Science.gov

Sample records for air toxic emission

  1. AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

  2. Developing a Great Lakes air toxic emission inventory for Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.; Wong, S.; Bobet, E.; Wong, S.; Doan, C.

    1997-12-31

    In meeting the increasing needs for an emission inventory of toxic air pollutants around the Ontario portion of the Great Lakes Region, this pilot study was the first phase of the development of a comprehensive toxic air pollutant emission inventory system which will meet the demand from the Ontario domestic and international environmental management programs. In the ongoing development of a toxic air pollutant emission inventory for Ontario, source-release information gaps and emission estimation methodology deficiencies have been identified for future improvement. The state-of-the-art Regional Air Pollutant Inventory Development System (RAPIDS), being developed by the eight Great Lakes states and under the project management of the Great Lakes Commission, was used in this study to compile the emission inventories of selected toxic air pollutants from point, area and mobile sources for 1990. Other emission inventory related models/tools used in this study included the MOBILE 5C (modified version of US MOBILE 5a by Environment Canada), PART5 and other Environment Canada or Ontario specific emission profiles. An emission inventory of toxic air pollutants from the Great Lakes Commission`s 49 targeted compounds and the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA) was developed in this study. This study identified major point source and area source categories that contributed significant emissions of the specified toxic air pollutants. This study demonstrated that RAPIDS can be used as a framework for the development of an Ontario toxic air pollutant emission inventory. However, further refinement of the RAPIDS system, the emission factors, and source specific toxic air speciation profiles would be required.

  3. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  4. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  5. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  6. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  7. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  8. SERDP AIR TOXICS - "TEMPORAL AND MODAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DOD SOURCE AIR TOXIC EMISSION FACTORS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This awarded program will develop an integrated methodology for measurement of trace organic and metallic air toxics using modified conventional measurements, state of the art laser-based technologies, and optical path monitoring in order to develop and test a sensitive, time-res...

  9. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic air toxics from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest, and there were several sources for wh...

  10. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1996 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1996 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  11. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1999 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1999 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  12. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 2002 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a data set of estimates of 2002 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  13. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  14. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  15. Temporal and modal characterization of DoD source air toxic emission factors: final report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project tested three, real-/near real-time monitoring techniques to develop air toxic emission factors for Department of Defense (DoD) platform sources. These techniques included: resonance enhanced multi photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) for o...

  16. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  17. Uncertainty for data with non-detects: Air toxic emissions from combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.C.; Frey, H.C.

    2006-12-15

    Air toxic emission factor datasets often contain one or more points below a single or multiple detection limits and such datasets are referred to as 'censored.' Conventional methods used to deal with censored datasets include removing non-detects, replacing the censored points with zero, half of the detection limit, or the detection limit. However, the estimated means of the censored dataset by conventional methods are usually biased. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and bootstrap simulation have been demonstrated as a statistically robust method to quantify variability and uncertainty of censored datasets and can provide asymptotically unbiased mean estimates. The MLE/bootstrap method is applied to 16 cases of censored air toxic emission factors, including benzene, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, total chromium, chromium VI and lead from coal, fuel oil, and/or wood waste external combustion sources. The proportion of censored values in the emission factor data ranges from 4 to 80%. Key factors that influence the estimated uncertainty in the mean of censored data are sample size and inter-unit variability. The largest range of uncertainty in the mean was obtained for the external coal combustion benzene emission factor, with 95 confidence interval of the mean equal to minus 93 to plus 411%.

  18. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  19. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS MEASURED AT A HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Miller, Terry L.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) are of growing concern due to recent studies linking health risk to residency near heavily traveled roadways. Few research studies on MSAT emissions have been performed due to several factors; those factors include: the difficulty of measuring MSATs due to their semi-volatile nature, lower relative concentration in comparison to NOx and other criteria emissions, and fewer regulations on MSATs. In this paper, measurements of MSATs at a "hot spot" of poor air quality created by a high population of idling heavy-duty trucks are presented. The study area was the Watt Road-Interstate-40/75 interchange just west of Knoxville, TN where approximately 20,000 heavy-duty trucks travel along the interstate each day and hundreds of heavy-duty trucks idle at three large truck stops near the interchange. The air quality in the local area surrounding the interchange is affected negatively by the high number of mobile sources as well as geographic and meteorological conditions; the interchange lies in a valley between two ridges which slows long range transport of pollutants especially in winter months when temperature inversion occurs frequently. Ambient air quality was measured during summer and winter months of two separate years at three sites: a site in one of the truckstops, a site near the interstate roadway, and a site on top of one of the surrounding ridges chosen as a background site for comparison. Results of criteria pollutants measured at these sites are reported in a companion paper by Miller et. al.; the results presented here include measurements of MSATs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and other species obtained via collection on di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) filters. Also, preliminary measurements of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. The results indicate that emissions from idling heavy-duty trucks are a primary contributor of MSATs to local air quality near areas of high static truck traffic; furthermore

  20. Control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-03-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

  1. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  2. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  3. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  4. Emissions test report: air-toxics sampling at Reichhold Chemical, Tacoma, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    From July 22 to August 2, 1985, ES sampled five sources at two plants in the Seattle, Washington area to collect data on emission of toxic compounds. The report discusses the results of sampling the discharge from an afterburner on a coating line.

  5. Modeling the impacts of traffic emissions on air toxics concentrations near roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Seila, Robert; Baldauf, Richard

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs - benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene - to ambient air concentrations at downwind receptors ranging from 10-m to 100-m from the edge of a major highway in Raleigh, North Carolina. The contributions are computed using the following steps: 1) Evaluate dispersion model estimates with 10-min averaged NO data measured at 7 m and 17 m from the edge of the road during a field study conducted in August, 2006; this step determines the uncertainty in model estimates. 2) Use dispersion model estimates and their uncertainties, determined in step 1, to construct pseudo-observations. 3) Fit pseudo-observations to actual observations of VOC concentrations measured during five periods of the field study. This provides estimates of the contributions of traffic emissions to the VOC concentrations at the receptors located from 10 m to 100 m from the road. In addition, it provides estimates of emission factors and background concentrations of the VOCs, which are supported by independent estimates from motor vehicle emissions models and regional air quality measurements. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the formulation in AERMOD for estimating concentrations associated with mobile source emissions near roadways. This paper also presents an evaluation of the key emissions and dispersion modeling inputs necessary for conducting assessments of local-scale impacts from traffic emissions.

  6. CO-DEPENDENCIES OF REACTIVE AIR TOXIC AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS ON EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to understand the effect of emission controls on the concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and hazardous air pollutants simultaneously, in order to evaluate the full range of both health related and economic effects. Until recently, the capability of simultan...

  7. Modeling and Impacts of Traffic Emissions on Air Toxics Concentrations near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs – benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene – to ambient air concentrations at downwin...

  8. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  9. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  10. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD) to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds) and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants). At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other. PMID:19426510

  11. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-11-09

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  12. An Air Plasma Off-Gas Emission Monitor (APO-GEM) For On-line Toxic Metal Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. P.; Zhu, Z.; Baldwin, D. P.

    1998-10-01

    Increasing regulatory demands requiring significant reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants have led to the need for techniques capable of providing real-time monitoring of toxic metals in combustion gas streams. These waste streams range from coal-fired boilers, municipal waste combustors to plasma vitrification systems used for the remediation of low level radioactive waste. Our solution to this problem is the development of APO-GEM. This instrument incorporates an atmospheric-pressure inductively-coupled air plasma powered by a 3.5 kW solid-state 27.12 MHz rf generator coupled with an isokinetic sampling system. The detection system includes both a 1-m monochromator and a novel solid-state AOTF high-resolution spectrometer. The air plasma readily tolerates the introduction of combustion gases as well as the significant particle loading that can be present in exhaust streams. Plasma properties and performance characteristics, including results obtained recently at the DOE/EPA-sponsored Demonstration of Toxic Metal Continuous Emission Monitors, will be discussed.

  13. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  14. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  15. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  16. DETROIT AIR TOXICS INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will include both a risk assessment and a risk reduction component. The assessment component will capitalize on the strong air toxics database that currently exists for the Detroit area. Data from several monitoring studies/projects will be utilized to characterize ...

  17. Air pollution emission profiles of toxic and trace elements from energy related sources: status and needs.

    PubMed

    Lioy, P J

    1983-01-01

    The preceding was by no means a comprehensive analysis on the present state of knowledge on trace elements in combustion sources, or the differences that would be expected. However, it does point to avenues and directions of some of the future research. Also, the needs 1) to resolve source in areas of great emissions complexity, or 2) to assign sources of specific hazardous materials. Current efforts are focussed on understanding the impact of particular sources of pollutants at a receptor site. This information will provide the means for assessment of any potential hazard of a source to the general community and the size and mass distribution of these materials at a receptor. Considering the types and volume of data necessary to catalog source types and eventually assess community impacts, the development of a national resource with far more sensitive and accurate multielement analysis of air pollutants is warranted. Interaction of air quality and nuclear analytical research groups in collaborative research projects should be fostered and commitments made to develop pools of large and small users. PMID:6686299

  18. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  19. Real-time emission characterization of organic air toxic pollutants during steady state and transient operation of a medium duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullett, Brian K.; Touati, Abderrahmane; Oudejans, Lukas; Ryan, Shawn P.

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS), was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW) diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emissions of gas phase benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylenes (BTEX), styrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at levels in the 10-500 ppb range with a measurement frequency of 10 s -1; this enabled rapid emission characterization as a function of operating conditions: cold starts, hot starts and load changes. The sensitivity, selectivity and real-time monitoring capabilities of the jet REMPI-TOFMS system discerned transient concentrations of organic air toxics (e.g., benzene and naphthalene) during cold starts exceeding 15 times their steady state levels. Time-integrated concentrations obtained by jet REMPI-TOFMS compared well with standard EPA methods. The jet REMPI-TOFMS system provides a means to rapidly characterize air toxic emission factors that enables users to alter operational procedures to minimize air toxic formation. The relative concentrations between startup and steady state emissions, as well as the transition period between these levels, were specific for each type of compound found in the diesel exhaust.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF TOXIC METAL AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF COAL AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is concerned with the partitioning of toxic metals (e.g., arsenic, selenium, mercury, chromium, lead, and cadmium) during combustion, and with the mitigation of their effect on the environment using high-temperature sorbents. The paper is divided into three parts: (1) t...

  1. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. AIR TOXICS CHEMISTRY: LIFETIME AND FATE OF AIR TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full assessment of the impact of the release of air toxic compounds into the atmosphere requires a detailed understanding of their atmospheres lifetimes and fates. The objective of this task is to begin to develop such data for the 33 classes of air toxic compounds identified ...

  3. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which

  4. Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.; Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R.; Elia, G.G.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

  5. DESTRUCTION OF AIR EMISSIONS USING CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses key emission stream characteristics and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) characteristics that affect the applicability of catalytic oxidation as an air pollution control technique in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vapor-phase air toxics in an air emi...

  6. Air emissions testing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The article presents a brief overview of air emission sampling methods and analysis procedures related to stationary sources such as incinerators, power plants, and industrial boilers. It is intended primarily for the laboratory chemist or manager who is familiar with samples and methods associated with water or waste sources, but not with those associated with air and stack gas emissions.

  7. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  8. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  9. AIR TOXICS HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to improve the scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of human exposures to air toxics by developing improved human exposure models. The research integrates the major components of the exposure paradigm, i.e., sources, tr...

  10. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  11. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  12. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  13. HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's air toxics program is moving toward a risk-based focus. The framework for such a focus was laid out in the National Air Toxics Program: Integrated Urban Strategy which included the requirement for EPA to conduct a National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) of human expos...

  14. AIR TOXICS MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Toxics research program is designed to answer critical scientific questions that will result in more certain risk assessments and more effective risk management practices for stationary point, area, mobile, or indoor sources of air toxics. Research on air toxics is presen...

  15. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Clifford P

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is a respiratory disease whose prevalence has been increasing since the mid 1970s and that affects more than 14.6 million residents of the United States. Environmental triggers of asthma include air pollutants that are respiratory irritants. Air toxics emitted into the ambient air are listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) if they can adversely affect human health, including the respiratory tract. HAPs include particulate and gaseous-phase pollutants, individual organic compounds and metals, and mixtures. Associations between asthma exacerbation and both particles and indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs), often referred to as indoor air quality, have been reported. Studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Europe over the past two decades have shown that most people living in the developed countries spend the majority of their time indoors and that the air concentrations of many air toxics or HAPs are higher indoors than in the ambient air in urban, suburban, and rural settings. Elevated indoor air concentrations result from emissions of air toxics from consumer products, household furnishings, and personal activities. The Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was designed to oversample homes in close proximity to ambient sources, excluding residences where smokers lived, to determine the contribution of ambient emissions to air toxics exposure. The ratios of indoor to outdoor air concentrations of some VOCs in homes measured during RIOPA were much greater than one, and for most other VOCs that had indoor-to-outdoor ratios close to unity in the majority of homes, elevated ratios were found in the paired samples with the highest concentration. Thus, although ambient emissions contribute to exposure of some air toxics indoors as well as outdoors, this was not true for all of the air toxics and especially for the higher end of exposures to most volatile organic air toxics examined

  16. CONTROLLING AIR TOXICS (CAT), VERSION 1.0. TUTORIAL MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives instructions for using Controlling Air Toxics (CAT). The primary objective of this interactive and user-friendly software package is to assist in the review of air emission permit applications. The engineering software is based on the EPA document, Control Techno...

  17. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  18. Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B.; Teal, J.; Oates, L.

    2008-07-01

    The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off

  19. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  20. AMBIENT AIR TOXICS IN HOUSTON-GALVESTON AREA WITH HIGH AND LOW TRI EMISSIONS - A PILOT STUDY OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL CONCENTRATIONS USING PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES (PSDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (the Act) requires that states monitor and regulate the emissions of certain organic hazardous air pollutants. Hence, the purpose of this study is to show through the use of 3M organic passive vapor monitors (OVM), that federal, regional, stat...

  1. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  2. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  3. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  4. AIR TOXICS DEVELOPMENT AT EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of research activities in EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, including the identification, assessment, and control of sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (NAPs), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). VOCs...

  5. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors. PMID:16448686

  6. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  7. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  8. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  9. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  10. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  11. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with nickel. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of nickel and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on (1) the types of sources that may emit nickel, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for nickel release into the air from each operation.

  12. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Air Toxics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) is a multimedia, multipathway population-based exposure and dose model for air toxics developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). SHEDS-AirToxics uses a probabili...

  13. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  14. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  15. LAKE MICHIGAN URBAN AIR TOXICS STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1991, an air toxics monitoring program wa conducted in the lower Lake Michigan area. his study was designed to take advantage of the intensive meteorological and oxidant data base being generated concurrently by the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS stations). ...

  16. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  17. CONTROLLING AIR TOXICS: AN ADVISORY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development and use of a computerized advisory system for the control of air toxics. The program, is written for the IBM PC using Microsoft C V3.0 compiler and Windows for Data Library V1.0 for screen and keyboard interaction. The permit reviewer inputs in...

  18. Air quality modeling of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the Houston urban and industrial airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarfa, Violeta Florentina

    2007-12-01

    Air toxics, also called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Their study is important in the Houston area, where point sources, mostly located along the Ship Channel, mobile and area sources contribute to large emissions of such toxic pollutants. Previous studies carried out in this area found dangerous levels of different HAPs in the atmosphere. This thesis presents several studies that were performed for the aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the HGA. For these studies we developed several tools: (1) a refined chemical mechanism, which explicitly represents 18 aromatic air toxics that were lumped under two model species by the previous version, based on their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical; (2) an engineering version of an existing air toxics photochemical model that enables us to perform much faster long-term simulations compared to the original model, that leads to a 8--9 times improvement in the running time across different computing platforms; (3) a combined emission inventory based on the available emission databases. Using the developed tools, we quantified the mobile source impact on a few selected air toxics, and analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in a few regions within the Houston area; these regions were characterized by different emissions and environmental conditions.

  19. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  20. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings.

    PubMed Central

    Olden, K; Guthrie, J

    1996-01-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of dose/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early waming signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. PMID:8933026

  1. Geographical distribution and source type analysis of toxic metal emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benjey, W.G.; Conventry, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    An interim toxic emission inventory has been developed for the conterminous United States. Seven toxic metals found in lake and coastal waters are included: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and selenium. The emissions are large relative to some estimates and demonstrate the importance of metal production in toxic metal emissions. In the absence of regional inventories dedicated to toxic emissions, there is a need for improvement of emission factors and speciation profiles for use with particulate emission inventories.

  2. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  3. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  4. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON FOUNDRIES--CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists criteria and toxic pollutant emission factors or sources commonly found in gray and ductile iron foundries. Emission factors are identified for process source and process fugitive emissions. he emission factors, representing uncontrolled emissions, may be used to...

  5. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON FOUNDRIES - CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists criteria and toxic pollutant emission factors or sources commonly found in gray and ductile iron foundries. Emission factors are identified for process source and process fugitive emissions. he emission factors, representing uncontrolled emissions, may be used to...

  6. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  7. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  8. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  9. Release of air toxics during coating operations -- Understanding the process

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, P.A.; Fultz, B.S.

    1997-12-31

    Air toxics emissions, specifically volatile organic compounds (VOC), occur during the mixing, application, and drying of coatings. However, the means by which these emissions are quantified are generally a gross exaggeration. Many times this over-estimation results in the placement of permit emission limits on facilities that restrict operations unnecessarily. This paper will present and discuss the coating application process giving special attention to the points in the process and time periods over which VOCs may be released to the atmosphere. Finally, the highly conservative nature of emission estimation techniques and the methods by which permit limits are developed will be discussed and an alternative approach suggested that more closely represents VOC releases that occur during coating operations; thereby, allowing facilities to realize their operational potential without compromising the potential health impacts to offsite receptors.

  10. Laser photoacoustic sensor for air toxicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Coorg R.; Lei, Jie; Shi, Wenhui; Li, Guangkun; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2012-06-01

    US EPA's Clean Air Act lists 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAP) or airborne toxics that are considered especially harmful to health, and hence the measurement of their concentration is of great importance. Numerous sensor systems have been reported for measuring these toxic gases and vapors. However, most of these sensors are specific to a single gas or able to measure only a few of them. Thus a sensor capable of measuring many of the toxic gases simultaneously is desirable. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) sensors have the potential for true broadband measurement when used in conjunction with one or more widely tunable laser sources. An LPAS gas analyzer equipped with a continuous wave, room temperature IR Quantum Cascade Laser tunable over the wavelength range of 9.4 μm to 9.7 μm was used for continuous real-time measurements of multiple gases/chemical components. An external cavity grating tuner was used to generate several (75) narrow line output wavelengths to conduct photoacoustic absorption measurements of gas mixtures. We have measured various HAPs such as Benzene, Formaldehyde, and Acetaldehyde in the presence of atmospheric interferents water vapor, and carbon dioxide. Using the preliminary spectral pattern recognition algorithm, we have shown our ability to measure all these chemical compounds simultaneously in under 3 minutes. Sensitivity levels of a few part-per-billion (ppb) were achieved with several of the measured compounds with the preliminary laboratory system.

  11. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity. PMID:21651597

  12. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  13. Evaluating the national air toxics assessment (NATA): Comparison of predicted and measured air toxics concentrations, risks, and sources in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Small, Mitchell J.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is an ongoing modeling effort by the Environmental Protection Agency to predict air toxics concentrations, sources, and risks at the census tract level throughout the continental United States. To evaluate NATA, archived data collected at seven sites in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania were compared to 2002 NATA predictions. The sites represent 3 different source regimes (mobile dominated, industrial point source dominated, and background). The evaluation considered 49 air toxics (37 gas-phase organics, 10 metals, coke oven emissions and diesel particulate matter); NATA's performance was judged based on model-measurement comparisons of concentrations, health risks, and source contributions. On a concentration basis, NATA performance varied widely ranging from excellent for carbon tetrachloride to differences of more than a factor of 100 for low concentration chlorinated compounds. However, predicted concentrations were generally within a factor of 2 of measured values for air toxics that were estimated to be the primary cancer risk drivers; therefore NATA provided reasonable estimates of the additive cancer risks and risk ranking of air toxics. NATA performs better on average in Pittsburgh than nationwide. Comparison of source apportionment results indicates that NATA consistently underestimated concentrations of compounds emitted by large point sources as well as concentrations of chlorinated compounds, but overestimated the risks from mobile sources in Pittsburgh. Therefore, in Pittsburgh, NATA sufficiently prioritizes air toxics that drive potential cancer risks, but does not identify the sources of these priority air toxics.

  14. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, George M. Smith, Roy L.

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  15. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  16. Reproducibility and imputation of air toxics data.

    PubMed

    Le, Hien Q; Batterman, Stuart A; Wahl, Robert L

    2007-12-01

    Ambient air quality datasets include missing data, values below method detection limits and outliers, and the precision and accuracy of the measurements themselves are often unknown. At the same time, many analyses require continuous data sequences and assume that measurements are error-free. While a variety of data imputation and cleaning techniques are available, the evaluation of such techniques remains limited. This study evaluates the performance of these techniques for ambient air toxics measurements, a particularly challenging application, and includes the analysis of intra- and inter-laboratory precision. The analysis uses an unusually complete-dataset, consisting of daily measurements of over 70 species of carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected over a one year period in Dearborn, Michigan, including 122 pairs of replicates. Analysis was restricted to compounds found above detection limits in > or =20% of the samples. Outliers were detected using the Gumbell extreme value distribution. Error models for inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility were derived from replicate samples. Imputation variables were selected using a generalized additive model, and the performance of two techniques, multiple imputation and optimal linear estimation, was evaluated for three missingness patterns. Many species were rarely detected or had very poor reproducibility. Error models developed for seven carbonyls showed median intra- and inter-laboratory errors of 22% and 25%, respectively. Better reproducibility was seen for the 16 VOCs meeting detection and reproducibility criteria. Imputation performance depended on the compound and missingness pattern. Data missing at random could be adequately imputed, but imputations for row-wise deletions, the most common type of missingness pattern encountered, were not informative. The analysis shows that air toxics data require significant efforts to identify and mitigate errors, outliers and missing observations

  17. A framework for assessing the impact of land use policy on community exposure to air toxics.

    PubMed

    Willis, Melvin R; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-04-01

    Our research focuses on the linkage between land use planning policy and the spatial pattern of exposure to air toxics emissions. Our objective is to develop a modeling framework for assessment of the community health risk implications of land use policy. The modeling framework is not intended to be a regulatory tool for small-scale land use decisions, but a long-range planning tool to assess the community health risk implications of alternative land use scenarios at a regional or subregional scale. This paper describes the development and application of an air toxic source model for generating aggregate emission factors for industrial and commercial zoning districts as a function of permitted uses. To address the uncertainty of estimating air toxics emission rates for planned general land use or zoning districts, the source model uses an emissions probability mass function that weights each incremental permitted land use activity by the likelihood of occurrence. We thus reduce the uncertainty involved in planning for development with no prior knowledge of the specific industries that may locate within the land use district. These air toxics emission factors can then be used to estimate pollutant atmospheric mass flux from land use zoning districts, which can then be input to air dispersion and human health risk assessment models to simulate the spatial pattern of air toxics exposure risk. The model database was constructed using the California Air Toxics Inventory, 1997 US Economic Census, and land assessment records from several California counties. The database contains information on more than 200 air toxics at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. We present a case study to illustrate application of the model. LUAIRTOX, the interactive spreadsheet model that applies our methodology to the California data, is available at http://www2.bren.ucsb.edu/~mwillis/LUAIRTOX.htm. PMID:16842900

  18. Regulation of toxic and hazardous air pollutants: Regulatory strategies, technical bases and policy considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Symuleski, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Strategies for regulating toxic and hazardous air pollutants have technical bases ranging from threshold limit values for chemicals, to emissions ceilings based upon ambient concentrations. Each strategy has advantages, technical limitations, and policy implications. Major options being considered for amending the Clean Air Act are reviewed.

  19. Air bags: lifesaving with toxic potential?

    PubMed

    Swanson-Biearman, B; Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1993-01-01

    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, "Occupant Crash Protection", requires that all passenger cars manufactured after September 1, 1989 be equipped with automatic crash protection. Car manufacturers met this requirement by installing automatic safety belts or air bags. No chemical injuries have been reported as a result of air bag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). A 6-month retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of the white powdery residue from air bags, a combination of talc and sodium hydroxide, found in the driver compartment after an MVA. The study reviewed time to onset of symptoms, symptomatology, and treatment. The study included seven patients exposed to deployed air bags after an MVA. Four cases resulted in dermal burns and three patients were diagnosed with unrelated injuries. Three patients presented to an emergency department within 48 hours of the exposure complaining of burns to the skin. Two patients attempted home therapy but became concerned when the symptoms did not subside. One patient was discharged with the diagnosis of first degree burns of the chin and left hand. Another patient experienced bilateral hand erythema and blisters. Standard burn therapy was instituted in both instances. A third patient arrived 1 hour post-exposure to the emergency department complaining of a burning sensation to the hands, but the skin appeared normal. Thorough irrigation was initiated and Silvadene (Marion, Kansas City, MO) applied. One patient notified the poison center 1 hour post-exposure complaining of erythema and burning to his hands after an MVA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8447868

  20. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  1. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  2. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  3. IMPACT OF METHANOL AND CNG FUELS ON MOTOR VEHICLE TOXIC EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the Environmental Protection Agency investigate the need for reduction of motor vehicle toxic emissions such a formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic organic matter. oxic organic emissions can be reduced b...

  4. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES: CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  5. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES -- CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  6. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  7. Multiple Air-Toxics Exposure Study Working Paper Number 3. Urban air-toxics exposure model: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District of California completed a Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES) that examines the additive risk from a number of air toxics on an urban area. The project, though partially funded by EPA, is an example of how a State or local agency may approach assessing their local air-toxics risks as is encouraged by EPA's Urban Air Toxics Program which results from EPA's Air Toxic Strategy. The report is a summary of the methods used by the California agency. Though not intended as an endorsement of the entire contents of the report, EPA is reproducing their report (Working Paper Number 3) to benefit and encourage other agencies that may be contemplating such an assessment.

  8. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  9. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  11. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  12. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  13. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  14. CAPSULE REPORT: SOURCES AND AIR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemicals processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause carcinogenic or other toxic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Regulations have been developed to control air emissions from these operations. The EPA has promulgated st...

  15. AMBIENT AIR TOXICS IN HOUSTON-GALVESTON AREA WITH HIGH AND LOW TRI EMISSIONS - PHASE II OF A PILOT STUDY OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL CONCENTRATIONS USING PASSIVE SAMPLING DEVICES (PSDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (the Act) requires that states monitor and regulate the emissions of certain organic hazardous air pollutants. Hence, the purpose of this study is to show through the use of 3M organic passive vapor monitors (OVM), that federal, regional, stat...

  16. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  17. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  18. IMPROVEMENT IN AIR TOXICS METHODS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative and customized monitoring methods for air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being developed for applications in exposure and trends monitoring. This task addresses the following applications of specific interest:

    o Contributions to EPA Regional Monit...

  19. EPA- NEW ENGLAND AIR FACILITY EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AirData NET Facility Emissions report displays the amount of air pollution released in a year by individual sources (facilities). Electric power plants, steel mills, factories, and universities are examples of facilities. The main purpose of the report is to compare the emis...

  20. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  1. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  2. Air toxics regulations and their potential impact on the natural gas industry. Topical report, June 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.P.; Harkov, R.; Koraido, S.M.; Olsakovsky, A.C.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this effort was to perform an assessment of the potential impacts of air toxics regulations on the natural gas industry. Natural gas industry operations were reviewed to identify potential sources of air toxics emissions and representative compounds that may be emitted, as one basis for the evaluation. Legislation that regulate air toxics exist at the federal and state levels. The federal review addressed primarily the Clean Air Act (CAA), specifically the air toxics provisions under Title III of the 1990 CAA Amendments. Other relevant federal regulations were reviewed, including OSHA, TSCA, CERCLA, SARA Title III, and RCRA. Regulations for three bellweather states (i.e., Texas, New Jersey, California) were reviewed to assess relevant state air toxics regulations. Natural gas operations have the potential to emit air toxics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) emissions from glycol dehydration vents, products of incomplete combustion from compressor engines, fugitive emissions from facility equipment, and secondary emissions from storage and waste treatment facilities.

  3. Air toxics and asthma: Impacts and end points

    SciTech Connect

    Eschenbacher, W.L.; Holian, A.; Campion, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted a medical/scientific workshop (February 1994) focused on possible asthma/air toxics relationships, with the results of the NUATRC`s first research contract with the University of Cincinnati as the point of discussion. The workshop explored the impact of various environmental factors, including air toxics, on asthma incidence and exacerbation; and emphasis was placed on future research directions. The information presented at the workshop suggested a possible association of asthma exacerbations with ozone and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}); however, direct relationships between worsening asthma and air toxic ambient levels were not established. Possible respiratory health effects associated with air toxics will require considerably more investigation, especially in the area of human exposure assessment. Two major recommendations for future research resulted form this workshop and an accompanying NUATRC Scientific Advisory Panel meeting: a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that accurate determinations of actual personal exposures to various pollutants can be made; and a need for field experiments utilizing biomarkers of exposure and effect to more accurately assess the extent and variability of the biological effects, if any, of individual air toxics. 8 refs.

  4. In Utero Exposure to Toxic Air Pollutants and Risk of Childhood Autism

    PubMed Central

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Aralis, Hilary; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism, but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Here we examine risks for autism in children related to in utero exposure to monitored ambient air toxics from urban emissions. Methods Among the cohort of children born in Los Angeles County, California 1995–2006, those whose mothers resided during pregnancy in a 5km buffer around air-toxics monitoring stations were included (n=148,722). To identify autism cases in this cohort, birth records were linked to records of children diagnosed with primary autistic disorder at the California Department of Developmental Services between 1998 and 2009 (n=768). We calculated monthly average exposures during pregnancy for 24 air toxics selected based on suspected or known neurotoxicity or neurodevelopmental toxicity. Factor analysis helped us identify the correlational structure among air toxics, and we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for autism from logistic regression analyses. Results Autism risks were increased per interquartile-range increase in average concentrations during pregnancy of several correlated toxics mostly loading on one factor, including 1,3-butadiene (OR=1.59 [95% confidence interval=1.18–2.15]), meta/para-xylene (1.51 [1.26–182]), other aromatic solvents, lead (1.49 [1.23–1.81]), perchloroethylene (1.40 [1.09–1.80]), and formaldehyde (1.34 [1.17–1.52]), adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, insurance type, maternal birth place, parity, child sex, and birth year. Conclusions Risks for autism in children may increase following in utero exposure to ambient air toxics from urban traffic and industry emissions, as measured by community-based air -monitoring stations. PMID:25051312

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  6. Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for Nonroad Engines: DRAFT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol (E0) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas (C...

  7. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS: A CITIZEN'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants are poisonous substances in the air that come from natural sources (for example, radon gas coming up from the ground) or from manmade sources (for example, chemical compounds given off by factory smokestacks) and can harm the environment or your health. Inhal...

  8. The National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, much attention has been directed at understanding the impact of mobile sources on near-road air quality, especially PM and its components, NOx and CO, but little information exists for mobile source air toxics (MSATs). MSATs of interest to this project are 1,3-butadiene...

  9. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  10. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

  11. SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

  12. Public health implications of 1990 air toxics concentrations across the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, T J; Axelrad, D A; Caldwell, J; Morello-Frosch, R; Rosenbaum, A

    1998-01-01

    Occupational and toxicological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects from exposure to toxic air contaminants. Data on outdoor levels of toxic air contaminants have not been available for most communities in the United States, making it difficult to assess the potential for adverse human health effects from general population exposures. Emissions data from stationary and mobile sources are used in an atmospheric dispersion model to estimate outdoor concentrations of 148 toxic air contaminants for each of the 60,803 census tracts in the contiguous United States for 1990. Outdoor concentrations of air toxics were compared to previously defined benchmark concentrations for cancer and noncancer health effects. Benchmark concentrations are based on standard toxicological references and represent air toxic levels above which health risks may occur. The number of benchmark concentrations exceeded by modeled concentrations ranged from 8 to 32 per census tract, with a mean of 14. Estimated concentrations of benzene, formaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene were greater than cancer benchmark concentrations in over 90% of the census tracts. Approximately 10% of all census tracts had estimated concentrations of one or more carcinogenic HAPs greater than a 1-in-10,000 risk level. Twenty-two pollutants with chronic toxicity benchmark concentrations had modeled concentrations in excess of these benchmarks, and approximately 200 census tracts had a modeled concentration 100 times the benchmark for at least one of these pollutants. This comprehensive assessment of air toxics concentrations across the United States indicates hazardous air pollutants may pose a potential public health problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9518474

  13. The new air emission regulations for gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Solt, C.

    1998-07-01

    In the US, there are three new regulations now in development that will lower the limits for NO{sub x} emissions from gas turbines: (1) New National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter, and Possibly revision to the Ozone standard (both of these new programs will target NO{sub x} emissions); (2) New regulations stemming from the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) recommendations (again, NO{sub x} is the primary focus); (3) Revision of the New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for gas turbines and a new rule that will impose new toxic emission requirements, (the Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking, stemming from revisions to Title III of the Clean Sir Act Amendments of 1990). The toxic rule should be of particular concern to the gas turbine industry in that it may impose the use of expensive toxic emission control techniques that may not provide any significant health benefits to the public. In addition, the European Community is currently drafting a new regulation for combustion sources that will require gas turbines to meet levels that are lower than any in Europe today. This paper will consider all 5 of these regulatory actions and will: review the proposed regulations; discuss timing for regulation development and implementation; assess the probable impact of each regulation; and provide opinions on the fate of each regulation. Both manufacturers and users of gas turbines should be aware of these proceedings and take an active role in the rule development.

  14. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  15. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. Excluded are NAPA Emissions Inventories and Toxic Release Inventories by state.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. WEST LOUISVILLE AIR TOXICS STUDY (WLATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WLATS was a cooperative effort among the Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the West Jefferson County Community Task Force, the University of Louisville, and EPA Region 4 whose purpose was to determine whether residents of the Rubbertow...

  20. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  1. AIR QUALITY MODELING OF PM AND AIR TOXICS AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current interest in fine particles and toxics pollutants provide an impetus for extending air quality modeling capability towards improving exposure modeling and assessments. Human exposure models require information on concentration derived from interpolation of observati...

  2. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E; Radziwon, A S

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  3. LAKE MICHIGAN URBAN AIR TOXICS STUDY DESIGN AND OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1991, an air toxics monitoring program was conducted in the lower Lake Michigan area. his study was designed to take advantage of the extensive meteorological and oxidant database being generated concurrently by the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS). ntegrated...

  4. Integrating the federal and California air toxics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses California`s existing air toxic program and presents an approach for integrating the program with the federal program. Competitiveness can be enhanced by a strong federal program, but a smooth integration is essential to maintain an effective state program. Flexibility and good communication are essential to ensure a smooth integration and successful implementation.

  5. HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes literature on hazardous/toxic air pollutant (HAP) sources and control techniques employed in their reduction and/or destruction. The information was abstracted from an extensive computerized and manual literature search and data base development study. The p...

  6. CITY OF MILWAUKEE VOLUNTARY AIR TOXICS REDUCTION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and coordination of a broad-based stakeholder workgroup that will meet to discuss, review and recommend strategies to USEPA on practical, cost-effective and voluntary methods for achieving air toxics reductions within a specified neighborhood, locale or region within ...

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  8. Comparative Chemistry and Toxicity of Diesel and Biomass Combustion Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution includes a complex mixture of carbonaceous gases and particles emitted from multiple anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning sources, and also includes secondary organic components that form during atmospheric aging of these emissions. Exposure to these mixture...

  9. The geographic distribution of potential risks posed by industrial toxic emissions in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2004-01-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), compiled annually by the EPA, has emerged as the most comprehensive database on industrial toxic emissions in the U.S. While various risk indicators and pollutant weighting methods have been developed to compare TRI emissions, these measures are rarely used to examine the geography of potential risks posed by toxic emissions at the national scale. This article provides a geographic perspective on the evaluation of industrial pollution by exploring the spatial distribution of the potential health and environmental impacts of TRI emissions across the U.S. Six indicators of potential risk based on the impact benchmarking concept are used to characterize specific human health and environmental concerns: carcinogenic toxicity, noncarcinogenic toxicity, ozone depletion, global warming, smog formation and acid rain formation. Air emission data from the 2000 TRI are used to analyze the six potential impacts at the state level. The objectives are to: (a) examine and compare spatial variations in the distribution of these adverse impacts across the U.S.: and (b) identify the states facing the highest health and environmental risk from industrial toxic releases. The effect of differences in state area and population size on the distribution of the six potential impacts and state rankings for each category are also investigated. While Ohio and Texas receive the highest ranks in all risk categories, Louisiana and West Virginia represent the most "hazardous" states when emissions are weighted by state area and population. The results demonstrate the need to examine the geographic variability of different risk indicators that are used to evaluate TRI emissions, at multiple scales. PMID:15055926

  10. POPULATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODEL FOR AIR TOXICS: A BENZENE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing a human exposure and dose model called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) to characterize population exposure to air toxics in support of the National Air ...

  11. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  12. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  13. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  14. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  15. The importance of toxicity in determining the impact of hazardous air pollutants on the respiratory health of children in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta J H; Hotchkiss, Julie L

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory diseases, exacerbated through point source pollution, are currently among the leading causes of hospitalization of children in the United States. This paper investigates the relationship between the proximity of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities and the number of children diagnosed in hospitals with a respiratory disease in Tennessee. The importance of controlling for toxicity of those HAPs is of particular interest. Hospital discharge, socioeconomic, TRI emission, and HAP toxicity data are used to estimate, via Generalized Linear Methods, a logistic regression model describing the relationship between the percent of children living in a zip code area treated for respiratory illness and the average annual emissions over the previous 10 years of HAPs from TRI sites in that area. Controlling for area socioeconomic characteristics, we find that accounting for toxicity is important in uncovering the relationship between HAP emissions and respiratory health of children. A one standard deviation increase in toxicity-weighted emissions per 100 square miles is associated with an increase in the number of children diagnosed with asthma (chronic bronchitis) by about 1205 (260). The evidence suggests that, with a goal to improving children's respiratory health, monitoring the toxicity of chemicals being emitted is at least as important as simply monitoring total emission levels. This suggests that the EPA should consider making efforts toward establishing toxicity adjusted emission guidelines. PMID:27342000

  16. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  17. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G.

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  18. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  19. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  20. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  1. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  2. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2 μg cm−2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μg ml−1) and to 0.7 μg cm−2 silver or 2.1 μg cm−2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J Eide,I Zielinska, B Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  4. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  5. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  6. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  7. Traffic-Related Air Toxics and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay; Su, Jason; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked criteria air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, but there is less information on the importance of specific emission sources, such as traffic, and air toxics. Objectives: We used three exposure data sources to examine odds of term low birth weight (LBW) in Los Angeles, California, women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants during pregnancy. Methods: We identified term births during 1 June 2004 to 30 March 2006 to women residing within 5 miles of a South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES III) monitoring station. Pregnancy period average exposures were estimated for air toxics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), source-specific particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) based on a chemical mass balance model, criteria air pollutants from government monitoring data, and land use regression (LUR) model estimates of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Associations between these metrics and odds of term LBW (< 2,500 g) were examined using logistic regression. Results: Odds of term LBW increased approximately 5% per interquartile range increase in entire pregnancy exposures to several correlated traffic pollutants: LUR measures of NO, NO2, and NOx, elemental carbon, and PM2.5 from diesel and gasoline combustion and paved road dust (geological PM2.5). Conclusions: These analyses provide additional evidence of the potential impact of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth. Particles from traffic sources should be a focus of future studies. PMID:21835727

  8. Surveys of Microwave Emission from Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Kazuyuki; Ogio, Shoichi; Iijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tokonatsu

    2011-09-01

    A possibility of detection of microwave molecular bremsstrahlung radiation from Extensive Air Showers was reported by AMBER group [1] [2]. This method has a potential to provide a high duty cycle and a new technique for measuring longitudinal profile of EAS. To survey this microwave emission from EAS, we built prototype detectors using parabolic antenna dishes for broadcasting satellites, and we are operating detectors with a small EAS array at Osaka City Univercity. Here, we report our detector configurations and the current experimental status.

  9. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  10. Spatial variations of particulate matter and air toxics in communities adjacent to the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Lau, Virginia; Martien, Philip T

    2013-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) sponsored the West Oakland Monitoring Study (WOMS) to provide supplemental air quality monitoring that will be used by the BAAQMD to evaluate local-scale dispersion modeling of diesel emissions and other toxic air contaminants for the area within and around the Port of Oakland. The WOMS was conducted during two seasonal periods of 4 weeks in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Monitoring data showed spatial patterns of pollutant concentrations that were generally consistent with proximity to vehicle traffic. Concentrations of directly emitted pollutants were highest on heavily traveled roads with consistently lower concentrations away from the roadways. Pollutants that have higher emission rates from diesel trucks (nitric oxide, black carbon) tended to exhibit sharper gradients than pollutants that are largely associated with gasoline vehicles, such as carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX concentrations in West Oakland were similar to those measured at the three air toxics monitoring network sites in the Bay Area (San Francisco, Fremont, and San Jose). Aldehyde levels were higher in Fremont and San Jose than in West Oakland, reflecting greater contributions from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons downwind of the Bay Area. A 2005 modeling-based health risk assessment of diesel particulate matter concentrations is consistent with aerosol carbon concentrations measured during the WOMS after adjusting for recent mitigation measures and improved estimates of heavy-duty truck traffic volumes. PMID:24558703

  11. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  12. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... major and area sources, and for hydrochloric acid (HCl) from new and existing kilns located at major... requirements through the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999).\\2\\ \\1\\ An area... Industry (64 FR 31898, June 14, 1999) included emission limits based on performance of MACT for the...

  13. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

  14. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  19. Modeling toxic compounds from nitric oxide emission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallero, Daniel A.; Peirce, Jeffrey; Cho, Ki Don

    Determining the amount and rate of degradation of toxic pollutants in soil and groundwater is difficult and often requires invasive techniques, such as deploying extensive monitoring well networks. Even with these networks, degradation rates across entire systems cannot readily be extrapolated from the samples. When organic compounds are degraded by microbes, especially nitrifying bacteria, oxides or nitrogen (NO x) are released to the atmosphere. Thus, the flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the soil to the lower troposphere can be used to predict the rate at which organic compounds are degraded. By characterizing and applying biogenic and anthropogenic processes in soils the rates of degradation of organic compounds. Toluene was selected as a representative of toxic aromatic compounds, since it is inherently toxic, it is a substituted benzene compound and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant under Section 12 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Measured toluene concentrations in soil, microbial population growth and NO fluxes in chamber studies were used to develop and parameterize a numerical model based on carbon and nitrogen cycling. These measurements, in turn, were used as indicators of bioremediation of air toxic (i.e. toluene) concentrations. The model found that chemical concentration, soil microbial abundance, and NO production can be directly related to the experimental results (significant at P < 0.01) for all toluene concentrations tested. This indicates that the model may prove useful in monitoring and predicting the fate of toxic aromatic contaminants in a complex soil system. It may also be useful in predicting the release of ozone precursors, such as changes in reservoirs of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. As such, the model may be a tool for decision makers in ozone non-attainment areas.

  20. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg, F.; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  1. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  2. Canister-based method for monitoring toxic VOCS in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    McClenny, W.A.; Plell, J.D.; Oliver, K.D.; Holdren, M.W.; Winberry, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of reliable, accurate and precise monitoring methods for toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a primary need for state and local agencies addressing daily monitoring requirements related to odor complaints, fugitive emissions, and trend monitoring. The canister-based monitoring method for VOCs is a viable and widely used approach that is based on research and evaluation performed over the past several years. The activity has involved the testing of sample stability of VOCs in canisters and the design of time-integrative samplers. The development of procedures for analysis of samples in canisters, including the procedure for VOC preconcentration from whole air, the treatment of water vapor in the sample, and the selection of an appropriate analytical finish has been accomplished. The canister-based method was initially summarized in the EPA Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air as Method TO-14. Modifications and refinements are being added to Method TO-14 in order to obtain a Statement of Work for the Superfund Contract Laboratory Program for Air. The paper discusses the developments leading to the current status of the canister-based method and provides a critique of the method using results obtained in EPA monitoring networks. (Copyright (c) 1991 - Air and Waste Management Association.)

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  4. MERCURY AND AIR TOXIC ELEMENT IMPACTS OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    2003-07-01

    On April 3, 2003, a project kickoff meeting was held at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. As a result of this meeting and follow-up communications, a final work plan was developed, and a schedule of laboratory tasks was developed. Work for the remainder of the second quarter of this project focused on sample collection, initiating laboratory tests, and performing literature searchers. The final project partner, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, signed its contract for participation in the project. This effort will focus on the evaluation of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) for their potential to release mercury and other air toxic elements under different controlled laboratory conditions and will investigate the release of these same air toxic elements in select disposal and utilization field settings to understand the impact of various emission control technologies. The information collected will be evaluated and interpreted together with past Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data and similar data from other studies. Results will be used to determine if mercury release from CCBs, both as currently produced and produced with mercury and other emission controls in place, is a realistic environmental issue. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxics on the disposal and/or utilization of CCBs. The project will provide data on the environmental acceptability of CCBs expected to be produced in systems with emission controls for typical disposal and utilization scenarios. The project will develop baseline information on release mechanisms of select elements in both conventional CCBs and modified or experimental CCBs. The modified or experimental CCBs will be selected to represent CCBs from systems that have improved emission controls. Controlling these emissions has high potential to change the chemical characteristics and environmental performance of CCBs. Development of reliable

  5. Advanced combustor design concepts to control NOx and air toxics. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Spinti, J.

    1995-10-31

    The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics. Existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. Since they will ultimately be a recipient of the enhanced design methodology, they are also providing ongoing review of the practical applicability of the tools being developed. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sub x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultra-low NO{sub x} conditions because it is possible that such conditions will alter the fate of volatile and semivolatile metal species and the emission of heavy hydrocarbons. Finally the University of Utah is responsible for the development of the improved NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels.

  6. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. E.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Tsai, T.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the past decade, shale gas operations have moved closer to urban centers and densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These HAPs include gases like hexane, 1,3-butadiene and BTEX compounds, which can cause minor health effects from short-term exposure or possibly cancer due to prolonged exposure. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples revealed enhancements in several of these toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) downwind of natural gas well pads and compressor stations. Two methods were used to estimate the emission rate of several HAPs in the Barnett Shale. The first method utilized CH4 flux measurements derived from the Picarro Mobile Flux Plane (MFP) and taken concurrently with whole air samples, while the second used a CH4 emissions inventory developed for the Barnett Shale region. From these two approaches, the regional emission estimate for benzene (C6H6) ranged from 48 ± 16 to 84 ± 26 kg C6H6 hr-1. A significant regional source of atmospheric benzene is evident, despite measurement uncertainty and limited number of samples. The extent to which these emission rates equate to a larger public health risk is unclear, but is of particular interest as natural gas productions continues to expand.

  7. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  8. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  9. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  10. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  11. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  12. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  13. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  14. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  15. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  16. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  17. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  18. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  19. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  20. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  1. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  2. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  3. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  5. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  6. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  8. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  9. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  10. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  11. 40 CFR 267.204 - What air emission standards apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.204 What air emission standards apply? You must manage all hazardous waste placed in a tank following the requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 264. Under a... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What air emission standards apply?...

  12. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION OBSERVED IN A STUDY OF PM AND AIR TOXICS EXPOSURE TO NC HIGHWAY PATROL TROOPERS (COPP-STUDY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Car emissions have been identified as a major source of respirable particles. Individuals whose jobs involve being on the road, such as patrol troopers, may be exposed to high cencentrations of toxic air pollutants from vehicle emissions. This exposure might a...

  13. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  14. Spatial variation in ambient air toxics concentrations and health risks between industrial-influenced, urban, and rural sites.

    PubMed

    Logue, Jennifer M; Small, Mitchell J; Stern, Darrell; Maranche, Jason; Robinson, Allen L

    2010-03-01

    Concentrations of 38 gas-phase organic air toxics were measured over a 2-yr period at four different sites in and around Pittsburgh, PA, to investigate spatial variations in health risks from chronic exposure. The sites were chosen to represent different exposure regimes: a downtown site with substantial mobile source emissions; two residential sites adjacent to one of the most heavily industrialized zones in Pittsburgh; and a regional background site. Lifetime cancer risks and non-cancer hazard quotients were estimated using a traditional and interactive risk models. Although study average concentrations of specific air toxics varied by as a much as a factor of 26 between the sites, the additive cancer risks of the gas-phase organic air toxics varied by less than a factor of 2, ranging from 6.1 x 10(-5) to 9.5 x 10(-5). The modest variation in risks reflects the fact that two regionally distributed toxics, formaldehyde and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), contributed more than half of the cancer risk at all four sites. Benzene contributed substantial cancer risks at all sites, whereas trichloroethene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene only contributed substantial cancer risks at the downtown site. Only acrolein posed a non-cancer risk. Diesel particulate matter is estimated to pose a much greater cancer risk in Pittsburgh than other classes of air toxics including gas-phase organic, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and coke oven emissions. Health risks of air toxics in Pittsburgh are comparable with those in other urban areas in the United States. PMID:20397557

  15. AIR QUALITY AND EMISSIONS TRENDS REPORTS - TRENDS REPORT FOR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity involves data analysis of air quality and emissions data from AIRS, CASNET, IMPROVE, NEI and other data bases. This activity is well founded within the air program (with the first report being prepared in the late 1970's) and uses a collection of government experts...

  16. Air emission inventories in North America: a critical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C. Andrew Miller; George Hidy; Jeremy Hales

    2006-08-15

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. Major reductions in the largest emissions sources have made accurate inventories of previously minor sources much more important to the understanding and improvement of local air quality. Changes in manufacturing processes, industry types, vehicle technologies, and metropolitan infrastructure are occurring at an increasingly rapid pace, emphasizing the importance of inventories that reflect current conditions. New technologies for measuring source emissions and ambient pollutant concentrations, both at the point of emissions and from remote platforms, are providing novel approaches to collecting data for inventory developers. Advances in information technologies are allowing data to be shared more quickly, more easily, and processed and compared in novel ways that can speed the development of emission inventories. Approaches to improving quantitative measures of inventory uncertainty allow air quality management decisions to take into account the uncertainties associated with emissions estimates, providing more accurate projections of how well alternative strategies may work. This paper discusses applications of these technologies and techniques to improve the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of emission inventories across North America and outlines a series of eight recommendations aimed at inventory developers and air quality management decision-makers to improve emission inventories and enable them to support effective air quality management decisions for the foreseeable future. 122 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  18. A METHOD OF ASSESSING AIR TOXICS CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN AREAS USING MOBILE PLATFORM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an approach to characterize the spatial variability in ambient air concentrations using mobile platform measurements. This approach may be useful for air toxic assessments in Environmental Justice applications, epidemiological studies...

  19. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

  20. FUNCTIONALITY OF AN INTEGRATED EMISSION PREPROCESSING SYSTEM FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING: THE MODELS-3 EMISSION PREPROCESSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional preparation of emission inventories for air quality modeling is typically an extended process using computer routines to reformat, quality check, chemically speciate, and temporally and spatially allocate data. rocessing of emission inventories for regional modeling ...

  1. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  2. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, J. G.; Heywood, J. B.; Sawyer, R. F.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1993-07-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been and are being controlled in an effort to abate urban air pollution. This article addresses the question: Will the vehicle exhaust emission control and fuel requirements in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the California Air Resources Board regulations on vehicles and fuels have a significant impact? The effective control of in-use vehicle emissions is the key to a solution to the motor vehicle part of the urban air pollution problem for the next decade or so. It is not necessary, except perhaps in Southern California, to implement extremely low new car emission standards before the end of the 20th century. Some of the proposed gasoline volatility and composition changes in reformulated gasoline will produce significant reductions in vehicle emissions (for example, reduced vapor pressure, sulfur, and light olefin and improved high end volatility), whereas others (such as substantial oxygenate addition and aromatics reduction) will not.

  3. Clearing the air about sludge incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Kuchenrither, R.D.; Waltz, E.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1990, a research needs assessment for wastewater treatment agencies conducted by the Water Environment Research Foundation recommended a three-year project to identify and quantify hydrocarbon constituents in emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators. The project was designed to evaluate existing emission test data and obtain additional information to more completely characterize hydrocarbon emissions, their associated health risk, and operational factors effecting emissions. This paper presents the results and findings from the first year of the project.

  4. Software for emission rate modeling of accidental toxic releases

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Vashisth, S.

    1999-08-01

    This book fulfills the need for Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This software is based on the guidelines released by the USEPA. It includes manual and proprietary software on CDROM. Contents include release scenario description (two-phase and single-phase choked/unchoked gas release, two-phase pressurized and refrigerated liquid release, single-phase high and low volatility liquid release); emission rate model development for each release class; software design and software evaluation and application.

  5. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  6. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  7. Continuous emission monitoring of metal aerosol concentrations in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Anne-Marie; Sarrette, Jean-Philippe; Madon, Lydie; Almi, Abdenbi

    1996-11-01

    Improvements of an apparatus for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) of metal aerosols in air are described. The method simultaneously offers low operating costs, large volume of tested air for valuable sampling and avoids supplementary contamination or keeping of the air pollutant concentrations. Questions related to detection and calibration are discussed. The detection limits (DL) obtained for the eight pollutants studied are lower than the recommended threshold limit values (TLV) and as satisfactory as the results obtained with other CEM methods involving air-argon plasmas.

  8. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  9. Analysis of mobile source air toxics (MSATs)–Near-Road VOC and carbonyl concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to mobile source air toxics (MSATs) have been associated with numerous adverse health effects. While thousands of air toxic compounds are emitted from mobile sources, a subset of compounds are considered high priority due to their significant contribution to cancer and...

  10. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  11. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  12. Analysis of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATS)–Near-Road VOC and CarbonylConcentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation examines data from a year-long study of measured near-road mobile source air toxic (MSAT) concentrations and compares these data with modeled 2005 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) results. Field study measurements were collected during a field campaign in ...

  13. Emission Controls Using Different Temperatures of Combustion Air

    PubMed Central

    Holubčík, Michal; Papučík, Štefan

    2014-01-01

    The effort of many manufacturers of heat sources is to achieve the maximum efficiency of energy transformation chemically bound in the fuel to heat. Therefore, it is necessary to streamline the combustion process and minimize the formation of emission during combustion. The paper presents an analysis of the combustion air temperature to the heat performance and emission parameters of burning biomass. In the second part of the paper the impact of different dendromass on formation of emissions in small heat source is evaluated. The measured results show that the regulation of the temperature of the combustion air has an effect on concentration of emissions from the combustion of biomass. PMID:24971376

  14. Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from aeration tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.; Orton, T.L.; Wang, M.; Siddiqui, K.F.

    1998-12-31

    Regulated under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POT Ws) need to inventory and control their hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, primarily from the aeration tanks. The spatial characteristics of hazardous air pollutants in the form of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the aeration units of POTWs have been investigated by systematic monitoring and mathematical modeling. Using a verified off-gas sampling system and CC-MS analytical method, a large wastewater treatment plant has been tested to understand the air emissions from its aeration basins. Variations of VOC emissions along the length of the aeration units have been tested and modeled. Most VOCs have decreasing concentration profiles. A simple PFR model has been developed to obtain the spatial information of the VOC fate. This model can be easily used to validate model parameters and accurately simulate the process especially in the case where the aeration tanks are operated with varied airflow rates along the tank length. Using this simple model, air emissions can be accurately estimated and the simulation results are useful to support an emissions control analysis. This study also reveals that simple multiplication of measured off-gas concentration and total airflow over-estimates the overall emissions.

  15. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  16. Developing an emission factor for hazardous air pollutants for an F-16 using JP-8 fuel. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Schaack, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments drastically changed the legislation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics. Title 3 of the act which specifically addresses HAPs now lists 189 substances which may require regulation as air toxics. Consequently, the reporting of HAP emissions from all Air Force operations will be required in the future. However, the Department of Defense (DoD) does not have methods available to report this information. This thesis develops emission factors for selected HAPs from an F-16 CD aircraft/F110 engine operating on JP-8 fuel. The methodology included: determining which HAPs should be selected, using past aircraft emission studies to estimate HAP concentrations for the F110 engine using JP-8 fuel selecting an emission factor formula to calculate emission factors for each HAP, testing the developed emission factors on an airfield operation. The estimated emission factors for each HAP for the F110 engine are low for all engine modes mainly because the F110 is a newer engine with high combustion efficiency. The resultant emission inventory shows that many HAPs would be classified as major sources under current Title 3 legislation. Thus, it is important to assess airfield operations to ensure they remain in compliance with the upcoming Title 3 legislation.

  17. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  18. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  19. 40 CFR 267.204 - What air emission standards apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.204 What air emission standards apply? You must manage all hazardous waste placed in a tank following the requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of 40 CFR part 264. Under...

  20. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  1. Reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BG activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-04-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960`s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the United States toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  2. Concentrations of air toxics in motor vehicle-dominated environments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Arnott, William P; Chow, Judith C

    2011-02-01

    We at the Desert Research Institute (DRI*) measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including several mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), particulate matter with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) on highways in Los Angeles County during summer and fall 2004, to characterize the diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations related to volume and mix of traffic. Concentrations of on-road pollutants were then compared to corresponding measurements at fixed monitoring sites. The on-road concentrations of CO and MSATs were higher in the morning under stable atmospheric conditions and during periods of higher traffic volumes. In contrast, BC concentrations, measured as particulate light absorption, were higher on truck routes during the midday sampling periods despite more unstable atmospheric conditions. Compared to the measurements at the three near-road sites, the 1-hour averages of on-road BC concentrations were as much as an order of magnitude higher. The peak 1-minute average concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher for BC and were between two and six times higher for PM2.5 mass. The on-road concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during the summer were 3.5 +/- 0.7 and 1.2 +/- 0.6 times higher during morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively, compared to annual average 24-hour concentrations measured at air toxic monitoring network sites. These ratios were higher during the fall, with smaller diurnal differences (4.8 +/- 0.7 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 for morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively). Ratios similar to those for BTEX were obtained for 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene. On-road concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were up to two times higher than at air toxics monitoring sites, with fall ratios slightly higher than summer ratios. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor

  3. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1997-10-27

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air

  4. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  5. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The U.S. implemented the Clean... SECURITY Coast Guard Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology...

  6. IMPACT OF A PRIMARY SULFATE EMISSION SOURCE ON AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A one-month study was carried out at an isolated oil-fired power plant in New York State to assess the impact of primary sulfate emissions on air quality. Emissions of total sulfate from the source varied from 22 kg/hr to 82 kg/hr per boiler with the sulfuric acid concentration a...

  7. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability. PMID:24498952

  8. Integrated technologies to evaluate the impact of air emissions at a petroleum recovery Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zarus, G.M.; Wagaman, S.A.; Trespalacios, M.J.; Turpin, R.D.; Forrester, T.; Wilder, L.; Meyer, J.; Hansen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Response Team (US EPA/ERT) was requested by US EPA Region 6 to verify or refute the presence of volatile organic air emissions at a petroleum recovery Superfund (PRS) site. Several environmental protection and public health organizations were involved with evaluating the air emissions at this PRS site, including: Region 6 of the US EPA, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the US EPA/ERT. Each group brought a unique expertise which helped in identifying sources, determining their emission rates, evaluating their impact, and monitoring during remedial activities. This report describes the technologies used at the PRS site and some of the results obtained. The compounds of concern included: benzene, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, 1,2-dichloroethene, methylene chloride, styrene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride.

  9. Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, James R.; Schreiber, R. Kent

    1984-07-01

    With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

  10. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  11. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, Louis A.; Chase, Peter J.; Gross, Michael P.

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  12. Modeling of Personal Exposures to Ambient Air Toxics in Camden, New Jersey: An Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Tang, Xiaogang; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Xiangmei; Lioy, Paul J.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Individual Based Exposure Modeling (IBEM) application of MENTOR (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies) in a hot spot area, where there are concentrated local sources on the scale of tens to hundreds of meters, and an urban reference area in Camden, NJ, to characterize the ambient concentrations and personal exposures to benzene and toluene from local ambient sources. The emission-based ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods were first estimated through atmospheric dispersion modeling. Subsequently, the calculated and measured ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were separately combined with the time-activity diaries completed by the subjects as inputs to MENTOR/IBEM for estimating personal exposures resulting from ambient sources. The modeling results were then compared with the actual personal measurements collected from over 100 individuals in the field study to identify the gaps in modeling personal exposures in a hot spot. The modeled ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were generally in agreement with the neighborhood measurements within a factor of 2, but were underestimated at the high-end percentiles. The major local contributors to the benzene ambient levels are from mobile sources, whereas mobile and stationary (point and area) sources contribute to the toluene ambient levels in the study area. This finding can be used as guidance for developing better air toxic emission inventories for characterizing, through modeling, the ambient concentrations of air toxics in the study area. The estimated percentage contributions of personal exposures from ambient sources were generally higher in the hot spot area than the urban reference area in Camden, NJ, for benzene and toluene. This finding demonstrates the hot spot characteristics of stronger local ambient source impacts on personal exposures. Non-ambient sources were also found as significant contributors to personal exposures to benzene and toluene

  13. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  14. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  15. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity. PMID:17980956

  16. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the...

  17. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  18. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  19. Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-07-01

    With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to airborne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

  20. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  1. CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an easy-to-use tool for decision makers to evaluate emission control devices for use with Superfund remediation actions. t will assist in the selection of cost-effective control options. t is intended for use by engineers and scientists involved in preparing reme...

  2. Toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shun-Hua; Zhou, Wei; Song, Jian; Peng, Bao-Cheng; Yuan, Dong; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Qi, Ping-Ping

    In China, the number of vehicles is increasing rapidly with the continuous development of economy, and vehicle emission pollution in major cities is more serious than ever. In this article, we summarized the results of a series of short-term assays, animal experiments and epidemiology investigations on the genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, respiratory toxicity and health effects of vehicle emissions in Shanghai, including gasoline exhausts (gas condensate and particles), diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and scooter exhaust particles (SEP). The results showed that: (1) Both gases and particulate phases of the exhausts of different kinds of vehicles showed strong mutagenicity in Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains), rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay, and mouse micronucleus assay, and vehicle emissions could induce the transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. DEP and SEP could induce the transformation of human diploid cell strain (KMB-13) cells, immunohistochemistry assay showed that c-myc and p21 proteins were highly expressed in the transformed cells. DEP and SEP could also inhibit the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) of BALB/C3T3 cells (2) Vehicle emissions could decrease the number of macrophages in the lung (bronchial alveolar lavage fluid) (BALF) of male SD rats. Vehicle emissions could also increase the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), the content of cetyneuraminic acid (NA), the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkali phosphate (AKP), acid phosphate (ACP) in the lung BALF of the animals. (3) In epidemiology investigation, the proportion of those who have respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) in the workers who were exposed to DEP ( n=806) were much higher than those of the controls ( n=413). The OR (odd ratio) values of angina, nasal obstruction, phlegm, short of breath and COPD were 2.27, 3.08, 3.00, 3.19 and 2.32, respectively, and the proportion of those who

  3. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  4. National air quality and emissions trends report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This document is the twenty-fourth annual report documenting air pollution trends in the United States. While in recent years this report has widened its scope to include air pollution topics such as acid rain, visibility, and air toxics, its focus remains on those pollutants for which the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Primary standards are designed to protect public health, including sensitive populations such as children and the elderly, while secondary standards protect public welfare, such as the effects of air pollution on vegetation, materials, and visibility. There are six criteria pollutants with primary standards: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  5. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  6. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of styrene. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.

    1991-10-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emission of these substances. The document deals specifically with styrene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of styrene and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. The document presents information on: (1) the types of sources that may emit styrene; (2) process variations and release points that may be emitted within these sources; and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for styrene releases into the air from each operation. The document is being released as an interim document pending incorporation of testing results from the U.S. EPA. The EPA is currently testing several unsaturated polyester resin fabricators who produce cultured marble bathroom fixtures. When the test results are available, the EPA will publish a final report including these data.

  7. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  8. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  9. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront South, a spatial variation study consisting of three saturation-sampling campaigns was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of VOCs and aldehydes in the two neighborhoods. Passive samplers were used to collect VOC and aldehyde samples for 24- and 48-hr sampling periods simultaneously at 22 and 16 grid-based sampling sites in Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis, respectively. Results showed that measured ambient concentrations of some target pollutants (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]), such as PM2.5 (31.3 +/- 12.5 microg/m3), toluene (4.24 +/- 5.23 microg/m3), and benzo[a]pyrene (0.36 +/- 0.45 ng/m3), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Waterfront South than in Copewood-Davis, where the concentrations of PM2.5, toluene, and benzo[a]pyrene were 25.3 +/- 11.9 microg/m3, 2.46 +/- 3.19 microg/m3, and 0.21 +/- 0.26 ng/m3, respectively. High concentrations of specific air toxics, such as 60 microg/m3 for toluene and 159 microg/m3 for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), were also found in areas close to local stationary sources in Waterfront South during the saturation-sampling campaigns. Greater spatial variation in benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known collectively as BTEX) as well as of MTBE was observed in Waterfront South than in Copewood-Davis during days with low wind speed. These observations indicated the significant impact of local emission sources of these pollutants and possibly of other pollutants emitted by individual source types on air pollution in Waterfront South. (Waterfront South is a known hot spot for these pollutants.) There were no significant differences between Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis in mean concentrations of benzene or MTBE, although some stationary sources of the two compounds have been reported in Waterfront South. Further, a good correlation (R > 0.6) was found between

  10. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  11. AIR LAND WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ALEAS): A MULTI-MEDIA MODEL FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Land Water Analysis System (ALWAS) is a multi-media environmental model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of toxicants, the surface runoff of deposited toxicants, and the subsequent fate of these materials in surface water bodies. ALWAS dipicts the spatial and tem...

  12. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  13. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  14. Estimating Lightning NOx Emissions for Regional Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Scotty, E.; Harkey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning emissions have long been recognized as an important source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on a global scale, and an essential emission component for global atmospheric chemistry models. However, only in recent years have regional air quality models incorporated lightning NOx emissions into simulations. The growth in regional modeling of lightning emissions has been driven in part by comparisons with satellite-derived estimates of column NO2, especially from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite. We present and evaluate a lightning inventory for the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Our approach follows Koo et al. [2010] in the approach to spatially and temporally allocating a given total value based on cloud-top height and convective precipitation. However, we consider alternate total NOx emission values (which translate into alternate lightning emission factors) based on a review of the literature and performance evaluation against OMI NO2 for July 2007 conditions over the U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico. The vertical distribution of lightning emissions follow a bimodal distribution from Allen et al. [2012] calculated over 27 vertical model layers. Total lightning NO emissions for July 2007 show the highest above-land emissions in Florida, southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana. Although agreement with OMI NO2 across the domain varied significantly depending on lightning NOx assumptions, agreement among the simulations at ground-based NO2 monitors from the EPA Air Quality System database showed no meaningful sensitivity to lightning NOx. Emissions are compared with prior studies, which find similar distribution patterns, but a wide range of calculated magnitudes.

  15. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  16. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  17. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  18. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J.P.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  20. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  1. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  2. RADIONUCLIDE AIR EMISSIONS REPORT FOR THE HANFORD SITE CY2003

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2004-06-11

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 2003 and the resulting effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities''; Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, ''Radiation Protection-Air Emissions''; 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance; DOE Order 414.1B, Quality Assurance; NQA-1, Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Application; EPA QA/R-2, EPA Requirements for Quality Management Plans; and EPA QA/R-5, Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from DOE facilities and the resulting public dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE is not to be exceeded. The EDE to the MEI due to routine and nonroutine emissions in 2003 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.022 mrem (0.00022 mSv), or 0.22 percent of the federal standard. The portions of the Hanford Site MEI dose attributable to individual point sources as listed in Section 2.0 are appropriate for use in demonstrating the compliance of abated stack emissions with applicable terms of the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and of Notices of Construction. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations, yet further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. WAC 246-247 also requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The EDE from

  3. An innovative approach that was used to assess the air quality impacts of a large complex facility (Los Alamos National Laboratory) that has the potential to emit hundreds of toxic air pollutants in small quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.; Kogan, V.; Gorman-Bates, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Sitewide EIS for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of its evaluation of future use for the facility. An air quality analysis is required to estimate the potential impacts of the release of air pollutants from a facility that uses hundreds of toxic chemicals. These chemicals are currently used in 30 separately managed groups of operations or laboratory complexes--known as Technical Areas (TAs). Emission data and stack parameter information are currently not available. Undertaking an emission inventory, which would have been required for a conventional air quality impact analysis, would have been both costly and time consuming. An innovative and cost-effective methodology was therefore developed to assess the potential air quality impacts of the emissions of toxic air pollutants released from this facility. This methodology is based on the use of threshold emission values (TEVs), which are, for the purpose of this study, the maximum rates of each pollutant that could be emitted into the atmosphere from each TA that would not contravene health-related guideline values. TEVs unique to each TA were developed for each of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxic pollutants emitted from facility using EPA`s ISC3 dispersion model, and prototypical stack and building parameters. Once the TEVs were established for each TA, comparisons were made on a pollutant-specific basis between these values and conservatively estimated potential emissions rates that were based primarily on the purchase rates of these chemicals to identify those pollutants which may cause potentially significant adverse air quality impacts. This approach allowed over 95 percent of the toxic air pollutants to be eliminated from further consideration, and enabled the detailed analysis to focus on the remaining 5 percent.

  4. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established. PMID:26354370

  5. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ..., was published on January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1268). EPA has established the public docket for the proposed...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and...

  6. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  7. Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Streets, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of short-lived air pollutants can contribute to mitigate global warming in the near-term with ancillary benefits to human health. However, the radiative forcings of short-lived air pollutants depend on the location and source type of the precursor emissions. We apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify near-future (2030 A1B) global annual mean radiative forcing by ozone (O3) and sulfate from six emissions sectors in seven geographic regions. At 2030 the net forcings from O3, sulfate, black and organic carbon, and indirect CH4 effects for each emission sector are (in mWm-2) biomass burning, +95; domestic, +68; transportation, +67; industry, -131; and power, -224. Biomass burning emissions in East Asia and central and southern Africa, domestic biofuel emissions in East Asia, south Asia, and central and southern Africa, and transportation emissions in Europe and North America have large net positive forcings and are therefore attractive targets to counter global warming. Power and industry emissions from East Asia, south Asia, and north Africa and the Middle East have large net negative forcings. Therefore air quality control measures that affect these regional sectors require offsetting climate measures to avoid a warming impact. Linear relationships exist between O3 forcing and biomass burning and domestic biofuel CO precursor emissions independent of region with sensitivity of +0.2 mWm-2/TgCO. Similarly, linear relationships exist between sulfate forcing and SO2 precursor emissions that depend upon region but are independent of sector with sensitivities ranging from -3 to -12 mWm-2/TgS.

  8. Impact of historical air pollution emissions reductions on nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Tzortziou, M.; Duffy, M.; Duncan, B. N.; Hains, J.; Pickering, K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Follette-Cook, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been significant NOx emissions reductions since 2002 in the eastern and central US through a combination of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call, which required 22 states and the District of Columbia to regulate NOx emissions to mitigate ozone transport, the NOx Budget Trading Program, subsequent EPA rules, court-orders, and state regulations. As reported by the EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), NOx emissions nationwide have been reduced by 37% between 2002 and 2011. The benefit of these emissions reductions on decreasing nitrogen deposition onto terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be presented by comparing CMAQ air quality model simulations for July 2011 from a 12 km domain over the eastern US and a 4 km domain over the Mid-Atlantic with anthropogenic emissions appropriate for 2002 and 2011. Previously we showed that the historical emissions reductions from 2002 to 2011 prevented 9 to 13 ozone standard exceedance days throughout much of the Ohio River Valley and 3 to 9 ozone exceedance days throughout the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area for the month of July 2011. Here, we focus on how the historical emissions reductions decreased nitrogen deposition, subsequently benefiting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The base case simulation with emissions appropriate for 2011 everywhere was evaluated with ground-, ship-, aircraft-, and satellite-based observations, which include measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and GeoCAPE-CBODAQ (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events-Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic Campaign with DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns.

  9. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  10. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  11. NOVEL MARKERS OF AIR POLLUTION-INDUCED VASCULAR TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this project should be a handful of biological markers that can be subsequently used to: 1) identify susceptible individuals, 2) identify causal components of the complex air pollution mixture, and 3) better understand the biological mechanisms involved in air p...

  12. VERSATILE PC-BASED DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM: AUTOMATION OF EPA'S AIR TOXICS CONTROL LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the decision making process which resulted in the selection and configuration of the hardware and software for the Air Toxics Control Laboratory (ATCL) designed and built at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, in response to the need for the ...

  13. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1992 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1992 USEPA/AWMA International Symposium Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants was held in Durham, NC on May 4-9, 1992. his yearly symposium is sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory and the Air & Waste Management Association. he tec...

  14. APPLICATION OF FINE SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ TO HAPEM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For t...

  15. EPA'S CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO ASSISTING STATES AND REGIONS WITH AIR TOXICS PROBLEMS: FIVE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. he strategy calls for state and local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role. he shift in emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's Offices of Research ...

  16. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  17. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  18. TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION: MECHANISMS AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic metals appear in the effluents of many combustion processes, and their release into the environment has come under regulatory scrutiny. This paper reviews the nature of the problems associated with toxic metals in combustion processes, and describes where these problems occ...

  19. AIR EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives details of a Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) combustion test at Georgia Power Company's Plant Mitchell, March, May, and June 1977. Flue gas samples were collected for modified EPA Level 1 analysis; analytical results are reported. Air emissions from the combustion of ...

  20. VOC EMISSIONS FROM AN AIR FRESHENER IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  1. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  2. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  3. QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

  4. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  5. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  6. NATIONAL AIR TOXICS PILOT MONITORING AND DATA ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten cities (Detroit, Providence, San Juan, Keeney Knob WV, Tampa, Grand Junction, Rio Rancho NM, Cedar Rapids, San Jacinto and Seattle) conducted 1/6 and 1/12 monitoring for 18 out of the 33 Urban HAP toxic pollutants through ten, EPA grants. Monitoring was completed in July 200...

  7. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  8. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  9. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  10. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  11. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas. PMID:23603867

  12. Effect of fuel/air nonuniformity on nitric oxide emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1979-01-01

    A flame tube combustor holding jet A fuel was used in experiments performed at a pressure of .3 Mpa and a reference velocity of 25 meters/second for three inlet air temperatures of 600, 700, and 800 K. The gas sample measurements were taken at locations 18 cm and 48 cm downstream of the perforated plate flameholder. Nonuniform fuel/air profiles were produced using a fuel injector by separately fueling the inner five fuel tubes and the outer ring of twelve fuel tubes. Six fuel/air profiles were produced for nominal overall equivalence ratios of .5 and .6. An example of three of three of these profiles and their resultant nitric oxide NOx emissions are presented. The uniform fuel/air profile cases produced uniform and relatively low profile levels. When the profiles were either center-peaked or edge-peaked, the overall mass-weighted nitric oxide levels increased.

  13. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  14. Allometric scaling of UK urban emissions: interpretation and implications for air quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Barnes, Matt; Whyatt, Duncan; Hewitt, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Allometry uncovers structures and patterns by relating the characteristics of complex systems to a measure of scale. We present an allometric analysis of air quality for UK urban settlements, beginning with emissions and moving on to consider air concentrations. We consider both airshed-average 'urban background' concentrations (cf. those derived from satellites for NO2) and local pollution 'hotspots'. We show that there is a strong and robust scaling (with respect to population) of the non-point-source emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, as well as the toxic pollutants nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and 1,3-butadiene. The scaling of traffic-related emissions is not simply a reflection of road length, but rather results from the socio-economic patterning of road-use. The recent controversy regarding diesel vehicle emissions is germane to our study but does not affect our overall conclusions. We next develop an hypothesis for the population-scaling of airshed-average air concentrations, with which we demonstrate that, although average air quality is expected to be worse in large urban centres compared to small urban centres, the overall effect is an economy of scale (i.e., large cities reduce the overall burden of emissions compared to the same population spread over many smaller urban settlements). Our hypothesis explains satellite-derived observations of airshed-average urban NO2 concentrations. The theory derived also explains which properties of nature-based solutions (urban greening) can make a significant contribution at city scale, and points to a hitherto unforeseen opportunity to make large cities cleaner than smaller cities in absolute terms with respect to their airshed-average pollutant concentration.

  15. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  16. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  17. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  18. INDOOR/AMBIENT RESIDENTIAL AIR TOXICS RESULTS IN RURAL WESTERN MONTANA

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tony J.; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Adams, Earle

    2009-01-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 Volatile Organic Compounds (including 14 Hazardous Air Pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the ‘Air Toxics Under the Big Sky’ program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student’s homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations. PMID:18548326

  19. Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F; Adams, Earle

    2009-06-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 volatile organic compounds (including 14 hazardous air pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the 'Air Toxics Under the Big Sky' program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/Western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student's homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations. PMID:18548326

  20. SIMULATING URBAN AIR TOXICS OVER CONTINENTAL AND URBAN SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is evaluating a version of the CMAQ model to support risk assessment for the exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The model uses a variant of the CB4 chemical mechanism to simulate ambient concentrations of twenty HAPs that exist primarily as gaseous compounds...

  1. MEASUREMENT OF LOW LEVEL AIR TOXICS WITH MODIFIED UV DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understand near source impacts, EPA is working to develop open-path optical techniques for spatiotemporal-resolved measurement of air pollutants. Of particular interest is near real time quantification of mobile-source generated CO, Nox and hydrocarbons measured in cl...

  2. MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference cosponsored for the eighth year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 3-7, 1993. he four day technica...

  3. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  4. Relationship between Composition and Toxicity of Motor Vehicle Emission Samples

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Eide, Ingvar; Seagrave, JeanClare; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from “normal” and “high-emitting” gasoline and diesel light-duty vehicles. We employed a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS; also known as projection to latent structures) to evaluate the relationships between chemical composition of vehicle exhaust and toxicity. The PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents covarying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The specific nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons important for mutagenicity were the same chemicals that have been implicated by decades of bioassay-directed fractionation. These chemicals were not related to lung toxicity, which was associated with organic carbon and select organic compounds that are present in lubricating oil. The results demonstrate the utility of the PCA/PLS approach for evaluating composition–response relationships in complex mixture exposures and also provide a starting point for confirming causality and determining the mechanisms of the lung effects. PMID:15531438

  5. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  6. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  7. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction... modification of sources subject to the Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  8. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  9. Modeling VOC emissions and air concentrations from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R. ); Drivas, P.J. )

    1993-03-01

    During the two-week period following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evaporated from the surface of the oil spill and were transported and dispersed throughout the region. To estimate the air concentrations of these VOCs, emissions and dispersion modeling was conducted for each hour during the first two weeks of the spill. A multicomponent evaporative emissions model was developed and applied to the oil spill; the model considered the evaporation of 15 specific compounds, including benzene and toluene. Both mass transfer from the surface of the spill and diffusion through the oil layer were considered in the emissions model. Maximum emissions of toluene were calculated to equal about 20,000 kg/hr, or about 5 g/m[sup 2] hr, at a time of eight hours after the initial oil spill. Meteorological data were acquired from sources and used to estimate hourly-averaged wind velocity over the spill. Air concentrations of specific components were calculated using the ATDL area source diffusion model and the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model. Maximum hourly-averaged concentrations were predicted not to exceed 10 ppmv for any compound. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Modeling of air toxics from hydrocarbon pool fires

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, K.A.; Aydil, M.L.; Barone, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    While there is guidance for estimating the radiation hazards of fires (ARCHIE), there is little guidance on modeling the dispersion of hazardous materials from fires. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the methodology used for modeling the impacts of liquid hydrocarbon pool fires. The required input variables for modeling of hydrocarbon pool fires include emission strength, emission duration, and dispersion characteristics. Methods for predicting the products of combustion including the use of literature values, test data, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are discussed. The use of energy balances coupled to radiative heat transfer calculations are presented as a method for determining flame temperature. Fire modeling literature is reviewed in order to determine other source release variables such as mass burn rate and duration and flame geometry.

  11. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health. PMID:16401572

  12. Sensitivity of hazardous air pollutant emissions to the combustion of blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magara-Gomez, Kento T.; Olson, Michael R.; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A.; Schauer, James J.

    2012-04-01

    Emission rates and composition of known hazardous air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a commercial agriculture tractor, burning a range of biodiesel blends operating at two different load conditions were investigated to better understand the emission characteristics of biodiesel fuel. Ultra-Low Sulfur Petroleum Diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean oil and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 50% (B50) and 100% (B100) soybean oil based biodiesel, and 50% (B50T) and 100% (B100T) beef tallow biodiesel. Samples were collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Particulate matter and exhaust gases were analyzed for carbonyls, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine their respective emission rates. This analysis is focused on the emissions of organic compounds classified by the US EPA as air toxics and include 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and methylethyl ketone. Emission rates of 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylene decreased more than 90% for B50, B100 and B100T blends; decreases in emission rates of benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were more modest, producing values between 23 and 67%, and methyl ethyl ketone showed decreases not exceeding 7% for the studied biodiesel blends. PAHs emission rates were reduced by 66% for B50, 84% for B100, and by 89% for B100T. The overall emissions of toxic organic compounds were calculated and expressed as benzene equivalents. The largest contributors of toxic risk were found to be formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Reductions in formaldehyde emissions were 23% for B50 and 42% for B100 soybean, and 40% for B100T beef tallow compared to B0. Similarly, acetaldehyde reductions were 34% for B50 and 53% for B100 soybean biodiesel and 42% for B100T beef tallow biodiesel.

  13. Observations of microwave continuum emission from air shower plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P. W.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Varner, G. S.; Hebert, C. L.; Miki, C.; Kowalski, J.; Ruckman, L.; Stokes, B. T.; Beatty, J. J.; Connolly, A.; Saltzberg, D.; Chen, P.; Hast, C.; Ng, J.; Reil, K.; Walz, D.; Conde, M. E.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate a possible new technique for microwave detection of cosmic-ray extensive air showers which relies on detection of expected continuum radiation in the microwave range, caused by free-electron collisions with neutrals in the tenuous plasma left after the passage of the shower. We performed an initial experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator laboratory in 2003 and measured broadband microwave emission from air ionized via high-energy electrons and photons. A follow-up experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the summer of 2004 confirmed the major features of the previous Argonne Wakefield Accelerator observations with better precision. Prompted by these results we built a prototype detector using satellite television technology and have made measurements suggestive of the detection of cosmic-ray extensive air showers. The method, if confirmed by experiments now in progress, could provide a high-duty cycle complement to current nitrogen fluorescence observations.

  14. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    PubMed

    Yadama, Gautam N; Peipert, John; Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim; Dyda, Venkat

    2012-01-01

    We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5) and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100). This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05), after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation. PMID:23056293

  15. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  16. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process. PMID:19475934

  17. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production were promulgated on June 1, 1999 (64 FR... Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP), 54 FR 38044... thousand, that risk level is considered acceptable.'' 54 FR 38045. We discussed the maximum...

  18. 75 FR 65067 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...This action proposes how EPA will address the residual risk and technology reviews conducted for two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP), and this action is a supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking for an October 2008 action that proposed how EPA would address the residual risk and technology reviews for four NESHAP. The six NESHAP include 16 source......

  19. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  20. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-01

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  1. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  2. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  3. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  4. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  5. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  6. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  7. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  8. ATMOSPHERIC ACIDITY MEASUREMENTS DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN URBAN AIR TOXICS STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1991, as part of the Lake Michigan Urban Air Toxics Study (LMUATS), measurements of reactive gases and fine fraction and size-fractionated acidic aerosols were taken at two sites (South Haven, MI and aboard the research vessel, R/V Laurentian). he fine fracti...

  9. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  10. LABORATORY AND COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATIONS OF THE GAS PHASE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF AIR TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full assessment of the impact of the release of air toxic compounds into the atmospheric requires a detailed understanding of their atmospheres lifetimes and fates. To address this issue a detailed review of the atmospheric chemistry of each of these classes was carried out t...

  11. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  12. AIR TOXICS MODELING FROM LOCAL TO REGIONAL SCALES TO SUPPORT THE 2002 MULTIPOLLUTANT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research focuses on developing models that can describe the chemical and physical processes affecting concentrations of toxic air pollutants in the atmosphere, at spatial scales, ranging from local (< 1 km) to regional (36 km). One objective of this task is to extend the ca...

  13. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  14. Gaseous emissions and toxic hazards associated with plastics in fire situations: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards of plastics in fire situations, the gases emitted, the factors influencing the nature of these emissions, the characteristics of toxic gases, and the results of laboratory studies, are discussed. The literature pertaining to the pyrolysis and oxidation of plastics was reviewed. An effort was made to define the state of the art for determining the toxic gases emitted by plastics under fire conditions. Recommendations are made and research needs defined as a result of this review.

  15. Health Status and Residential Exposure to Air Toxics: What Are the Effects on Children's Academic Achievement?

    PubMed

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671

  16. A search for microwave emission from cosmic ray air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Lee

    At the highest energies, the sources of cosmic rays should be among the most powerful extragalactic accelerators. Large observatories have revealed a flux suppression above a few 1019 eV, similar to the expected effect of the interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with the cosmic microwave background. The Pierre Auger Observatory has measured the largest sample of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers (EAS) at the highest energies leading to a precise measurement of the energy spectrum, hints of spatial anisotropy, and a surprising change in the chemical composition at the highest energies. To answer the question of the origin of UHECRs a larger sample of high quality data will be required to reach a statistically significant result. One of the possible techniques suggested to achieve this much larger data sample, in a cost effective way, is ultra-wide field of view microwave telescopes which would operate in an analogous way to the already successful fluorescence detection (FD) technique. Detecting EAS in microwaves could be done with 100% duty cycle and essentially no atmospheric effects. This presents many advantages over the FD which has a 10% duty cycle and requires extensive atmospheric monitoring for calibration. We have pursued both prototype detector designs and improved laboratory measurements, the results of which are reported herein, and published in (Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2012a; Williams et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013). The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment is the first ultra-wide field of view imaging telescope deployed to detect isotropic microwave emission from EAS. With 61 days of livetime data operating on the University of Chicago campus we were able to set new limits on isotropic microwave emission from extensive air showers. The new limits rule out current laboratory air plasma measurements (Gorham et al., 2008) by more than five sigma. The MIDAS experiment continues to

  17. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P.; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R.; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ≈1.5 ng m−3 reaching a maximum of ≈3 ng m−3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ≈1.7 ng m−3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels. PMID:19805267

  18. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630

  19. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) refers to a set of structurally diverse environmental chemicals, many with limited toxicity data, that have...

  20. RESOLVING FINE SCALE IN AIR TOXICS MODELING AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ITS SUB-GRID VARIABILITY FOR EXPOSURE ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation explains the importance of the fine-scale features for air toxics exposure modeling. The paper presents a new approach to combine local-scale and regional model results for the National Air Toxic Assessment. The technique has been evaluated with a chemical tra...

  1. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  2. On emissions trading, toxic debt and the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Implementation of emissions trading will have profound effects on the financial stability of coal generators. While the impact on equity capital is well understood, the potential fallout in the market for project finance is not. During the current global financial crisis, the form and quantum of transitional assistance to coal generators will be crucial to ensure ongoing participation of domestic and foreign project banks in the power markets. (author)

  3. Influence of benzene emission from motorcycle on Bangkok air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    This study investigated the influence of benzene concentration from motorcycle exhaust emissions on ambient air quality in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Measurement of benzene concentration in exhaust emissions is performed on a standard test driving cycle through which each motorcycle to be tested is driven. The test result revealed that average benzene concentrations in exhaust emission for the test motorcycles ranged from 3.02 to 109.68 mg/m 3. The finding also indicated that two-stroke motorcycles emitted five times more benzene than that of four-stroke motorcycles. Four air monitoring sites were strategically established to determine the relationship between average benzene concentrations with different traffic configurations in each traffic zone of BMR during peak/non-peak hours, day/night times and weekday/weekend. The shape of the curve for benzene level usually shows two peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush or commuter rush hours. The finding shows that the mean concentrations for benzene in all monitoring stations in the ambient air for peak hours (07:00-09:00 and 16:00-18:00 h) ranged from 15.1 to 42.4 μg/m 3. For non-peak hour (11:30-15:00 h), benzene levels were found in the range 16.3-30.9 μg/m 3. It is observed that higher levels of benzene are found among roadside stations with slow moving traffic while lower levels are found among roadside stations with fast traffic movement. Additional factors such as temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. are also considered in this study to determine the relationship between traffic conditions and ambient benzene levels.

  4. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  5. Adsorbent comparisons for anesthetic gas capture in hospital air emissions.

    PubMed

    Mehrata, Mina; Moralejo, Carol; Anderson, William A

    2016-08-23

    For the development of emission control strategies, activated carbon, zeolite, molecular sieves, and a silica gel were tested for adsorption of the newer anesthetic gases isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from air. The activated carbon Norit GCA 48 was selected for the best performance, and adsorption isotherms at room temperature were developed for the three anesthetics. Equilibrium capacities for this carbon were in the range of 500 to 1,000 mg g(-1) for these anesthetics at partial pressures ranging from 5 to 45 Torr, with the most volatile compound (desflurane) showing the least favorable adsorption. Activated carbons are therefore suggested for use as effective adsorbents in emission control of these anesthetic gases from hospitals. PMID:27222158

  6. Considerations on the radio emission from extended air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, E.; Sartori, G.

    2016-05-01

    The process of radio emission from extended air showers produced by high energy cosmic rays has reached a good level of comprehension and prediction. It has a coherent nature, so the emitted power scales quadratically with the energy of the primary particle. Recently, a laboratory measurement has revealed that an incoherent radiation mechanism exists, namely, the bremsstrahlung emission. In this paper we expound why bremsstrahlung radiation, that should be present in showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays, has escaped detection so far, and why, on the other side, it could be exploited, in the 1–10 GHz frequency range, to detect astronomical γ-rays. We propose an experimental scheme to verify such hypothesis, which, if correct, would deeply impact on the observational γ-ray astronomy.

  7. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  8. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  9. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored. PMID:26476306

  10. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  11. Air emission control equipment - the new challenge for equpiment suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Lobb, F.H.

    1997-12-31

    The combination of Title V, the CAM Rule and the Credible Evidence Rule demand industrial sites view the selection and operation of emission control devices in a whole new light. No longer can users see these devices as detached end of pipe pieces of equipment essentially purchased off lowest bid. These regulatory changes force plants to fully integrate the operation of these devices into their process control systems and instrumentation. And this is specifically EPA`s stated intent. EPA believes that by forcing sites to exercise the same knowledge and attention to air emissions that they do to operate their production processes, emissions will undergo a natural reduction across the country. Process and operational data that historically has been the sole province of sites becomes public. And compliance with state defined requirements must be demonstrated essentially continuously. This paper explores the new approach to compliance and provides insight through specific field examples/installations of emission control equipment. The author seeks to promote understanding through discussion of these significant regulatory changes.

  12. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  13. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  14. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  15. Gauging intraurban variability of ambient particulate matter arsenic and other air toxic metals from a network of monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Varun; Turner, Jay

    2014-06-01

    A four site monitoring network was established in the Missouri portion of Metropolitan St. Louis during 2008 to characterize spatiotemporal patterns in PM10 arsenic. Arsenic measured at two urban sites in the City of St. Louis was typically higher than arsenic at two suburban sites. Spatiotemporal variability in arsenic is examined by plotting the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) against the coefficient of divergence (COD) for each site-pair to merge the temporal tracking ability of PCC with COD's ability to gauge spatial homogeneity. Arsenic measured across the network is apportioned into a network-wide baseline and site-specific excess concentrations to semi-quantitatively differentiate local-scale emission source contributions from sources exerting influence over larger spatial scales. Comparing measured concentrations at each site against the network-wide baseline concentration using a scattergram of PCC and COD emphasizes the impact of local sources on intraurban variability. Conditional probability function (CPF) plots constructed using site-specific measured arsenic and surface winds identify a broad emission source region towards the east, but mask the bearings of local sources in the urban core. CPF plots using site-specific arsenic in excess of the baseline concentrations provide better resolution of local emission source bearings and are triangulated to identify a likely arsenic emission source zone along the industrialized Mississippi Riverfront. Additional air toxic metals measured in this study (selenium, manganese and lead) are also investigated to examine the efficacy of this methodology to characterize intraurban variability.

  16. Measurement of Ozone Emission and Particle Removal Rates from Portable Air Purifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Stephen A.; Walser, Maggie L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Portable air purifiers are popular consumer items, especially in areas with poor air quality. Unfortunately, most users of these air purifiers have minimal understanding of the factors affecting their efficiency in typical indoor settings. Emission of the air pollutant ozone (O[subscript 3]) by certain air purifiers is of particular concern. In an…

  17. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  18. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BF activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-07-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960's by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the US toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. Of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC's AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  19. Asphaltene Erosion Process in Air Plasma: Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Analysis for Air-Plasma Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, H.; Flores, O.; C. Poveda, J.; Campillo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was applied for plasma characterization during the erosion of asphaltene substrates. An amount of 100 mg of asphaltene was carefully applied to an electrode and exposed to air-plasma glow discharge at a pressure of 1.0 Torr. The plasma was generated in a stainless steel discharge chamber by an ac generator at a frequency of 60 Hz, output power of 50 W and a gas flow rate of 1.8 L/min. The electron temperature and ion density were estimated to be 2.15±0.11 eV and (1.24±0.05) × 1016 m-3, respectively, using a double Langmuir probe. OES was employed to observe the emission from the asphaltene exposed to air plasma. Both molecular band emission from N2, N+2, OH, CH, NH, O2 as well as CN, and atomic light emission from V and Hγ were observed and used to monitor the evolution of asphaltene erosion. The asphaltene erosion was analyzed with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) detector. The EDX analysis showed that the time evolution of elements C, O, S and V were similar; and the chemical composition of the exposed asphaltenes remained constant. Particle size evolution was measured, showing a maximum size of 2307 μm after 60 min. This behavior is most likely related to particle agglomeration as a function of time.

  20. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  1. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  2. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  3. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  4. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  5. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  6. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  7. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  8. SUMMARY OF JOINT DOD, EPA RESEARCH TO CONTROL VOC AND TOXIC EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results of joint projects conducted during last 6 years by the Department of Defense and EPA to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic emissions. ajor emphasis has been on product coating and metal finishing: (1) paint stripping using plastic...

  9. TOXIC ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SYNFUELS AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the potential for toxic organic emissions from synfuels wastewater treatment systems. The synthetic fuels facilities examined were coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction, shale oil, by-product coke, and associated pe...

  10. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.52 Portable air compressor...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  13. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  15. A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D.; Aceves, S.

    1995-10-03

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

  16. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  17. 40 CFR 86.167-17 - AC17 Air Conditioning Emissions Test Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AC17 Air Conditioning Emissions Test Procedure. 86.167-17 Section 86.167-17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  18. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

  19. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

  20. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    PubMed

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  1. Development and application of a mobile laboratory for measuring emissions from diesel engines. 2. Sampling for toxics and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Cocker, David R; Shah, Sandip D; Johnson, Kent C; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J Wayne; Norbeck, Joseph M

    2004-12-15

    Limited data are available on the emission rates of speciated volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM) from mobile, in-use diesel engines operated on the road. A design for the sampling of these fractions and the first data from in-use diesel sources are presented in this paper. Emission rates for carbonyls, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene, PM, and elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC) are reported for a vehicle driven while following the California Air Resources Board (ARB) four-mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) cycle and while transiting through a major transportation corridor. Results show that distance specific emission rates are substantially greater in congested traffic as compared with highway cruise conditions. Specifically, emissions of toxic compounds are 3-15 times greater, and PM is 7 times greater under these conditions. The dependence of these species on driving mode suggests that health and source apportionment studies will need to account for driving patterns in addition to emission factors. Comparison of the PM/NOx ratios obtained for the above tests provides insight into the presence and importance of "off-cycle" emissions during on-road driving. Measurements from a stationary source (operated and tested at constant engine speed) equipped with an engine similar to that in the HHDDT yielded a greater understanding of the relative dependence of emissions on load versus engine transients. These data are indicative of the type of investigations made possible by the development of this novel laboratory. PMID:15669343

  2. Incinerator toxic emissions: a brief summary of human health effects with a note on regulatory control.

    PubMed

    Rowat, S C

    1999-05-01

    Toxic emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and hazardous waste incineration are discussed, with reference to recent reviews and to government standards and controls. Studies of known effects of aromatic hydrocarbons, other organics, dioxins, metals, and gases, on fish, soils, plants, and particularly humans are briefly reviewed. A summary of potential problems with existing and proposed incineration is developed, including: (1) lack of toxicity data on unidentified organic emissions; (2) unavoidability of hazardous metal emissions as particles and volatiles; (3) inefficient stack operation resulting in unknown amounts of increased emissions; (4) formation in the stack of highly toxic dioxins and furans, especially under inefficient conditions, and their build-up in the environment and in human tissue; (5) the lack of adequate disposal techniques for incinerator fly ash and wash-water; (6) the contribution of emitted gases such as NO2, SO2 and HCL to smog, acid rain, and the formation of ozone, and the deleterious effects of these on human respiratory systems; (7) the effects and build-up in human tissue of other emitted organics such as benzene, toluene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alkanes, alcohols, and phenols; (8) lack of pollution-control and real-time efficiency-monitoring equipment in existing installations. The inability of regulatory bodies historically to ensure compliance with emission standards is discussed, and a concluding opinion is offered that it is inadvisable to engage in new incinerator construction with present knowledge and conditions. PMID:10416945

  3. Fort Hall air emissions study, Fort Hall Indian Reservation, Fort Hall, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.W.; Sonnenfeld, N.L.; Rolka, D.L.; Kaye, W.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted a cross-sectional health study at the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in Idaho to investigate concerns about the health effects on reservation residents that might be attributed to two phosphate-processing plants located near the reservation`s southern border. In addition to increased particulates, air emissions from these plants included phosphorus pentoxide, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, uranium, and its daughter radionuclides. A total of 515 participants -- 229 from Fort Hall and 286 from a comparison group at the Duck Valley Indian Reservation -- were interviewed in person by trained American Indian interviewers. Approximately 100 residents of each reservation performed pulmonary function tests and provided urine specimens that were analyzed for cadmium, chromium, fluoride, and several renal biomarkers.

  4. [Characteristic of toxic risks of air pollution by chemical admixtures aboard the piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedieva, L N; Bogomolov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the chemical composition of air revealed by the sanitary-chemical and toxicological investigations in multifactorial ground-based tests and long-term space flights aboard the Salyut- 6, 7, Mir and the International space station have been used to deduce the chemical characteristic and to substantiate methods to and criteria for evaluation of toxic risks to space crews from air chemical pollution. Of particular concern were the toxic risks and crew protection during the first ingress to modules on the stage of station assembly in orbit, in the course of long-term missions, and in the event of acute exposure in off-nominal and emergency conditions. PMID:19711857

  5. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  6. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, G D; Kline, S; Albert, R E; Baxter, C S; Bernstein, D I; Buncher, C R

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admissions or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. Inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SOx, NOx, O3, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM10)] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particulate and gaseous air toxics, has been associated with an increase in asthma among children. In addition, current associations of adverse health effects with existing pollution measurements are often noted at concentrations below those that produce effects in controlled animal and human exposures to each pollutant alone. These findings imply that adverse responses are augmented when persons are exposed to irritant mixtures of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. An evaluation of dose-response information for urban air toxics and biological

  7. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  8. Toxic gas phase emissions from the combustion of pulverized coal mixed with powders of waste plastics or tire crumb

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Courtemanche, B.; Atal, A.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents results on the gas phase emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative waste fuels (plastics and automobile tires). The plastics examined were poly(ethylene) and poly(styrene). All fuels were burned in powder form. Mixtures (50- 50 by weight) of the above waste fuels with coal were also burned. Results are reported on the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and CO{sub 2} emissions. For a limited number of cases results are also presented on the release of organic air toxics, in particular the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments were conducted under well-controlled conditions in bench-scale laboratory facilities. Coal particles, {approx}100 {mu}m, and particles of pulverized alternative fuels, {approx}200 {mu}m, were injected and burned in an electrically-heated droptube furnace. The furnace temperature was set to 1250{degrees}C. The residence time of the gas was 1 s. Experiments spanned a range of fuel-lean ({phi} < 1), stoichiometric ({phi} = 1) and fuel-rich ({phi} > 1) conditions. Results showed that (a) the NO{sub x} emissions of tires were a few times lower than those of coal and those of plastics were even lower. Thus, blending these alterative fuels with coal drastically reduced NO{sub x} emissions.

  9. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  10. Influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Streets, David G.

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effects of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, and the resulting feedback to natural emissions and air quality. Speciated sector- and region-specific 2030 emission factors were developed to produce gas and particle emission inventories that followed Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and B1 emission trajectories. Current and future climate model simulations were run, in which anthropogenic emission changes affected climate, which fed back to natural emissions from lightning (NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, N2O, H2O2, HO2, CO), soils (dust, bacteria, NO, N2O, H2, CH4, H2S, DMS, OCS, CS2), the ocean (bacteria, sea spray, DMS, N2O, H2, CH4), vegetation (pollen, spores, isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, other VOCs), and photosynthesis/respiration. New methods were derived to calculate lightning flash rates as a function of size-resolved collisions and other physical principles and pollen, spore, and bacteria emissions. Although the B1 scenario was "cleaner" than the A1B scenario, global warming increased more in the B1 scenario because much A1B warming was masked by additional reflective aerosol particles. Thus neither scenario is entirely beneficial from a climate and health perspective, and the best control measure is to reduce warming gases and warming/cooling particles together. Lightning emissions declined by ˜3% in the B1 scenario and ˜12% in the A1B scenario as the number of ice crystals, thus charge-separating bounceoffs, decreased. Net primary production increased by ˜2% in both scenarios. Emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes increased by ˜1% in the A1B scenario and 4-5% in the B1 scenario. Near-surface ozone increased by ˜14% in the A1B scenario and ˜4% in the B1 scenario, reducing ambient isoprene in the latter case. Gases from soils increased in both scenarios due to higher temperatures. Near-surface PM2.5 mass increased by ˜2% in the A1B scenario and decreased by ˜2% in the B1 scenario. The resulting 1.4% higher

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  14. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING AIRBORNE LWIR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous releases from petrochemical, refinery, and electrical production facilities can contribute to regional air quality problems. Fugitive emissions or leaks can be costly to industry in terms of lost materials and products. Ground-based sampling and monitoring for leaks are t...

  15. 76 FR 15266 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Pollutants; Notice of Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... aspects of the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional...

  16. 75 FR 67676 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County,...

  17. Verifiable emission reductions in European urban areas with air-quality models.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, A N; Rickerby, D G

    2016-07-18

    The first and second AutoOil programmes were conducted since 1992 as a partnership between the European Commission and the automobile and oil industries. These have introduced emission reductions in Europe based on numerical modelling for a target year. They aimed to identify the most cost-effective way to meet desired future air quality over the whole European Union. In their time, these regulatory efforts were considered an important step towards a new approach for establishing European emission limits. With this work, we review the effectiveness of forecasts carried out with numerical modelling and compare these with the actual measurements at the target year, which was the year 2010. Based on these comparisons and new technological innovations these methodologies can incorporate new sectorial assessments for improving the accuracy of the modelling forecasts and for examining the representativeness of emissions reductions, as well as for the simultaneous assessment of population exposure to cocktails of toxic substances under realistic climatological conditions. We also examined at the ten AutoOil domains the geographical generalisation of the forecasts for CO and NO2 at 1065 European urban areas on the basis of their population and the local population density. PMID:27117117

  18. [Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)--indoor air pollution by PCB-containing durable elastic sealants].

    PubMed

    Ludewig, S; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of the persistent and lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) e.g. in electrical engineering, hydraulics and chemistry of the polymers, caused their ubiquitous distribution and accumulation in food chains. Chronic toxicity in humans is known from several incidents of PCB contaminated food. Dose-response experiences, however, remain uncertain due to the technical grade of PCB as a complex mixture of about 150 congeners and many impurities, like polychlorinated dibenzodurans. Some information on the toxicity of a few PCB congeners is available from animal experiments. Large differences in enzyme-inductive efficacy between the PCB congeners rendered the use of toxicity equivalent factors (related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, "Seveso-Dioxin") necessary. For risk assessment, the use of "sum of PCB", calculated from questionable determinations of 6 minor toxic congeners, is insufficient. Serious problems arise from evaporation of PCB e.g. in technical rooms of telephone companies (in Germany: Telekom) and generally, from sealing materials in buildings. The German Federal Health Administration, BGA, recommends 300 ng total PCB/m3 indoor air as "precautionary value". Since neither the extreme differences in toxicity of the congeners nor bioaccumulation are taken into account, this recommendation of BGA can not be justified any longer. PMID:8219584

  19. AIR EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL HEATING: THE WOOD HEATING OPTION PUT INTO ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contribution of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid preci...

  20. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  1. (AWMA) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  2. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of chlorobenzenes (revised March 1994). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ;Table of Contents: Background; Emissions from Chlorobenzenes Production; Emissions from Major Uses of Chlorobenzene; Emission from the Use of Materials Containing Chlorobenzenes; Byproduct Emission -- Processes Unrelated to Production or Use of Chlorobenzenes; Ambient Air and Stationary Source Test Procedures; Potential Source Categories of Chlorobenzenes Emissions; Textile Fiber Dyeing Facilities with Annual Sales Greater Than $1 Million; and Summary of Emission Factors Listed in this Document.

  3. 77 FR 555 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the secondary lead smelting source category regulated under national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. These final amendments include revisions to the emissions limits for lead compounds; revisions to the standards for fugitive emissions; the addition of total hydrocarbon and dioxin and furan emissions......

  4. MODELS TO ESTIMATE VOLATILE ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from municipal sewers are usually omitted from hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventories. This omission may result from a lack of appreciation for the potential emission impact and/or from inadequate emission estimation procedures. This paper presents an analys...

  5. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  6. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  8. Air quality impacts of power plant emissions in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiming; Wang, Litao; Shen, Minjia; Li, Lin; Hu, Jingnan

    2007-05-01

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system was applied to estimate the air quality impacts of power plants in 2000 and 2008 in Beijing, and the intake fractions (IF) were calculated to see the public health risks posed. Results show that in 2000 the high emission contribution induced a relatively small contribution to average ambient concentration and a significant impact on the urban area (9.52 microg/m(3) of SO(2) and 5.29 microg/m(3) of NO(x)). The IF of SO(2), NO(x) and PM(10) are 7.4 x 10(-6), 7.4 x 10(-6) and 8.7 x 10(-5), respectively. Control measures such as fuel substitution, flue gas desulfurization, dust control improvement and flue gas denitration planned before 2008 will greatly mitigate the SO(2) and PM(10) pollution, especially alleviating the pressure on the urban area to reach the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). NO(x) pollution will be mitigated with 34% decrease in concentration but further controls are still needed. PMID:16899328

  9. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-06-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process.

  10. [Population exposure to air pollutant emissions in Human Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Hao, Jiming; Ye, Xuemei; Zhu, Tianle

    2003-05-01

    Estimate of population exposure to air pollution is necessary to health impact assessment. Based on the concept of intake fraction, a rapid population exposure assessment method was developed in this paper. The CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model was applied to estimate intake fractions of primary and secondary fine particles emitted from a set of 17 power plants in Hunan Province. Results showed that within 500 km from the emission source, average values of intake fraction were 9.73 x 10(-6) for PM2.5, 2.39 x 10(-6) for sulfate and 2.47 x 10(-6) for nitrate. From regression analysis, good correlations were found for the relations among intake fraction of PM2.5, stack height, and population (R2 = 0.83), and intake fraction of SO(4)2- and population (R2 = 0.64), and intake fraction of NO3-, stack height and population (R2 = 0.74). Iso-intake fraction maps were produced based on the regression equations and population distribution, which reflected the differentiation of population density and enabled simple impact assessment for emission sources in this region. PMID:12916195

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  12. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    SciTech Connect

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  13. Air quality improvements following implementation of Lisbon's Low Emission Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, F.; Gomes, P.; Tente, H.; Carvalho, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Monjardino, J.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution levels within Lisbon city limits have been exceeding the limit values established in European Union and national legislation since 2001, with the most problematic cases related to the levels of fine particles (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mainly originated by road traffic. With the objective of answering this public health issue, an Air Quality Action Plan was developed in 2006 and the respective Enforcement Plan was published in 2009. From the overall strategy, one of the major measures presented in this strategy was the creation of a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) in Lisbon, which has been operating since July 2011. Implemented at different stages it has progressively expanded its area, including more vehicle types and adopting more stringent requirements in terms of minimum emission standards (currently LEZ phase 2 with EURO 2 in the city center - zone 1 and EURO 1 in the rest of the LEZ area - zone 2). At the same time the road axis comprised of Marquês de Pombal square and Avenida da Liberdade was subjected to profound changes in its traffic circulation model, reducing road traffic volumes. The analysis of the air quality data before and after the LEZ phase 2 has shown positive evolution when comparing the period between 2011 (before measures) and 2013 (after measures). In 2013, there was a reduction in PM10 annual average concentration of 23% and NO2 annual average concentrations of 12%, compared with the year 2011. Although PM10 reductions were more significant inside the LEZ area, the same was not valid for NO2, suggesting that the implementation of these measures was not as effective in reducing NO2 levels as shown by results in other cities like Berlin and London. The results from road traffic characterization indicate a relevant effect on fleet renewal with an overall decrease in the relative weight of pre-EURO 2 vehicles in 2012/2013, compared with data from 2011. An important increase in the share of EURO 4 and EURO 5 vehicles was also

  14. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Kline, S.; Albert, R.E.; Baxter, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admission or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SO{sub x}NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM{sub 10})] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. 179 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  16. Air quality impacts of motor vehicle emissions in the south coast air basin: Current versus more stringent control scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Susan; Kidokoro, Toru; Sonoda, Yukihiro; Lohman, Kristen; Karamchandani, Prakash; Chen, Shu-Yun; Minoura, Hiroaki

    2012-02-01

    States are working to comply with the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Often, regulations restricting vehicle emissions are promulgated in order to attain compliance with the NAAQS. Currently, more stringent vehicle emission regulations are being considered by government agencies. This paper compares emissions from passenger cars and light duty trucks under the current California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV II) standards to a control scenario which was anticipated in 2008 to become LEV III (referred to as "more stringent control" in this paper) and determines if the scenario would result in additional improvements to air quality in California's South Coast Air Basin. The air quality modeling was performed using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) for years 2005, 2014 and 2020. The more stringent control sensitivity study simulated a scenario in which all new passenger cars and light duty trucks in the California South Coast Air Basin in year 2016 achieve Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) tail pipe emissions, zero evaporative emissions and more stringent aggressive driving requirements. The total on-road vehicles emissions difference when averaged across the South Coast Air Basin showed the more stringent scenario compared to LEV II to have reductions of 1% for oxides of nitrogen (NO x), 1% for as reactive organic gases (ROG) and 5% for carbon monoxide (CO) in 2030. LEV II modeled ozone levels in the western areas of the basin increased in 2014 and 2020 as compared to 2005, because these areas are VOC-sensitive and the reductions in NO x emissions in these regions are larger than the VOC reductions. In other areas of the South Coast Basin, ozone is reduced by 1.5% or less. The more stringent control scenario modeled levels of ozone have a maximum decrease from LEV II levels by 1% or less in 2014 and 1.5% or less in 2020.

  17. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  2. Climate change air toxic co-reduction in the context of macroeconomic modelling.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Chen, Pi-Cheng; Shi, Hsiu-Ching; Chao, Chia-Wei

    2013-08-15

    This paper examines the health implications of global PM reduction accompanying greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the 180 national economies of the global macroeconomy. A human health effects module based on empirical data on GHG emissions, PM emissions, background PM concentrations, source apportionment and human health risk coefficients is used to estimate reductions in morbidity and mortality from PM exposures globally as co-reduction of GHG reductions. These results are compared against the "fuzzy bright line" that often underlies regulatory decisions for environmental toxics, and demonstrate that the risk reduction through PM reduction would usually be considered justified in traditional risk-based decisions for environmental toxics. It is shown that this risk reduction can be on the order of more than 4 × 10(-3) excess lifetime mortality risk, with global annual cost savings of slightly more than $10B, when uniform GHG reduction measures across all sectors of the economy form the basis for climate policy ($2.2B if only Annex I nations reduce). Consideration of co-reduction of PM-10 within a climate policy framework harmonized with other environmental policies can therefore be an effective driver of climate policy. An error analysis comparing results of the current model against those of significantly more spatially resolved models at city and national scales indicates errors caused by the low spatial resolution of the global model used here may be on the order of a factor of 2. PMID:23629011

  3. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  4. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  5. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: OFF-HIGHWAY MOBILE SOURCE EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An emission inventory of mobile off-highway sources of air pollution has been determined for the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) in St. Louis, Missouri. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, SOx and particulate matter have been calculated with the aid of a computer for the 1,989 grid squ...

  6. 76 FR 56750 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., on-road mobile, and non-road mobile sources of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, carbon... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions... submitting comments. E-mail: a-and-r-docket@epa.gov . Fax: (202) 566-1741. Mail: Air Emissions...

  7. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  8. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORIES FROM THREE MAJOR URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports EPA/AEERL's progress on emissions inventory evaluation and improvement under a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions research program in support of the Urban Area Source Program required under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). he paper ...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... air pollutant emission standards? (a) General requirements. The requirements in paragraphs...

  10. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  11. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  12. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  13. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  14. Assessment of PAH toxicity and mutagenicity in emissions from coal and biofuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nirat; Pyari, A Anand; Saini, Manoj K; Kumari, K Maharaj; Lakhani, Anita

    2010-07-01

    Emissions from combustion of coal, wood and cowdung cakes in domestic cookstoves were sampled through a Stack Monitor on Glass Fibre thimbles. 16 PAH compounds were quantified in the samples extracted in dichloromethane by Gas Chromatography using FID detector. The toxic potencies of the quantified PAHs were determined by Toxicity Equivalence (TEF) Approach and their mutagenecities were tested by using Ames Plate Incorporation Method. All the 16 PAHs were determined in the emission of wood, including genotoxic compounds: carcinogens (BaA, Chy, BbF, BkF, BaP, DbA and IP) and co-carcinogens (Fla, Pyr, BghiP). In coal smoke, only 12 compounds were detected, while in cowdung cake 15 PAHs were detected except Phenanthrene. Emission factors on a fuel weight basis are highest for cowdung cake (120.23 mg/kg), followed by wood (48.97 mg/kg) and coal (28.85 mg/kg). Most of the contribution to the total PAH concentrations was from the high molecular weight compounds. Considering the genotoxic PAHs, the emission factor ranking order was from cow dung cake (115.85 mg/kg) to wood (43.03 mg/kg) and lowest for coal fuel (25.97 mg/kg). The emission factor for BaP was highest for cowdung cake (78.83 mg/kg) followed by coal (5.53 mg/kg) and wood fuel (4.47 mg/kg). Calculation of toxic potencies reveals that the carcinogenic contribution from low molecular weight PAHs is relatively much lower than high molecular weight PAHs for each tested fuel. Cow dung cake extracts did not show mutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella test probably due to lower concentration of the direct-mutagens like Pyr, Chy. In contrast, the extracts of coal and wood had higher concentrations of direct-mutagens like Pyr, Chy, so positive results were obtained. PMID:21391389

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  16. Geothermal ground gas emissions and indoor air pollution in Rotorua, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Durand, Michael; Scott, Bradley J

    2005-06-01

    The emission of toxic gases from the soil is a hazard in geothermal regions that are also urbanized because buildings constructed on geothermal ground may be subject to the ingress of gases from the soil directly into the structure. The Rotorua geothermal field, New Zealand, is extensively urbanized but to date no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. The main gases emitted are hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), both of which are highly toxic and denser than air. This paper reports preliminary findings from a study of selected buildings constructed in the gas anomaly area. Properties were investigated for evidence of ingress by H2S, CO2, and 222Rn, with a view to determine the means and rates of gas entry and the nature of any consequent hazard. H2S and CO2 were investigated using infrared active gas analysers and passive detector tubes left in place for 10-48 h. 222Rn was measured over a period of 3 months by poly-allyl diglycol carbonate sensors. Eight of the nine buildings studied were found to suffer problems with soil gases entering the indoor air through the structure. The primary means of gas entry was directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and subsurface pipes. Indoor vents were located and found emitting up to approximately 200 ppm H2S and approximately 15% CO2, concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vent (e.g., children playing at floor level). In some properties, gas problems occurred despite preventative measures having been made during construction or during later renovations. Typically, these measures include the under-laying of concrete floors with a gas-proof butanol seal, under-floor ventilation systems or the installation of positive-pressure air conditioning. Recently constructed buildings (<10 years) with butanol seals were nevertheless affected by ground gas emissions, and we conclude that such measures are not always effective in the long term

  17. Gas-fired boiler and turbine air toxics summary report. Final report, January-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi-Lane, C.; Stein, D.; Himes, R.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the report is to provide a summary of the criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from a variety of gas-fired stationary sources including utility boilers, utility turbines, and turbines used for natural gas transmission. The report provides emission factors for each compound measured as a function of load to support general use during the preparation of Title V permit applications.

  18. Impacts of traffic-induced lead emissions on air, soil and blood lead levels in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Hashisho, Z; El-Fadel, M

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a purely toxic heavy metal which induces a wide variety of adverse physiologic effects. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 8,000 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, traffic-induced emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitute more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas where no phase-out activities have been adopted. Gasoline lead content and traffic volume are strongly correlated with concentrations of lead in various environmental media. In the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline remains the predominant grade in many countries. This paper assesses the status of lead pollution from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Beirut based on field measurements of lead in air and roadside dust of urban and rural/suburban areas and recent data on soil and blood lead levels. Average atmospheric lead concentrations was about 1.86 microg m(-3) at urban locations and 0.147 microg m(-3) at suburban locations. The analysis of roadside dust revealed an average lead level of 353 microg g(-1) along urban streets and 125 microg g(-1) along rural/suburban roads. Blood lead levels were also relatively high in comparison to countries where leaded gasoline has been phased-out. PMID:15074616

  19. Emissions of Toxic Release Inventory listed chemicals from MSW landfills and federal right to know programs

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is considering expanding the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) to include releases from sanitary services including municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Information about release of TRI-listed chemicals from MSW landfills under federal community right to known laws is scattered throughout the literature and difficult for the general public to obtain. Reports prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) considering TRI expansion to include MSW landfills recognized the quantity and diversity of toxic compounds, some carcinogenic, present in landfill gases and leachate. This two-part discussion summarizes existing literature on emissions of TRI-listed chemicals from landfills and examines the extent and limits of each agency`s program evaluating Environmental Health and Safety impacts of landfill emissions. In reviewing limited emissions data from landfills, EPA identified both known and suspected carcinogens (such) as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride. At least 12 pollutants such as benzene, chloroform, and ethylene dichloride contained in MSW landfill emissions have the potential to produce health effects other than cancer.

  20. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near

  1. OPTIMIZING SENSITIVITY OF SIM MODE OF GC/MS ANALYSIS FOR EPA'S TO-14 AIR TOXICS METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ambient levels in air are published in Method TO-14 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air." To achieve the sensi...

  2. FURTHER REFINEMENTS AND TESTING OF APEX3.0: EPA'S POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC INHALATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX(3.0)) is a PC-based model that was derived from the probabilistic NAAQS Exposure Model for carbon monoxide (pNEM/CO). APEX will be one of the tools used to estimate human population exposure for criteria and air toxic pollutants as part ...

  3. An Evaluation of EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with Benzene Measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial reso...

  4. LINKING AIR TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CMAQ TO THE HAPEM5 EXPOSURE MODEL AT NEIGHORHOOD SCALES FOR THE PHILADELPHIA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For ...

  5. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-MITSUI-BE activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to the facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the U.S. toward SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on flour coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MCC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF press for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process.

  6. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range. PMID:27084202

  7. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    gasoline and diesel vehicles and the USEPA SPECIATE (Simon et al., 2010) profile for CNG vehicles. NMVOCs emissions were composed of 31% aromatic compounds, 29% linear alkanes, 20% olefins, 12% ramified alkanes, 7% aldehydes and negligible contributions from cycloalkanes, ketones, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other NMVOCs. Aromatic compounds dominated gasoline light-duty vehicles' emissions (~45%), while linear alkanes those of CNG light-duty vehicles (~80%). Aldehydes' contributions increased for diesel light and heavy-duty vehicles. VOCs speciation schemes for transport emissions were collected from the literature from Europe, USA, Asia, Oceania and Latin America with the aim to account for the associated uncertainty by compound for each fuel and technology type. The resulting individual NMVOCs emissions were used to calculate the corresponding tropospheric ozone formation (Carter, 1994), as well as the human toxicity potential in terms of 1.4 dichlorobenzene. Olefins and aromatic compounds in terms of species, and gasoline in terms of fuels, were found to impose the highest risk in urban environments regarding air quality and human health.

  8. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  9. 78 FR 25242 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the States of Arizona, California, and Nevada AGENCY... Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP...: steckel.andrew@epa.gov . 3. Mail or deliver: Andrew Steckel (Air-4), U.S. Environmental Protection...

  10. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  11. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Electronic Reporting Tool FR Federal Register GACT Generally Available Control Technology HAP Hazardous Air... implemented this provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (Strategy), (64 FR 38715, July..., commercial coal combustion, commercial oil combustion, and commercial wood combustion. (See 63 FR...

  12. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  13. Air pollution emission factors. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission factors for a variety of industrial, stationary, and mobile sources. Emissions inventories are discussed in terms of specific compounds, as well as by source type. Computer simulations utilizing emission factors in air pollution impact studies are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. ESTIMATING LIGHTNING-GENERATED NOX EMISSIONS FOR REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The specification of natural NOx emissions may be important for regional-scale air pollution modeling. ow that a national lightning detection network is operating, it is possible to make episodic estimates of lightning generated NOx emissions and to resolve these emissions to fin...

  15. Development and deployment of AQUIS: A PC-based emission inventory calculator and air information management system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.; Narducci, P.; Bormet, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system. AQUIS assists users in calculation emissions, both traditional and toxic, and tracking and reporting emissions and source information. With some facilities having over 1200 sources and AQUIS calculating as many as 125 pollutants for a single source, tracking and correlating this information involve considerable effort. Originally designed for use at seven facilities of the Air Force Material Command, the user community has expanded to over 50 facilities since last reported at the 1993 Air and Waste Management Association (AWMA) annual meeting. This expansion in the user community has provided an opportunity to test the system under expanded operating conditions and in applications not anticipated during original system design. User feedback is used to determine needed enhancements and features and to prioritize the content of new releases. In responding to evolving user needs and new emission calculation procedures, it has been necessary to reconfigure AQUIS several times. Reconfigurations have ranged from simple to complex. These changes have necessitated augmenting quality assurance (QA) and validation procedures.

  16. Validation of an in vitro exposure system for toxicity assessment of air-delivered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sung; Peters, Thomas M; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S

    2013-02-01

    To overcome the limitations of in vitro exposure of submerged lung cells to nanoparticles (NPs), we validated an integrated low flow system capable of generating and depositing airborne NPs directly onto cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The in vitro exposure system was shown to provide uniform and controlled dosing of particles with 70.3% efficiency to epithelial cells grown on transwells. This system delivered a continuous airborne exposure of NPs to lung cells without loss of cell viability in repeated 4h exposure periods. We sequentially exposed cells to air-delivered copper (Cu) NPs in vitro to compare toxicity results to our prior in vivo inhalation studies. The evaluation of cellular dosimetry indicated that a large amount of Cu was taken up, dissolved and released into the basolateral medium (62% of total mass). Exposure to Cu NPs decreased cell viability to 73% (p<0.01) and significantly (p<0.05) elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 that mirrored our findings from subacute in vivo inhalation studies in mice. Our results show that this exposure system is useful for screening of NP toxicity in a manner that represents cellular responses of the pulmonary epithelium in vivo. PMID:22981796

  17. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  18. Toxicity assessment of air-delivered particle-bound polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-03-20

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47 and 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particles-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  19. Toxicity Assessment of Air-delivered Particle-bound Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47, 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particle-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following

  1. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  2. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727

  3. Interdisciplinary approach to assessing the health risk of air toxic chemicals: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Selgrade, M.J.; Busnell, P.J.; Simmons, J.E.; Allen, J.; McGee, J.; Hauchman, F.; Graham, J.A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology program to provide key health effects data missing from the current data base. A priority ranking of chemicals based on the potential for substantial human exposure and the need for health effects data was developed to identify candidate chemicals for toxicological research. The major goal of the program is to evaluate the concentration-response from acute, intermittent and subchronic inhalation exposures to developmental, genetic, hepatic, immunologic, neurologic, pulmonary and reproductive toxicity in a manner that provides data for the regulatory health assessment of air toxic chemicals. Extrapolation and dosimetry research is also conducted to improve the basis for human risk assessment. Determination of biological endpoints to be examined will be decided on a compound-by-compound basis, depending on the physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the chemical and evaluation of the existing health data base. Although the main emphasis is on inhalation as the primary route of exposure, some of the laboratories will compare inhalation to other routes, such as oral, to better understand the influence of route of exposure and hence the potential applicability of existing health data. Acute and intermittent exposures will be done for all compounds. Upon evaluation of the acute results, a decision will be made as to whether subchronic studies are needed. Endpoints that show unusual sensitivity may be investigated in greater detail. If adverse effects are observed at ambient levels, the time to recovery after exposure will be investigated. 36 refs.

  4. Traffic-related air toxics and preterm birth: a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles county, California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have associated air pollutant exposures with adverse birth outcomes, but there is still relatively little information to attribute effects to specific emission sources or air toxics. We used three exposure data sources to examine risks of preterm birth in Los Angeles women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants - including specific toxics - during pregnancy. Methods We identified births during 6/1/04-3/31/06 to women residing within five miles of a Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES III) monitoring station. We identified preterm cases and, using a risk set approach, matched cases to controls based on gestational age at birth. Pregnancy period exposure averages were estimated for a number of air toxics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), source-specific PM2.5 (fine particulates with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) based on a Chemical Mass Balance model, criteria air pollutants based on government monitoring data, and land use regression (LUR) estimates of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Associations between these metrics and odds of preterm birth were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Odds of preterm birth increased 6-21% per inter-quartile range increase in entire pregnancy exposures to organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), benzene, and diesel, biomass burning and ammonium nitrate PM2.5, and 30% per inter-quartile increase in PAHs; these pollutants were positively correlated and clustered together in a factor analysis. Associations with LUR exposure metrics were weaker (3-4% per inter-quartile range increase). Conclusions These latest analyses provide additional evidence of traffic-related air pollution's impact on preterm birth for women living in Southern California and indicate PAHs as a pollutant of concern that should be a focus of future studies. Other

  5. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  6. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  7. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2

  8. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  9. A study on toxic organic emissions from batch combustion of styrene.

    PubMed

    Westblad, Charlotte; Levendis, Yiannis A; Richter, Henning; Howard, Jack B; Carlson, Joel

    2002-10-01

    Results from a laboratory-scale investigation on batch combustion of styrene are reported herein. Limited quantities of waste styrene monomer are incinerated, however this monomer is, also, the primary pyrolyzate during combustion of waste polystyrene, the second most abundant polymer produced worldwide. Thus, its combustion-generated emissions are of importance to the operation of hazardous waste incinerators and municipal waste-to-energy powerplants. This work focuses on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulates, as well as carbon monoxide. To investigate methods for minimizing such emissions, batch combustion of the monomer was conducted in a two-stage muffle furnace. An additional air mixing chamber was installed between the two stages. Small quantities of the liquid monomer were inserted in the primary furnace which served as a gasifier/burner. The furnace temperature was in the range of 300-1000 degrees C and diffusion flames were formed under most conditions. Upon mixing with additional air, combustion of unburned gaseous fuel and primary reaction products continued in the secondary furnace (afterburner), which was kept at a constant temperature of either 1000 or 800 degrees C. Using this technique, conditions that minimize emissions were explored and theoretical investigations on the fate of pollutants in the secondary furnace were undertaken. Results revealed that combustion of styrene, which is a highly volatile fuel, occurred with the formation of flames that were often non-anchored, unsteady and unstable. Emissions of organic pollutants, soot and CO were more intense than in the case of the polystyrene combustion, studied previously under identical conditions, due to the additional depolymerization/pyrolysis steps therein. The emissions from the secondary furnace exceeded those of the primary furnace, consistent with the fact that a very significant fraction of the fuel conversion occurred in the secondary chamber. Clear trends

  10. Mapping Emissions that Contribute to Air Pollution Using Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A. J.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    The adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) is used to map emissions that contribute to air pollution at receptors of interest. Adjoint tools provide an efficient way to calculate the sensitivity of a model response to a large number of model inputs, a task that would require thousands of simulations using a more traditional forward sensitivity approach. Initial applications of this technique, demonstrated here, are to benzene and directly-emitted diesel particulate matter, for which atmospheric reactions are neglected. Emissions of these pollutants are strongly influenced by light-duty gasoline vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks, respectively. We study air quality responses in three receptor areas where populations have been identified as especially susceptible to, and adversely affected by air pollution. Population-weighted air basin-wide responses for each pollutant are also evaluated for the entire San Francisco Bay area. High-resolution (1 km horizontal grid) emission inventories have been developed for on-road motor vehicle emission sources, based on observed traffic count data. Emission estimates represent diurnal, day of week, and seasonal variations of on-road vehicle activity, with separate descriptions for gasoline and diesel sources. Emissions that contribute to air pollution at each receptor have been mapped in space and time using the adjoint method. Effects on air quality of both relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) perturbations to underlying emission inventories are analyzed. The contributions of local versus upwind sources to air quality in each receptor area are quantified, and weekday/weekend and seasonal variations in the influence of emissions from upwind areas are investigated. The contribution of local sources to the total air pollution burden within the receptor areas increases from about 40% in the summer to about 50% in the winter due to increased atmospheric stagnation. The effectiveness of control

  11. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  12. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  13. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  14. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  15. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  18. [Revision process and thinking of emission standard of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) was released recently, which is the third revision since the first release in 1985. This paper reviewed the revision process for the emission standard of air pollutants in cement industry, analyzed the impact of environmental protection situation and management policies changes on the content and form of the standard. The standard formulating principles and several key issues together constitute the base of emission standard, which are not only important to complete the theories and methods of emission standard development, but also important to improve the environmental management and pollution control level. PMID:25826951

  19. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.