with socioeconomic status (SES) measures from the 1990 Census. Estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics were highest in tracts located in metropolitan areas that were highly segregated. Disparities between racial/ethnic groups were also wider in more segregated metropolitan areas. Multivariate modeling showed that, after controlling for tract-level SES measures, increasing segregation amplified the cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics for all racial groups combined [highly segregated areas: relative cancer risk (RCR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–107; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28–1.36]. This segregation effect was strongest for Hispanics (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.61–1.88) and weaker among whites (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24–1.33), African Americans (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98–1.21; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24–1.53), and Asians (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97–1.24; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16–1.51). Results suggest that disparities associated with ambient air toxics are affected by segregation and that these exposures may have health significance for populations across racial lines. PMID:16507462

  9. Inherent organic compounds in biochar--Their content, composition and potential toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Buss, Wolfram; Mašek, Ondřej; Graham, Margaret; Wüst, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Pyrolysis liquids consist of thermal degradation products of biomass in various stages of its decomposition. Therefore, if biochar gets affected by re-condensed pyrolysis liquids it is likely to contain a huge variety of organic compounds. In this study the chemical composition of such compounds associated with two contaminated, high-volatile organic compound (VOC) biochars were investigated and compared with those for a low-VOC biochar. The water-soluble organic compounds with the highest concentrations in the two high-VOC biochars were acetic, formic, butyric and propionic acids; methanol, phenol, o-, m- and p-cresol, and 2,4-dimethylphenol, all with concentrations over 100 μg g(-1). The concentrations of 16 US EPA PAHs determined by 36 h toluene extractions were 6.09 μg g(-1) for the low-VOC biochar. For high-VOC biochar the total concentrations were 53.42 μg g(-1) and 27.89 μg g(-1), while concentrations of water-soluble PAHs ranged from 1.5 to 2 μg g(-1). Despite the concentrations of PAHs exceeding biochar guideline values, it was concluded that, for these particular biochars, the biggest concern for application to soil would be the co-occurrence of VOCs such as low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids and phenols, as these can be highly mobile and have a high potential to cause phytotoxic effects. Therefore, based on results of this study we strongly suggest for VOCs to be included among criteria for assessment of biochar quality.

  10. A review of biomarker compounds as source indicators and tracers for air pollution.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, B R

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the application of organic geochemistry to the analysis of organic matter on aerosol particles is presented here. This organic matter is analyzed as solvent extractable bitumen/ lipids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The organic geochemical approach assesses the origin, the environmental history and the nature of secondary products of organic matter by using the data derived from specific molecular analyses. Evaluations of production and fluxes, with cross-correlations can thus be made by the application of the same separation and analytical procedures to samples from point source emissions and the ambient atmosphere. This will be illustrated here with typical examples from the ambient atmosphere (aerosol particles) and from emissions of biomass burning (smoke). Organic matter in aerosols is derived from two major sources and is admixed depending on the geographic relief of the air shed. These sources are biogenic detritus (e.g., plant wax, microbes, etc.) and anthropogenic particle emissions (e.g., oils, soot, synthetics, etc.). Both biogenic detritus and some of the anthropogenic particle emissions contain organic materials which have unique and distinguishable compound distribution patterns (C(14)-C(40)). Microbial and vascular plant lipids are the dominant biogenic residues and petroleum hydrocarbons, with lesser amounts of the pyrogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and synthetics (e.g., chlorinated compounds), are the major anthropogenic residues. Biomass combustion is another important primary source of particles injected into the global atmosphere. It contributes many trace substances which are reactants in atmospheric chemistry and soot paniculate matter with adsorbed biomarker compounds, most of which are unknown chemical structures. The injection of natural product organic compounds into smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. Although the

  11. A review of biomarker compounds as source indicators and tracers for air pollution.

    PubMed

    Simoneit, B R

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the application of organic geochemistry to the analysis of organic matter on aerosol particles is presented here. This organic matter is analyzed as solvent extractable bitumen/ lipids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The organic geochemical approach assesses the origin, the environmental history and the nature of secondary products of organic matter by using the data derived from specific molecular analyses. Evaluations of production and fluxes, with cross-correlations can thus be made by the application of the same separation and analytical procedures to samples from point source emissions and the ambient atmosphere. This will be illustrated here with typical examples from the ambient atmosphere (aerosol particles) and from emissions of biomass burning (smoke). Organic matter in aerosols is derived from two major sources and is admixed depending on the geographic relief of the air shed. These sources are biogenic detritus (e.g., plant wax, microbes, etc.) and anthropogenic particle emissions (e.g., oils, soot, synthetics, etc.). Both biogenic detritus and some of the anthropogenic particle emissions contain organic materials which have unique and distinguishable compound distribution patterns (C(14)-C(40)). Microbial and vascular plant lipids are the dominant biogenic residues and petroleum hydrocarbons, with lesser amounts of the pyrogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and synthetics (e.g., chlorinated compounds), are the major anthropogenic residues. Biomass combustion is another important primary source of particles injected into the global atmosphere. It contributes many trace substances which are reactants in atmospheric chemistry and soot paniculate matter with adsorbed biomarker compounds, most of which are unknown chemical structures. The injection of natural product organic compounds into smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. Although the

  12. A QSPR model for prediction of diffusion coefficient of non-electrolyte organic compounds in air at ambient condition.

    PubMed

    Mirkhani, Seyyed Alireza; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Sattari, Mehdi

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of diffusion coefficients of pure compounds in air is of great interest for many diverse industrial and air quality control applications. In this communication, a QSPR method is applied to predict the molecular diffusivity of chemical compounds in air at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. Four thousand five hundred and seventy nine organic compounds from broad spectrum of chemical families have been investigated to propose a comprehensive and predictive model. The final model is derived by Genetic Function Approximation (GFA) and contains five descriptors. Using this dedicated model, we obtain satisfactory results quantified by the following statistical results: Squared Correlation Coefficient=0.9723, Standard Deviation Error=0.003 and Average Absolute Relative Deviation=0.3% for the predicted properties from existing experimental values. PMID:22189378

  13. A critical review of reported air concentrations of organic compounds in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Nagda, N L; Rector, H E

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a review and assessment of aircraft cabin air quality studies with measured levels of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs). VOC and SVOC concentrations reported for aircraft cabins are compared with those reported for residential and office buildings and for passenger compartments of other types of transportation. An assessment of measurement technologies and quality assurance procedures is included. The six studies reviewed in the paper range in coverage from two to about 30 flights per study. None of the monitored flights included any unusual or episodic events that could affect cabin air quality. Most studies have used scientifically sound methods for measurements. Study results indicate that under routine aircraft operations, contaminant levels in aircraft cabins are similar to those in residential and office buildings, with two exceptions: (1). levels of ethanol and acetone, indicators of bioeffluents and chemicals from consumer products are higher in aircraft than in home or office environments, and (2). levels of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and fuel-related contaminants are higher in residential/office buildings than in aircraft. Similarly, ethanol and acetone levels are higher in aircraft than in other transportation modes but the levels of some pollutants, such as m-/p-xylenes, tend to be lower in aircraft.

  14. Comparison of prediction methods for octanol-air partition coefficients of diverse organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Xuehua; Wang, Ya'nan; Yu, Haiying

    2016-04-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) is needed for assessing multimedia transport and bioaccumulability of organic chemicals in the environment. As experimental determination of KOA for various chemicals is costly and laborious, development of KOA estimation methods is necessary. We investigated three methods for KOA prediction, conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on molecular structural descriptors, group contribution models based on atom-centered fragments, and a novel model that predicts KOA via solvation free energy from air to octanol phase (ΔGO(0)), with a collection of 939 experimental KOA values for 379 compounds at different temperatures (263.15-323.15 K) as validation or training sets. The developed models were evaluated with the OECD guidelines on QSAR models validation and applicability domain (AD) description. Results showed that although the ΔGO(0) model is theoretically sound and has a broad AD, the prediction accuracy of the model is the poorest. The QSAR models perform better than the group contribution models, and have similar predictability and accuracy with the conventional method that estimates KOA from the octanol-water partition coefficient and Henry's law constant. One QSAR model, which can predict KOA at different temperatures, was recommended for application as to assess the long-range transport potential of chemicals. PMID:26802270

  15. Assessment of reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air as malodor components in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaya, Janice; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), methanethiol (CH 3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)) in ambient air was made using an on-line GC system at an odor monitoring station in the city of Ansan, South Korea (August 2005-December 2007). The results were examined to assess the status of RSC pollution, its relative contribution to malodor, and the controlling factors of its occurrence. H 2S (mean of 0.27 ppb) was eminent in terms of both magnitude and occurrence frequency, while others were not with mean values of 0.11 (DMDS), 0.10 (DMS), and 0.07 ppb (CH 3SH). Unlike others, the temporal trends of H 2S were best represented by the combined effects of its source processes and meteorological conditions. The results of correlation analysis indicate strong correlations between RSCs and water-related parameters (e.g., rainfall, dew point, and relative humidity). The role of RSCs as malodor component appears to be pronounced during nighttime, especially in summer. If the relative contribution of RSCs to malodor is assessed by means of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), its impact is relatively low, with an SOI value of 1.22 (weak odor strength). Consequently, a more deliberate approach may be needed to effectively assess odor occurrence patterns in ambient air.

  16. Comparison of prediction methods for octanol-air partition coefficients of diverse organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Xuehua; Wang, Ya'nan; Yu, Haiying

    2016-04-01

    The octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) is needed for assessing multimedia transport and bioaccumulability of organic chemicals in the environment. As experimental determination of KOA for various chemicals is costly and laborious, development of KOA estimation methods is necessary. We investigated three methods for KOA prediction, conventional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on molecular structural descriptors, group contribution models based on atom-centered fragments, and a novel model that predicts KOA via solvation free energy from air to octanol phase (ΔGO(0)), with a collection of 939 experimental KOA values for 379 compounds at different temperatures (263.15-323.15 K) as validation or training sets. The developed models were evaluated with the OECD guidelines on QSAR models validation and applicability domain (AD) description. Results showed that although the ΔGO(0) model is theoretically sound and has a broad AD, the prediction accuracy of the model is the poorest. The QSAR models perform better than the group contribution models, and have similar predictability and accuracy with the conventional method that estimates KOA from the octanol-water partition coefficient and Henry's law constant. One QSAR model, which can predict KOA at different temperatures, was recommended for application as to assess the long-range transport potential of chemicals.

  17. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  18. Photosensitized Production of Atmospherically Reactive Organic Compounds at the Air/Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on experiments that probe photosensitized chemistry at the air/water interface, a region that does not just connect the two phases but displays its own specific chemistry. Here, we follow reactions of octanol, a proxy for environmentally relevant soluble surfactants, initiated by an attack by triplet-state carbonyl compounds, which are themselves concentrated at the interface by the presence of this surfactant. Gas-phase products are determined using PTR-ToF-MS, and those remaining in the organic layer are determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC-HRMS. We observe the photosensitized production of carboxylic acids as well as unsaturated and branched-chain oxygenated products, compounds that act as organic aerosol precursors and had been thought to be produced solely by biological activity. A mechanism that is consistent with the observations is detailed here, and the energetics of several key reactions are calculated using quantum chemical methods. The results suggest that the concentrating nature of the interface leads to its being a favorable venue for radical reactions yielding complex and functionalized products that themselves could initiate further secondary chemistry and new particle formation in the atmospheric environment. PMID:26068588

  19. Sorbent-based sampling methods for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in air Part 1: Sorbent-based air monitoring options.

    PubMed

    Woolfenden, Elizabeth

    2010-04-16

    Sorbent tubes/traps are widely used in combination with gas chromatographic (GC) analytical methods to monitor the vapour-phase fraction of organic compounds in air. Target compounds range in volatility from acetylene and freons to phthalates and PCBs and include apolar, polar and reactive species. Airborne vapour concentrations will vary depending on the nature of the location, nearby pollution sources, weather conditions, etc. Levels can range from low percent concentrations in stack and vent emissions to low part per trillion (ppt) levels in ultra-clean outdoor locations. Hundreds, even thousands of different compounds may be present in any given atmosphere. GC is commonly used in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) detection especially for environmental monitoring or for screening uncharacterised workplace atmospheres. Given the complexity and variability of organic vapours in air, no one sampling approach suits every monitoring scenario. A variety of different sampling strategies and sorbent media have been developed to address specific applications. Key sorbent-based examples include: active (pumped) sampling onto tubes packed with one or more sorbents held at ambient temperature; diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes/cartridges; on-line sampling of air/gas streams into cooled sorbent traps; and transfer of air samples from containers (canisters, Tedlar) bags, etc.) into cooled sorbent focusing traps. Whichever sampling approach is selected, subsequent analysis almost always involves either solvent extraction or thermal desorption (TD) prior to GC(/MS) analysis. The overall performance of the air monitoring method will depend heavily on appropriate selection of key sampling and analytical parameters. This comprehensive review of air monitoring using sorbent tubes/traps is divided into 2 parts. (1) Sorbent-based air sampling option. (2) Sorbent selection and other aspects of optimizing sorbent-based air monitoring methods. The paper presents

  20. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation.

  1. An assessment of air quality reflecting the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Cometto-Muñiz, J Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess the air quality of an environment based on the chemosensory irritation impact of mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in such environment. We begin by approximating the sigmoid function that characterizes psychometric plots of probability of irritation detection (Q) versus VOC vapor concentration to a linear function. First, we apply an established equation that correlates and predicts human sensory irritation thresholds (SIT) (i.e., nasal and eye irritation) based on the transfer of the VOC from the gas phase to biophases, e.g., nasal mucus and tear film. Second, we expand the equation to include other biological data (e.g., odor detection thresholds) and to include further VOCs that act mainly by "specific" effects rather than by transfer (i.e., "physical") effects as defined in the article. Then we show that, for 72 VOCs in common, Q values based on our calculated SITs are consistent with the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) listed for those same VOCs on the basis of sensory irritation by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Third, we set two equations to calculate the probability (Qmix) that a given air sample containing a number of VOCs could elicit chemosensory irritation: one equation based on response addition (Qmix scale: 0.00 to 1.00) and the other based on dose addition (1000*Qmix scale: 0 to 2000). We further validate the applicability of our air quality assessment method by showing that both Qmix scales provide values consistent with the expected sensory irritation burden from VOC mixtures present in a wide variety of indoor and outdoor environments as reported on field studies in the literature. These scales take into account both the concentration of VOCs at a particular site and the propensity of the VOCs to evoke sensory irritation. PMID:26550706

  2. Identification and quantification of 34 drugs and toxic compounds in blood, urine, and gastric content using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Ye, Haiying; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-01

    A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous screening of 34 drugs and poisons in forensic cases. Blood (0.5 mL, diluted 1:1 with water) or 1.0 mL of urine was purified by solid-phase extraction. Gastric contents (diluted 1:1 with water) were treated with acetonitrile, centrifuged, and supernatant injected. Detection was achieved using a Waters Alliance 2695/Quattro Premier XE liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system equipped with electrospray ionization, operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in blood was greater than 51% with the limit of detection in the range of 0.02-20 ng/mL. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was greater than 61% with limit of detection in the range of 0.01-10 ng/mL. The matrix effect of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was 65-117% and 67-121% in blood. The limit of detection of drugs and toxic compounds in gastric content samples were in the range of 0.05-20 ng/mL. This method was applied to the routine analysis of drugs and toxic compounds in postmortem blood, urine, and gastric content samples. The method was applied to actual forensic cases with examples given.

  3. Serum concentrations of TCDD and other dioxin-like compounds in US Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, Marian; Patterson, Donald G; Turner, Wayman E

    2014-05-01

    We measured serum concentrations of seven dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs), four non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (noPCBs) and six mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (moPCBs) in 1950 veterans of the Vietnam War. The veterans were participants in the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) who attended the final medical examination in 2002. Blood samples were collected from 777 Ranch Hands involved in the aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam and a comparison group of 1173 veterans ("Comparisons") who served in Southeast Asia during the same time period. Results for moPCBs were based on a random subsample of 800 veterans. The median 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations in 2002 were 5.0 pg g(-1) lipid in Ranch Hands and 2.2 pg g(-1) lipid in Comparisons. No substantial differences were found in measured concentrations of other PCDDs, PCDFs, and noPCBs. Similarly, no substantial differences were found for moPCBs in the subsample. The median total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) in Ranch Hands was 18.7 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDDs, 3.4 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDFs, and 3.2 pg g(-1) lipid for noPCBs. Median TEQs in Comparisons were 14.4 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDDs, 3.5 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDFs, and 3.3 pg g(-1) lipid for noPCBs. These TEQs, with the exception of PCDD TEQ in Ranch Hands (primarily due to elevated TCDD), were similar to or lower than those reported for similar age and gender groups in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). These findings support the assumption that the Ranch Hand veterans were not more highly exposed to dioxin-like compounds other than TCDD than were Comparison veterans or the general US population. PMID:24377449

  4. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  5. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Suzanne; Gower, Stephanie; Rinner, Claus; Campbell, Monica

    2013-05-01

    Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI), we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP) scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107) = 0.3, P = 0.735). However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522) = 6.0, P <0.001) in host tracts, while the indicator for "racialized" communities ("visible minority") was 16.1% greater (t(521) = 7.2, P <0.001) within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352) = 3.5, P = 0.001) than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  6. Molecular adaptation of Chrysochus leaf beetles to toxic compounds in their food plants.

    PubMed

    Labeyrie, Estelle; Dobler, Susanne

    2004-02-01

    Herbivores that feed on toxic plants must overcome plant defenses and occasionally may even benefit from them. The current challenge is to understand how herbivores evolve the necessary physiological adaptations and which changes at the molecular level are involved. In this context we studied the leaf beetles genus Chrysochus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Two species of this genus, C. auratus and C. cobaltinus, feed on plants that contain toxic cardenolides. These beetles not only avoid poisoning by the toxin but also use it for their own defense against predators. All other Chrysochus species feed on plants that are devoid of cardenolides. The most important active principle of cardenolides is their capacity to bind to and thereby block the ubiquitous Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase responsible for maintaining cellular potentials. By analyzing the DNA sequence of the putative ouabain-binding site of the alpha-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene of Chrysochus and its close relatives feeding on plants with or without cardenolides, we here trace the evolution of cardenolide insensitivity in this group of beetles. The most interesting difference among the sequences involves the amino acid at position 122. Whereas all species that do not encounter cardenolides have an asparagine in this position, both Chrysochus species that feed on cardenolide plants have a histidine instead. This single amino acid substitution has already been shown to confer cardenolide insensitivity in the monarch butterfly. A mtDNA-based phylogeny corroborates the hypothesis that the asparagine at position 122 of the alpha-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene as observed in Drosophila and other insects is the plesiomorphic condition in this group of leaf beetles. The later host-plant switch to cardenolide-containing plants in the common ancestor of C. auratus and C. cobaltinus coincides with the exchange of the asparagine for a histidine in the ouabain binding site.

  7. Subchronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide and related compounds in drinking water in the nonhuman primate.

    PubMed Central

    Bercz, J P; Jones, L; Garner, L; Murray, D; Ludwig, D A; Boston, J

    1982-01-01

    Subchronic toxicities of ClO2, NaClO2, NaClO3 and NH2Cl were studied in the African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). The chemicals were administered in drinking water during 30-60 days subchronic rising dose protocols. The only unexpected and significant toxic effect was elicited by ClO2; this chemical inhibited thyroid metabolism in the animals at a dose of ca. 9.0 mg/kg/day. A statistically significant decrease of serum thyroxine occurred after the fourth week of exposure to 100 mg/l.concentration. The extent of thyroid suppression was dose dependent in each individual monkey, and was reversible after cessation of exposure. NaClO2 and NaClO3 failed to elicit similar effects in doses up to ca. 60 mg/kg/day. Also, NaClO4 or NH2Cl did not cause T-4 suppression in doses of 10 mg/kg/day. The selective thyroid effect of ClO2 was unexplained and it appeared to be paradoxical since ClO2 was rapidly reduced by the oral and gastric secretions to nonoxidizing species (presumably Cl-). No evidence of thyroid effects were detected in the serum of human volunteers who ingested approximately 1 mg/l. of ClO2 in drinking water as a result of routine use in the community water treatment process. Sodium chlorite induced dose-dependent oxidative stress on hematopoesis, causing decreased hemoglobin and red cell count and increased methemoglobin content. At the same time, serum transaminase (SGPT) levels showed significant subclinical elevation. The hematologic effects of NaClO2 rebounded during exposure indicating compensatory hemopoietic activity taking effect during oxidative stress. Sodium chlorate and chloramine did not induce detectable hematologic changes in the animals. PMID:7151767

  8. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. PMID:26493981

  9. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air.

  10. Trends in selected ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and a comparison to mobile source emission trends in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yanbo; Fuentes, Mark; Rieger, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Trends in ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) are compared to trends in VOC emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (LDGV) tested on chassis dynamometers and to trends observed in tunnel studies during the same period to understand the impacts of gasoline vehicle emissions on ambient VOC concentrations from 1999 to 2009. Annual median concentrations for most ambient VOCs decreased 40% from 1999 to 2009 in the SoCAB, based on data from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). Annual concentration decreases of most compounds, except 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, are highly correlated with the decrease of acetylene, a marker for tailpipe emissions from LDGV. This indicates that ambient VOC concentration decreases were likely due to tailpipe emission reductions from gasoline vehicles. Air Toxics Monitoring Network data also support this conclusion. Benzene concentration-normalized ratios for most compounds except ethane, propane, isoprene, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were stable even as these compound concentrations decreased significantly from 1999 to 2009. Such stability suggests that the main sources of ambient VOC were still the same from 1999 to 2009. The comparison of trends in dynamometer testing and tunnel studies also shows that tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of tunnel LDGV emissions. The pronounced changes in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane ratios due to the introduction of Phase 3 gasoline also confirm the substantial impact of LDGV emissions on ambient VOCs. Diurnal ambient VOC data also suggest that LDGV tailpipe emissions remained the dominant source of ambient VOCs in the SoCAB in 2009. Our conclusion, which is that current inventory models underestimate VOC emissions from mobile sources, is consistent with that of several recent studies of ambient trends in the SoCAB. Our study showed that tailpipe emissions remained a bigger contributor to ambient VOCs than evaporative

  11. General synthesis of carbon nanocages and their adsorption of toxic compounds from cigarette smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangda; Yu, Hongxiao; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Chao; Hao, Qin; Qian, Yitai

    2011-08-01

    Carbon nanocages (CNCs) have been synthesized through a simple approach using different alcohols and ferrous oxalate as reactants at 550 °C for 12 h in a sealed autoclave. The lengths of the sides of the CNCs are about 200-350 nm and the wall thicknesses are about 10-15 nm. The formation mechanism of the CNCs is also discussed, based on the experimental results. These CNCs show excellent removal efficiency for phenolic compounds, ammonia, and total particulate matter from cigarette smoke. The adsorption capability of CNCs prepared from ethanol is much higher than that of other samples. For example, the efficiency of 5 mg CNCs (ethanol) for removing the six phenolic compounds p-dihydroxybenzene, m-dihydroxybenzene, o-dihydroxybenzene, phenol, m-cresol, and o-cresol can reach 57.31%, 62.25%, 65.58%, 75.95%, 54.34% and 59.43%, respectively, while that of the commercial activated carbon (5 mg) can only reach 29.02%, 33.93%, 35.00%, 36.00%, 20.33% and 36.19%, respectively, under the same conditions.Carbon nanocages (CNCs) have been synthesized through a simple approach using different alcohols and ferrous oxalate as reactants at 550 °C for 12 h in a sealed autoclave. The lengths of the sides of the CNCs are about 200-350 nm and the wall thicknesses are about 10-15 nm. The formation mechanism of the CNCs is also discussed, based on the experimental results. These CNCs show excellent removal efficiency for phenolic compounds, ammonia, and total particulate matter from cigarette smoke. The adsorption capability of CNCs prepared from ethanol is much higher than that of other samples. For example, the efficiency of 5 mg CNCs (ethanol) for removing the six phenolic compounds p-dihydroxybenzene, m-dihydroxybenzene, o-dihydroxybenzene, phenol, m-cresol, and o-cresol can reach 57.31%, 62.25%, 65.58%, 75.95%, 54.34% and 59.43%, respectively, while that of the commercial activated carbon (5 mg) can only reach 29.02%, 33.93%, 35.00%, 36.00%, 20.33% and 36.19%, respectively, under

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: What's in the Air? How Much Is Too Much? Measurement of Toxic Gases, Vapors, and Particulates--Limits of Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Discusses methods of measuring organic vapors, various compounds, and particulates in laboratory atmospheres, reviewing criteria for safe levels. Does not discuss other ways that toxic materials enter the body as through skin or by ingestion. (Author/JN)

  13. Lethal and sublethal endpoints observed for Artemia exposed to two reference toxicants and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Loredana; Canepa, Sara; Piazza, Veronica; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Swimming speed alteration and mortality assays with the marine crustacean Artemia franciscana were carried out. EC50 and LC50 values after 24-48h exposures were calculated for two reference toxicants, copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound, Diethylene Glycol (DEG). Different end-points have been evaluated, in order to point out their sensitivity levels. The swimming speed alteration (SSA) was compared to mortality values and also to the hatching rate inhibition (literature data). SSA resulted to be more sensitive than the mortality and with a sensitivity comparable to (or even higher than) the hatching rate endpoint. PMID:26344887

  14. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  15. The Toxicity of a Novel Antifungal Compound Is Modulated by Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation Components

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shriya; Krishnan, Karthik; Askew, David S.; Helynck, Olivier; Suzanne, Peggy; Lesnard, Aurélien; Rault, Sylvain; Zeidler, Ute; d'Enfert, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In a search for new antifungal compounds, we screened a library of 4,454 chemicals for toxicity against the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We identified sr7575, a molecule that inhibits growth of the evolutionary distant fungi A. fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae but lacks acute toxicity for mammalian cells. To gain insight into the mode of inhibition, sr7575 was screened against 4,885 S. cerevisiae mutants from the systematic collection of haploid deletion strains and 977 barcoded haploid DAmP (decreased abundance by mRNA perturbation) strains in which the function of essential genes was perturbed by the introduction of a drug resistance cassette downstream of the coding sequence region. Comparisons with previously published chemogenomic screens revealed that the set of mutants conferring sensitivity to sr7575 was strikingly narrow, affecting components of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) stress response and the ER membrane protein complex (EMC). ERAD-deficient mutants were hypersensitive to sr7575 in both S. cerevisiae and A. fumigatus, indicating a conserved mechanism of growth inhibition between yeast and filamentous fungi. Although the unfolded protein response (UPR) is linked to ERAD regulation, sr7575 did not trigger the UPR in A. fumigatus and UPR mutants showed no enhanced sensitivity to the compound. The data from this chemogenomic analysis demonstrate that sr7575 exerts its antifungal activity by disrupting ER protein quality control in a manner that requires ERAD intervention but bypasses the need for the canonical UPR. ER protein quality control is thus a specific vulnerability of fungal organisms that might be exploited for antifungal drug development. PMID:26666917

  16. USING THE AIR QUALITY MODEL TO ANALYZE THE CONCENTRATIONS OF AIR TOXICS OVER THE CONTINENTAL U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is examining the concentrations and deposition of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which include a large number of chemicals, ranging from non reactive (i.e. carbon tetrachloride) to reactive (i.e. formaldehyde), exist in gas, aqueous, and...

  17. Sub-toxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds inhibit extracellular respiration of Escherichia coli cells grown in anodic bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Mohidin, Abeed Fatima; Grasso, Letizia Lo; Seviour, Thomas; Palanisamy, Kannan; Hinks, Jamie; Lauro, Federico M; Marsili, Enrico

    2016-12-01

    Low-cost and rapid detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is important for the control of water quality of used water and protection of downstream used water treatment processes. In this work, the effect of sub-toxic concentration of VOCs on the current output of Escherichia coli in bioelectrochemical systems (BES) is shown, in light of environmental sensing applications for sewage and used water networks. E. coli cells were grown on carbon felt electrodes in artificial used water, to increase sensitivity and decrease response time for detection. Extracellular electron transfer was promoted by the addition of a biocompatible redox mediator, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ). Among the eight VOCs investigated, toluene is the most toxic to E. coli, with a detection limit of 50±2mgL(-1) and current output of 32±1nAmg(-1)L(-1). This work offers a straightforward route to enhance the detection of organic contaminants in used water for environmental applications. PMID:26947021

  18. Vacuolar transport of nicotine is mediated by a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masahiko; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sawada, Keisuke; Van Montagu, Marc C E; Inzé, Dirk; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2009-02-17

    Alkaloids play a key role in plant defense mechanisms against pathogens and herbivores, but the plants themselves need to cope with their toxicity as well. The major alkaloid of the Nicotiana species, nicotine, is translocated via xylem transport from the root tissues where it is biosynthesized to the accumulation sites, the vacuoles of leaves. To unravel the molecular mechanisms behind this membrane transport, we characterized one transporter, the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) jasmonate-inducible alkaloid transporter 1 (Nt-JAT1), whose expression was coregulated with that of nicotine biosynthetic genes in methyl jasmonate-treated tobacco cells. Nt-JAT1, belonging to the family of multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters, was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, and localized in the tonoplast of leaf cells. When produced in yeast cells, Nt-JAT1 occurred mainly in the plasma membrane and showed nicotine efflux activity. Biochemical analysis with proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified Nt-JAT1 and bacterial F(0)F(1)-ATPase revealed that Nt-JAT1 functioned as a proton antiporter and recognized endogenous tobacco alkaloids, such as nicotine and anabasine, and other alkaloids, such as hyoscyamine and berberine, but not flavonoids. These findings strongly suggest that Nt-JAT1 plays an important role in the nicotine translocation by acting as a secondary transporter responsible for unloading of alkaloids in the aerial parts and deposition in the vacuoles. PMID:19168636

  19. The toxicity of soil samples containing TNT and other ammunition derived compounds in the enchytraeid and collembola-biotest.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, R; Achazi, R K

    1999-01-01

    The effect of ammunition-like compounds and armament waste on the mortality and reproduction of terrestrial invertebrates was assayed by using two biotests: the enchytraeid-biotest with Enchytraeus crypticus and the collembola-biotest with Folsomia Candida. Toxicity was investigated by using standard soil (Lufa 2.2) spiked with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (hexogen, RDX), octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine (octogen, HMX) and 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT). Ecotoxicity was investigated with ammunition-contaminated soil material from the former ammunition plant "Tanne" at Clausthal-Zellerfeld (CTNTla) and the Brandplatz (incineration site) in Torgau-Elsnig (TETNT1a), Germany. TNT increased mortality and reduced reproduction of both test organisms corresponding to the concentrations used, whereas hexogen, octogen and TAT had no effect in the tested concentrations (1000-2000 mg/kg). From the two soil materials, TETNT1a was much more toxic than CTNT1a. The LC50(7d) in the enchytraeid-biotest was 570 mg TNT/kg and the EC50(28d) 369 mg TNT/kg soil material (dw). In the collembola-biotest the LC50(7d) was 185 mg TNT/kg and the EC50(28d) 110 mg TNT/kg soil matter (dw).

  20. Formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products from compounds used in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duirk, Stephen E; Lindell, Cristal; Cornelison, Christopher C; Kormos, Jennifer; Ternes, Thomas A; Attene-Ramos, Matias; Osiol, Jennifer; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D

    2011-08-15

    disinfectant added were the least cytotoxic. While extracts from chlorinated and chloraminated source waters were genotoxic, the addition of iopamidol enhanced their genotoxicity. Therefore, while ICM are not toxic in themselves, their presence in source waters may be a source of concern because of the formation of highly toxic iodo-DBPs in chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water.

  1. Identification of the toxic compounds produced by Sargassum thunbergii to red tide microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjun; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2012-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from the tissues of three macroalgal species on the growths of three marine red tide microalgae were assessed under laboratory conditions. Extracts of Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntz tissue had stronger inhibitory effects than those of either Sargassum pallidum (Turner) C. Agardh or Sargassum kjellmanianum Yendo on the growths of Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada, Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Grev, and Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Methanol extracts of S. thunbergii were further divided into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and distilled water phases by liquid-liquid fractionation. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions had strong algicidal effects on the microalgae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of these two phases identified nine fatty acids, most of which were unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, pure compounds of four of the nine unsaturated fatty acids had effective concentrations below 5 mg/L. Therefore, unsaturated fatty acids are a component of the allelochemicals in S. thunbergii tissue.

  2. Comparative toxicity of ammonium and nitrate compounds to Pacific treefrog and African clawed frog tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.

    1999-10-01

    The effects of ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sodium nitrate on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla [Baird and Girard]) and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis [Daudin]) tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. The 10-d ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate LC50s for P. regilla were 55.2 and 89.7 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N, respectively. The 10-d LC50s for X. laevis for the three ammonium compounds ranged from 45 to 64 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The 10-d sodium nitrate LC50s were 266.2 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for P. regilla and 1,236.2 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for X. laevis. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of ammonium compound based on reduced length or weight was 24.6 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N for P. regilla and 99.5 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N for X. laevis. The lowest sodium nitrate LOAELs based on reduced length or weight were {lt}30.1 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for P. regilla and 126.3 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for X. laevis. Calculated un-ionized NH{sub 3} comprised 0.3 to 1.0% of measured NH{sub 4}-N concentrations. Potential harm to amphibians could occur if sensitive life stages were impacted by NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N in agricultural runoff or drainage for a sufficiently long period.

  3. Prenatal exposure to air toxics and risk of Wilms’ tumor in 0-5 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anshu; Ritz, Beate; Wilhelm, Michelle; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Heck, Julia E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study prenatal air toxics exposure and Wilms’ tumor in children. Methods We identified 337 Wilms’ tumor cases among children <6 years (1988-2008) from the California Cancer Registry, randomly selected 96,514 controls from California birth rolls in 20:1 ratio matched to all cancer cases, then linked birth addresses to air monitors within 15 miles to assess exposures. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to estimate effects. Results Children prenatally exposed to formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchloroethylene, or acetaldehyde in the third trimester had an increased odds of Wilms’ tumor per interquartile increase in concentration (OR [95%CI]: 1.28 [1.12, 1.45], 1.10 [0.99, 1.22], 1.09 [1.00, 1.18], 1.25 [1.07, 1.45] respectively). Conclusions We found positive associations for four air toxics. This is the first study of this kind. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24854250

  4. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  5. Evaluation of a hypercrosslinked polystyrene, MN-200, as a sorbent for the preconcentration of volatile organic compounds in air.

    PubMed

    Baya, M P; Siskos, P A; Davankov, V A

    2000-01-01

    Breakthrough volumes, average percentage recoveries, and storage stabilities were obtained for vapors of 8 volatile organic compounds (pentane, octane, undecane, isooctane, cyclohexane, toluene, methanol, and dichloromethane) on a new adsorbent material, Hypersol-Macronet, MN-200. Breakthrough volumes were estimated as half of the gas chromatographic specific retention volumes at 20 degrees C for the compounds. Recoveries of the adsorbates were determined by both solvent extraction and thermal desorption methods. The results obtained compare favorably with those for Tenax GR (values reported in the published literature and others obtained in our laboratory). Results of storage stability studies on MN-200 meet the criterion for acceptability (<10% loss). High adsorption capacity for very volatile and polar compounds, combined with ease of desorption of less volatile compounds, render MN-200 a highly promising adsorbent for sampling volatile organic compounds in indoor and outdoor air.

  6. Protective Effect of Selenium-Based Medicines on Toxicity of Three Common Organophosphorus Compounds in Human Erythrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are used to control pests, however they can reach the food chain and enter the human body causing serious health problems by means of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and oxidative stress (OS). Among the OPs, chlorpyrifos (CHP), malathion (MAL), and diazinon (DIA) are commonly used for commercial extermination purposes, in addition to veterinary practices, domestic, agricul- ture and public health applications. Two new recently registered medicines that contain selenium and other antioxidants, IMOD and angipars (ANG), have shown beneficial ef- fects for OS related disorders. This study examines the effect of selenium-based medi- cines on toxicity of three common OP compounds in erythrocytes. Materials and Methods In the present experimental study, we determined the ef- ficacy of IMOD and ANG on OS induced by three mentioned OP pesticides in human erythrocytes in vitro. After dose-response studies, AChE, lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) were measured in eryth- rocytes after exposure to OPs alone and in combined treatment with IMOD or ANG. Results AChE activity, TAP and TTM reduced in erythrocytes exposed to CHP, MAL and DIA while they were restored in the presence of ANG and IMOD. ANG and IMOD reduced the OPs-induced elevation of LPO. Conclusion The present study shows the positive effects of IMOD and ANG in re- duction of OS and restoration of AChE inhibition induced by CHP, MAL and DIA in erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:26862533

  7. 78 FR 9823 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of a Group of Four...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... ``Recommended Policy on Control of Volatile Organic Compounds'' (42 FR 35314, July 8, 1977) and was supplemented... kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume II--gas phase reactions of organic... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AO17 Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic...

  8. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT-PART 2. TEST HOUSE STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's pred...

  9. [Investigations of some chemical compounds produced by the incineration of old tires in the open air (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Binder, H; Raber, H; Eder, J

    1977-08-01

    The chemical compounds which are discharged from the site at which old tires are incinerated in the open air roughly corresponded to those of waste water. In the smoke "mushroom" above the site of incineration, at a height of 31 to 40 metres, many types and large quantities of polycyclic aromatic and also cancerogenic hydrocarbons were found adsorbed on soot particles. PMID:910585

  10. An Evaluation of Hazardous Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Tank Barges in Memphis, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many urban centers have population centers near river ports, which may be affected by volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from tank barge traffic. This study will examine Memphis, Tennessee and West Memphis, Arkansas. Both cities (located ...

  11. Evaluation of the contact and respiratory sensitization potential of volatile organic compounds g