Science.gov

Sample records for air toxics study

  1. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  2. Multiple Air-Toxics Exposure Study Working Paper Number 3. Urban air-toxics exposure model: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District of California completed a Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES) that examines the additive risk from a number of air toxics on an urban area. The project, though partially funded by EPA, is an example of how a State or local agency may approach assessing their local air-toxics risks as is encouraged by EPA's Urban Air Toxics Program which results from EPA's Air Toxic Strategy. The report is a summary of the methods used by the California agency. Though not intended as an endorsement of the entire contents of the report, EPA is reproducing their report (Working Paper Number 3) to benefit and encourage other agencies that may be contemplating such an assessment.

  3. The National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, much attention has been directed at understanding the impact of mobile sources on near-road air quality, especially PM and its components, NOx and CO, but little information exists for mobile source air toxics (MSATs). MSATs of interest to this project are 1,3-butadiene...

  4. Case study of municipal air pollution policies: Houston's Air Toxic Control Strategy under the White Administration, 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Bruhl, Rebecca J; Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Local government has traditionally played only a minor role in regulating airborne toxic pollutants. However, from 2004 to 2009, the City of Houston implemented a novel, municipality-based air toxics reduction strategy to address what it considered unacceptable health risks and an insufficient regulatory response from state and federal agencies. The city's effort to exert local control over stationary sources of air toxics represents a unique opportunity to study the selection and performance of policy tools and to consider their ramifications for the design of future air pollution control strategies. The results of this case study demonstrate the potential for municipal government to use a combination of cooperative and confrontational policies to stimulate responses from private industry and state and federal regulators as part of a strategy to address local air quality problems.

  5. POPULATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODEL FOR AIR TOXICS: A BENZENE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing a human exposure and dose model called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) to characterize population exposure to air toxics in support of the National Air ...

  6. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  7. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  8. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  9. EPA'S CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO ASSISTING STATES AND REGIONS WITH AIR TOXICS PROBLEMS: FIVE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. he strategy calls for state and local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role. he shift in emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's Offices of Research ...

  10. An exploratory study of ambient air toxics exposure in pregnancy and the risk of neuroblastoma in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S.; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. In this study, we examined maternal exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy in relation to neuroblastoma in the child. We ascertained all cases of neuroblastoma listed in the California Cancer Registry 1990-2007 that could be linked to a California birth certificate, and controls were selected at random from California birth records. Average air toxics exposures during pregnancy were determined based upon measures from community-based air pollution monitors. The study included 75 cases and 14,602 controls who lived with 5 kilometers of an air pollution monitor, and we additionally examined results for those living within a smaller radius around the monitor (2.5 km). Logistic regression was used to determine the risk of neuroblastoma with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Neuroblastoma risk was increased with higher maternal exposure to carbon tetrachloride (OR=2.65, 95%CI 1.07, 6.53) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.39, 95%CI 1.05, 1.84), particularly indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene. Hexavalent chromium was associated with neuroblastoma at the 5 km distance (OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74) but not at the 2.5 km distance. This is one of the first studies to report associations between neuroblastoma and these air toxics. PMID:24139061

  11. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the first two years of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) were evaluated to determine spatial and temporal characteristics in concentrations of mobile source air toxics (MSATs). Outdoor concentrations of MSATs were significantly higher in samples co...

  12. Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1990-12-01

    A joint conference for the fifth straight year cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association's EM-3, EM-4, and ITF-2 technical committees, and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. The technical program consisted of 187 presentations, held in 20 technical sessions, on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants found in ambient and source atmospheres. Covering a wide range of measurement topics and supported by 66 exhibitors of instrumentation and consulting services, the symposium was attended by more than 850 professionals from the US and other countries. This overview highlights a selection of the technical presentations. A synopsis of the keynote address to the symposium is also included. Presentations include: (1) radon, (2) atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants, (3) supercritical fluid extraction, (4) acidic deposition, (5) determination of polar and volatile organic pollutants in ambient air, (6) Delaware Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) study, (7) mobile sources emissions characterization, (8) Superfund site air monitoring, (9) exposure assessment, (10) chemometrics and environmental data analysis, (11) nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke, (12) source monitoring, (13) effects of air toxics on plants, (14) measurement of volatile organic pollutants, (15) general, (16) air pollution dispersion modeling, (17) measurement of hazardous waste emissions, (18) measurement of indoor toxic air contaminants, and (19) environmental quality assurance.

  13. Studying toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  14. Toxic effects of air freshener emissions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether emissions of a commercial air freshener produced acute toxic effects in a mammalian species, the authors allowed male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of one commercial-brand solid air freshener for 1 h. Sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation were evaluated with the ASTM-E-981 test. A computerized version of this test measured the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration--two parameters subject to alteration via respiratory effects of airborne toxins. Measurements of expiratory flow velocity indicated changes in airflow limitation. The authors then subjected mice to a functional observational battery, the purpose of which was to probe for changes in nervous system function. Emissions of this air freshener at several concentrations (including concentrations to which many individuals are actually exposed) caused increases in sensory and pulmonary irritation, decreases in airflow velocity, and abnormalities of behavior measured by the functional observational battery score. The test atmosphere was subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and the authors noted the presence of chemicals with known irritant and neurotoxic properties. The Material Safety Data Sheet for the air freshener indicated that there was a potential for toxic effects in humans. The air freshener used in the study did not diminish the effect of other pollutants tested in combination. The results demonstrated that the air freshener may have actually exacerbated indoor air pollution via addition of toxic chemicals to the atmosphere.

  15. Environmental air toxics: role in asthma occurrence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Gary L; Beskid, Craig; Shirnamé-Moré, Lata

    2002-08-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted its first scientific workshop in 1994 that focused on possible relationships between air toxics and asthma. From that meeting came recommendations for future research including a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that determinations of personal exposures to pollutants could be made. In the spring of 2001, NUATRC held a second such workshop to review progress made in this area during the intervening 7 years. Peer-reviewed articles from the workshop are published in this issue of (italic)Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements(/italic). As in 1994, academic, government, and industry scientists participated. Dave Guinnup of the Environmental Protection Agency discussed the nature of air toxics, their definition, and the basis for federal regulation. George Leikauf from the University of Cincinnati reviewed the 1994 workshop and subsequent research in this field. Current research funded by NUATRC that is addressing individual personal exposure was presented by Clifford Weisel (Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey), Patrick Kinney (Columbia University) and Candis Claiborn (Washington State University). David Corry from Baylor College of Medicine highlighted new insights into asthma pathogenesis while Stephen Redd from the Centers for Disease Control presented an overview of asthma epidemiology as well as the societal costs of the disease. Mary White (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) discussed recent epidemiologic investigations by public health agencies into community concerns about asthma and hazardous air pollutants. David Peden (University of North Carolina) reviewed scientific studies into the links between asthma and air toxics as well as criteria air pollutants. In a session on occupational asthma, Lee Petsonk (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) discussed

  16. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  17. Groundwater air stripping: Effect on water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, R.B.; Simpson, C.W.; Elliott, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    An air stripping unit was designed to reduce groundwater hydrocarbon content and biotoxicity to acceptable levels. A pilot plant study was conducted to determine the water treatability and to optimize the commercial unit design conditions. A measurement of the pilot plant effluent toxicity was obtained from {open_quotes}Microtox{close_quotes} analysis and rigorous bio-assays. These results indicated that reduction of the water hydrocarbon content to permitted discharge limits was accompanied by the elimination of water toxicity. The Onda mass transfer model was used to prepare the commercial unit design. A post-installation evaluation indicated that the model gave a good representation of the commercial unit performance. Toxicity reductions observed in the pilot plant were also observed in the commercial unit. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL CAR-RELATED OCCUPATIONAL PM AND AIR TOXIC EXPOSURE TO PATROL TROOPERS (COPP STUDY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-vehicle, roadside and community-based measurements of particulate matter (PM) and select air toxics were measured as part of a study involving patrol cars from the North Carolina Highway Patrol. One goal of this study was to characterize PM and related air pollutant concentra...

  19. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  20. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  1. RESOLVING NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING: A CASE STUDY IN WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 1...

  2. Ecotoxicological studies of environmental samples from Buenos Aires area using a standardized amphibian embryo toxicity test (AMPHITOX).

    PubMed

    Herkovits, Jorge; Perez-Coll, Cristina; Herkovits, Francisco D

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of 34 environmental samples from potentially polluted and reference stations were evaluated by means of the AMPHITOX test from acute to chronic exposure according to the toxicity found in each sample. The samples were obtained from surface and ground water, leaches, industrial effluents and soils. The data, expressed in acute, short-term chronic and chronic Toxicity Units (TUa, TUstc and TUc) resulted in a maximal value of 1000 TUc, found in a leach, while the lower toxicity value was 1.4 TUa corresponding to two surface water samples. In five samples (four providing from reference places) no toxicity was detected. The results point out the possibility of evaluating the toxicity of a wide diversity of samples by means of AMPHITOX as a customized toxicity test. The fact that almost all samples with suspected toxicity in rivers and streams from the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city resulted toxic, indicates the need of enhanced stewardship of chemical substances for environmental and human health protection purposes. PMID:11808551

  3. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Clifford P

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is a respiratory disease whose prevalence has been increasing since the mid 1970s and that affects more than 14.6 million residents of the United States. Environmental triggers of asthma include air pollutants that are respiratory irritants. Air toxics emitted into the ambient air are listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) if they can adversely affect human health, including the respiratory tract. HAPs include particulate and gaseous-phase pollutants, individual organic compounds and metals, and mixtures. Associations between asthma exacerbation and both particles and indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs), often referred to as indoor air quality, have been reported. Studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Europe over the past two decades have shown that most people living in the developed countries spend the majority of their time indoors and that the air concentrations of many air toxics or HAPs are higher indoors than in the ambient air in urban, suburban, and rural settings. Elevated indoor air concentrations result from emissions of air toxics from consumer products, household furnishings, and personal activities. The Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was designed to oversample homes in close proximity to ambient sources, excluding residences where smokers lived, to determine the contribution of ambient emissions to air toxics exposure. The ratios of indoor to outdoor air concentrations of some VOCs in homes measured during RIOPA were much greater than one, and for most other VOCs that had indoor-to-outdoor ratios close to unity in the majority of homes, elevated ratios were found in the paired samples with the highest concentration. Thus, although ambient emissions contribute to exposure of some air toxics indoors as well as outdoors, this was not true for all of the air toxics and especially for the higher end of exposures to most volatile organic air toxics examined

  4. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, George M. Smith, Roy L.

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  5. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  6. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  7. Air toxics: sources and monitoring in Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, D R

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, federal legislation has required industries to publicly report their annual emissions of toxic compounds. Industry reports show the largest contributor to toxic emission levels in Texas is the massive concentration of petrochemical industries along the Gulf Coast. It is interesting to note that although Texas produces over 50% of the nation's synthetic chemicals, it discharges less than 8% of the nation's toxic emissions. However, in response to growing concerns about the effects of these toxic emissions, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) initiated a long-term program for monitoring toxic chemicals in the air. This article provides details of this monitoring program as well as industry-funded toxic monitoring networks in Texas. This includes information on the technology currently being used for sample collection and analysis as well as plans for implementing methods that are on the technological horizon. Finally, details of some key measurements from the state's air toxics monitoring network will be provided along with an explanation of how they impact current air quality trends in Texas. PMID:8549477

  8. An assessment of air toxics in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pratt, G C; Palmer, K; Wu, C Y; Oliaei, F; Hollerbach, C; Fenske, M J

    2000-09-01

    We used monitoring and modeling to assess the concentrations of air toxics in the state of Minnesota. Model-predicted concentrations for 148 hazardous air pollutants were from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cumulative Exposure Project (1990 data). Monitoring data consisted of samples of volatile organic compounds, carbonyls, and particulate matter [Less than and equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter collected at 25 sites throughout the state for varying periods of time (up to 8 years; 1991-1998). Ten pollutants exceeded health benchmark values at one or more sites by modeling, monitoring, or both (including acrolein, arsenic, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, chloroform, ethylene dibromide, formaldehyde, and nickel). Polycyclic organic matter also exceeded the benzo[a]pyrene health benchmark value assumed to represent this class of pollutants. The highest modeled and monitored concentrations of most pollutants were near the center of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area; however, many smaller cities throughout the state also had elevated concentrations. Where direct comparisons were possible, monitored values often tended to exceed model estimates. Upper-bound excess lifetime inhalation cancer risks were estimated to range from 2.7 [times] 10(-5) to 140. 9 [times] 10(-5) (modeling) and 4.7 [times] 10(-5) to 11.0 [times] 10(-5) (using a smaller set of monitored carcinogens). Screening noncancer hazard indices summed over all end points ranged from 0.2 to 58.1 (modeling) and 0.6 to 2.0 (with a smaller set of monitored pollutants). For common sets of pollutants, the concentrations, cancer risks, and noncancer hazard indices were comparable between model-based estimates and monitored values. The inhalation cancer risk was apportioned to mobile sources (54%), area sources (22%), point sources (12%), and background (12%). This study provides evidence that air toxics are a public health concern in Minnesota.

  9. PHILADELPHIA AIR TOXICS STUDY: EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS USING MIRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of risk management options usually takes place within single programs at the U.S. EPA. This can produce inadvertent tradeoffs among important criteria by risk managers and other decision makers; resulting in decision surprises. This study is a demonstration of a diff...

  10. The National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study: Las Vegas

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in collaboration with FHWA, has been involved in a large-scale monitoring research study in an effort to characterize highway vehicle emissions in a near-road environment. The pollutants of interest include particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns ...

  11. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings.

    PubMed Central

    Olden, K; Guthrie, J

    1996-01-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of dose/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early waming signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. PMID:8933026

  12. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which

  13. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which

  14. NATIONAL-SCALE ASSESSMENT OF AIR TOXICS RISKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The national-scale assessment of air toxics risks is a modeling assessment which combines emission inventory development, atmospheric fate and transport modeling, exposure modeling, and risk assessment to characterize the risk associated with inhaling air toxics from outdoor sour...

  15. Air toxics and asthma: impacts and end points.

    PubMed

    Eschenbacher, W L; Holian, A; Campion, R J

    1995-09-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted a medical/scientific workshop focused on possible asthma/air toxics relationships, with the results of the NUATRC's first research contract with the University of Cincinnati as the point of discussion. The workshop was held at the Texas Medical Center on 4 February 1994 and featured presentations by distinguished academic, government, and industry scientists. This one-day session explored the impact of various environmental factors, including air toxics, on asthma incidence and exacerbation; an emphasis was placed on future research directions to be pursued in the asthma/air toxics area. A key research presentation on the association of air toxics and asthma, based on the study sponsored by NUATRC, was given by Dr. George Leikauf of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Additional presentations were made by H. A. Boushey, Jr., Cardiovascular Research Institute/University of California at San Francisco, who spoke on of the Basic Mechanisms of Asthma; K. Sexton, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who spoke on hazardous air pollutants: science/policy interface; and D. V. Bates, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology at the University of British Columbia, who spoke on asthma epidemiology. H. Koren, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and M. Yeung, of the Respiratory Division/University of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital, discussed occupational health impacts on asthma. Doyle Pendleton, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, reviewed air quality measurements in Texas. The information presented at the workshop suggested a possible association of asthma exacerbations with ozone and particulate matter (PM10); however, direct relationships between worsening asthma and air toxic ambient levels were not established. Possible respiratory health effects associated with air toxics will require considerably more investigation, especially in the area of human exposure assessment

  16. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  17. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION OBSERVED IN A STUDY OF PM AND AIR TOXICS EXPOSURE TO NC HIGHWAY PATROL TROOPERS (COPP-STUDY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Car emissions have been identified as a major source of respirable particles. Individuals whose jobs involve being on the road, such as patrol troopers, may be exposed to high cencentrations of toxic air pollutants from vehicle emissions. This exposure might a...

  18. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  19. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

    2010-07-05

    The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such

  20. In Utero and Early-Life Exposure to Ambient Air Toxics and Childhood Brain Tumors: A Population-Based Case–Control Study in California, USA

    PubMed Central

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Heck, Julia E.; Park, Andrew S.; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    to age 6. Citation: von Ehrenstein OS, Heck JE, Park AS, Cockburn M, Escobedo L, Ritz B. 2016. In Utero and early-life exposure to ambient air toxics and childhood brain tumors: a population-based case–control study in California, USA. Environ Health Perspect 124:1093–1099; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408582 PMID:26505805

  1. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  2. Evaluation of exposure to water aerosol or air by nose-only or whole-body inhalation procedures for CD-1 mice in developmental toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Tyl, R W; Ballantyne, B; Fisher, L C; Fait, D L; Savine, T A; Pritts, I M; Dodd, D E

    1994-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of nose-only restraint versus whole-body exposure procedures in the absence of test chemical, and to determine the appropriate control environment (water aerosol or air) for subsequent developmental toxicity studies of test materials administered as aerosols. Timed-pregnant CD-1 mice, 30/group, were exposed to high concentrations of water aerosol or to air by whole-body or nose-only inhalation procedures on Gestational Days (GD) 6 through 15 for 6 hr per day. The group exposed to air by whole-body procedures was designated as the control group. Clinical observations and maternal body weights were recorded throughout gestation. At scheduled necropsy on GD 18, maternal animals were evaluated for body weight, gravid uterine weight, liver weight, number of ovarian corpora lutea, and status of uterine implantation sites. Fetuses were counted, weighed, and sexed and were examined for external, visceral (including craniofacial), and skeletal alterations. Indices of maternal toxicity were affected in both nose-only groups. Maternal body weights were reduced during and after the exposure period; maternal weight gain was reduced during the exposure period. Clinical signs observed, from animals struggling during restraint, were resolved by GD 18. At sacrifice on GD 18, maternal body weights and maternal gestational weight gains (both corrected for gravid uterine weights) and absolute liver weights were reduced in both nose-only groups. Four females died (13.3%, all pregnant) in the air nose-only group, and maternal liver weight (relative to body weight) was reduced in the aerosol nose-only group. Gestational parameters were unaffected by any of the treatments. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidences of any individual malformations or malformations by category (external, visceral, or skeletal) or of total malformations. However, exencephaly, low set ears, cleft palate and ventricular septal defect

  3. Analysis of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATS)–Near-Road VOC and CarbonylConcentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation examines data from a year-long study of measured near-road mobile source air toxic (MSAT) concentrations and compares these data with modeled 2005 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) results. Field study measurements were collected during a field campaign in ...

  4. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  5. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2 μg cm−2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μg ml−1) and to 0.7 μg cm−2 silver or 2.1 μg cm−2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

  6. Air quality modeling of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the Houston urban and industrial airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarfa, Violeta Florentina

    2007-12-01

    Air toxics, also called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Their study is important in the Houston area, where point sources, mostly located along the Ship Channel, mobile and area sources contribute to large emissions of such toxic pollutants. Previous studies carried out in this area found dangerous levels of different HAPs in the atmosphere. This thesis presents several studies that were performed for the aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the HGA. For these studies we developed several tools: (1) a refined chemical mechanism, which explicitly represents 18 aromatic air toxics that were lumped under two model species by the previous version, based on their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical; (2) an engineering version of an existing air toxics photochemical model that enables us to perform much faster long-term simulations compared to the original model, that leads to a 8--9 times improvement in the running time across different computing platforms; (3) a combined emission inventory based on the available emission databases. Using the developed tools, we quantified the mobile source impact on a few selected air toxics, and analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in a few regions within the Houston area; these regions were characterized by different emissions and environmental conditions.

  7. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  8. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  9. 1991 EPA/AWMA international symposium on measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the measurement of toxic and related air pollutants. The conference included presentations on the following: ozone precursors; atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants; measurement of particulates and acidic aerosols; cloud water chemistry; asbestos exposure assessment; Staten Island/NJ Urban Air Toxics Assessment Project; personal exposure monitors; mobile sources emissions characterization; VOC monitoring for Clean Air Act Amendment requirement; product emission measurement in test chambers; USA/USSR joint air pollution study; VOC monitoring techniques; measurement of VOCs; measurement of polar volatile organics; exposure assessment; remote sensing for emissions monitoring; measurement methods development; measurement of hazardous waste emissions; chemometrics and environmental data analysis; source monitoring; air pollution dispersion modeling; measurement and data analysis of indoor toxic air contaminants; and environmental quality assurance. Two hundred seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  11. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

  12. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity.

  13. Air toxics and asthma: Impacts and end points

    SciTech Connect

    Eschenbacher, W.L.; Holian, A.; Campion, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted a medical/scientific workshop (February 1994) focused on possible asthma/air toxics relationships, with the results of the NUATRC`s first research contract with the University of Cincinnati as the point of discussion. The workshop explored the impact of various environmental factors, including air toxics, on asthma incidence and exacerbation; and emphasis was placed on future research directions. The information presented at the workshop suggested a possible association of asthma exacerbations with ozone and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}); however, direct relationships between worsening asthma and air toxic ambient levels were not established. Possible respiratory health effects associated with air toxics will require considerably more investigation, especially in the area of human exposure assessment. Two major recommendations for future research resulted form this workshop and an accompanying NUATRC Scientific Advisory Panel meeting: a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that accurate determinations of actual personal exposures to various pollutants can be made; and a need for field experiments utilizing biomarkers of exposure and effect to more accurately assess the extent and variability of the biological effects, if any, of individual air toxics. 8 refs.

  14. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  15. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  16. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity.

  17. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  18. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  19. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  20. AIR QUALITY MODELING OF PM AND AIR TOXICS AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current interest in fine particles and toxics pollutants provide an impetus for extending air quality modeling capability towards improving exposure modeling and assessments. Human exposure models require information on concentration derived from interpolation of observati...

  1. Integrating the federal and California air toxics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses California`s existing air toxic program and presents an approach for integrating the program with the federal program. Competitiveness can be enhanced by a strong federal program, but a smooth integration is essential to maintain an effective state program. Flexibility and good communication are essential to ensure a smooth integration and successful implementation.

  2. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  3. Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  4. Measurement of air toxics using extractive FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lacoss, J.P.; Ogle, L.D.; Shareef, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is investigating air toxics emissions from natural gas industry sources. Included in this effort are measurements from internal combustion engines, one of the source categories targeted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for development of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) based regulations by the year 2000. Formaldehyde and other aldehydes are the air toxics potentially present in engine exhaust. Since there are no EPA approved methods available for quantifying aldehydes in engine exhaust, GRI initiated a field test to validate an extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) based method according to U.S. EPA Method 301 {open_quotes}Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods for Various Media{close_quotes}. The extended paper presents the results of this validation testing for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein conducted to support this validation testing.

  5. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  6. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  7. Toxic air contaminants in urban atmospheres: Experience in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiber, James N.

    In addition to the criteria gaseous and particulate air pollutants which have been the subject of intensive regulation for many years in the U.S., there exists in the atmosphere of cities and surrounding areas a number of trace toxic contaminants which are of increasing public health and regulatory concern. In California, these Toxic Air Contaminants (TACs) are assessed and regulated by a multi-step process required by legislation. Risk assessment for chemicals which are considered potential TACs involves the gathering and analysis of information on emissions, exposures, toxicology, and epidemiology by two California Agencies, the Air Resources Board and Department of Health Services (now linked by the California Environmental Protection Agency) and an independent Scientific Review Panel. Eighteen chemicals have been designated as TACs since the process started in 1982, including perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, and 1,3-butadiene which are mentioned in some detail in this review. Future challenges for risk assessment and management are posed by such issues as gross mixtures, for example, from products of incomplete combustion; transport and deposition out of the originating air basin; contributions of natural sources to ambient levels; and the impact of the list of 189 hazardous air pollutants in the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments on California's TAC identification-regulation process. The issues involved in a vigorous pursuit of risk reduction from TACs are discussed based upon experience in California.

  8. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  9. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-08-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  10. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  11. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  12. Air toxics emissions from gas-fired engines

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, H.N. Jr. )

    1992-07-01

    In 1190, 14 natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines (ICE's) in oilfield service were tested in Santa Barbara County, CA, to satisfy California air toxics legislation. The combustion exhaust was tested for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, xylences, naphthalene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel was tested for aromatics to enable calculation of destruction efficiencies. Two-stroke and four-stroke engines were tested. Four-stroke engines ranging from 39 to 208 hp were used in pumping unit and constant load service. Emissions from four-stroke engines were unrelated to size and service. The two-stroke engines produced considerably higher emissions than the four-stroke engines. This paper reports that test results indicate natural-gas-fired ICE's produce toxic substances in small amounts. Formaldehyde and benzene dominated the toxic emission profile.

  13. Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F; Adams, Earle

    2009-06-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 volatile organic compounds (including 14 hazardous air pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the 'Air Toxics Under the Big Sky' program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/Western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student's homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations.

  14. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  15. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  16. Concentrations of air toxics in motor vehicle-dominated environments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Arnott, William P; Chow, Judith C

    2011-02-01

    We at the Desert Research Institute (DRI*) measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including several mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), particulate matter with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) on highways in Los Angeles County during summer and fall 2004, to characterize the diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations related to volume and mix of traffic. Concentrations of on-road pollutants were then compared to corresponding measurements at fixed monitoring sites. The on-road concentrations of CO and MSATs were higher in the morning under stable atmospheric conditions and during periods of higher traffic volumes. In contrast, BC concentrations, measured as particulate light absorption, were higher on truck routes during the midday sampling periods despite more unstable atmospheric conditions. Compared to the measurements at the three near-road sites, the 1-hour averages of on-road BC concentrations were as much as an order of magnitude higher. The peak 1-minute average concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher for BC and were between two and six times higher for PM2.5 mass. The on-road concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during the summer were 3.5 +/- 0.7 and 1.2 +/- 0.6 times higher during morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively, compared to annual average 24-hour concentrations measured at air toxic monitoring network sites. These ratios were higher during the fall, with smaller diurnal differences (4.8 +/- 0.7 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 for morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively). Ratios similar to those for BTEX were obtained for 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene. On-road concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were up to two times higher than at air toxics monitoring sites, with fall ratios slightly higher than summer ratios. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor

  17. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children air toxics monitoring station between 1990 and 2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3(rd) trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95% CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child's first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children.

  18. Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Park, Andrew S; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    There are few established causes of leukemia, the most common type of cancer in children. Studies in adults suggest a role for specific environmental agents, but little is known about any effect from exposures in pregnancy to toxics in ambient air. In our case-control study, we ascertained 69 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 46 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from California Cancer Registry records of children < age 6, and 19,209 controls from California birth records within 2km (1.3 miles) (ALL) and 6km (3.8 miles) (AML) of an air toxics monitoring station between 1990–2007. Information on air toxics exposures was taken from community air monitors. We used logistic regression to estimate the risk of leukemia associated with one interquartile range increase in air toxic exposure. Risk of ALL was elevated with 3rd trimester exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OR=1.16, 95%CI 1.04, 1.29), arsenic (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.02, 1.73), benzene (OR=1.50, 95%CI 1.08, 2.09), and three other toxics related to fuel combustion. Risk of AML was increased with 3rd trimester exposure to chloroform (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.00, 1.69), benzene (1.75, 95%CI 1.04, 2.93), and two other traffic-related toxics. During the child’s first year, exposure to butadiene, ortho-xylene, and toluene increased risk for AML and exposure to selenium increased risk for ALL. Benzene is an established cause of leukemia in adults; this study supports that ambient exposures to this and other chemicals in pregnancy and early life may also increase leukemia risk in children. PMID:24472648

  19. Tropospheric gas at potentially toxic levels in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-08-01

    Forest fires and emission of air pollutants, such as fumes from vehicles running on diesel and slow burning of coal and charcoal, release isocyanic acid in the troposphere. In 2011, scientists first detected isocyanic acid in the ambient atmosphere at levels toxic to human populations; at concentrations exceeding 1 part per billion by volume (ppbv), human beings could experience tissue decay when exposed to the toxin. For the first time, using a chemical transport model designed to estimate the distribution and budget of isocyanic acid in the troposphere, Young et al. showed that in several parts of the world, local emissions may increase the concentration of isocyanic acid in the ambient atmosphere, thereby exposing large populations to potentially toxic levels of the acid.

  20. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  1. Addressing community concerns about asthma and air toxics.

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C; Berger-Frank, Sherri A; Middleton, Dannie C; Falk, Henry

    2002-01-01

    People with asthma who live near or downwind from a source of toxic emissions commonly express concerns about the possible impact of hazardous air pollution on their health, especially when these emissions are visible or odorous. Citizens frequently turn to their local and state health departments for answers, but health departments face many challenges in addressing these concerns. These challenges include a lack of asthma statistics at the local level, limited exposure information, and a paucity of scientific knowledge about the contributions of hazardous air pollutants to asthma induction or exacerbation. Health agencies are creatively developing methods to address these challenges while working toward improving asthma surveillance data at the state and local levels. Recent community health investigations suggest that hazardous air pollutants that are occupational asthmagens or associated with odors may deserve more attention. In seeking to address community concerns about hazardous air pollution and asthma, community health investigations may also help to fill gaps in our scientific knowledge and identify areas for further research or environmental intervention. The solutions to community problems associated with environmental contamination and asthma, however, require sustained, coordinated efforts by public and private groups and citizens. Public health agencies can make a unique contribution to this effort, but additional resources and support will be required to develop information systems and epidemiologic capacity at the state and local levels. PMID:12194887

  2. How toxic is coal ash? A laboratory toxicity case study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrard, Rick M.; Carriker, Neil; Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen

    2014-12-08

    Under a consent agreement among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and proponents both for and against stricter regulation, EPA is to issue a new coal ash disposal rule by the end of 2014. Laboratory toxicity investigations often yield conservative estimates of toxicity because many standard test species are more sensitive than resident species, thus could provide information useful to the rule-making. However, few laboratory studies of coal ash toxicity are available; most studies reported in the literature are based solely on field investigations. In this paper, we describe a broad range of toxicity studies conducted for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston ash spill, results of which help provide additional perspective on the toxicity of coal ash.

  3. How toxic is coal ash? A laboratory toxicity case study

    DOE PAGES

    Sherrard, Rick M.; Carriker, Neil; Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen

    2014-12-08

    Under a consent agreement among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and proponents both for and against stricter regulation, EPA is to issue a new coal ash disposal rule by the end of 2014. Laboratory toxicity investigations often yield conservative estimates of toxicity because many standard test species are more sensitive than resident species, thus could provide information useful to the rule-making. However, few laboratory studies of coal ash toxicity are available; most studies reported in the literature are based solely on field investigations. In this paper, we describe a broad range of toxicity studies conducted for the Tennessee Valley Authoritymore » (TVA) Kingston ash spill, results of which help provide additional perspective on the toxicity of coal ash.« less

  4. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF TOXIC VOCS IN AIR ONTO CARBOPACK X SOLID ADSORBENT FOLLOWED BY THERMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - LABORATORY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of a mixture of 42 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humidified, purified air onto the solid adsorbent Carbopack X was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The evaluation included variations in sample air temperature, relative humidity, and ozon...

  5. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  6. 3 CFR - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air... Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule Memorandum for the Administrator of... the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule for power plants (the “MATS Rule”) represents a...

  7. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  8. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    SciTech Connect

    Corburn, Jason . E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

    2007-03-15

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

  9. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  10. Toxicity studies of a polyurethane rigid foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Relative toxicity tests were performed on a polyurethane foam containing a trimethylopropane-based polyol and an organophosphate flame retardant. The routine screening procedure involved the exposure of four Swiss albino male mice in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber to the products generated by pyrolyzing a 1.00 g sample at a heating rate of 40 deg C/min from 200 to 800 C in the absence of air flow. In addition to the routine screening, experiments were performed with a very rapid rise to 800 C, with nominal 16 and 48 ml/sec air flow and with varying sample rates. No unusual toxicity was observed with either gradual or rapid pyrolysis to 800 C. Convulsions and seizures similar to those previously reported were observed when the materials were essentially flash pyrolyzed at 800 C in the presence of air flow, and the toxicity appeared unusual because of low sample weights required to produce death.

  11. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  12. Distribution of toxic and radiation components in air particulates.

    PubMed

    Rausch, H; Sziklai, I L; Borossay, J; Torkos, K; Rikker, T; Zemplén-Papp, E

    1995-12-01

    The concentrations of several toxic heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various types of Hungarian fly-ash fine particulates were investigated by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. Within a power station, particulate samples were taken from the boiler zone (BO), from the electrostatic dust filter chamber (FI) and from the flue-gas at the top of the stack (ST). Enrichment rates of the toxic metals both in FI and ST particulate fractions related to the BO concentrations were calculated to enable the temperature dependence on the adsorption of the toxic components to be studied. In addition, both the total amounts of the VOCs and their partial distributions in accordance with the number of carbon atoms were also studied in fly-ash particulates. From them, 31 organic species were identified and determined. Since Hungarian brown coals have high uranium and thorium contents, the specific radioactivities of the daughter isotopes of both the 232Th and 238U decay series were also measured and are discussed.

  13. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  14. [Preclinical study of noopept toxicity].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, L P; Smol'nikova, N M; Alekseeva, S V; Nemova, E P; Sorokina, A V; Miramedova, M G; Kurapova, S P; Sidorina, E I; Kulakova, A V; Daugel'-Dauge, N O

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of a preclinical investigation, the new nootrope drug noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-propyl-glycine ethylate) was tested for chronic toxicity upon peroral administration in a dose of 10 or 100 mg/kg over 6 months in both male and female rabbits. The results of observations showed that noopept administered in this dose range induced no irreversible pathologic changes in the organs and systems studied and exhibited no allergenic, immunotoxic, and mutagen activity. The drug affected neither the generative function nor the antenatal or postnatal progeny development. Noopept produced a dose-dependent suppression of inflammation reaction to concanavalin A and stimulated the cellular and humoral immune response in mice. PMID:12025790

  15. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic air toxics from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest, and there were several sources for wh...

  16. Analysis of mobile source air toxics (MSATs)–Near-Road VOC and carbonyl concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to mobile source air toxics (MSATs) have been associated with numerous adverse health effects. While thousands of air toxic compounds are emitted from mobile sources, a subset of compounds are considered high priority due to their significant contribution to cancer and...

  17. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  18. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  19. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, G D; Kline, S; Albert, R E; Baxter, C S; Bernstein, D I; Buncher, C R

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admissions or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. Inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SOx, NOx, O3, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM10)] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particulate and gaseous air toxics, has been associated with an increase in asthma among children. In addition, current associations of adverse health effects with existing pollution measurements are often noted at concentrations below those that produce effects in controlled animal and human exposures to each pollutant alone. These findings imply that adverse responses are augmented when persons are exposed to irritant mixtures of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. An evaluation of dose-response information for urban air toxics and biological

  20. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  1. Spatial variations of particulate matter and air toxics in communities adjacent to the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Lau, Virginia; Martien, Philip T

    2013-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) sponsored the West Oakland Monitoring Study (WOMS) to provide supplemental air quality monitoring that will be used by the BAAQMD to evaluate local-scale dispersion modeling of diesel emissions and other toxic air contaminants for the area within and around the Port of Oakland. The WOMS was conducted during two seasonal periods of 4 weeks in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Monitoring data showed spatial patterns of pollutant concentrations that were generally consistent with proximity to vehicle traffic. Concentrations of directly emitted pollutants were highest on heavily traveled roads with consistently lower concentrations away from the roadways. Pollutants that have higher emission rates from diesel trucks (nitric oxide, black carbon) tended to exhibit sharper gradients than pollutants that are largely associated with gasoline vehicles, such as carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX concentrations in West Oakland were similar to those measured at the three air toxics monitoring network sites in the Bay Area (San Francisco, Fremont, and San Jose). Aldehyde levels were higher in Fremont and San Jose than in West Oakland, reflecting greater contributions from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons downwind of the Bay Area. A 2005 modeling-based health risk assessment of diesel particulate matter concentrations is consistent with aerosol carbon concentrations measured during the WOMS after adjusting for recent mitigation measures and improved estimates of heavy-duty truck traffic volumes.

  2. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  3. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed

  4. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Kline, S.; Albert, R.E.; Baxter, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admission or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SO{sub x}NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM{sub 10})] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. 179 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  6. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  7. CAAA implementation & legislation combustion strategy, air toxics, etc.

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, S.

    1995-12-31

    Information is presented that deals with the status of the Clean Air Act implementation and legislation; the Republicans and the environment; the status of Superfund legislation in the Senate and the House; the Safe Drinking Water Act reauthorization bill; the Endangered Species Act; Section 112(g) of the Clean Air Act; the Comprehensive Regulatory Reform Act of 1995; and air Pollution.

  8. Clean air strategies study

    SciTech Connect

    Quartucy, G.C.; Chrisman, L.J.P. ); Nylander, J.H.; Keller, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) is evaluating emissions control technologies suitable for retrofit to their utility boilers. This effort is being driven by actions undertaken by the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) in response to the California Clean Air Act. These actions include the development of two Tactic Evaluations, and the preparation of proposed regulatory limits. Tactic Evaluations are proposed methods to achieve compliance with California ambient air quality standards. Emissions of concern include NO{sub x}, CO, ROG, PM and SO{sub 2}. Of these species, it appears that NO{sub x} is the emission species of primary concern.

  9. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  10. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  11. Air Ground Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; DiMeo, Karen; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2002-01-01

    A simulation was conducted to examine the effect of shared air/ground authority when each is equipped with enhanced traffic- and conflict-alerting systems. The potential benefits of an advanced air traffic management (ATM) concept referred to as "free flight" include improved safety through enhanced conflict detection and resolution capabilities, increased flight-operations management, and better decision-making tools for air traffic controllers and flight crews. One element of the free-flight concept suggests shifting aircraft separation responsibility from air traffic controllers to flight crews, thereby creating an environment with "shared-separation" authority. During FY00. NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center completed the first integrated, high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop simulation.

  12. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range.

  13. Characterization and variability of pollutant concentrations for the Las Vegas implementation of the National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA, in collaboration with FHWA, has been involved in a large-scale monitoring research study in an effort to characterize highway vehicle emissions in a near-road environment. The pollutants of interest include particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns ...

  14. Pyrolysis of polymeric materials. I - Effect of chemical structure, temperature, heating rate, and air flow on char yield and toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    Various polymeric materials, including synthetic polymers and cellulosic materials, were evaluated at different temperatures, heating rates and air flow rates for thermophysical and toxicological responses. It is shown that char yields appeared to be a function of air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. It is stated that the sensitivity of the apparent thermal stability of some materials to air access is so marked that thermogravimetric studies in oxygen-free atmospheres may be a consistently misleading approach to comparing synthetic polymers intended to increase fire safety. Toxicity also appeared to be a function of temperature and air access as much as of the chemical structure of the material. Toxicity of the gases evolved seemed to increase with increasing char yield for some polymers.

  15. Biomarkers for assessing body burden from exposure to toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.M.; O'Neill, H.J.; Moschandreas, D.J. ); Lewis, R.G.; Wilson, N.K. )

    1988-09-01

    The body burden of airborne toxic chemicals resulting from all routes of human exposure cannot be determined by traditional techniques, which only measure the concentrations of these chemicals in air. Human exposure has been related to biological endpoints in several studies using biochemical markers. It may be possible to relate human exposure to breath concentrations, biological endpoints, and ultimately body burden, using noninvasive techniques (breath and urine analysis). Preliminary chamber studies in their laboratory have shown that subjects exposed to selected air pollutants at near-normal ambient levels eliminate them in breath at measurable decay rates. This study seeks to determine expired-air decay rates for selected air pollutants and their blood/breath partition coefficients. Such data could lead to correlations with the primary biomarkers directly related to biological endpoints (e.g., DNA or protein adducts, glutathione conjugates, chromosomal damage, immune function impairment). If an association can be established between noninvasive data and primary biomarkers, then an integrated approach should be possible for measuring biological endpoints noninvasively by monitoring human expired breath or urine.

  16. Toxicity Assessment of Air-delivered Particle-bound Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47, 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particle-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  17. APPLICATION OF FINE SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ TO HAPEM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For t...

  18. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  19. Geographic boundaries in breast, lung and colorectal cancers in relation to exposure to air toxics in Long Island, New York

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Greiling, Dunrie A

    2003-01-01

    Background This two-part study employs several statistical techniques to evaluate the geographic distribution of breast cancer in females and colorectal and lung cancers in males and females in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. In this second paper, we compare patterns in standardized morbidity ratios (SMR values), calculated from New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) data, to geographic patterns in overall predicted risk (OPR) from air toxics using exposures estimated in the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment database. Results We identified significant geographic boundaries in SMR and OPR. We found little or no association between the SMR of colorectal and breast cancers and the OPR for each cancer from exposure to the air toxics. We did find boundaries in male and female lung cancer SMR and boundaries in lung cancer OPR to be closer to one another than expected. Conclusion While consistent with a causal relationship between air toxics and lung cancer incidence, the boundary analysis does not demonstrate the existence of a causal relationship. However, now that the areas of overlap between boundaries in lung cancer incidence and potential airborne exposures have been identified, we can begin to evaluate local- as well as large-scale determinants of lung cancer. PMID:12633502

  20. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; James, Wesley; Kedia, Satish

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from the 2000 United States Census. The association was examined using multivariable geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis. The risk difference between African American and White concentrated areas was defined as the absolute disparity, and the percent difference as the relative disparity. GWR analyses show that cancer risks increase with respect to increasing percent of African Americans at the census tract level. Individuals in African American concentrated tracts bear 6% more cancer risk burden than in White concentrated tracts. The distribution of major roads causes the largest absolute disparity and the distribution of industrial facilities causes the largest relative disparity. Effective strategies for reduction in environmental disparity should especially target sources of large absolute disparities. PMID:25089776

  1. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  2. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  3. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  4. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  5. MEASUREMENT OF LOW LEVEL AIR TOXICS WITH MODIFIED UV DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understand near source impacts, EPA is working to develop open-path optical techniques for spatiotemporal-resolved measurement of air pollutants. Of particular interest is near real time quantification of mobile-source generated CO, Nox and hydrocarbons measured in cl...

  6. SIMULATING URBAN AIR TOXICS OVER CONTINENTAL AND URBAN SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is evaluating a version of the CMAQ model to support risk assessment for the exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The model uses a variant of the CB4 chemical mechanism to simulate ambient concentrations of twenty HAPs that exist primarily as gaseous compounds...

  7. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  8. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  10. Thermal decomposition of captan and formation pathways of toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Mackie, John C; Kennedy, Eric M; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates the thermal decomposition of a widely used fungicide, captan, under gas phase conditions, similar to those occurring in fires, cigarette burning, and combustion of biomass treated or contaminated with pesticides. The laboratory-scale apparatus consisted of a plug flow reactor equipped with sampling trains for gaseous, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and condensed products, with analysis performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Under oxidative conditions, the thermal decomposition of captan generated gaseous pollutants including carbon disulfide, thiophosgene, phosgene, and hydrogen cyanide. The VOC analysis revealed the formation of tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, and benzonitrile. Quantum chemical calculations indicated that captan decomposes unimolecularly, via fission of the C-S bond, with the ensuing radicals reacting with O(2). The results of the present study provide an improved understanding of the formation pathways of toxic air pollutants in the accidental or deliberate combustion of captan.

  11. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  12. Validation of an in vitro exposure system for toxicity assessment of air-delivered nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Peters, Thomas M.; O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of in vitro exposure of submerged lung cells to nanoparticles (NPs), we validated an integrated low flow system capable of generating and depositing airborne NPs directly onto cells at an air–liquid interface (ALI). The in vitro exposure system was shown to provide uniform and controlled dosing of particles with 70.3% efficiency to epithelial cells grown on transwells. This system delivered a continuous airborne exposure of NPs to lung cells without loss of cell viability in repeated 4 h exposure periods. We sequentially exposed cells to air-delivered copper (Cu) NPs in vitro to compare toxicity results to our prior in vivo inhalation studies. The evaluation of cellular dosimetry indicated that a large amount of Cu was taken up, dissolved and released into the basolateral medium (62% of total mass). Exposure to Cu NPs decreased cell viability to 73% (p < 0.01) and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 that mirrored our findings from subacute in vivo inhalation studies in mice. Our results show that this exposure system is useful for screening of NP toxicity in a manner that represents cellular responses of the pulmonary epithelium in vivo. PMID:22981796

  13. Profiling the reproductive toxicity of chemicals from multigeneration studies in the toxicity reference database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multigeneration reproduction studies are used to characterize parental and offspring systemic toxicity, as well as reproductive toxicity of pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Results from 329 multigeneration studies on 316 chemicals have been digitized into sta...

  14. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  15. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  16. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  17. DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURES TO AIR TOXICS AND ASSOCIATED HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals are exposed to wide variety of air toxics in various indoor and outdoor microenvironments during the course of their daily activities. Sources of emissions include a wide variety of indoor and outdoor sources, including stationary and mobile sources, building material...

  18. Temporal and modal characterization of DoD source air toxic emission factors: final report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project tested three, real-/near real-time monitoring techniques to develop air toxic emission factors for Department of Defense (DoD) platform sources. These techniques included: resonance enhanced multi photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) for o...

  19. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  20. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  1. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  2. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  3. The effects of forced air flow and oxygen concentration on flammability, smoke density, and pyrolytic toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauers, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The question is posed whether forced air flow should be incorporated into flammability tests as a relevant variable. A test apparatus is described which permits tests to be conducted on small test specimens in a forced flow which is (continuously) variable over flow velocities from zero to 300 feet per minute (1.52 m/s). The effects of air-flow rate and oxygen concentration on flame propagation rate, maximum smoke density, and pyrolytic product toxicity were measured for a single material and were statistically evaluated. Regression analysis was used to graph the resulting relationships. It is concluded that air velocity is an important variable for laboratory flammability testing.

  4. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, Louis A.; Chase, Peter J.; Gross, Michael P.

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  5. RESOLVING FINE SCALE IN AIR TOXICS MODELING AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ITS SUB-GRID VARIABILITY FOR EXPOSURE ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation explains the importance of the fine-scale features for air toxics exposure modeling. The paper presents a new approach to combine local-scale and regional model results for the National Air Toxic Assessment. The technique has been evaluated with a chemical tra...

  6. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS MEASURED AT A HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Miller, Terry L.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) are of growing concern due to recent studies linking health risk to residency near heavily traveled roadways. Few research studies on MSAT emissions have been performed due to several factors; those factors include: the difficulty of measuring MSATs due to their semi-volatile nature, lower relative concentration in comparison to NOx and other criteria emissions, and fewer regulations on MSATs. In this paper, measurements of MSATs at a "hot spot" of poor air quality created by a high population of idling heavy-duty trucks are presented. The study area was the Watt Road-Interstate-40/75 interchange just west of Knoxville, TN where approximately 20,000 heavy-duty trucks travel along the interstate each day and hundreds of heavy-duty trucks idle at three large truck stops near the interchange. The air quality in the local area surrounding the interchange is affected negatively by the high number of mobile sources as well as geographic and meteorological conditions; the interchange lies in a valley between two ridges which slows long range transport of pollutants especially in winter months when temperature inversion occurs frequently. Ambient air quality was measured during summer and winter months of two separate years at three sites: a site in one of the truckstops, a site near the interstate roadway, and a site on top of one of the surrounding ridges chosen as a background site for comparison. Results of criteria pollutants measured at these sites are reported in a companion paper by Miller et. al.; the results presented here include measurements of MSATs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and other species obtained via collection on di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) filters. Also, preliminary measurements of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. The results indicate that emissions from idling heavy-duty trucks are a primary contributor of MSATs to local air quality near areas of high static truck traffic; furthermore

  7. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  8. Assessment of Sociodemographic and Geographic Disparities in Cancer Risk from Air Toxics in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson’s chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  9. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC.

  10. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  11. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  12. Segregation and black/white differences in exposure to air toxics in 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Russ

    2002-01-01

    I examined non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White differences in exposure to noncriteria air pollutants in 44 U.S. Census Bureau-defined metropolitan areas with populations greater than one million, using data on air toxics concentrations prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of its Cumulative Exposure Project combined with U.S. census data. I measured differences in exposure to air toxics through the calculation of a net difference score, which is a statistical measure used in income inequality analysis to measure inequality over the whole range of exposures. The scores ranged from 11.52 to 83.60. In every metropolitan area, non-Hispanic Blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic Whites to be living in tracts with higher total modeled air toxics concentrations. To assess potential reasons for such a wide variation in exposure differences, I performed a multiple regression analysis with the net difference score as the dependent variable. Independent variables initially included were as follows: the dissimilarity index (to measure segregation), Black poverty/White poverty (to control for Black/White economic differences), population density and percentage of persons traveling to work who drive to work (alone and in car pools), and percentage of workforce employed in manufacturing (factors affecting air quality). After an initial analysis I eliminated from the model the measures of density and the persons driving to work because they were statistically insignificant, they did not add to the predictive power of the model, and their deletion did not affect the other variables. The final model had an R(2) of 0.56. Increased segregation is associated with increased disparity in potential exposure to air pollution. PMID:11929740

  13. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  14. Identifying inequitable exposure to toxic air pollution in racialized and low-income neighbourhoods to support pollution prevention.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Suzanne; Gower, Stephanie; Rinner, Claus; Campbell, Monica

    2013-05-01

    Numerous environmental justice studies have confirmed a relationship between population characteristics such as low-income or minority status and the location of environmental health hazards. However, studies of the health risks from exposure to harmful substances often do not consider their toxicological characteristics. We used two different methods, the unit-hazard and the distance-based approach, to evaluate demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population residing near industrial facilities in the City of Toronto, Canada. In addition to the mass of air emissions obtained from the national pollutant release inventory (NPRI), we also considered their toxicity using toxic equivalency potential (TEP) scores. Results from the unit-hazard approach indicate no significant difference in the proportion of low-income individuals living in host versus non-host census tracts (t(107) = 0.3, P = 0.735). However, using the distance-based approach, the proportion of low-income individuals was significantly higher (+5.1%, t(522) = 6.0, P <0.001) in host tracts, while the indicator for "racialized" communities ("visible minority") was 16.1% greater (t(521) = 7.2, P <0.001) within 2 km of a NPRI facility. When the most toxic facilities by non-carcinogenic TEP score were selected, the rate of visible minorities living near the most toxic NPRI facilities was significantly higher (+12.9%, t(352) = 3.5, P = 0.001) than near all other NPRI facilities. TEP scores were also used to identify areas in Toronto that face a double burden of poverty and air toxics exposure in order to prioritise pollution prevention.

  15. Separate and Unequal: Residential Segregation and Estimated Cancer Risks Associated with Ambient Air Toxics in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between racial residential segregation and estimated ambient air toxics exposures and their associated cancer risks using modeled concentration estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. We combined pollutant concentration estimates with potencies to calculate cancer risks by census tract for 309 metropolitan areas in the United States. This information was combined with socioeconomic status (SES) measures from the 1990 Census. Estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics were highest in tracts located in metropolitan areas that were highly segregated. Disparities between racial/ethnic groups were also wider in more segregated metropolitan areas. Multivariate modeling showed that, after controlling for tract-level SES measures, increasing segregation amplified the cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics for all racial groups combined [highly segregated areas: relative cancer risk (RCR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–107; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28–1.36]. This segregation effect was strongest for Hispanics (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.61–1.88) and weaker among whites (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24–1.33), African Americans (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98–1.21; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24–1.53), and Asians (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97–1.24; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16–1.51). Results suggest that disparities associated with ambient air toxics are affected by segregation and that these exposures may have health significance for populations across racial lines. PMID:16507462

  16. Prenatal exposure to air toxics and risk of Wilms’ tumor in 0-5 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anshu; Ritz, Beate; Wilhelm, Michelle; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Heck, Julia E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study prenatal air toxics exposure and Wilms’ tumor in children. Methods We identified 337 Wilms’ tumor cases among children <6 years (1988-2008) from the California Cancer Registry, randomly selected 96,514 controls from California birth rolls in 20:1 ratio matched to all cancer cases, then linked birth addresses to air monitors within 15 miles to assess exposures. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to estimate effects. Results Children prenatally exposed to formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchloroethylene, or acetaldehyde in the third trimester had an increased odds of Wilms’ tumor per interquartile increase in concentration (OR [95%CI]: 1.28 [1.12, 1.45], 1.10 [0.99, 1.22], 1.09 [1.00, 1.18], 1.25 [1.07, 1.45] respectively). Conclusions We found positive associations for four air toxics. This is the first study of this kind. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24854250

  17. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  18. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  19. TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION STUDIES ON A HARBOR SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation summarizes the results of experiments on sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow researchers to characterize and identify chemical causes of acute toxicity in sediments that can be applied using the 10-d solid-phase sediment toxicity t...

  20. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats.

  1. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  2. Toxicity-directed approach of polyester manufacturing industry wastewater provides useful information for conducting treatability studies.

    PubMed

    Caffaro-Filho, Roberto A; Morita, Dione M; Wagner, Roger; Durrant, Lucia R

    2009-04-15

    A broader characterization of industrial wastewaters, especially in respect to hazardous compounds and their potential toxicity, is often necessary in order to determine the best practical treatment (or pretreatment) technology available to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants to the environment or publicly owned treatment works. Using a toxicity-directed approach, this paper sets the base for a rational treatability study of polyester resin manufacturing. Relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined. Respirometry was used for toxicity reduction evaluation after physical and chemical effluent fractionation. Of all the procedures investigated, only air stripping was significantly effective in reducing wastewater toxicity. Air stripping in pH 7 reduced toxicity in 18.2%, while in pH 11 a toxicity reduction of 62.5% was observed. Results indicated that toxicants responsible for the most significant fraction of the effluent's instantaneous toxic effect to unadapted activated sludge were organic compounds poorly or not volatilized in acid conditions. These results led to useful directions for conducting treatability studies which will be grounded on actual effluent properties rather than empirical or based on the rare specific data on this kind of industrial wastewater.

  3. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-08-05

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  4. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  5. Transcriptomic studies on liver toxicity of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Toska, Endrit; Zagorsky, Robert; Figler, Bryan; Cheng, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen is widely used as a pain reliever and to reduce fever. At high doses, it can cause severe hepatotoxicity. Acetaminophen overdose has become the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. The mechanisms for acetaminophen-induced liver injury are unclear. Transcriptomic studies can identify the changes in expression of thousands of genes when exposed to supratherapeutic doses of acetaminophen. These studies elucidated the mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and also provide insight into future development of diagnosis and treatment options for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. The following is a brief overview of some recent transcriptomic studies and gene-expression-based prediction models on liver toxicity induced by acetaminophen.

  6. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630

  7. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  8. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  9. Mobile Laboratory Measurements of On-Road Vehicle Air Toxics Emissions in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.; Herndon, S. C.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, B.; Marr, L. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The direct emission of toxic organic pollutants from mobile sources is an issue of growing concern. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) have identified formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, acrolein, 1.3 butadiene, and diesel particulate matter (PM), including associated organic compounds, as mobile emissions of priority concern. Real-time trace gas and fine PM sensors deployed on the Aerodyne Research Mobile Laboratory have been used to characterize both fleet average and individual vehicle class on-road emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and diesel particulate matter (PM), including associated organic compounds in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Data for these air toxics emissions will be reviewed and compared to similar data taken in Boston and New York City, where available. The prospects for future on-road real-time monitoring of acroleinand1.3 butadiene will be discussed.

  10. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  11. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  12. Bull Run Fossil Plant toxicity biomonitoring study

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, P.A.; Moses, J.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of toxicity testing of the whole waste discharge from the Bull Run Steam-Electric Plant ashpond. Water chemistry tests were conducted for heavy metals content and suspended solids. Both acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted on Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia spp., Pimephales promelas, Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis macrochirus, and Cyprinus carpio. (ACR)

  13. Meta-analysis of toxicity and teratogenicity of 133 chemicals from zebrafish developmental toxicity studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish developmental toxicity testing is an emerging field, which faces considerable challenges regarding data meta-analysis and the establishment of standardized test protocols. Here, we present an initial correlation study on toxicity of 133 chemicals based on data in the li...

  14. Corrosion-induced Whole Effluent Toxicity from a cooling tower: A toxicity reduction evaluation case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.; Talley, J.M.; Copenhaver, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    As the result of Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) test failures with Daphnia pulex, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) required an industrial facility discharging approximately 5 million gallons per day (MGD) of recirculating cooling water obtained from a large freshwater river to conduct a Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) program. Under the terms of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, the facility was required to conduct 48-hour acute toxicity tests with D. pulex and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). Although effluent toxicity to D. pulex was consistently observed, no toxicity was induced to the fathead minnow during the TRE program. The situation was further complicated by the fact that the recirculating cooling water was discharged back into the same river. The objectives of the TRE program were to investigate the causes of toxicity, locate potential sources of the suspected toxicant(s), and identify practicable toxicity reduction methodologies to be used. The TRE program approach and results from the associated studies are presented in this report, including a successful remedy for the WET problem.

  15. LINKING AIR TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CMAQ TO THE HAPEM5 EXPOSURE MODEL AT NEIGHORHOOD SCALES FOR THE PHILADELPHIA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For ...

  16. An Evaluation of EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with Benzene Measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial reso...

  17. FURTHER REFINEMENTS AND TESTING OF APEX3.0: EPA'S POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC INHALATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX(3.0)) is a PC-based model that was derived from the probabilistic NAAQS Exposure Model for carbon monoxide (pNEM/CO). APEX will be one of the tools used to estimate human population exposure for criteria and air toxic pollutants as part ...

  18. Aerosolized ZnO nanoparticles induce toxicity in alveolar type II epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yumei; Williams, Nolann G.; Tolic, Ana; Chrisler, William B.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Maddux, Bettye L.; Pounds, Joel G.; Laskin, Alexander; Orr, Galya

    2012-01-20

    The majority of in vitro studies characterizing the impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cells that line the respiratory tract were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in suspension. This approach introduces processes that are unlikely to occur during inhaled NP exposures in vivo, such as the shedding of toxic doses of dissolved ions. ZnO NPs are used extensively and pose significant sources for human exposure. Exposures to airborne ZnO NPs can induce adverse effects, but the relevance of the dissolved Zn2+ to the observed effects in vivo is still unclear. Our goal was to mimic in vivo exposures to airborne NPs and decipher the contribution of the intact NP from the contribution of the dissolved ions to airborne ZnO NP toxicity. We established the exposure of alveolar type II epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI), and compared the impact of aerosolized ZnO NPs and NPs in suspension at the same cellular doses, measured as the number of particles per cell. By evaluating membrane integrity and cell viability 6 and 24 hours post exposure we found that aerosolized NPs induced toxicity at the ALI at doses that were in the same order of magnitude as doses required to induce toxicity in submersed cultures. In addition, distinct patterns of oxidative stress were observed in the two exposure systems. These observations unravel the ability of airborne ZnO NPs to induce toxicity without the contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and suggest distinct mechanisms at the ALI and in submersed cultures.

  19. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    PubMed Central

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure. PMID:23569765

  20. Uncertainty for data with non-detects: Air toxic emissions from combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.C.; Frey, H.C.

    2006-12-15

    Air toxic emission factor datasets often contain one or more points below a single or multiple detection limits and such datasets are referred to as 'censored.' Conventional methods used to deal with censored datasets include removing non-detects, replacing the censored points with zero, half of the detection limit, or the detection limit. However, the estimated means of the censored dataset by conventional methods are usually biased. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and bootstrap simulation have been demonstrated as a statistically robust method to quantify variability and uncertainty of censored datasets and can provide asymptotically unbiased mean estimates. The MLE/bootstrap method is applied to 16 cases of censored air toxic emission factors, including benzene, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, total chromium, chromium VI and lead from coal, fuel oil, and/or wood waste external combustion sources. The proportion of censored values in the emission factor data ranges from 4 to 80%. Key factors that influence the estimated uncertainty in the mean of censored data are sample size and inter-unit variability. The largest range of uncertainty in the mean was obtained for the external coal combustion benzene emission factor, with 95 confidence interval of the mean equal to minus 93 to plus 411%.

  1. AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION CARDIOVASCULAR TOXICITY: HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    The overall weight of evidence from epidemiological studies has shown statistical associations between air particulate pollution exposure and mortality\\morbidity particularly within individuals with cardiovascular disease (1-4). Identification of causal particle properties ...

  2. An evaluation of EPA’s National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with benzene measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Barbara Jane; Schultz, Bradley D.; Palma, Ted; Vette, Alan F.; Whitaker, Donald A.; Williams, Ronald W.

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial resolution of U.S. Census tracts, which are subdivisions of a county. These local scale, model-predicted estimates from NATA are used extensively in community-based assessments; however, evaluation of NATA's ambient concentrations and human exposure estimates against measurement data has been limited to date. This paper compares modeled annual average benzene results from the 2002 NATA with measured results from the 2004 to 2007 Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) as a case study of the quality of NATA results. NATA model estimates support community-scale characterization and assessment. Benzene is particularly important as it was estimated by the 2002 NATA as the largest single air toxic pollutant in terms of cancer risk in the U.S. We found that the average ambient concentrations of benzene predicted by NATA were within 5 percent, on average, of the 24-h integrated average ambient concentrations measured in DEARS. The NATA human exposure estimates, which include only outdoor sources for benzene, were, on average, approximately half the measured breathing zone concentrations from DEARS. Our analyses support that the factors driving higher DEARS personal benzene concentrations relative to the NATA predicted exposure values are likely due, at least in part, to indoor sources. This work points to further community-scale modeling research to improve characterizations and assessments of human exposures.

  3. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  4. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicity testing: Examination of the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study guideline.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Dorato, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    An important aspect of safety assessment of chemicals (industrial and agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals) is determining their potential reproductive and developmental toxicity. A number of guidelines have outlined a series of separate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies from fertilization through adulthood and in some cases to second generation. The Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS) is the most recent and comprehensive guideline in this series. EOGRTS design makes toxicity testing progressive, comprehensive, and efficient by assessing key endpoints across multiple life-stages at relevant doses using a minimum number of animals, combining studies/evaluations and proposing tiered-testing approaches based on outcomes. EOGRTS determines toxicity during preconception, development of embryo/fetus and newborn, adolescence, and adults, with specific emphasis on the nervous, immunological, and endocrine systems, EOGRTS also assesses maternal and paternal toxicity. However, EOGRTS guideline is complex, criteria for selecting doses is unclear, and monitoring systemic dose during the course of the study for better interpretation and human relevance is not clear. This paper discusses potential simplification of EOGRTS, suggests procedures for relevant dose selection and monitors systemic dose at multiple life-stages for better interpretation of data and human relevance.

  6. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    PubMed

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism.

  7. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  8. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  9. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  10. The role of metabolic biomarkers in drug toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metabolic profiling is a technique that can potentially provide more sensitive and specific biomarkers of toxicity than the current clinical measures benefiting preclinical and clinical drug studies. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) platforms have been used for metabolic profiling studies of drug toxicity. Not only can both techniques provide novel biomarker(s) of toxicity but the combination of both techniques gives a broader range of metabolites evaluated. Changes in metabolic patterns can provide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and help to eliminate a potentially toxic new chemical entity earlier in the developmental process. Metabolic profiling offers numerous advantages in toxicological research and screening as sample collection and preparation are relatively simple. Further, sample throughput, reproducibility, and accuracy are high. The area of drug toxicity of therapeutic compounds has already been impacted by metabolic profiling studies and will continue to be impacted as new, more specific biomarker(s) are found. In order for a biomarker or pattern of biomarkers to be accepted, it must be shown that they originate from the target tissue of interest. Metabolic profiling studies are amenable to any biofluid or tissue sample making it possible to link the changes noted in urine for instance as originating from renal injury. Additionally, the ease of sample collection makes it possible to follow a single animal or subject over time in order to determine whether and when the toxicity resolves itself. This review focuses on the advantages of metabolic profiling for drug toxicity studies.

  11. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Taylor, Larry

    2008-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. NASA established the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, LADTAG has recommended investigating its toxicity in the lungs of laboratory animals. After receiving this recommendation, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in exposed rodents. The rodent pulmonary toxicity studies proposed here are the same as those proposed by the LADTAG. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal instillation (ITI). This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. We succeeded in completing an ITI study on JSC-1 lunar dust simulant in mice (Lam et al., Inhalation Toxicology 14:901-916, 2002, and Inhalation Toxicology 14: 917-928, 2002), and have conducted a pilot ITI study to examine the acute toxicity of an Apollo lunar (highland) dust sample. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies have been planned to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The ITI results will also be

  12. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  13. Toxicity study of oxfendazole in pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W

    1982-08-21

    The safety of oxfendazole when administered to pregnant sows was assessed. Thirty-six pregnant sows were dosed orally on repeated occasions at dose rates of 4.5 mg/kg bodyweight and 13.5 mg/kg during the critical period of embryo organogenesis and implantation. Twelve sows were observed as untreated controls. Oxfendazole was administered as 6.48 per cent medicated pellets. Records were kept of the reproductive performance of all 48 sows. There were no obviously drug-related clinical signs of toxicity in the sows after treatment with oxfendazole, neither were drug-related anatomical or behavioural abnormalities detected in the newborn pigs.

  14. Studies on the mechanism of benzene toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, R; Dimitriadis, E; Guy, R; Hu, P; Cooper, K; Bauer, H; Witz, G; Goldstein, B D

    1989-01-01

    Using the 59Fe uptake method of Lee et al. it was shown that erythropoiesis in female mice was inhibited following IP administration of benzene, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, and muconaldehyde. Toluene protected against the effects of benzene. Coadministration of phenol plus either hydroquinone or catechol resulted in greatly increased toxicity. The combination of metabolites most effective in reducing iron uptake was hydroquinone plus muconaldehyde. We have also shown that treating animals with benzene leads to the formation of adducts of bone marrow DNA as measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique. PMID:2792049

  15. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  16. CHANGES IN HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND LUNG FUNCTION OBSERVED IN NC PATROL TROOPERS EXPOSED TO PM AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Lung Function in NC Patrol Troopers exposed to PM and Air Toxics

    Michael Riediker1, Wayne E Cascio1, Robert B Devlin2, Thomas Griggs1&4, Margaret Herbst1, Ronald W Williams3, Steve P McCorquodale4, Philip A Bromberg1
    1) University o...

  17. Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation to Engage High School Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a problem-based chemistry education model in which students perform scientific research on a local environmentally relevant problem. The project is a collaboration among The University of Montana and local high schools centered around Missoula, Montana. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky" involves high school students in collecting…

  18. Study on wastewater toxicity using ToxTrak™ method.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Ślęzak, Radoslaw; Klink, Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    ToxTrak™ method is an analytical tool for the measurement of toxicity of drinking water, wastewater and natural water. It is based upon the estimation of the inhibitive effect on bacterial respiration processes. The main aim of this work was to test the applicability of ToxTrak™ method in the assessment of wastewater toxicity in a full-scale WWTP in Poland. In order to achieve it, the study was divided into two parts. First, the validation of ToxTrak™ method was performed. Second, wastewater toxicity was monitored in the long- and short-term campaigns. Validation of ToxTrak™ method revealed that the indigenous biomass (mixed cultures of activated sludge microorganisms) was more sensitive than Escherichia coli for both materials (wastewater and phenol) tested. The values of degree of inhibition determined for phenol towards indigenous biomass and E. coli were close to each other, and no statistically significant difference between them was found. It confirmed the reliability of the results obtained with the help of ToxTrak™ test. The toxicity of the effluent was always lower than that of the influent and the linear correlation between them was found. Despite, the decrease of wastewater toxicity in the WWTP, the effluents were ranked as toxic or highly toxic according to the classification of wastewater based upon the acute toxicity. PMID:26832868

  19. Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells exposed at the air-liquid interface compared with in vivo assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xuefang; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of spark-generated copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) using an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system. Dose-response results were compared to in vivo inhalation and instillation studies of CuONP. Cells were exposed to particle-free clean air (controls) or spark-generated CuONPs. The number median diameter, geometric standard deviation and total number concentration of CuONPs were 9.2 nm, 1.48 and 2.27×107 particles/cm3, respectively. Outcome measures included cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and proinflammatory chemokine production. Exposure to clean air (2 or 4 hr) did not induce toxicity in HBEC or A549 cells. Compared with controls, CuONP exposures significantly reduced cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. A549 cells were significantly more susceptible to CuONP effects than HBEC. Antioxidant treatment reduced CuONP-induced cytotoxicity. When dose was expressed per area of exposed epithelium there was good agreement of toxicity measures with murine in vivo studies. This demonstrates that in vitro ALI studies can provide meaningful data on nanotoxicity of metal oxides. PMID:25575782

  20. Studies of toxic aerosols via elastic and inelastic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, W.; Li, W.; Allen, T.M.; Blair, D.S.; Davis, E.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Evaporation rates and chemical characteristics of potentially toxic aerosols have been determined by elastic and inelastic light-scattering measurements. The aerosol systems examined were a commercial catalyst consisting of a mixture of stannous octanoate (SNO) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (EHA) and droplets emitted from open tanks of chromic acid solutions used for anodizing aluminum. The heavy metals contained in these aerosols represent a danger to the workplace if such materials are inhaled. Nanogram amounts of the solutions were studied by suspending single microdroplets in electrodynamic balances in a flow of air to measure evaporation rates and to obtain Raman spectra. Elastic scattering data include phase functions and morphological resonance spectra from which droplet sizes are determined. The inelastic light-scattering data or Raman spectra provide molecular vibrational bond information. It was found that EHA spectra agree with bulk data in the literature, and that SNO Raman spectra, which are not available in the literature, are consistent with infrared spectra for bulk SNO. At room temperature the vapor pressure of SNO is on the order of 0.01 Pa while that of EHA is on the order of 0.1 Pa. Raman data for the residue of evaporated chromic acid solutions show the presence of chromium oxides (Cr[sup 6+] compounds), surfactants, and bound (nonvolatile) water. 31 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Enhanced, multi criteria based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research studies being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration are designed to establish relationships between concentrations of highway vehicle air pollutants and variations in these concentrations as a ...

  2. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  3. GIS modeling of air toxics releases from TRI-reporting and non-TRI-reporting facilities: impacts for environmental justice.

    PubMed

    Dolinoy, Dana C; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2004-12-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) requires facilities with 10 or more full-time employees that process > 25,000 pounds in aggregate or use > 10,000 pounds of any one TRI chemical to report releases annually. However, little is known about releases from non-TRI-reporting facilities, nor has attention been given to the very localized equity impacts associated with air toxics releases. Using geographic information systems and industrial source complex dispersion modeling, we developed methods for characterizing air releases from TRI-reporting as well as non-TRI-reporting facilities at four levels of geographic resolution. We characterized the spatial distribution and concentration of air releases from one representative industry in Durham County, North Carolina (USA). Inclusive modeling of all facilities rather than modeling of TRI sites alone significantly alters the magnitude and spatial distribution of modeled air concentrations. Modeling exposure receptors at more refined levels of geographic resolution reveals localized, neighborhood-level exposure hot spots that are not apparent at coarser geographic scales. Multivariate analysis indicates that inclusive facility modeling at fine levels of geographic resolution reveals exposure disparities by income and race. These new methods significantly enhance the ability to model air toxics, perform equity analysis, and clarify conflicts in the literature regarding environmental justice findings. This work has substantial implications for how to structure TRI reporting requirements, as well as methods and types of analysis that will successfully elucidate the spatial distribution of exposure potentials across geographic, income, and racial lines. PMID:15579419

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  5. Biomass production chamber air analysis of wheat study (BWT931)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Peterson, B. V.; Berdis, E.; Wheeler, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) biomass production chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center provides a test bed for bioregenerative studies using plants to provide food, oxygen, carbon dioxide removal, and potable water to humans during long term space travel. Growing plants in enclosed environments has brought about concerns regarding the level of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emitted from plants and the construction materials that make up the plant growth chambers. In such closed systems, the potential exists for some VOC's to reach toxic levels and lead to poor plant growth, plant death, or health problems for human inhabitants. This study characterized the air in an enclosed environment in which wheat cv. Yocora Rojo was grown. Ninty-four whole air samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry throughout the eighty-four day planting. VOC emissions from plants and materials were characterized and quantified.

  6. Developmental toxicity of diesel exhaust: a review of studies in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Naya, Masato; Horimoto, Masao; Kato, Haruhisa

    2013-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of combustion products of diesel fuel, including gases and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), commonly known as soot, that contains many toxic air contaminants. Studies of pre- and postnatal exposure to DE or DEPs have revealed changes in growth, sexual development, hormone levels, spermatogenesis, weights of the reproductive and accessory organs, behavior, monoaminergic system, expression of immune-related genes, histopathology of the testes and brain, susceptibility to allergies, and inflammatory and genotoxic endpoints in rodent offspring. Changes in gene expression for gonadal development were also observed after exposure to DE. As for the causative agent for the developmental toxicity of DE, DEPs and the gaseous phase, conflicting findings were reported. Although this paper provides initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of DE including the gaseous phase and DEPs, further studies using relevant concentrations closely reflecting expected levels of human exposure are needed.

  7. The importance of toxicity in determining the impact of hazardous air pollutants on the respiratory health of children in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta J H; Hotchkiss, Julie L

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory diseases, exacerbated through point source pollution, are currently among the leading causes of hospitalization of children in the United States. This paper investigates the relationship between the proximity of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities and the number of children diagnosed in hospitals with a respiratory disease in Tennessee. The importance of controlling for toxicity of those HAPs is of particular interest. Hospital discharge, socioeconomic, TRI emission, and HAP toxicity data are used to estimate, via Generalized Linear Methods, a logistic regression model describing the relationship between the percent of children living in a zip code area treated for respiratory illness and the average annual emissions over the previous 10 years of HAPs from TRI sites in that area. Controlling for area socioeconomic characteristics, we find that accounting for toxicity is important in uncovering the relationship between HAP emissions and respiratory health of children. A one standard deviation increase in toxicity-weighted emissions per 100 square miles is associated with an increase in the number of children diagnosed with asthma (chronic bronchitis) by about 1205 (260). The evidence suggests that, with a goal to improving children's respiratory health, monitoring the toxicity of chemicals being emitted is at least as important as simply monitoring total emission levels. This suggests that the EPA should consider making efforts toward establishing toxicity adjusted emission guidelines. PMID:27342000

  8. Production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus restricted to endogenous air in tampons.

    PubMed

    Reiser, R F; Hinzman, S J; Bergdoll, M S

    1987-08-01

    All types of four brands of tampons were tested in triplicate by a tampon sac method for their effect on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). In this method the available air is limited to that which is in the tampon sac. Tampons were weighed and inserted into dialysis sacs inoculated with a TSST-1-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain; the sacs were submerged into brain heart infusion agar, which was allowed to harden around the sacs, and were incubated for 18 h at 37 degrees C. The tampons were removed, weighed, and extracted; the CFU of staphylococci and the amount of toxin present in the extracts were determined. Glass wool was used in place of the tampons as one control, and inoculated empty sacs were used as a second control. The total CFU were consistently greater than 2 X 10(11) for the tampons and glass wool and less than or equal to 10(11) for the empty sac control. Total toxin production for all tampons tested and the glass wool was 2 to 10 times higher than the toxin produced with the empty sac control. These results indicate that tampons provide increased surface area for the staphylococci to grow and adequate oxygen for toxin production. No significant inhibition of growth of the staphylococci or TSST-1 production by any of the tampons tested was noted.

  9. A 26-Week Toxicity Assessment of AIR001 (Sodium Nitrite) by Inhalation Exposure in Rats and by Intravenous Administration in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Jeffrey; Ochoa, Ricardo; Rix, Peter; Elliott, Gary; Hoglen, Niel; Poulin, Dominic; Parsley, Ed; Masamune, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Historically, nitrogen oxides (NOx) in food, drinking water, as well as in the atmosphere have been believed to be associated with adverse health consequences. More recently, NOx have been implicated in normal homeostatic regulation, and exogenous administration has been associated with health benefits. One such potential health benefit is the prospect that inhaled nitrite will lower pulmonary blood pressure (BP) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a disease with poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatment. To characterize potential chronic toxicity associated with inhaled AIR001 (sodium nitrite) for use in the treatment of PAH, 26-week exposures to AIR001 were carried out by inhalation administration in rats and by intravenous infusion in dogs. The studies revealed that methemoglobinemia was the primary adverse effect in both species. Methemoglobin levels less than 40% were well tolerated in both species, while levels greater than 50% methemoglobin caused death in some rats. Additionally, a decrease in systemic BP was also observed with inhaled AIR001 exposure in dogs. These acute secondary and exaggerated pharmacological effects occurred daily throughout the 26-week treatment period. Chronic exposure did not alter the magnitude of either methemoglobinemia or hypotension or result in additional toxicity or compensatory responses. Based on the exposure levels that produced these pharmacodynamic responses in animals, relative to those measured in early clinical studies, it appears that an adequate margin of safety exists to support the continued clinical development of inhaled AIR001.

  10. Insecticide toxicity to Hyalella curvispina in runoff and stream water within a soybean farm (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Mugni, H; Ronco, A; Bonetto, C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity to the locally dominant amphipod Hyalella curvispina was assessed in a first-order stream running through a cultivated farm. Cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and glyphosate were sprayed throughout the studied period. Toxicity was assayed under controlled laboratory conditions with runoff and stream water samples taken from the field under steady state and flood conditions. Ephemeral toxicity pulses were observed as a consequence of farm pesticide applications. After pesticide application, runoff water showed 100% mortality to H. curvispina for 1 month, but no mortality thereafter. Toxicity persistence was shortest in stream water, intermediate in stream sediments and longest in soil samples. Runoff had a more important toxicity effect than the exposure to direct aerial fumigation. The regional environmental features determining fast toxicity dissipation are discussed.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Akeem O; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM.

  12. Subchronic (13-week) toxicity and prenatal developmental toxicity studies of dietary astaxanthin in rats.

    PubMed

    Vega, Katherine; Edwards, James; Beilstein, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of dietary astaxanthin on Hanlbm Wistar (SPF) rats. Male and female rats receiving astaxanthin concentrations up to 1.52% of the feed for 13 weeks showed no evidence of toxicity; no effects were noted in the offspring of female rats exposed to astaxanthin at up to 1.39% of the feed during the period of organogenesis (GD 7-16). Discoloration of the feces and yellow pigmentation of adipose tissue was seen in the 13-week study, an intrinsic property of the substance, and not a sign of toxicity. Differences between the control and astaxanthin groups, some of which reached statistical significance, were generally sporadic (i.e., transient and/or not related to astaxanthin concentration) and not considered of biological or toxicological significance. Blood cholesterol levels, for example, were greater in animals receiving astaxanthin for 13 weeks, but remained within the normal range. The highest dietary concentration of astaxanthin in each of the studies is proposed as a no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). Specifically, 1.52% for the 13-week study, corresponding to a mean intake of 1033 mg/kg bw/day (range: 880-1240 mg/kg bw/day), and 1.39% for the developmental toxicity study, corresponding to a mean intake of approximately 830 mg/kg bw/day (range: 457-957 mg/kg bw/day).

  13. Dow Chemical Building 703 incinerator exhaust and ambient air study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trembly, M.G.; Amendola, G.A.

    1987-03-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) determine the levels of dioxins and other toxic compounds in ambient air near the Dow Chemical Midland plant; and (2) determine the levels of dioxin and other chemicals in the Building 703 incinerator exhaust gas, wastewater, and ash, under normal operating conditions. The ambient air study included positive findings of low levels of dioxins at air monitoring sites near the plant fence line and at the site located in the city, ranging up to 0.0004 ug/m/sup 3/ for the less-toxic forms. The study concluded there were no readily observable relationships between the incinerator temperature, pressure, air-pollution control device and flow rates, and the levels of certain dioxins found in the exhaust during the three days of testing. However, there may be a relationship between the levels of dioxin fed into the incinerator and the levels of dioxin discharged.

  14. Single and 14-day repeated dose inhalation toxicity studies of hexabromocyclododecane in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Naining; Li, Lei; Li, Haishan; Ai, Wenchao; Xie, Wenping; Yu, Wenlian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Cheng; Shen, Guolin; Zhou, Lili; Wei, Changlei; Li, Dong; Chen, Huiming

    2016-05-01

    Limited toxicological information is available for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD),a widely used additive brominated flame retardant. Inhalation is a major route of human exposure to HBCD. The aim of this study was to determine the acute inhalation toxicity and potential subchronic inhalation toxicity of HBCD in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to HBCD only through inhalation. The acute inhalation toxicity of HBCD was determined using the limit test method on five male and five female Sprague-Dawley rats at a HBCD concentration of 5000 mg/m(3). Repeated-dose toxicity tests were also performed, with 20 males and 20 females randomly assigned to four experimental groups (five rats of each sex in each group). There were three treatment groups (exposed to HBCD concentrations of 125,500, and 2000 mg/m(3)) and a blank control group (exposed to fresh air). In the acute inhalation toxicity study, no significant clinical signs were observed either immediately after exposure or during the recovery period. Gross pathology examination revealed no evidence of organ-specific toxicity in any rat. The inhalation LC50(4 h) for HBCD was higher than 5312 ± 278 mg/m3 for both males and females. In the repeated dose inhalation study, daily head/nose-only exposure to HBCD at 132 ± 8.8, 545.8 ± 35.3, and 2166.0 ± 235.9 mg/m(3) for 14 days caused no adverse effects. No treatment-related clinical signs were observed at any of the test doses. The NOAEL for 14-day repeated dose inhalation toxicity study of HBCD is 2000 mg/m(3). PMID:26929994

  15. Experimental studies on an air-air jet exhaust pump

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial ventilation employing an air-air jet exhaust pump connected to a compressed-air line was investigated. The motive air supply pressure was maintained between 2 and 3 bar. A unique ejector housing was constructed to receive both the convergent-divergent primary nozzle and the mixing chamber. The entire unit adapts readily to any existing compressed-air system. The mixing chamber was so constructed that the length of its cylindrical section may be changed. Pressure variations along the mixing chamber were recorded, and this offered a valuable appreciation of the effects of the length-to-diameter ratios. Results indicate the influence of the supply air pressure and pressure ratio on the jet entrainment capacity and efficiency. It has also been shown that the present design is capable of achieving the maximum reported jet-pump efficiency of around 25% corresponding to a nozzle-to-mixing chamber area ratio of 0.15.

  16. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  17. Flavorings Boost Toxicity of E-Cigarettes in Lab Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... studies on animals often do not predict clinical effects in humans, the same is true of cell toxicity studies," Conley said. The study findings were published online recently in the journal Tobacco Control . Earlier this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration extended its authority over tobacco ...

  18. The current practice of health risk assessment: Potential impact on standards for toxic air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Jernigan, J.D.; Finley, B.L.; Ripple, S.R.; Keenan, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Since the Bhopal incident, the public has placed pressure on regulatory agencies to set community exposure limits for the dozens of chemicals that may be released by manufacturing facilities. More or less objective limits can be established for the vast majority of these chemicals through the use of risk assessment. However, each step of the risk assessment process (i.e., hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of pitfalls that scientists need to avoid to ensure that valid limits are established. For example, in the hazard identification step there has been little discrimination among animal carcinogens with respect to mechanism of action or the epidemiology experience. In the dose-response portion, rarely is the range of plausible estimated risks presented. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models should be used to understand the difference between the tissue doses and the administered dose, as well as the difference in target tissue concentrations of the toxicant between rodents and humans. Biologically-based models like the Moolgavkar-Knudson-Venzon (MKV) should be developed and used, when appropriate. The exposure assessment step can be significantly improved by using more sensitive and specific sampling and analytical methods, more accurate exposure parameters, and computer models that can account for complex environmental factors. Whenever possible, model predictions of exposure and uptake should be validated by biological monitoring of exposed persons (urine, blood, adipose) or by field measurements of plants, soil, fish, air, or water. In each portion of an assessment, the weight of evidence approach should be used to identify the most defensible value. 129 refs.

  19. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  20. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats with methoxychlor.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Hiroaki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Ken L; Shimizu-Endo, Naoko; Araki, Masayuki; Takeuchi-Kashimoto, Yukiko; Saka, Machiko; Teramoto, Shoji

    2012-03-01

    A two-generation reproduction toxicity study was conducted in rats with a reference estrogenic pesticide, methoxychlor, to validate the sensitivity and competency of current guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for predicting reproductive toxicity of the test compound based on estrogenic endocrine disrupting effects. Both sexes of SD rats were exposed to methoxychlor in the diet at concentrations of 0, 10, 500 and 1500 ppm for two successive generations. The present study has successfully detected estrogenic activities and reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor, as well as its systemic toxicity. Body weights, body weight gains and food consumption of both sexes of animals were suppressed significantly in the 500 and 1500 ppm groups. Typical reproductive toxicities observed in females of these groups included, but were not limited to, prolonged estrous cycle, reduced fertility, decreased numbers of implantation sites and newborns, decreased ovary weights and/or increased incidences of cystic ovary. Uterine weights of weanlings increased significantly in these groups, suggesting that the sensitivity of this parameter for predicting estrogenic ability of the test compound is comparable to that of the uterotrophic assay. Reproductive toxicities of methoxychlor seemed less potent in males than in females. Methoxychlor delayed preputial separation and significantly reduced sperm counts and reproductive organ weights of males of the 500 and/or 1500 ppm groups; however, most males that failed to impregnate females in the same group showed normal fertility when they were re-mated with untreated females. Neither systemic nor reproductive toxicities appeared in the 10 ppm group.

  1. New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2011-01-01

    Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings.

  2. Thermal stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Aydin, Cenk

    2014-07-01

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at sub-thermoneutral temperatures of ~22∘C. When exposed to chemical toxicants under these relatively cool conditions, rodents typically undergo a regulated hypothermic response, characterized by preference for cooler ambient temperatures and controlled reduction in core temperature. Reducing core temperature delays the clearance of most toxicants from the body; however, a mild hypothermia also improves recovery and survival from the toxicant. Raising ambient temperature to thermoneutrality and above increases the rate of clearance of the toxicant but also exacerbates toxicity. Furthermore, heat stress combined with work or exercise is likely to worsen toxicity. Body temperature of large mammals, including humans, does not decrease as much in response to exposure to a toxicant. However, heat stress can nonetheless worsen toxic outcome in humans through a variety of mechanisms. For example, heat-induced sweating and elevation in skin blood flow accelerates uptake of some insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that thermal stress may exacerbate the toxicity of airborne pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Overall, translating results of studies in rodents to that of humans is a formidable task attributed in part to the interspecies differences in thermoregulatory response to the toxicants and to thermal stress. PMID:24944028

  3. Historical control data on developmental toxicity studies in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Endoh, Katsumi; Fukushima, Ryou; Fujii, Sakiko; Hara, Hiroaki; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Hirose, Akihiko; Hojo, Hitoshi; Horimoto, Masao; Hoshino, Nobuhito; Hosokawa, Yoshinori; Imai, Yukari; Inada, Hiroshi; Inawaka, Kunifumi; Itoh, Keiichi; Katsumata, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hirohito; Maeda, Maki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsuo, Seiki; Matsuoka, Toshiki; Matsuura, Ikuo; Mineshima, Hiroshi; Miwa, Yoji; Nakano, Nao; Naya, Masato; Noyori, Hiroko; Ohta, Takafumi; Oku, Harutaka; Ono, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Takakura, Ikuro; Tanaka, Ryota; Tateishi, Taishi; Tominaga, Yuko; Uesugi, Tohru; Urakawa, Chizuru; Yabe, Kaoru; Yamashita, Akihito; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Yokoi, Ryohei

    2014-08-01

    Historical control data on rodent developmental toxicity studies, performed between 1994 and 2010, were obtained from 19 laboratories in Japan, including 10 pharmaceutical and chemical companies and nine contract research organizations. Rats, mice, and hamsters were used for developmental toxicity studies. Data included maternal reproductive findings at terminal cesarean sections and fetal findings including the spontaneous incidences of external, visceral, and skeletal anomalies. No noticeable differences were observed in maternal reproductive data between laboratories. Inter-laboratory variations in the incidences of fetuses with anomalies appeared to be due to differences in the selection of observation parameters, observation criteria, classification of the findings, and terminology of fetal alterations. Historical control data are useful for the appropriate interpretation of experimental results and evaluation of the effects of chemical on reproductive and developmental toxicities. PMID:24666250

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A.

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  5. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  6. Utility of AIRS Retrievals for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Guyla I.; Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Satellites provide an ideal platform to study the Earth-atmosphere system on practically all spatial and temporal scales. Thus, one may expect that their rapidly growing datasets could provide crucial insights not only for short-term weather processes/predictions but into ongoing and future climate change processes as well. Though Earth-observing satellites have been around for decades, extracting climatically reliable information from their widely varying datasets faces rather formidable challenges. AIRS/AMSU is a state of the art infrared/microwave sounding system that was launched on the EOS Aqua platform on May 4, 2002, and has been providing operational quality measurements since September 2002. In addition to temperature and atmospheric constituent profiles, outgoing longwave radiation and basic cloud parameters are also derived from the AIRS/AMSU observations. However, so far the AIRS products have not been rigorously evaluated and/or validated on a large scale. Here we present preliminary assessments of monthly and 8-day mean AIRS "Version 4.0" retrieved products (available to the public through the DAAC at NASA/GSFC) to assess their utility for climate studies. First we present "consistency checks" by evaluating the time series of means, and "anomalies" (relative to the first 4 full years' worth of AIRS "climate statistics") of several climatically important retrieved parameters. Finally, we also present preliminary results regarding interrelationships of some of these geophysical variables, to assess to what extent they are consistent with the known physics of climate variability/change. In particular, we find at least one observed relationship which contradicts current general circulation climate (GCM) model results: the global water vapor climate feedback which is expected to be strongly positive is deduced to be slightly negative (shades of the "Lindzen effect"?). Though the current AIRS climatology covers only -4.5 years, it will hopefully extend much

  7. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD) to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds) and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants). At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other. PMID:19426510

  8. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  9. [Study on the toxicity of horseshoe crabs in mice].

    PubMed

    Liao, Y; Li, X

    2000-05-30

    In order to study the toxicity of horseshoe crabs(tachypleus tridentatus and carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) in the sea of China, the extracts of tissues from tachypleus tridentatus and carcinoscorpius rotundicauda were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice for testing their poisoning effects. The results showed that the toxicity of carcinoscorpius rotundicauda was much higher than that of tachypleus tridentatus. The length of time from the injection to the death was much shorter for Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda than that for tachypleus tridentatus. The signs before death for Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda poisoning were restless, jumping and spasm but that for Tachypleus tridentatus was lethargy. The toxicity of adult horseshoe crabs was much higher than that of young horseshoe crabs.

  10. Macrolide-induced digoxin toxicity: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, T; Mamdani, M M; Juurlink, D N

    2009-10-01

    In this 15-year, population-based, nested case-control study, we investigated the association between hospitalization for digoxin toxicity and recent exposure to individual macrolide antibiotics. Clarithromycin was associated with the highest risk of digoxin toxicity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 14.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.9-27.9), whereas erythromycin and azithromycin were associated with much lower risk (adjusted OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.7-7.9; and adjusted OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.5, respectively). We found no increased risk with a neutral comparator, cefuroxime (adjusted OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.4).

  11. Chronic arsenic toxicity: studies in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Dasgupta, U B

    2011-09-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity (arsenicosis) as a result of drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. A lot of research on health effects, including genotoxic effect of chronic arsenic toxicity in humans, have been carried out in West Bengal during the last 2 decades. A review of literature including information available from West Bengal has been made to characterize the problem. Scientific journals, monographs, and proceedings of conferences with regard to human health effects, including genotoxicity, of chronic arsenic toxicity have been reviewed. Pigmentation and keratosis are the specific skin diseases characteristic of chronic arsenic toxicity. However, in West Bengal, it was found to produce various systemic manifestations, such as chronic lung disease, characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive and/or restrictive pulmonary disease, and bronchiectasis; liver diseases, such as non cirrhotic portal fibrosis; polyneuropathy; peripheral vascular disease; hypertension; nonpitting edema of feet/hands; conjunctival congestion; weakness; and anemia. High concentrations of arsenic, greater than or equal to 200 μg/L, during pregnancy were found to be associated with a sixfold increased risk for stillbirth. Cancers of skin, lung, and urinary bladder are the important cancers associated with this toxicity. Of the various genotoxic effects of arsenic in humans, chromosomal aberration and increased frequency of micronuclei in different cell types have been found to be significant. Various probable mechanisms have been incriminated to cause DNA damage because of chronic arsenic toxicity. The results of the study in West Bengal suggest that deficiency in DNA repair capacity, perturbation of methylation of promoter region of p53 and p16 genes, and genomic methylation alteration may be involved in arsenic-induced disease manifestation in humans. P53 polymorphism has been found to be

  12. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  13. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  14. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies. PMID:26989299

  15. Toxicity evaluation of petroleum blending streams: inhalation subchronic toxicity/neurotoxicity study of a light alkylate naphtha distillate in rats.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, C; Lapadula, E; Breglia, R; Bui, Q; Burnett, D; Koschier, F; Podhasky, P; White, R; Mandella, R; Hoffman, G

    1998-10-23

    A 13-wk inhalation study was conducted with Sprague-Dawley CD rats (12/sex/group) were exposed by inhalation for 13 weeks to a light alkylate naphtha distillate (LAND-2, C4-C10; average molecular weight 89.2) at actual average concentrations of 0 (room air), 668, 2220, or 6646 ppm, 6 h/d, 5 d/wk; 12 additional rats/sex in the control and high dose groups were held after final exposure for a 4-wk recovery period. The highest exposure concentration was 75% of the lower explosive limit. Standard parameters of subchronic toxicity were measured throughout the study; at necropsy, organs were weighed and tissues processed for microscopic evaluation. Neurotoxicity evaluations consisted of motor activity (MA) and a functional operational battery (FOB) measured pretest, during 5, 9, and 14 wk of the study, and after the 4-wk recovery period. Whole-body perfusion and microscopic examination of selected organs and nervous tissue from the control and high dose rats were conducted at the end of exposure. No test-related mortality or effects on physical signs, body weight, or food consumption were observed. Statistically significant increases in absolute and relative kidney weights in high-exposure males correlated with microscopically observed hyaline droplet formation and renal nephropathy, effects in male rats that are not toxicologically significant for humans. Increased liver weights in both sexes at the highest dose had no microscopic correlate and appeared reversible after the 4-wk recovery period. Exposure to LAND-2 at any dose did not produce neurotoxicity measured by MA, FOB, or neuropathology. The no-observed-effects level (NOEL) for LAND-2 was 2220 ppm for subchronic toxicity and > or =26646 ppm for neurotoxicity.

  16. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, C.-W.; James, J. T.; Taylor, L.; Zeidler-Erdely, P. C.; Castranova, V.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the Moon for prolonged human habitation and research. The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Astronauts on the Moon will go in and out of the base for various activities, and will inevitably bring some dust into the living quarters. Depressurizing the airlock so that astronauts can exit for outdoor activities could also bring dust inside the airlock to the habitable area. Concerned about the potential health effects on astronauts exposed to airborne lunar dust, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust. The toxicity data also will be needed by toxicologists to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts residing in the lunar habitat and by environmental engineers to design an appropriate dust mitigation strategy. We conducted a study to examine biomarkers of toxicity (inflammation and cytotoxicity) in lung lavage fluids from mice intrapharyngeally instilled with lunar dust samples; we also collected lung tissue from the mice for histopathological examination 3 months after the dust instillation. Reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) having known toxicities and industrial exposure limits were studied in parallel with lunar dust so that the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. A 6-month histopathology study has been planned. These instillation experiments will be followed by inhalation studies, which are more labor intensive and technologically difficult. The animal inhalation studies will be conducted first with an appropriate lunar dust simulant to ensure that the exposure techniques to be used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of these studies collectively will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and enable us to establish exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  17. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  18. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  19. USING THE AIR QUALITY MODEL TO ANALYZE THE CONCENTRATIONS OF AIR TOXICS OVER THE CONTINENTAL U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is examining the concentrations and deposition of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which include a large number of chemicals, ranging from non reactive (i.e. carbon tetrachloride) to reactive (i.e. formaldehyde), exist in gas, aqueous, and...

  20. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  1. Studies of skin toxicity in vitro: dose-response studies on JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, P T; Fitzpatrick, M J; Phelps, P C; Berezesky, I K; Trump, B F

    1992-01-01

    There are many reasons for developing in vitro tests of toxicity including cost, speed, studies of mechanisms, and studies utilizing human cells and tissues. The present study focuses on the development of in vitro tests to predict in vivo toxicity by comparing them to data from the literature. A broad spectrum of model toxic compounds was evaluated for toxicity on mouse skin JB6 cells in culture. These included mercuric chloride, sodium lauryl sulfate, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulfoxide, benzoyl peroxide, and ionomycin, all of which have been proven to be positive in the Draize test or in cutaneous toxicity studies. Cell viability was evaluated every 15 min for up to 1 hr, and then after 24 hr of treatment using the Trypan Blue exclusion method; morphological changes were evaluated using phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy. Dose- and time-dependent cell death and morphological changes were observed at concentrations ranging from 10(-14) to 10(-2) M. Arbitrary rankings were assigned based on 1) IC50 value estimated from the present data, and 2) in vivo toxicity reported in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Good correlation between in vitro and in vivo toxicity based on arbitrary rankings was observed. Thus, these findings suggest that the JB6 cell culture model can be used for predicting in vivo toxicity. In the future, it may be possible to utilize this system for the study of intracellular ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i), and the expression of oncogenes as early indicators of toxicity.

  2. ILSI/HESI Maternal Toxicity Workshop Summary: Maternal Toxicity and its Impact on Study Design and Data Interpretation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Workshops on maternal toxicity were held at the annual meetings of the Society of Toxicology, Teratology Society, and European Teratology Society in 2009. Prior to a general discussion of the issues involved with maternal toxicity and its impact on study design and data interpret...

  3. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-10-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  5. Uptake and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial springtails--studying bioconcentration kinetics and linking toxicity to chemical activity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Smith, Kilian Eric Christopher; Holmstrup, Martin; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    Passive dosing applies a polymer loaded with test compound(s) to establish and maintain constant exposure in laboratory experiments. Passive dosing with the silicone poly(dimethylsiloxane) was used to control exposure of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida to six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bioconcentration and toxicity experiments. Folsomia candida could move freely on the PAH-loaded silicone, resulting in exposure via air and direct contact. The bioconcentration kinetics indicated efficient uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene through air and (near) equilibrium partitioning of these PAHs to lipids and possibly the waxy layer of the springtail cuticle. Toxicities of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were related to chemical activity, which quantifies the energetic level and drives spontaneous processes including diffusive biouptake. Chemical activity-response relationships yielded effective lethal chemical activities (La50s) well within the expected range for baseline toxicity (0.01-0.1). Effective lethal body burdens for naphthalene and pyrene exceeded the expected range of 2 to 8 mmol kg(-1) fresh weight, which again indicated the waxy layer to be a sorbing phase. Finally, chemical activities were converted into equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids yielding effective lethal concentrations for naphthalene and phenanthrene in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Passive dosing was a practical approach for tightly controlling PAH exposure, which in turn provided new experimental possibilities and findings. PMID:23147567

  6. Metabolomics and its application to studying metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Sean C; Workentine, Matthew L; Weljie, Aalim M; Turner, Raymond J

    2011-11-01

    Here we explain the omics approach of metabolomics and how it can be applied to study a physiological response to toxic metal exposure. This review aims to educate the metallomics field to the tool of metabolomics. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly used tool to compare natural and challenged states of various organisms, from disease states in humans to toxin exposure to environmental systems. This approach is key to understanding and identifying the cellular or biochemical targets of metals and the underlying physiological response. Metabolomics steps are described and overviews of its application to metal toxicity to organisms are given. As this approach is very new there are yet only a small number of total studies and therefore only a brief overview of some metal metabolomics studies is described. A frank critical evaluation of the approach is given to provide newcomers to the method a clear idea of the challenges and the rewards of applying metabolomics to their research.

  7. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-11-09

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  8. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  9. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    The human health risk assessment (HRA), initiated by the onset of nuclear industry, has been a well established methodology for assessing the impacts of human created contamination on an individual human being and entire population. The wide spread of applications and tools grown upon this methodology allows one not only to identify the hazards, but also to manage the risks. Recently, there has existed an increased awareness of the need to conduct ecological risk assessments (ERA) in addition to HRAs. The ERAs are, by and large, more complex than typical HRAs and involve not only different species but whole ecological systems. Such complex analyses require a thorough understanding of the processes underway in the ecosystem, including the contaminant transport through the food web, population dynamics as well as intra- and inter-specific relationships. The exposure pathways change radically depending on the consumer tier. Plants produce their nutriment from the sunlight and raw inorganic compounds. Animals and other living forms obtain energy by eating plants, other animals and detritus. Their double role as food consumers and food producers causes a trophic structure of the ecological system, where nutrients and energy are transferred from one trophic level to another. This is a dynamic process of energy flow, mostly in the form of food, varying with time and space. In order to conduct an efficient ERA, a multidisciplinary framework is needed. This framework can be enhanced by analyzing predator-prey interactions during the environmental disturbances caused by a pollutant emission, and by assessing the consequences of such disturbances. It is necessary to develop a way to describe how human industrial activity affects the ecosystems. Existing ecological studies have mostly been focused either on pure ecological interdependencies or on limited perspectives of human activities. In this study, we discuss the issues of air pollution and its ecological impacts from the

  10. Toxic treatments 'in-situ' steam/hot-air stripping technology. Applications analysis report. Rept. for Jun 89-Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.

    1991-03-01

    A SITE Demonstration of the Toxic Treatment (USA) Inc. in-situ steam/hot-air stripping technology (Detoxifier) was conducted beginning in the fall of 1989 at the GATX Annex Terminal site located in San Pedro, CA. The chemical storage and transfer facility was contaminated with various solvents due to spillage and a fire. Contamination extended into the salt water table (1.8 meters). Based on the SITE Demonstration and other data, it was concluded that 85% of the volatile organic compounds and 50% of the semivolatile organic compounds were removed from the soil. Fugitive air emissions are very low, and lateral and downward migration of contaminants due to the treatment were minimal. Finally, it was concluded that this in-situ process is cost competitive.

  11. A new methyl bromide gas generator for inhalation toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hori, H; Hyakudo, T; Tanaka, I

    1992-09-01

    A simple generator for methyl bromide gas has been newly developed by us. For inhalation toxicity studies, until now, there have been few generators capable of producing a constant and stable concentration of methyl bromide gas easily because of its high volatility. The principle of this new generator is based on gas-liquid equilibrium. The gas is generated from the surface of liquid methyl bromide in an evaporator made of a Teflon tube. The generator can produce up to 10,000 ppm of methyl bromide gas in a 0.1 m3 exposure chamber, and the concentration of this generated gas is able to be kept within +/- 0.8% over a long period of time. The generator has proved to be useful for investigating the effects of methyl bromide on health in inhalation toxicity studies.

  12. Toxicity study of isolated polypeptide from wool hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yanxia; Zhou, Dangxia

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxicity of wool polypeptide has been evaluated by both cell and animal models. Wool was dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution, the pH value of the solution was adjusted to 5.55 and the precipitate was harvested as wool polypeptide. The spray-dried polypeptide was collected as powders and characterized by SEM, FTIR and TG-DSC. The cell culturing results showed that wool polypeptide had no obvious negative effect on cell viability in vitro. Both acute oral toxicity and subacute 30-day oral toxicology studies showed that wool polypeptide had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and hematology at any dose levels. There were no treatment related findings on gross or detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ/body weight ratios and histology. Our study indicated the absence of toxicity in wool polypeptide and supported its safe use as a food ingredient or drug carrier.

  13. Toxicity study of isolated polypeptide from wool hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yanxia; Zhou, Dangxia

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxicity of wool polypeptide has been evaluated by both cell and animal models. Wool was dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution, the pH value of the solution was adjusted to 5.55 and the precipitate was harvested as wool polypeptide. The spray-dried polypeptide was collected as powders and characterized by SEM, FTIR and TG-DSC. The cell culturing results showed that wool polypeptide had no obvious negative effect on cell viability in vitro. Both acute oral toxicity and subacute 30-day oral toxicology studies showed that wool polypeptide had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and hematology at any dose levels. There were no treatment related findings on gross or detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ/body weight ratios and histology. Our study indicated the absence of toxicity in wool polypeptide and supported its safe use as a food ingredient or drug carrier. PMID:23597444

  14. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF TOXIC METAL AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF COAL AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is concerned with the partitioning of toxic metals (e.g., arsenic, selenium, mercury, chromium, lead, and cadmium) during combustion, and with the mitigation of their effect on the environment using high-temperature sorbents. The paper is divided into three parts: (1) t...

  16. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying 03-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRN...

  17. Overview of the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) Field Study.

    PubMed

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2015-01-01

    The Benzene and other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) field study was an experimental campaign designed to demonstrate novel methods for measuring ambient concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in real time and to attribute these concentrations to quantified releases from specific emission points in industrial facilities while operating outside facility fence lines. BEE-TEX was conducted in February 2015 at three neighboring communities in the Houston Ship Channel of Texas, where a large number of petrochemical facilities are concentrated. The novel technologies deployed during BEE-TEX included: (1) tomographic remote sensing based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy; (2) real-time broadcasting of ambient air monitoring data over the World Wide Web; (3) real-time source attribution and quantification of HAP emissions based on either tomographic or mobile measurement platforms; and (4) the use of cultured human lung cells in vitro as portable indicators of HAP exposure. PMID:26549972

  18. Overview of the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Olaguer, Eduardo P.

    2015-01-01

    The Benzene and other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) field study was an experimental campaign designed to demonstrate novel methods for measuring ambient concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in real time and to attribute these concentrations to quantified releases from specific emission points in industrial facilities while operating outside facility fence lines. BEE-TEX was conducted in February 2015 at three neighboring communities in the Houston Ship Channel of Texas, where a large number of petrochemical facilities are concentrated. The novel technologies deployed during BEE-TEX included: (1) tomographic remote sensing based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy; (2) real-time broadcasting of ambient air monitoring data over the World Wide Web; (3) real-time source attribution and quantification of HAP emissions based on either tomographic or mobile measurement platforms; and (4) the use of cultured human lung cells in vitro as portable indicators of HAP exposure. PMID:26549972

  19. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  20. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Beagles Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Hamamura, Masao; Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate the pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in beagles. Spontaneous arteritis occurs commonly in beagles. Frequent sites of arteritis are the heart, spleen, pancreas, epididymis and spinal cord. Morphological similarities between spontaneous and drug-induced arterial lesions may cause confusion when evaluating vascular toxicity of chemicals such as vasodilating agents. Focal and minimal inflammatory lesions are occasionally seen in the lung and may be associated with aspiration of food particles or of unknown causes. A cystic change with copious mucin production occurs occasionally in the mucosal epithelium of the gall bladder. Nesidioblastosis is seen rarely in the pancreas of beagles. C-cell complex and lymphocytic thyroiditis are common thyroid lesions. Spontaneous focal hypospermatogenesis and lobular Sertoli-cell-only seminiferous tubules occurring frequently in beagles must be distinguished from drug-induced damage of the seminiferous tubules in toxicity studies. The morphological differences of the female genital system in each cycle need to be understood; therefore, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Further, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in beagles for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481862

  1. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S. )

    1991-12-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative.

  2. SAR STUDY OF NASAL TOXICITY: LESSONS FOR MODELING SMALL TOXICITY DATASETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most toxicity data, particularly from whole animal bioassays, are generated without the needs or capabilities of structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling in mind. Some toxicity endpoints have been of sufficient regulatory concern to warrant large scale testing efforts (e.g....

  3. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  4. Review of toxicity studies performed on an underground coal gasification condensate water

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, F.P.

    1987-09-01

    Three studies related to the toxicity of underground coal gasification (UCG) waters have bee conducted: (1) toxicity study of UCG water and its fractions as determined by the Microtox test, (2) toxicity study of biotreated UCG water as determined by the Microtox test, and (3) toxicity study of UCG water to macroinvertebrates. The results of these studies are summarized herein. The gas condensate water from the UCG process is extremely toxic as determined by assays with photoluminescent bacteria (Microtox), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates (mayflies), and Daphnia magna (water flea). Microtox bioassays reveal that the toxic components of the water reside in both the organophilic and hydrophilic fractions, although the organophilic fraction is notably more toxic. A sequential treatment process reduced the toxicity of the UCG water, as measured by the Microtox test. Solvent extraction (to remove phenols) followed by ammonia stripping yielded a less toxic water. Additional treatment by activated sludge further reduced toxicity. Finally, the addition of powdered activated carbon to the activated sludge yielded the least toxic water. A bioassay technique was developed for lotic (running water) macroinvertebrates (Drunella doddsi and Iron longimanus). The toxicity results were compared with results from the traditional test animal, Daphnia magna. Short-term exposures to the UCG waters were more toxic to Daphnia magna than to Drunella doddsi or Iron longimanus, although the toxicity values begin to merge with longer test exposure. The greater toxicity seems to be related to a thinner exoskeleton. 26 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  6. A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.

  7. An amphibian model for studies of developmental reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The developmental programming of the reproductive system is vulnerable to chemical exposure. It is therefore important to evaluate long-term consequences of early life-stage exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. The African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis has several characteristics which facilitates studies of developmental reproductive toxicity. Here, I present a X. tropicalis test protocol, including study design, exposure regime, and endpoints for chemical disruption of sex differentiation, reproductive organ development, the thyroxin-regulated metamorphosis, oestrogen synthesis (activity of the CYP19 aromatase enzyme), and fertility. PMID:22669660

  8. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

  9. Toxicity of nanosilver in intragastric studies: Biodistribution and metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Olga D; Klochkov, Sergey G; Novikova, Oksana V; Bravova, Irina M; Shevtsova, Elena F; Safenkova, Irina V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Bachurin, Sergey O; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2016-01-22

    The unique physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles explain their extensive application in consumer goods, food, and medicinal products. However, the biological effects of nanosilver after peroral exposure of mammals are still debatable. This study describes the biodistribution and biological action of 12nm non-coated silver nanoparticles intragastrically administered to male rats after acute (single exposure) and sub-acute (multiple exposures over 30 days) toxicity experiments. The daily doses were 2000 and 250mg/kg of body weight for single and multiple administrations, respectively. Silver tissue detection was conducted by elemental analysis with the help of atomic absorption spectroscopy. An estimation of the state of exposed animals was made and the dynamics of hematological and biochemical parameters of rats was studied. It was demonstrated that single and multiple administrations resulted in silver accumulation in the liver, kidneys, spleen, stomach, and small intestine. After both one- and repeated-dose exposures, the highest Ag contents were detected in the liver (0.87±0.37μg/g of organ) and kidneys (0.24±0.02μg/g of organ). The concentrations of silver detected in tissues were far smaller than the administered doses (<99%), indicating its efficient excretion from the organism. Acute and sub-acute exposures caused no animal mortality or signs of toxicity, manifested as changes in outward appearance or notable deviations in behavior or locomotor activity. Postmortem study revealed no visible pathomorphological abnormalities of internal organs. Hematological indices and biochemical parameters of the treated rats did not differ from those of the vehicle control animals. Overall, it can be concluded that nanosilver is able to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream and accumulate in the secondary organs of rats. It showed no distinct toxicity under the experimental conditions of this study.

  10. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  11. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING AIRBORNE LWIR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous releases from petrochemical, refinery, and electrical production facilities can contribute to regional air quality problems. Fugitive emissions or leaks can be costly to industry in terms of lost materials and products. Ground-based sampling and monitoring for leaks are t...

  12. Modeling and Impacts of Traffic Emissions on Air Toxics Concentrations near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs – benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene – to ambient air concentrations at downwin...

  13. CO-DEPENDENCIES OF REACTIVE AIR TOXIC AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS ON EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to understand the effect of emission controls on the concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and hazardous air pollutants simultaneously, in order to evaluate the full range of both health related and economic effects. Until recently, the capability of simultan...

  14. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. PM pollution is a complex mixture containing dozens of different compounds; the composition of PM can vary dramatically among different locations depending on the sources of pa...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  17. Air cushion landing gear applications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    A series of air cushion landing gear (ACLG) applications was studied and potential benefits analyzed in order to identify the most attractive of these. The selected applications are new integrated designs (not retrofits) and employ a modified design approach with improved characteristics and performance. To aid the study, a survey of potential users was made. Applications were evaluated in the light of comments received. A technology scenario is developed, with discussion of problem areas, current technology level and future needs. Feasible development timetables are suggested. It is concluded that near-term development of small-size ACLG trunks, exploration of flight effects and braking are key items. The most attractive applications are amphibious with very large cargo aircraft and small general aviation having the greatest potential.

  18. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  19. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  20. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Rebecca C.; Rager, Julia E.; Bauer, Rebecca; Sebastian, Elizabeth; Peden, David B.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying O3-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of genomic response to environmental insults and unstudied in relationship to O3 inhalation exposure. Our objective was to test whether O3 inhalation exposure significantly alters miRNA expression profiles within the human bronchial airways. Twenty healthy adult human volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 for 2 h. Induced sputum samples were collected from each subject 48 h preexposure and 6 h postexposure for evaluation of miRNA expression and markers of inflammation in the airways. Genomewide miRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis, and in silico predicted mRNA targets of the O3-responsive miRNAs were identified and validated against previously measured O3-induced changes in mRNA targets. Biological network analysis was performed on the O3-associated miRNAs and mRNA targets to reveal potential associated response signaling and functional enrichment. Expression analysis of the sputum samples revealed that O3 exposure significantly increased the expression levels of 10 miRNAs, namely miR-132, miR-143, miR-145, miR-199a*, miR-199b-5p, miR-222, miR-223, miR-25, miR-424, and miR-582-5p. The miRNAs and their predicted targets were associated with a diverse range of biological functions and disease signatures, noted among them inflammation and immune-related disease. The present study shows that O3 inhalation exposure disrupts select miRNA expression profiles that are associated with inflammatory and immune response signaling. These findings provide novel insight into epigenetic regulation of responses to O3 exposure. PMID:24771714

  1. GENE INDUCTION STUDIES AND TOXICITY OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its mixtures program the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) supports in vitro and limited in vivo toxicity testing to further our understanding of the toxicity and health effects of chemical mixtures. There are increasing concerns that environment...

  2. Developmental toxicity studies of four fragrances in rats.

    PubMed

    Christian, M S; Parker, R M; Hoberman, A M; Diener, R M; Api, A M

    1999-12-20

    Four fragrances, 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-ben zopyran (HHCB), musk ketone and musk xylene were tested for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group, 3 groups/fragrance, 2 fragrances/corn oil control). Dosages tested were HHCB: 50, 150, 500 mg/kg per day; AHTN: 5, 15, 50 mg/kg per day; musk ketone: 15, 45, 150 mg/kg per day; musk xylene: 20, 60, 200 mg/kg per day. All dosages tested exceeded multiples of the estimated maximal daily human dermal exposure. Treatment (gavage, 5 ml/kg) occurred on GDs 7-17 and Caesarean-sectioning on GD 20. Based on the results of these studies, none of the four fragrances tested were more toxic in the conceptuses than in the dams. Maternal NOAELs were 50, 5, 15 and 20 mg/kg per day for HHCB, AHTN, musk ketone and musk xylene, respectively (150, 50, 45 and 60 mg/kg per day caused clinical signs and reduced weight gain and feed consumption). Developmental NOAELs were 150, 50, 45 and 200 mg/kg per day for HHCB, AHTN, musk ketone and musk xylene, respectively. No adverse effects on embryo-fetal viability, growth or morphology occurred at the highest dosages of AHTN (50 mg/kg per day) or musk xylene (200 mg/kg per day). Developmental toxicity occurred at the high-dosages of HHCB (axial skeletal malformations at 500 mg/kg per day) and musk ketone (increased postimplantation loss and reduced fetal body weight at 150 mg/kg per day). The results of this study indicate that under conditions of normal use, the tested fragrances do not pose a risk to human conceptuses.

  3. A Study on Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of 1-Chloropropane

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Han, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure toxicity of 1-chloropropane (CAS No. : 540-54-5). According to the OECD Test Guideline 413 (Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study), SD rats were exposed to 0, 310, 1,250, and 5,000 ppm of 1-chloropropane for 6 h/day, 5 day/week for 13 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, motor activity, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and all tested groups. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were examined during the study. No gross lesions or adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, motor activity, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, organ weights were observed in any of male or female rats in all tested groups. In serum biochemistry, glucose was significantly decreased in males of 1,250 and 5,000 ppm groups compared to control group in dose-dependent relationship. In histopathological examination, vacuolation of acinar cells was observed in pancreas of all male and female groups exposed to 1-chloropropane. In conclusion, no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be below 310 ppm/6 h/day, 5 day/week for rats. PMID:26877841

  4. Gas-fired boiler and turbine air toxics summary report. Final report, January-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi-Lane, C.; Stein, D.; Himes, R.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the report is to provide a summary of the criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from a variety of gas-fired stationary sources including utility boilers, utility turbines, and turbines used for natural gas transmission. The report provides emission factors for each compound measured as a function of load to support general use during the preparation of Title V permit applications.

  5. Simplified preparation of TO14 and Title III air toxic standards using a Windows software package and dynamic dilution schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cardin, D.B.; Galoustian, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    The preparation of Air Toxic standards in the laboratory can be performed using several methods. These include injection of purge and trap standards, static dilution from pure compounds, and dynamic dilution from NIST traceable standards. A software package running under Windows has been developed that makes calculating dilution parameters for even complex mixtures fast and simple. Compound parameters such are name, molecular weight, boiling point, and density are saved in a data base for later access. Gas and liquid mixtures can be easily defined and saved as an inventory item, with preparation screens that calculate appropriate transfer volumes of each analyte. These mixtures can be utilized by both the static and dynamic dilution analysis windows to calculate proper flow rates and injection volumes for obtaining requested concentrations. A particularly useful approach for making accurate polar VOC standards will be presented.

  6. Studies of the toxic interaction of disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie, R.D.; Bercz, J.P.; Wessendarp, T.K.; Condie, L.W.

    1986-11-01

    A large number and variety of compounds are formed in the process of chlorinating drinking water. Many of the compounds have been shown to be toxic and are currently being further evaluated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One group of the halopropanones found in chlorinated drinking water is the dichloropropanones. The toxicological properties of this group have not been well characterized. In addition, a number of investigators have shown that ketones potentiate the hepatotoxicity of haloalkanes. The authors conducted a series of studies to explore both the toxicity of the dichloropropanones and their potential interaction with a well-characterized haloalkane, carbon tetrachloride. A variety of toxicological and biochemical endpoints were used to evaluate the toxicity of the dichloropropanones and their interaction with CCl/sub 4/, including cytochrome P-450 concentration, reduced glutathione levels, pentane generation, serum enzyme activities, and histopathology. Administration of 1,1-dichloropropanone (DCP) resulted in elevated serum enzymes associated with periportal necrosis. Glutathione levels were reduced by the administration of 1,1-DCP; pentane generation was not increased. When 1,1-DCP was given prior to CCl/sub 4/, the data were consistent with additivity. Administration of 1,3-DCP did not result in elevated serum enzymes, nor was there histopathologic evidence of necrosis. Glutathione levels and pentane generation in the 1,3-DCP-treated groups were the same as those of controls. Inhibition of the toxicologic effects of CCl/sub 4/ in a dose-related manner was observed when 1,3-DCP was administered prior to CCl/sub 4/.

  7. Toxic fear: the management of uncertainty in the wake of the Amsterdam air crash.

    PubMed

    Boin, A; van Duin, M; Heyse, L

    2001-12-14

    This paper examines the management of uncertainty among emergency responders, the media, and the public following the crash of an Israeli cargo plane carrying apparently hazardous cargo in Amsterdam's Bijlmermeer area. While the authorities' management of the emergency created by the initial crash was effective, the long-term crisis management performance was considerably less effective. It is argued that, particularly in hazardous materials emergencies, considerable management attention is required in the long-term aftermath rather than seeking a quick declaration of "all clear" or determination that the crisis is over. This paper examines the roles of all actors in the crisis and addresses the nature of communications in the "disaster after the disaster". The evolution of a "toxic fear" among citizens is documented and the social psychology of crisis management in the aftermath is examined. PMID:11679195

  8. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  9. Fumonisin toxicity and metabolism studies at the USDA. Fumonisin toxicity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Norred, W P; Voss, K A; Riley, R T; Plattner, R D

    1996-01-01

    Fumonisins are responsible for many of the toxic effects of the common corn fungus, Fusarium moniliforme. They are acute renal and liver toxins in rats, and have tumor promoting activity. Fumonisin B1 is poorly absorbed, rapidly excreted, and persists in small amounts in the liver and kidney. Fumonisins are specific inhibitors of ceramide synthase, and the toxic effects they produce may be related to their ability to disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, resulting in a myriad of problems in cell regulation and communication. In this paper, research that has been conducted on F. monilforme and the fumonisins at the USDA's Russell Research Center is reviewed.

  10. National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants compliance verification plan for the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1986-07-28

    This documentation was prepared for submittal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in order to meet the requirements of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). This document will emphasize the control of radioactive emissions from the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. The TSCA Incinerator is a dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator that is under construction at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to destroy radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the TSCA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated at the facilities managed by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO). Destruction of the PCBs and the hazardous organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. The incinerator will thermally destroy the organic constituents of the liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incinerator, an extensive off-gas treatment facility is being constructed to remove particulate and acidic gas air emissions.

  11. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals.

  12. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  13. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  14. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  15. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  16. Recent studies on biomethylation and demethylation of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Ridley, W P; Dizikes, L; Cheh, A; Wood, J M

    1977-08-01

    Methylcobalamin (methyl-B12) has been implicated in the biomethylation of the heavy metals (mercury, tin, platinum, gold, and thallium) as well as the metalloids (arsenic, selenium, tellurium and sulfur). In addition, methylcobalamin has been shown to react with lead, but the lead-alkyl product is unstable in water. Details of the kinetics and mechanisms for biomethylation of arsenic are presented, with special emphasis on synergistic reactions between metal and metalloids in different oxidation states. This study explains why synergistic, or antagonistic, processes can occur when one toxic element reacts in the presence of another. The relative importance of biomethylation reactions involving methylcobalamin will be compared to those reactions where S-adenosylmethionine is involved.

  17. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  18. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  19. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  20. Historical control data in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Mylchreest, Eve; Harris, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals are conducted as part of the process of evaluating the risk of pharmaceuticals and chemicals to human reproduction and development. In these studies, comparison of data from groups dosed with the test article to a concurrent control group is considered the most relevant approach for the interpretation of adverse effects. However, differences between the concurrent control and treated groups may arise by chance alone, and in some instances may even appear to be dose-related. These limitations of the concurrent control group are of particular concern when interpreting fetal malformation data because malformations are rare events that can be better characterized when incidences in both concurrent control and treated groups are compared to a larger set of control values. Historical control data can be useful not only to understand the range of normal for a given endpoint but also to monitor the biological variability over time due to various external factors (e.g., genetic changes in a strain, changes at the breeding facility). It can also serve to track the performance of the laboratory and identify any changes in the data that may be the result of internal factors at the performing laboratory due to modification in animal diet, seasonal changes, or even the proficiency of the technicians in handling animals and recording fetal and offspring observations. This chapter will provide the reader with guidance on building a laboratory historical control database and applying it to the scientific interpretation of reproductive and developmental toxicity data. Information on sources of external historical control data will be provided and some perspective given on the utility of this data. A discussion of the presentation of historical control data with descriptive statistics will be accompanied by examples of tabulation of the data. Supernumerary rib will be used as an example of how historical control

  1. Historical control data in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Mylchreest, Eve; Harris, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals are conducted as part of the process of evaluating the risk of pharmaceuticals and chemicals to human reproduction and development. In these studies, comparison of data from groups dosed with the test article to a concurrent control group is considered the most relevant approach for the interpretation of adverse effects. However, differences between the concurrent control and treated groups may arise by chance alone, and in some instances may even appear to be dose-related. These limitations of the concurrent control group are of particular concern when interpreting fetal malformation data because malformations are rare events that can be better characterized when incidences in both concurrent control and treated groups are compared to a larger set of control values. Historical control data can be useful not only to understand the range of normal for a given endpoint but also to monitor the biological variability over time due to various external factors (e.g., genetic changes in a strain, changes at the breeding facility). It can also serve to track the performance of the laboratory and identify any changes in the data that may be the result of internal factors at the performing laboratory due to modification in animal diet, seasonal changes, or even the proficiency of the technicians in handling animals and recording fetal and offspring observations. This chapter will provide the reader with guidance on building a laboratory historical control database and applying it to the scientific interpretation of reproductive and developmental toxicity data. Information on sources of external historical control data will be provided and some perspective given on the utility of this data. A discussion of the presentation of historical control data with descriptive statistics will be accompanied by examples of tabulation of the data. Supernumerary rib will be used as an example of how historical control

  2. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  3. Determination of toxic congeners of 17 PCDDs/PCDFs and 12 dl-PCBs using polyurethane foam passive air samplers in ten cities around Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoonki, Min; Jongwon, Heo; Meehye, Lee

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-nine toxic congeners including 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were determined using passive air samplers (PAS) at ten satellite cities of Seoul for two years. Chemical analysis was done by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The ten monitoring sites represent urban-residential, industrial, urban-rural mixed, and rural types of regions in Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.59 pg·day(-1) to 29.7 pg·day(-1) and from 3.44 pg·day(-1) to 99.7 pg·day(-1), respectively with the highest values at industrial areas. The relative abundance of more toxic congeners (tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCDDs/PCDFs) was the highest in urban-rural mixed group despite the less emission sources than industrial group. It implies that this group was under the influence of fugitive emissions that have not yet been identified or regulated. This study reports the first attempt of atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCB measurements with PAS in the monitoring network of Korea, which highlights the efficacy of PAS in continuous and long-term monitoring of those species particularly at regions that could easily slip out of environmental governance or of low accessibility to monitoring.

  4. Toxicity and recovery studies of two ayurvedic preparations of iron.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, P K; Prajapati, P K; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B; Choudhary, A K

    2009-12-01

    Lauha Bhasma and Mandura Bhasma in 55 mg/kg dose (5 times the therapeutic effective dose) for 60 days exhibited no serious toxic effects in Charles Foster albino rats. Both the drugs showed significant recovery from chronic toxic effect after 45 days of recovery period. PMID:20329703

  5. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  6. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM A COMMUNITY-BASED AIR TOXICS MONITORING NETWORK IN DEER PARK, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This RARE Project with EPA Region 6 was a spatial analysis study of select volatile organic compounds (VOC) collected using passive air monitors at outdoor residential locations in the Deer Park, Texas area near the Houston Ship Channel. Correlation analysis of VOC species confi...

  7. Identification of the appropriate dose metric for pulmonary inflammation of silver nanoparticles in an inhalation toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Cassee, Flemming R; Fokkens, Paul H B; de la Fonteyne, Liset J J; Oomen, Agnes G; Krystek, Petra; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Park, Margriet V D Z

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that induction of pulmonary toxicity by nanoparticles of the same chemical composition depends on particle size, which is likely in part due to differences in lung deposition. Particle size mostly determines whether nanoparticles reach the alveoli, and where they might induce toxicity. For the risk assessment of nanomaterials, there is need for a suitable dose metric that accounts for differences in effects between different sized nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. The aim of the present study is to determine the most suitable dose metric to describe the effects of silver nanoparticles after short-term inhalation. Rats were exposed to different concentrations (ranging from 41 to 1105 µg silver/m(3) air) of 18, 34, 60 and 160 nm silver particles for four consecutive days and sacrificed at 24 h and 7 days after exposure. We observed a concentration-dependent increase in pulmonary toxicity parameters like cell counts and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. All results were analysed using the measured exposure concentrations in air, the measured internal dose in the lung and the estimated alveolar dose. In addition, we analysed the results based on mass, particle number and particle surface area. Our study indicates that using the particle surface area as a dose metric in the alveoli, the dose-response effects of the different silver particle sizes overlap for most pulmonary toxicity parameters. We conclude that the alveolar dose expressed as particle surface area is the most suitable dose metric to describe the toxicity of silver nanoparticles after inhalation.

  8. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (<2.5 μm), PM10-2.5 (2.5 μm < x < 10 μm), and PM10 (>10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment. PMID:27124590

  9. A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal toxicity in herbs and adulterants during careless preparation of herbal medicine, resulting in adverse renal effects and renal toxicity from contaminants within the extracts. The review aims to provide knowledge and guide to encourage future toxicity studies on the kidney by medicinal herbs. PMID:23326775

  10. Broccoli seed extract: Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Lynch, B; Jia, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Potential health benefits have been attributed to broccoli consumption. Hence, there is potential for use of broccoli seed extract (BSE) in food or for use as a dietary supplement. To assess the potential safety of a BSE product, three genotoxicity experiments, including an Ames, in vivo mouse micronucleus, and in vivo mouse sperm abnormality assay, were carried out. BSE was subject to an acute oral toxicity test and was evaluated in a 30-day feeding study in rats. BSE showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and no evidence of genotoxic potential in the in vivo assays at doses up to 10 g/kg body weight (bw). The LD50 of BSE in rats was >10 g/kg bw/d. In the 30-day feeding study, in which BSE was administered in the diet to provide doses of 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg bw/d, no toxicological significant effects were noted on body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or on the results of hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 3.0 g/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested. Collectively, these results support the safe use of BSE as a food ingredient or product. PMID:26271574

  11. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  12. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    PubMed

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it.

  13. Development of fireside performance indices, Task 7.33, Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in FBCS, Task 7.36, Enhanced air toxics control, Task 7.45

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been developing advanced indices that rank coals according to their fouling and slagging propensity in utility boilers. The indices are based on sophisticated analytical techniques for identifying and quantifying coal inorganics and are useful in predicting the effects of proposed operational changes on ash deposition in coal-fired boilers. These indices are intended to provide an economical way to reduce the amount of full-scale testing needed to determine the best means of minimizing ash-related problems. The successful design and operation of the fluidized-bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems in FBC are agglomeration of bed material, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, ash deposition on refractory and uncooled surfaces, corrosion, and erosion. The focus of the Development of Methods to Predict Agglomeration and Deposition in FBCs is on the agglomeration and deposition problems in atmospheric bubbling and circulating beds. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require study of air toxic emissions from coal combustion systems. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine-particle control appears to be the best approach to achieving a high level of air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and are not typically collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, the goal of this project is to develop methods that capture the vapor-phase metals while simultaneously achieving ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxics.

  14. Studies on the male reproductive toxicity of Freon 22.

    PubMed

    Lee, I P; Suzuki, K

    1981-01-01

    Freons have been used extensively as refrigerants and as propellants in household products, and yet their possible effects on male reproduction have received little attention. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (nine weeks of age) were exposed to 50 000 ppm Freon 22, five hrs per day for eight weeks. The control group received filtered air at an identical flow rate. At the end of the eight week exposure period, body and organ weights, hematology, blood chemistry, plasma gonadotropins, and fertility parameters were not significantly different from controls, with the exception of serum cholesterol levels, which were slightly higher, and glucose and triglyceride levels which were lower. The weight of coagulating glands was also lower than those of controls, but did not interfere with fertility function.

  15. Summary of selected compressed air energy storage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A descriptive summarily of research and development in compressed air energy storage technology is presented. Research funded primarily by the Department of Energy is described. Results of studies by other groups and experience at the Huntorf plant in West Germany are included. Feasibility studies performed by General Electric are summarized. The feasibility of air storage in dissolved salt cavities is also demonstrated. (BCS)

  16. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    PubMed

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process.

  17. ASSESSING EXPOSURES TO MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FOR POPULATIONS LIVING NEAR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing number of epidemiological studies have identified an increase in occurrence of adverse health effects for populations living near major roads. However, the biological mechanism(s) leading to the adverse effects have not been identified. Limitations in exposure assessm...

  18. Experimental studies on the toxicity of lithographic developer solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the toxicity of a lithographic developer solution which contains hydroquinone is caused by hydroquinone or the alkaline lithographic developer solution. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. In four groups, rats were dosed orally with 3% hydroquinone or 3% hydroquinone in 3% lithographic developer solution. Hydroquinone levels were measured after one and 24 hours. In two groups, rats were dosed orally with 6% hydroquinone or 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution. In the seventh group, rats received the alkaline solution only. Hydroquinone measurement was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hydroquinone was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and subsequently distributed throughout the body. Nearly all hydroquinone was excreted in the urine as either a glucuronide or a sulfate (78-82%) within 24 hours. All rats administered 6% hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle died, but the mortality rate of rats administered 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution was 60%. Tissue hydroquinone was lower at one hour and 24 hours after administration in lithographic developer solution than in equal dose of hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle suggesting decreased absorption in an alkaline pH. Hydroquinone was not associated with gross pathologic changes of the intestine but all animals treated with lithographic developer solution or alkaline solution had congestion, hemorrhagic petechiae and purple-brown discoloration throughout the small intestine. The combination of alkaline/formaldehyde diluent with hydroquinone may delay hydroquinone absorption but increase the risk of intestinal necrosis.

  19. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; EL-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  20. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Elshama, Said Said; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  1. Clinical toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f.

    PubMed

    Murty, G K

    1974-09-01

    Semecarpus anacardium was administered to 266 cases in 3 formulations: Amrit Bhallatak (186 cases), RB 3 (48 cases), and Garsin (32 cases). The Amrit Bhallatak is a compound formulation containing extract of both the cotyledons and the pericarp of the fruit of Semecarpus anacardium. RB3 is composed of the whole cotyledon (300 mg); the daily dose of cotyledons was 3.6 g. Garsin contained 200 g of cotyledons. The extract is derived by separating the oil by a physical process. The daily dosage of Amrit Bhallatak was 10 g/day, that of Garsin, 2.4 g/day. No toxicity or side effects were observed. The therapeutic value of Semecarpus anacardium in arthropathies, atopic dermatitis, leucoderma, leprosy, hypothyroidism, oligospermia, and azoospermia and its value as an oral contraceptive have been studied. The most significant effect was on the ovaries and testes. The drug probably acts via the hypophysics. Out of 266 patients, 189 were men, 77 women between 30-45 years of age. The treatment was restricted to internal medication by mouth. No external contact or application of the drug was applied. Of the 77 women treated with the drug, 41 were followed up after treatment. 12 had become pregnant and none showed any teratogenecity.

  2. 13-week oral toxicity study of vinyl laurate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ben A R; Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2015-02-01

    Vinyl laurate (VL) is used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer, a component of chewing gum base. The safety of VL was examined in a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. VL was administered in corn coil by daily gavage (5 ml/kg bw/d) to four main groups (10 rats/sex) at doses of 0 (vehicle only), 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. The control and high-dose group comprised an additional 5 rats/sex which were kept untreated for a further 4 weeks until sacrifice (recovery groups). In addition to standard parameters, male and female fertility parameters were determined as well. There were no mortalities and treatment-related clinical signs. Neurobehavioral observations and motor activity assessment, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weights, feed and water intakes, blood cell counts, coagulation time, standard clinical chemical parameters and urinalyses, absolute and relative organ weights at the end of the treatment as well as macroscopic examination at necropsy and microscopic examination of standard organs and tissues did not show any treatment-related changes. Female and male fertility parameters (estrus cyclicity, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, sperm motility and morphology) were not affected by the treatment. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for VL was determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d, i.e. the highest dose level tested. PMID:25445296

  3. Short-term toxicity studies of loline alkaloids in mice.

    PubMed

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Munday, R; Kerby, J W F

    2016-08-01

    Epichloë endophytes have been used successfully in pastoral systems to reduce the impact of insect pests through the expression of secondary metabolites. The use of endophytes could be extended to other plant species, such as cereal crops, where the production of bioactive secondary metabolites would reduce the reliance on pesticides for insect control. The success of this approach is dependent on the selection of an appropriate secondary metabolite target which must not only be effective against insect pests but also be safe for grazing and monogastric animals. The loline alkaloids have been identified as possible target metabolites as they are associated with potent effects on insects and low toxicity to grazing animals. The purpose of the current study was to generate toxicological data on the loline alkaloids in a monogastric system using mice. Male and female mice were fed 415 mg/kg/day total lolines for a 3-week period. The loline treatment caused no statistically significant effect on gross pathology, histology, haematology, blood chemistry, heart rate, blood pressure or motor coordination. Reduced weight gain and food consumption were noted in the loline groups during the initial stages of the experiment. This experiment raises no food safety concerns for the loline alkaloids. PMID:27276360

  4. A study of commuter air service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belina, F. W.; Bush, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    A regionally oriented overview of the commuter air service industry is provided. A framework for an eventual assessment of potential technology directions that may be of benefit to the industry is presented. Data are provided on the industry's market characteristics, service patterns, patronage characteristics, aircraft and airport needs, economic characteristics and institutional issues. Using personal interview and literature survey methods, investigation of a considerable cross-section of the industry was made.

  5. Studies on UV filaments in air

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, J.; Rambo, P.; Diels, J.C.; Luk, T.S.; Bernstein, A.C.; Cameron, S.M.

    2000-01-05

    UV filaments in air have been examined on the basis of the diameter and length of the filament, the generation of new spectral components, and the ionization by multiphoton processes. There have been numerous observations of filaments at 800 nm. The general perception is that, above a critical power, the beam focuses because nonlinear self-lensing overcomes diffraction. The self-focusing proceeds until an opposing higher order nonlinearity forms a stable balance.

  6. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  7. Study of acute toxicity of Ukrain in rats after intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Kulik, G I; Deneka, E R; Todor, I N; Karmozina, L G

    1998-01-01

    The acute toxicity of i.v. Ukrain injection in rats was studied. The interrelation between toxicity (death of animals) and dosage was determined by nonlinear regression method. White blood count (WBC) in peripheral blood, weight of animals, and weight of major organs were determined in animals during all stages of investigation. Morphological studies of toxic changes in 40 different organs of rats were performed on macro- and microscopic levels.

  8. Toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to alveolar macrophages: comparative study revealing differences in their mechanism of toxic action

    SciTech Connect

    Rietjens, I.M.; Poelen, M.C.; Hempenius, R.A.; Gijbels, M.J.; Alink, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the toxic mechanisms of action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide were compared using an intact cell model. Rat alveolar macrophages were exposed by means of gas diffusion through a Teflon film. In this in vitro system, ozone appeared to be 10 times more toxic than nitrogen dioxide. alpha-Tocopherol protected equally well against ozone and nitrogen dioxide. It was demonstrated that alpha-tocopherol provided its protection by its action as a radical scavenger and not by its stabilizing structural membrane effect, as (1) concentrations of alpha-tocopherol that already provided optimal protection against ozone and nitrogen dioxide did not influence the membrane fluidity of alveolar macrophages and (2) neither one of the structural alpha-tocopherol analogs tested (phytol and the methyl ether of alpha-tocopherol) could provide a protection against ozone or nitrogen dioxide comparable to the one provided by alpha-tocopherol. It was concluded that reactive intermediates scavenged by alpha-tocopherol are important in the toxic mechanism of both ozone and nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage. However, further results presented strongly confirmed that the kind of radicals and/or reactive intermediates, and thus the toxic reaction mechanism involved, must be different in ozone- and nitrogen dioxide-induced cell damage. This was concluded from the observations that showed that (1) vitamin C provided significantly better protection against nitrogen dioxide than against an equally toxic dose of ozone, (2) glutathione depletion affected the cellular sensitivity toward ozone to a significantly greater extent than the sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide, and (3) the scavenging action of alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a significantly greater reduction in its cellular level during nitrogen dioxide exposure than during exposure to ozone.

  9. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    PubMed

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child). PMID:26511087

  10. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    PubMed

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  11. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) studies on the organophosphate insecticides.

    PubMed

    Can, Alper

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate insecticides are the most commonly used pesticides in the world. In this study, quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models were derived for estimating the acute oral toxicity of organophosphate insecticides to male rats. The 20 chemicals of the training set and the seven compounds of the external testing set were described by means of using descriptors. Descriptors for lipophilicity, polarity and molecular geometry, as well as quantum chemical descriptors for energy were calculated. Model development to predict toxicity of organophosphate insecticides in different matrices was carried out using multiple linear regression. The model was validated internally and externally. In the present study, QSTR model was used for the first time to understand the inherent relationships between the organophosphate insecticide molecules and their toxicity behavior. Such studies provide mechanistic insight about structure-toxicity relationship and help in the design of less toxic insecticides.

  12. Laboratory studies on antimycin A as a fish toxicant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Bernard L.; Lennon, Robert E.; Hogan, James W.

    1969-01-01

    Liquid and sand formulations of antimycin A were tested in laboratory waters of various temperature, hardness, pH, and turbidity against 31 species of fresh-water fish of various sizes and life stages. Each formulation of toxicant was lethal under all water conditions to fish eggs, fry, fingerlings, and adult fish. Trouts are the most sensitive and catfishes the least sensitive. Of the 31 species, 24 succumb to 5 p.p.b. or less of the toxicant; only certain catfishes survive 25 p.p.b, The order of toxicity to various species of fish suggests that antimycin has possibilities for selective or partial control of certain unwanted fish. Although toxic to fish under ice, antimycin is more active in warm water than in cold. It is slightly more active in soft water than in hard; it is more active and persists far longer in water at pH 5 to 8 than at pH 9 or 10. It is active on fish in either clear and turbid waters, and it can be detoxified by potassium permanganate, The results contributed to registration of antimycin A in Fintrol-5 formulation as a fish toxicant.

  13. Performance of underfloor air distribution: Results of a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas

    2004-09-02

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include easy relocation of air supply diffusers, energy savings, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13 percent higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13 percent reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C (2-4 F). This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10 percent. The occupants level of satisfaction with thermal conditions w as well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  14. Novel approaches for studying pulmonary toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Michaela; Knebel, J W; Ritter, D

    2003-04-11

    The in vitro study of adverse cellular effects induced by inhaled pollutants poses a special problem due to the difficulties of exposing cultured cells of the respiratory tract directly to test atmospheres that can include complex gaseous and particulate mixtures. In general, there is no widely accepted in vitro exposure system. However, in vitro methods offer the unique possibility for use of human cells, developed and validated cell culture and exposure device (CULTEX(1)) using the principle of the air/liquid exposure technique. Cells of the respiratory tract are grown on porous membranes in transwell inserts. After removal of the medium, the cells can be treated on their superficial surfaces with the test atmosphere, and at the same time they are supplied with nutrients through the membrane below. In comparison with other experimental approaches, the goal of our studies is to analyze the biological effects of test atmospheres under environmental conditions, i.e. without humidifying the atmosphere or adding additional CO(2). The system used is small and flexible enough independent of a cultivation chamber and thus offers the opportunity for onsite study of indoor and outdoor atmospheres in the field. The efficacy of the exposure device has already been demonstrated in the analysis of dose-dependent cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of exposure of epithelial lung cells to complex mixtures such as native diesel exhaust and side-stream smoke.

  15. A turbulence-driven air fumigation facility for studying air pollution effects on vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.; Lewin, K.; Hendrey, G.; Nagy, J. ); Alexander, Y. . Applied Mathematics Dept.)

    1990-10-01

    Studying the effects of atmospheric perturbations on plant growth has usually involved compromises between realism and convenience. Isolating the effects of specific parameters, such as air pollution, elevated CO{sub 2} concentration, or water stress, requires a manipulated rather than a completely natural environment. Attempts to develop large free-air controlled exposure systems date back several years, primarily for experimental exposures to elevated levels of air pollutants such as SO{sub 2} or ozone. These early systems suffered from two types of problems: imprecise control of the exposure gas concentrations; substantial spatial variability within the exposed plots. The Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) open-air fumigation system, developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), has addressed both of these problem areas. This system differs from other free-air exposure systems in that the injection gas is pre-diluted in ambient air to an average 3--4% by volume, and the injection gas mass flow is adjusted each second by the micoprocessor-driven controller. This document discusses the design and performance of this facility. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  17. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  18. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5-19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  19. Effects of exercise exposure on toxic interactions between inhaled oxidant and aldehyde air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Mautz, W.J.; Kleinman, M.T.; Phalen, R.F.; Crocker, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    Respiratory tract injury resulting from inhalation of mixtures of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and of O3 and formaldehyde (HCHO) was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats under exposure conditions of rest and exercise. Focal inflammatory injury induced in lung parenchyma by O3 exposure was measured morphometrically and HCHO injury to the nasal respiratory epithelium was measured by cell turnover using tritium-labeled thymidine. Mixtures of O3 (0.35 or 0.6 ppm) with NO2 (respectively 0.6 or 2.5 ppm) doubled the level of lung injury produced by O3 alone in resting exposures to the higher concentrations and in exercising exposures to the lower concentrations. Formaldehyde (10 ppm) mixed with O3 (0.6 ppm) resulted in reduced lung injury compared to O3 alone in resting exposures, but exercise exposure to the mixture did not show an antagonistic interaction. Nasal epithelial injury from HCHO exposure was enhanced when O3 was present in a mixture. Mixtures of O3 and NO2 at high and low concentrations formed respectively 0.73 and 0.02 ppm nitric acid (HNO3) vapor. Chemical interactions among the oxidants, HNO3, and other reaction products (N2O5 and nitrate radical) and lung tissue may be the basis for the O3-NO2 synergism. Increased dose and dose rate associated with exercise exposure may explain the presence of synergistic interaction at lower concentrations than observed in resting exposure. No oxidation products were detected in O3-HCHO mixtures, and the antagonistic interaction observed in lung tissue during resting exposure may result from irritant breathing pattern interactions.

  20. Air Pollution Potential: Regional Study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gassmann; Mazzeo

    2000-04-01

    / Air pollution potential is a measure of the atmospheric conditions that are unable to transport and dilute pollutants into the air, independently of the existence of sources. This potential can be determined from two atmospheric parameters: mixing height and transport wind. In this paper a statistical analysis of the mixing height and transport wind, in order to determine the areas with high or poor atmospheric ventilation in Argentina, is presented. In order to achieve this, meteorological data registered during 1979-1982 at eight meteorological stations were used. Daily values of the maximum mixing height were calculated from observations of daily temperatures at different heights and maximum surface temperature. At the same time as the maximum mixing height, the values of the transport wind were determined from the surface windspeed and the characteristics of the ground in the surroundings of each meteorological station. The mean seasonal values for both parameters were obtained. Isopleths of the mean seasonal of the maximum mixing heights were drawn. The percentage of seasonal frequencies of poor ventilation conditions were calculated and the frequency isopleths were also drawn to determine areas with minor and major relative frequencies. It was found that the northeastern and central-eastern regions of Argentina had a high air pollution potential during the whole year. Unfavorable atmospheric ventilation conditions were also found in the central-western side of the country during the cold seasons (37.5% in autumn and 56.9% in winter). The region with the greatest atmospheric ventilation is located south of 40 degrees S, where the frequency of poor ventilation varies between 8.0% in summer and 10.8% in winter.

  1. Air cushion landing system stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, T. D.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of an inelastic ACLS plunge mode dynamic model is presented. The ACLS has unrestrained side elements and frozen end elements. The model exhibits unstable behavior at certain operating conditions for which the side elements are in contact with the ground. A linear analysis showed this instability to be due mainly to the altitude sensitivities of the cushion to atmosphere airflows and the attendant influence on the dynamic pressure forces on the vehicle. The model instability can be alleviated by isolating side and end elements so that they are all unrestrained and by simultaneously venting the air cushion directly to atmosphere.

  2. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Student Performance [and Case Studies].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This report examines how indoor air quality (IAQ) affects a child's ability to learn and provides several case studies of schools that have successfully addressed their indoor air problems, the lessons learned from that experience, and what long-term practices and policies emerged from the effort. The report covers the effects from…

  4. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  5. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John M. . E-mail: rogers.john@epa.gov; Chernoff, Neil; Keen, Carl L.; Daston, George P.

    2005-09-01

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxicity.

  6. Correlation of temperature and toxicity in murine studies of staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.

    PubMed

    Stiles, B G; Campbell, Y G; Castle, R M; Grove, S A

    1999-03-01

    This study describes a quick (<12 h) assay for detecting temperature decreases in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p. ) with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, or SEC3 or toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and a potentiating dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Toxin-specific antisera effectively neutralized the temperature fluctuations in this model. Orally administered SEA or SEB (50 microg/animal), with or without LPS, did not have an effect on temperature or lethality. Versus wild-type mice, transgenic knockout mice lacking the p55 receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or gamma interferon were protected against an i.p. challenge of SEA plus LPS. The p75 receptor for TNF and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 have a negligible role in this toxic shock model.

  7. Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study Series. Air-Stripper Design Manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.S.; Rogers, T.N.

    1990-05-01

    A computer model package ASPAIR was developed in the project to describe the air stripping process along with processes for controlling the air emissions. The package is integrated with a commercially available process simulator called ASPEN to design and cost an air stripper and emission control system for specific applications. The applicability of the ASPAIR model package was demonstrated through several case studies which highlighted the effect of important parameters such as, Henry's Law constant, gas to liquid ratio, VOC removal efficiency, and wastewater throughput. The results of these case studies are presented in a graphical form to allow quick short-cut estimates of the performance and cost of an air stripper and associated air emissions control units. Two figures are provided in the manual that illustrate the capital and annualized costs as a function of wastewater flow rate and Henry's Law constant for a desired VOC removal efficiency of 90%. Two additional figures are provided that illustrate a similar cost correlation for a desired VOC removal rate efficiency of 99%. The manual also provides capital and annualized costs graphs for catalytic oxidation and carbon adsorption units used to control the emissions from air strippers.

  8. DOSE-DEPENDENT TRANSITIONS IN MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY: CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experience with dose response and mechanisms of toxicity has shown that multiple mechanisms may exist for a single agent along the continuum of the full dose-response curve. It is highly likely that critical, limiting steps in any given mechanistic pathway may become overwhelmed ...

  9. AQUATIC TOXICITY MODE OF ACTION STUDIES APPLIED TO QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of QSAR models for predicting fish acute lethality were developed using systematically collected data on more than 600 chemicals. These models were developed based on the assumption that chemicals producing toxicity through a common mechanism will have commonality in the...

  10. 40 CFR 798.4900 - Developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (f) Data and reporting—(1) Treatment of results. Data shall be summarized in tablular form, showing... historical developmental toxicity data on the species/strain tested. A properly conducted developmental... to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following...

  11. 40 CFR 798.4350 - Inhalation developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actual concentration of the test substance shall be measured in the breathing zone. During the exposure... found dead and isolation or sacrifice of weak or moribund animals). (iii) Signs of toxicity shall be... from dead animals if autolysis or where decomposition has occurred. The degree of resorption shall...

  12. 40 CFR 798.4350 - Inhalation developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actual concentration of the test substance shall be measured in the breathing zone. During the exposure... found dead and isolation or sacrifice of weak or moribund animals). (iii) Signs of toxicity shall be... from dead animals if autolysis or where decomposition has occurred. The degree of resorption shall...

  13. 40 CFR 798.4350 - Inhalation developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actual concentration of the test substance shall be measured in the breathing zone. During the exposure... found dead and isolation or sacrifice of weak or moribund animals). (iii) Signs of toxicity shall be... from dead animals if autolysis or where decomposition has occurred. The degree of resorption shall...

  14. 40 CFR 798.4350 - Inhalation developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actual concentration of the test substance shall be measured in the breathing zone. During the exposure... found dead and isolation or sacrifice of weak or moribund animals). (iii) Signs of toxicity shall be... from dead animals if autolysis or where decomposition has occurred. The degree of resorption shall...

  15. Analytical and experimental study on complex compressed air pipe network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Yushou; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the working characteristics of complex compressed air networks, numerical methods are widely used which are based on finite element technology or intelligent algorithms. However, the effectiveness of the numerical methods is limited. In this paper, to provide a new method to optimize the design and the air supply strategy of the complex compressed air pipe network, firstly, a novel method to analyze the topology structure of the compressed air flow in the pipe network is initially proposed. A matrix is used to describe the topology structure of the compressed air flow. Moreover, based on the analysis of the pressure loss of the pipe network, the relationship between the pressure and the flow of the compressed air is derived, and a prediction method of pressure fluctuation and air flow in a segment in a complex pipe network is proposed. Finally, to inspect the effectiveness of the method, an experiment with a complex network is designed. The pressure and the flow of airflow in the network are measured and studied. The results of the study show that, the predicted results with the proposed method have a good consistency with the experimental results, and that verifies the air flow prediction method of the complex pipe network. This research proposes a new method to analyze the compressed air network and a prediction method of pressure fluctuation and air flow in a segment, which can predicate the fluctuation of the pressure according to the flow of compressed air, and predicate the fluctuation of the flow according to the pressure in a segment of a complex pipe network.

  16. Topological study on the toxicity of ionic liquids on Vibrio fischeri by the quantitative structure-activity relationship method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fangyou; Shang, Qiaoyan; Xia, Shuqian; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Peisheng

    2015-04-01

    As environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) are unlikely to act as air contaminants or inhalation toxins resulting from their negligible vapor pressure and excellent thermal stability. However, they can be potential water contaminants because of their considerable solubility in water; therefore, a proper toxicological assessment of ILs is essential. The environmental fate of ILs is studied by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model is obtained by topological method using toxicity data of 157 ILs on Vibrio fischeri, which are composed of 74 cations and 22 anions. The topological index developed in our research group is used for predicting the V. fischeri toxicity for the first time. The MLR model is precise for estimating LogEC50 of ILs on V. fischeri with square of correlation coefficient (R(2)) = 0.908 and the average absolute error (AAE) = 0.278.

  17. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Nipper, M.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.; Miller, K.; Saepoff, S.

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log Kow, but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  18. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  19. Comparison of silver nanoparticles stored under air or argon with respect to the induction of intracellular free radicals and toxic effects toward keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Sebastian; Meinke, Martina C; Werner, Luise; Epple, Matthias; Diendorf, Joerg; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lademann, Juergen; Vogt, Annika; Rancan, Fiorenza

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial infections decreased considerably after the discovery of antibiotics. Nevertheless, because of the rising rate of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains, the search for new bactericidal agents has again become a crucial topic in clinical medicine. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have a huge potential in dermatology and wound care management because of their ability to release silver ions (Ag(+) ions) in a prolonged and sustained way. However, negative effects of silver on the patient's cells should not be underestimated. Furthermore, it has been controversially discussed whether AgNP are responsible for nanoparticle-specific outcomes or not. In this study, we investigated the effects of AgNP on human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) in order to better understand the mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to improve the use of this highly reactive biocide in wound healing. We found that most of the cells with internalized AgNP displayed the typical morphological signs of apoptosis. The cell viability assay (XTT) showed concentration-dependent toxic effects of the AgNP toward HaCaT cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by AgNP was investigated in cell suspensions by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In order to distinguish between the effects of Ag(+) ions released during AgNP storage and those of Ag(+) ions released after nanoparticle application, we compared AgNP stored under air (O2) with AgNP stored under argon (Ar). Dispersions of AgNP stored under Ar have a low content of Ag(+) ions because of the absence of oxygen which is needed for oxidative dissolution. The results show that Ag(+) ions released during particle storage are responsible for most of the ROS produced during 1h incubation with the cells. AgNP (Ar) also induced intracellular ROS but to a much smaller extent compared to AgNP (O2). These findings highlight the complexity of experiments to assess the toxicity of AgNP and suggest the

  20. Air Quality Modeling of Traffic-related Air Pollutants for the NEXUS Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of the model applications to estimate exposure metrics in support of an epidemiologic study in Detroit, Michigan. A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characteriz...

  1. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  2. A comparative study of insecticide toxicity among seven cladoceran species.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-11-01

    The sensitivities of seven cladoceran species (Ceriodaphnia reticulata, Chydorus sphaericus, Daphnia galeata, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Moina macrocopa, Scapholeberis kingi, and Simocephalus vetulus) to carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and methomyl) were investigated by acute toxicity tests. The sensitivities to carbaryl and methomyl were highly correlated among the tested organisms, but the co-tolerance level varied markedly among species. C. reticulata showed the highest sensitivity, whereas M. macrocopa and S. kingi showed the lowest sensitivities to the two insecticides. These results indicate that the degree of chemical impacts on natural communities can vary depending on cladoceran species composition. The highly positive correlation between the EC(50) values for both insecticides indicates that the two chemicals have a shared mode of action on cladoceran species. Unlike previous reports, acute toxicity was not correlated with body size. The results are discussed in relation to community-level experiments, the functions of freshwater ecosystems, and ecological risk assessment. PMID:20862541

  3. Mercury and air toxic element impacts of coal combustion by-product disposal and utilization. Final report (for the period January 23, 2003 - December 31, 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.

    2007-10-15

    The air toxic elements (ATEs) evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with activated carbon (AC) used for mercury emission control and, therefore present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls. Field experiments vapor-phase releases at a CCB disposal site. Results indicated low-level vapor-phase mercury releases, as was generally noted in laboratory experiments for lignite fly ash samples. Laboratory methods were developed to evaluate the potential for mercury releases under several release mechanicals. 48 refs., 21 figs., 76 tabs., 21 apps.

  4. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on freshwater fish Cirrhina mrigala.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Nivedita; Mehta, Vatsal; Khare, Madhuri; Sinkar, Pushpa; Krishnan, Smita; Rao, C Vaman

    2002-10-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is used as a plasticizer, a detergent base, in aerosol sprays, as a perfume binder in incense sticks and after-shave lotions. It is known to be a contaminant of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Therefore, a study was designed to determine the toxic effects of DEP on a freshwater fish, Cirrhina mrigala. The fish was treated with 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm (w/v) DEP dissolved in acetone to determine the LC50. Positive controls were treated with acetone only. There was 100% mortality observed within 24 h in 75 and 100 ppm, and 50% mortality in 50 ppm treated fish in 72 h. Those treated at 25 ppm showed only 10% mortality within 72 h and remaining fish continued to survive. The surviving fish were treated with 25 ppm DEP once daily for 3 days with every change of water (Group III). One group was maintained as negative control in dechlorinated water (Group I) and the other group received acetone once daily for 3 days with every change of water and was used as positive control (Group II). Fish were killed by cold narcosis on an ice block and dissected to obtain liver, muscle, and brain samples; 10% homogenates in ice-cold saline were prepared. Brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity was measured. Liver aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver and muscle succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) alkaline and acid phosphate (ALP and ACP) were measured. There was a significant increase in liver and muscle ACP and ALP in DEP-treated fish compared with positive and negative controls. There was a significant increase in muscle SDH and liver ALT (ALT) in DEP-treated fish compared with positive and negative controls. Brain AchE level was significantly decreased in DEP-treated fish compared to positive and negative controls. These results indicate that DEP brings about significant changes in the activity of certain liver and muscle enzymes. These alterations in enzyme activity may have long-term effects on that are continuously exposed

  5. Characterization of air quality data for the southern California air quality study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, K.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Hopke, P.K.; Grosjean, D.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents research based on data acquired during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Various techniques were applied to identify the sources of acidity in the South Coast Air Basin of California. These Techniques included graphical analysis, box modeling, deterministic modeling, and receptor modeling. A fog model was developed to study the contribution of fog to acidic species formation and removal. A trajectory model was also used to examine the vertical distribution of acidity and the implications with respect to fog acidity. Receptor models with different complexity were used: principal component analysis, stepwise multiple regression, target transformation factor analysis, and potential source contribution function analysis.

  6. EFFECT OF NITRATE-BASED BIOREMEDIATION ON CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION AND SEDIMENT TOXICITY-COLUMN STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory column study was set up to evaluate changes in contaminant distribution and sediment toxicity following nitrate-based bioremediation and to correlate toxicity reduction with loss of fuel components. Glass columns were packed with sediment from an aquifer that had be...

  7. A comparative study on toxicity identification of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Kim, Eunhee; Jo, Hun-Je; Han, Taejun; Jung, Jinho

    2011-09-01

    In this study, acute toxicity monitoring and toxicity identification evaluation procedures were applied to identify causative toxicants in industrial effluents. Effluents from a metal plating factory and a rubber products factory were acutely toxic toward Daphnia magna and the toxicity varied over different sampling events (2.9-5.9 and 1.7-7.6 TU, respectively). For the rubber products effluent, it was confirmed that zinc (5.65-13.18 mg L(-1)) was found to be a major cause of toxicity, which is likely originated from zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators. For the metal plating effluent, it appeared that the presence of high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) (8,539-11,400 and 3,588-4,850 mg L(-1), respectively) caused the observed toxicity. These toxicants likely originated from sodium bisulfate (NaHSO(3)) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as reducing and oxidizing agents. Though copper was found to be present in levels much higher than the EC(50) (50% effective concentration) value, this was not attributable to the toxicity of metal plating effluent likely due to complexation with dissolved organic matter. PMID:21761172

  8. Centrifugal study of zone of influence during air-sparging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liming; Meegoda, Jay N; Du, Jianting; Gao, Shengyan; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-01

    Air sparging (AS) is one of the groundwater remediation techniques for remediating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saturated soil. However, in spite of the success of air sparging as a remediation technique for the cleanup of contaminated soils, to date, the fundamental mechanisms or the physics of air flow through porous media is not well understood. In this study, centrifugal modeling tests were performed to investigate air flow rates and the evolution of the zone of influence during the air sparging under various g-levels. The test results show that with the increase in sparging pressure the mass flow rate of the air sparging volume increases. The air mass flow rate increases linearly with the effective sparging pressure ratio, which is the difference between sparging pressure and hydrostatic pressure normalized with respect to the effective overburden pressure at the sparging point. Also the slope of mass flow rate with effective sparging pressure ratio increases with higher g-levels. This variation of the slope of mass flow rate of air sparging volume versus effective sparging pressure ratio, M, is linear with g-level confirming that the air flow through soil for a given effective sparging pressure ratio only depends on the g-level. The test results also show that with increasing sparging pressure, the zone of influence (ZOI), which consists of the width at the tip of the cone or lateral intrusion and the cone angle, will lead to an increase in both lateral intrusion and the cone angle. With a further increase in air injection pressure, the cone angle reaches a constant value while the lateral intrusion becomes the main contributor to the enlargement of the ZOI. However, beyond a certain value of effective sparging pressure ratio, there is no further enlargement of the ZOI.

  9. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  10. 40 CFR 798.4350 - Inhalation developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the test substance. It is used to compare particles of different sizes, shapes, and densities and... substance given daily per unit volume of air. (c) Principle of the test method. The test substance is... physical or chemical properties of the test substance, the maximum attainable......

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  12. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

    PubMed Central

    Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

    2005-01-01

    Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

  13. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  14. Air Quality Modeling in Support of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge in traffic-related air pollution exposure studies is the lack of information regarding pollutant exposure characterization. Air quality modeling can provide spatially and temporally varying exposure estimates for examining relationships between traffic-related a...

  15. Linking waterlogging tolerance with Mn²⁺ toxicity: a case study for barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Shabala, S; Shabala, L; Rengel, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, G; Zhou, M

    2015-01-01

    Vast agricultural areas are affected by flooding, causing up to 80% yield reduction and resulting in multibillion dollar losses. Up to now, the focus of plant breeders was predominantly on detrimental effects of anoxia, while other (potentially equally important) traits were essentially neglected; one of these is soil elemental toxicity. Excess water triggers a progressive decrease in soil redox potential, thus increasing the concentration of Mn(2+) that can be toxic to plants if above a specific threshold. This work aimed to quantify the relative contribution of Mn(2+) toxicity to waterlogging stress tolerance, using barley as a case study. Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes contrasting in waterlogging stress tolerance were studied for their ability to cope with toxic (1 mm) amounts of Mn(2+) in the root rhizosphere. Under Mn(2+) toxicity, chlorophyll content of most waterlogging-tolerant genotypes (TX9425, Yerong, CPI-71284-48 and CM72) remained above 60% of the control value, whereas sensitive genotypes (Franklin and Naso Nijo) had 35% less chlorophyll than 35% of controls. Manganese concentration in leaves was not related to visual Mn(2+) toxicity symptoms, suggesting that various Mn(2+) tolerance mechanisms might operate in different tolerant genotypes, i.e. avoidance versus tissue tolerance. The overall significant (r = 0.60) correlation between tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity and waterlogging in barley suggests that plant breeding for tolerance to waterlogging traits may be advanced by targeting mechanisms conferring tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity, at least in this species.

  16. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems.

  17. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.

  18. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

    2011-09-01

    In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

  19. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS)-an international project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4) to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children) positions, and 5) to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone. PMID:20380704

  20. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Vermeulen, Roel; Hosgood, H. Dean; Downward, George S.; Chapman, Robert S.; He, Xingzhou; Bassig, Bryan A.; Kim, Christopher; Wen, Cuiju; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity. PMID:25223911

  1. Household air pollution and lung cancer in China: a review of studies in Xuanwei.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Vermeulen, Roel; Hosgood Iii, H Dean; Downward, George S; Chapman, Robert S; He, Xingzhou; Bassig, Bryan A; Kim, Christopher; Wen, Cuiju; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity. PMID:25223911

  2. Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J L; Hatch, G E; Hall, R E; Jackson, M A; Merrill, R G; Lewtas, J

    1986-07-01

    The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Conceptual Study on Air Ingress Mitigation for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2012-09-01

    An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) safety. Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen depending on the accident scenario and the design. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur and lead to a detrimental situation for the VHTR safety. This paper discusses various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas were conceptually developed. Among them, two concepts were finally evaluated as effective candidates. One concept is to inject helium into the lower plenum which is a direct in-vessel helium injection. The other concept is to enclose the reactor with a non-pressure boundary consisting of an opening at the bottom, which is an ex-vessel enclosure boundary. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods were used to validate these concepts. As a result, it was shown that both concepts can effectively mitigate the air-ingress process. In the first concept, the injected helium replaces the air in the core and the lower plenum upper part by buoyancy force because of its low density. It prevented air from moving into the reactor core showing great potential for mitigating graphite oxidation in the core. In the second concept, the air-ingress rate is controlled by molecular diffusion through the opening at the enclosure bottom after depressurization. Some modified reactor cavity design is expected to

  4. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  5. Performance of air sparging systems: a review of case studies.

    PubMed

    Bass, D H; Hastings, N A; Brown, R A

    2000-02-25

    Fluor Daniel GTI (now IT Corporation) has compiled a database of 49 completed in-situ air sparging case studies. Air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in groundwater and saturated zone soil. The air sparging database was compiled to address questions regarding the effectiveness and permanence of air sparging, and to provide predictive indicators of air sparging success to aid in optimization of existing and future air sparging systems. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In many cases, air sparging achieved a substantial and permanent decrease in groundwater concentrations. Successful systems were achieved with both chlorinated and petroleum contamination, both sandy and silty soils, and both continuous and pulsed flow sparging. In other cases, however, a significant rebound of groundwater concentrations was observed after sparging was terminated. Rebound sometimes required 6 to 12 months to develop fully. Rebound was more frequently observed at sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons than with chlorinated solvents. Petroleum-contaminated sites were more likely to rebound when initial groundwater contamination levels were high enough to suggest the presence of LNAPL or a smear zone of residual LNAPL. Rebound at petroleum sites appeared to be minimized by a high density of sparge wells addressing the entire source area and a high sparge air injection rate. In some cases, rebound appeared to be related to a rising water table.

  6. A new model for investigating the mortality effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition, the high correlation between air pollutants can produce problems of interpretation for the standard method of investigating the adverse health effects due to multiple air pollutants. The standard method involves simultaneously including the multiple air pollutants in a single statistical model. Because of this, the development of new models to concurrently estimate the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants has recently been identified as an important area of future research. In this article, a new model for disentangling the joint effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies is introduced. This new model uses the time-series data to assign each air pollutant a weight that indicates the pollutant's contribution to the air pollution mixture that affects mortality and to estimate the effect of this air pollution mixture on mortality. This model offers an improvement in statistical estimation precision over the standard method. It also avoids problems of interpretation that can occur if the standard method is used. This new model is then illustrated by applying it to time-series data from two U.S. counties.

  7. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  8. Toxicity of leachate from weathering plastics: An exploratory screening study with Nitocra spinipes.

    PubMed

    Bejgarn, Sofia; MacLeod, Matthew; Bogdal, Christian; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Between 60% and 80% of all marine litter is plastic. Leachate from plastics has previously been shown to cause acute toxicity in the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Here, we present an initial screening of the marine environmental hazard properties of leachates from weathering plastics to the marine harpacticoid copepod [Crustacea] Nitocra spinipes. Twenty-one plastic products made of different polymeric materials were leached and irradiated with artificial sunlight. Eight of the twenty-one plastics (38%) produced leachates that caused acute toxicity. Differences in toxicity were seen for different plastic products, and depending on the duration of irradiation. There was no consistent trend in how toxicity of leachate from plastics changed as a function of irradiation time. Leachate from four plastics became significantly more toxic after irradiation, two became significantly less toxic and two did not change significantly. Analysis of leachates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by liquid chromatography coupled to a full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that the leachates were a mixture of substances, but did not show evidence of degradation of the polymer backbone. This screening study demonstrates that leachates from different plastics differ in toxicity to N. spinipes and that the toxicity varies under simulated weathering. PMID:25828916

  9. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Swapnil; Nicholls, Ian A.; Karlsson, Björn C. G.; Rosengren, Annika M.; Ballabio, Davide; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER) equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. PMID:25302621

  10. Toxicity of leachate from weathering plastics: An exploratory screening study with Nitocra spinipes.

    PubMed

    Bejgarn, Sofia; MacLeod, Matthew; Bogdal, Christian; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    Between 60% and 80% of all marine litter is plastic. Leachate from plastics has previously been shown to cause acute toxicity in the freshwater species Daphnia magna. Here, we present an initial screening of the marine environmental hazard properties of leachates from weathering plastics to the marine harpacticoid copepod [Crustacea] Nitocra spinipes. Twenty-one plastic products made of different polymeric materials were leached and irradiated with artificial sunlight. Eight of the twenty-one plastics (38%) produced leachates that caused acute toxicity. Differences in toxicity were seen for different plastic products, and depending on the duration of irradiation. There was no consistent trend in how toxicity of leachate from plastics changed as a function of irradiation time. Leachate from four plastics became significantly more toxic after irradiation, two became significantly less toxic and two did not change significantly. Analysis of leachates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by liquid chromatography coupled to a full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that the leachates were a mixture of substances, but did not show evidence of degradation of the polymer backbone. This screening study demonstrates that leachates from different plastics differ in toxicity to N. spinipes and that the toxicity varies under simulated weathering.

  11. Monte Carlo study of TLD measurements in air cavities.

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Pia; Knöös, Tommy; Nyström, Håkan; Engström, Per

    2003-09-21

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are used for verification of the delivered dose during IMRT treatment of head and neck carcinomas. The TLDs are put into a plastic tube, which is placed in the nasal cavities through the treated volume. In this study, the dose distribution to a phantom having a cylindrical air cavity containing a tube was calculated by Monte Carlo methods and the results were compared with data from a treatment planning system (TPS) to evaluate the accuracy of the TLD measurements. The phantom was defined in the DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo code and calculations were performed with 6 MV fields, with the TLD tube placed at different positions within the cylindrical air cavity. A similar phantom was defined in the pencil beam based TPS. Differences between the Monte Carlo and the TPS calculations of the absorbed dose to the TLD tube were found to be small for an open symmetrical field. For a half-beam field through the air cavity, there was a larger discrepancy. Furthermore, dose profiles through the cylindrical air cavity show, as expected, that the treatment planning system overestimates the absorbed dose in the air cavity. This study shows that when using an open symmetrical field, Monte Carlo calculations of absorbed doses to a TLD tube in a cylindrical air cavity give results comparable to a pencil beam based treatment planning system.

  12. Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.; Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R.; Elia, G.G.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

  13. Risk assessment of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Merrymon, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis assesses the risk of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste (MSW). The goal is to determine the probability that the composted MSW could be a health hazard if it were used as a soil amendment. The research limited the assessment of the exposure risk to heavy metals found in raw MSW and its resulting compost. The thesis uses reviews of present literature to examine the food and soil ingestion exposure pathways. These pathways are assessed using the heavy metal concentrations found in MSW compost and the soil-plant partition coefficients of vegetables grown in soil mixed with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge leachate. The recommendation resulting from this research is that the Air Force should not use MSW composting as part of its future solid waste management plan. This alternative to landfilling contains a chronic health risk that is greater than the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline. If the Air Force would use MSW composting in the future, it may endanger Air Force personnel and others who use the compost created from Air Force MSW. Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Recycling municipal solid waste, Pollution, Composting.

  14. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  15. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  16. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Alvarez, Raul; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  17. Compilation of International Regulatory Guidance Documents for Neuropathology Assessment during Nonclinical Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neuropathology analysis as an endpoint during nonclinical efficacy and toxicity studies is a challenging prospect that requires trained personnel and particular equipment to achieve optimal results. Accordingly, many regulatory agencies have produced explicit guidelines for desig...

  18. 76 FR 59142 - Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities-Integrating Study Results To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental... a guidance for industry entitled ``Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities--Integrating Study... developmental or reproductive risks associated with drug or biological product exposure when a...

  19. Rodent models of cardiopulmonary disease: their potential applicability in studies of air pollutant susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, U P; Costa, D L; Bromberg, P A

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which increased mortality and morbidity occur in individuals with preexistent cardiopulmonary disease following acute episodes of air pollution are unknown. Studies involving air pollution effects on animal models of human cardiopulmonary diseases are both infrequent and difficult to interpret. Such models are, however, extensively used in studies of disease pathogenesis. Primarily they comprise those developed by genetic, pharmacologic, or surgical manipulations of the cardiopulmonary system. This review attempts a comprehensive description of rodent cardiopulmonary disease models in the context of their potential application to susceptibility studies of air pollutants regardless of whether the models have been previously used for such studies. The pulmonary disease models include bronchitis, emphysema, asthma/allergy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial fibrosis, and infection. The models of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure include: those derived by genetics (spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl S. renin transgenic, and other rodent models); congestive heart failure models derived by surgical manipulations; viral myocarditis; and cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin. The characteristic pathogenic features critical to understanding the susceptibility to inhaled toxicants are described. It is anticipated that this review will provide a ready reference for the selection of appropriate rodent models of cardiopulmonary diseases and identify not only their pathobiologic similarities and/or differences to humans but also their potential usefulness in susceptibility studies. Images Figure 2 PMID:9539009

  20. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  1. Pharmacologic Alternatives to Riboflavin Photochemical Corneal Cross-Linking: A Comparison Study of Cell Toxicity Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, MiJung; Takaoka, Anna; Hoang, Quan V.; Trokel, Stephen L.; Paik, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The efficacy of therapeutic cross-linking of the cornea using riboflavin photochemistry (commonly abbreviated as CXL) has caused its use to become widespread. Because there are known chemical agents that cross-link collagenous tissues, it may be possible to cross-link tissue pharmacologically. The present study was undertaken to compare the cell toxicity of such agents. Methods. Nine topical cross-linking agents (five nitroalcohols, glyceraldehyde [GLYC], genipin [GP], paraformaldehyde [FA], and glutaraldehyde [GLUT]) were tested with four different cell lines (immortalized human corneal epithelial cells, human skin fibroblasts, primary bovine corneal endothelial cells, and immortalized human retinal pigment epithelial cells [ARPE-19]). The cells were grown in planar culture and exposed to each agent in a range of concentrations (0.001 mM to 10 mM) for 24 hours followed by a 48-hour recovery phase. Toxicity thresholds were determined by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Results. A semiquantitative analysis using five categories of toxicity/fixation was carried out, based on plate attachment, uptake of trypan blue stain, and cellular fixation. The toxicity levels varied by a factor of 103 with the least toxic being mononitroalcohols and GLYC, intermediate toxicity for a nitrodiol and nitrotriol, and the most toxic being GLUT, FA, GP, and bronopol, a brominated nitrodiol. When comparing toxicity between different cell lines, the levels were generally in agreement. Conclusions. There are significant differences in cell toxicity among potential topical cross-linking compounds. The balance between cross-linking of tissue and cell toxicity should be borne in mind as compounds and strategies to improve mechanical tissue properties through therapeutic tissue cross-linking continue to develop. PMID:24722697

  2. A case study of air enrichment in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, G.F.; Lacava, P.T.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of air enrichment in an industrial rotary kiln type incineration unit. The study is based on mass and energy balances, considering the combustion reaction of a mixture composed by the residue and the auxiliary fuel with air enriched with oxygen. The steps are shown for the primary chamber (rotary kiln) and secondary chamber (afterburner). The residence times in the primary and secondary chamber are 2.0 and 3.2 sec, respectively. The pressure is atmospheric in both chambers. Based on constant chamber gas residence time and gas temperature, it is shown that the residue input rates can be increased by one order of magnitude as air is substituted by pure oxygen. As the residue consumption rate in the rotary kiln is also dependent on residue physical characteristics (mainly size), the study was also carried out for different percentages of oxygen in the oxidizer gas.

  3. NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE MODELING OF PM 2.5 AND AIR TOXICS CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTIONS TO DRIVE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality (AQ) simulation models provide a basis for implementing the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and are a tool for performing risk-based assessments and for developing environmental management strategies. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), its constituent...

  4. Pilot study for ambient toxicity testing in Chesapeake bay. Year two report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Fischer, S.A.; Anderson, R.D.; Killen, W.D.

    1992-11-01

    The primary goal of the ambient toxicity testing pilot study was to identify toxic areas in living resource habitats of the Chesapeake Bay watershed by using a battery of standardized, directly modified or recently developed water column, sediment and suborganismal toxicity tests. Tests were conducted twice at the following stations: Potomac River-Morgantown, Potomac River-Dahlgren, Patapsco River and Wye River. A suite of inorganic and organic contaminants was evaluated in the water column and sediment during these tests. Standard water quality conditions were also evaluated in water and sediment from all stations.

  5. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  6. A diagnostic model for studying daytime urban air quality trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    A single cell Eulerian photochemical air quality simulation model was developed and validated for selected days of the 1976 St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data sets; parameterizations of variables in the model and validation studies using the model are discussed. Good agreement was obtained between measured and modeled concentrations of NO, CO, and NO2 for all days simulated. The maximum concentration of O3 was also predicted well. Predicted species concentrations were relatively insensitive to small variations in CO and NOx emissions and to the concentrations of species which are entrained as the mixed layer rises.

  7. European Air Quality and Climate Change: a numerical modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacressonniere, G.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of climate change, the evolution of air quality in Europe is a challenging scientific question, despite the political measures taken to limit and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Heat waves, changes in transport pathways or synoptic patterns, increase of emissions in other areas in the world, or for instance possible increase of biogenic emissions or changes in deposition and land use may affect adversely future Air Quality levels in Europe. In the context of a project co-funded by the French environment agency ADEME, a numerical modeling study has begun relying on the tools used by Météo-France for its contribution to the 5th IPCC assessment report, to GMES atmospheric services (MACC FP7 project) and to the French national operational Air Quality platform Prév'Air (http://www.prevair.org). In particular, the MOCAGE 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) is used with a configuration comprising a global (2°) and a European domain (0.2°), allowing representation of both long-range transport of pollutants and European Air Quality at relevant resolutions and with a two-ways coupling. MOCAGE includes 47 layers from the surface to 5hPa. The first step of this project was to assess the impact of meteorological forcings, either analyses ("best" meteorology available for the recent past) or climate runs for the current atmosphere, on air quality hindcasts with MOCAGE over Europe. For these climate runs, we rely on Météo-France Earth-System model CNRM-CM, and particularly the ARPEGE-climate general circulation model for the atmosphere. By studying several key variables for Air Quality (surface and low troposphere concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, radicals, PM,...), we investigated the indicators that are robust, through averages over several years, (monthly averages, frequency of exceedances, AOTs, ...) for a given climate when using climatological forcings instead of analyses, which constitutes the reference. Both

  8. Juvenile toxicity study of faropenem medoxomil in beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Faqi, Ali S; Lanphear, Chery; Gill, Stan; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B

    2010-12-01

    We determined the toxicity of faropenem medoxomil (FPM) in neonatal/juvenile dogs following 28 days of administration. The puppies received vehicle or FPM beginning on Postnatal Day (PND) 22 at respective dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 600, or 1400 mg/kg-d (four daily doses (QID) of 25, 75, 150, or 350 mg/kg/dose), respectively, at a dose volume of 5 mL/kg/dose. Body weight, food consumption, clinical observation, clinical pathology, urine analysis and TK were evaluated. Body weight in males and kidney findings at 1400 mg/kg-d were considered adverse. Comparison of Day 27 TK values with Day 1 parameters showed a change in FPM pharmacokinetic behavior over time with an apparent increase in the rate of clearance characterized by a decrease in AUC(0-6) and T(max) values on Day 27 with little to no change in C(max) values. Based on these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level was 600 mg/kg-d. PMID:20708074

  9. A 4-week toxicity study of methionine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chin, Keigi; Toue, Sakino; Kawamata, Yasuko; Watanabe, Akiko; Miwa, Tadashi; Smriga, Miro; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-01-01

    To examine 4-week toxicity of l-methionine (methionine), 5-week-old Fisher strain male rats were fed on diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 2.7 (w/w) of added methionine. Although no deaths were recorded, the highest dose of methionine (2.7% [w/w] of diet) reduced food intake and significantly suppressed growth rate. Growth suppression was characterized by an increase in hemolysis, splenic, and hepatic accumulation of hemosiderin, hemolytic anemia, and promotion of hematopoiesis. Other changes observed in the highest methionine intake group were a decrease in white blood cell count, thymus atrophy, and histological abnormalities in the adrenal gland and testis. Small, but significant, growth suppression, accompanied by some minor changes in plasma biochemical parameters, was also seen in rats fed on a test diet containing 0.9% (w/w) of additional methionine. Thus, no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of diet-added methionine were determined at 0.3% and 0.9% (w/w), corresponding to 236 and 705 mg/kg/d body weight, respectively. Since the basal diet contained protein-bound methionine at 0.5% (w/w), NOAEL and LOAEL of total dietary methionine were estimated at 0.8% and 1.4% (w/w) of diet.

  10. Toxicity Studies of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on European Amphipods.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marin, Arnaldo; Borredat, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene in dimethyl sulfoxide on the amphipods Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus locusta, and Corophium multisetosum was tested in a static exposure in sea water. The 48-h lethal concentration (LC(50)) of phenanthrene was 173.85 mug/L for G. aequicauda, 147.64 mug/L for G. locusta, and 215.20 mug/L for C. multisetosum. The 48-h LC(50) of fluoranthene was 49.99 mug/L for G. aequicauda, 42.71 mug/L for G. locusta, and 2.85 mug/L for C. multisetosum. The 48-h LC(50) of pyrene was 73.49 mug/L for G. aequicauda, 60.78 mug/L for G. locusta, and 25.29 mug/L for C. multisetosum. Together with their wide distribution along European coasts, the evidence of toxicity on the tested PAH compounds in these amphipods make these species appropriate candidates for evaluating oil-contaminated sediments in Europe.

  11. Raman study of lower toxicity polymer gel for radiotherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, M. Z.; Ahmad, M.; Mohd Noor, N.; Deyhimihaghighi, N.; Saion, E.

    2014-11-01

    N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) monomer and N, N' - methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) crosslinker were used to synthesize polymer gel dosimeters for a reason that the monomer is lower toxicity which gives a significant advantage over the other polymer gel compositions. The gels were irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays at doses up to 21 Gy and the irradiated NIPAM polymer gels were used to investigate the dose response characteristics based on Raman spectroscopy analysis on the formation of the polymer gels and the consumptions of NIPAM and BIS co-monomers. From the findings, the polymerization was referred to an increment in Raman intensity at 815 cm-1, assigned for C-C stretching mode of NIPAM polymer gel, as the dose increased. The consumptions of the co-monomers were referred to a decrement in Raman intensities at 1025 cm-1 2353 cm-1 for C=C stretching modes of NIPAM and BIS respectively as the dose increased. The increment and decrement in Raman intensities of polymer and co-monomers respectively with increase of dose indicate that there is occurrence of polymerization of NIPAM polymer gels which could be applied in 3D dose distributions for radiotherapy treatment planning. The correlation factor kBIS is greater than kNIPAM showing that the reaction of BIS crosslinker is more efficient than NIPAM monomer to generate 37% of the NIPAM polymer gel.

  12. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. PMID:25261610

  13. Modified toxicity identification evaluation studies for achieving mining sector MISA compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, K.; Sferrazza, J.; Shriner, G.

    1995-12-31

    Results of initial MISA toxicity compliance monitoring for a multiple effluent stream mining operation indicated the presence of sporadic acute toxicity. Traditionally, only small scale acute and sub-lethal species (i.e. D. magna, C. dubia, P. promelas, Microtox) have been utilized during Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) studies. These methods had proven to be very expensive and of limit value in planning the future direction of mining effluent treatment. A more direct and economical approach to toxicity investigations was needed to prepare for the 1997 compliance deadline for non-lethality and water chemistry objectives. A modified EPA-TIE investigation was initiated on the problem effluent streams. Phase 1 modifications were made to include both MISA compliance organisms, D. magna and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Phases 2 and 3 were replaced with effluent treatability assays derived from toxicity reduction/elimination information obtained during Phase 1 procedures. Information on potential toxicant speciation under the various treatment conditions was also collected. Preliminary results indicate that variations in the applied treatment, as well as the degree of treatment will be required for the different effluent streams to obtain non-acutely toxic effluent. Ongoing laboratory tests are being conducted to achieve consistency and confidence in the results, allowing plant operators to make informed decisions regarding the (expensive) changes to be made in their effluent treatment facilities over the next few years.

  14. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates.

  15. Designing and managing the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarias, J.S.; Sylte, W.W. )

    1991-09-01

    The field measurement phase of the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study, which was conducted in the summer of 1990, was the largest and most sophisticated study of its kind ever conducted in this country. The San Joaquin Valley has the nation's second worst overall air quality problem and is using the study results to conduct regional modeling to refine its control strategies. The study began in 1985 and will continue into the mid-1990s. The origins of the study, and the manner in which it is being funded and administered, reflect a unique and highly successful collaboration among several levels of government and the private sector. The temporary organizational structure formed to manage the study sets an interesting precedent for how political-level leaders can work effectively with the scientific community to conduct a long term technical study.

  16. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G.

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  17. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  18. Experimental systems for mechanistic studies of toxicant induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Fahy, O; Tsicopoulos, A; Gosset, P; Tonnel, A B

    2000-03-15

    Human breath contains a large array of complex and poorly characterized mixtures. We can measure the potential risk of these exposures at molecular, cell, organ, organismic levels or in population. This paper emphasizes the characteristics of in vitro tests of lung cells and discusses the use of in vitro systems to determine the health effects of inhaled pollutants. Exposure to gases can be performed with roller bottles fitted with modified rotating caps with tubing connections, or by using dishes on rocker platforms, which tilt back and forth to expose the cell culture to gases. Exposure of cells may also be obtained by using very thin gas-permable membrane on which cells grow. However, it is clear that in using these systems, the culture medium constitutes a barrier between the gas and the target cells and thus does not permit a physiological approach of the toxic effects of gases. This is the reason why an experimental model, using a biphasic cell culture technique in gas phase, was developed. We report the value and the limits of this method using bronchial cells or alveolar macrophages. Exposure of lung cells to gas pollutants or particles may be responsible for either cell injury or cell activation associated with the overexpression of mRNA and the release of various bioactive mediators. In vitro assays have some limitations, particularly because the human pulmonary response to inhaled pollutants is the result of complex interactions involving many different cell types within the lungs. However, cell culture using biphasic systems in aerobiosis opens new ways for the research on the biological effects of gas pollutants.

  19. Acute and sub-lethal toxicity of landfill leachate towards two aquatic macro-invertebrates: demonstrating the remediation potential of air stripping.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M C; Banks, C J

    2005-10-01

    A specific leachate that contained 1.036 mg l(-1) of 2-chlorobiphenyl was used in the study (255 mg l(-1) COD and 133 mg l(-1) BOD5). Bench scale (20 l) air stripping trials were used to simulate on a small-scale the treatment potential of this method. Air stripping effectively reduced the leachates COD concentration. Regardless of the volume of air supplied (1-5 l of air per minute) the leachates COD reached a <50 mg l(-1) equilibrium after 96-h exposure, however, increasing the volume of air accelerated the process. In untreated leachate, the LC50 for Asellus aquaticus was 57% v/v leachate in deionised water and 5% for Gammarus pulex (96-h, static LC50 tests without nutrition and oxygen depleting conditions). After being exposed to air stripping, these values rose from 90% to below the LC50 threshold for Asellus when 1-5 l of air per minute were applied and 30-90% for Gammarus. Furthermore, in sub-lethal concentrations of air stripped leachate (leachate that had been exposed to 5-l of air per minute for 96-h) the population dynamics of both test species remained unaltered.

  20. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. PMID:24386634

  1. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. PMID:27379341

  2. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety. PMID:25680507

  3. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety.

  4. Air Quality Scoping Study for Beatty, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kav, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  5. Air Quality Scoping Study for Rachel, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  6. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Qin; Shi, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Yi-Long; Bian, Xin-Qian

    2003-12-01

    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV’s voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV’s movement characteristic basically.

  7. Analysis of Air Toxics From NOAA WP-3 Aircraft Measurements During the TexAQS 2006 Campaign: Comparison With Emission Inventories and Additive Inhalation Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, L. A.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Hendershot, R.; Washenfelder, R.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.

    2007-12-01

    Benzene and nine other air toxics classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were measured from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the TexAQS 2006 campaign. In-situ measurements of benzene, measured with a PTR-MS instrument, are used to estimate emission fluxes for comparison with point source emission inventories developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Mean and median mixing ratios for benzene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromoethane, dichloromethane, and vinyl chloride, encountered over the city of Houston during the campaign, are combined with inhalation unit risk factor values developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to estimate the additive inhalation risk factor. This additive risk factor represents the risk associated with lifetime (70 year) exposure at the levels measured and should not be used as an absolute indicator of risk to individuals. However, the results are useful for assessments of changing relative risk over time, and for identifying dominant contributions to the overall air toxic risk.

  8. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  9. Effect of nitrate-based bioremediation on contaminant distribution and sediment toxicity-column study

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, S.R.; Bantle, J.A.; Schrock, E.J.

    1998-03-01

    A laboratory column study was set up to evaluate changes in contaminant distribution and sediment toxicity following nitrate-based bioremediation and to correlate toxicity reduction with loss of fuel components. Glass columns were packed with sediment from an aquifer that had been contaminated with JP-4 jet fuel and were remediated using feed solution containing 20 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N. Column influents and effluents were monitored for BTEXTMB (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes), electron acceptors, nutrients, and dissolved gases. Duplicate columns were sacrificed after 1, 4, and 7 months, and core material was analyzed for chemical constituents. In addition, core material was evaluated for toxicity using FETAX, a developmental toxicity test employing frog embryos.

  10. Cumulative bioluminescence; A potential rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity: development study

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V. )

    1992-03-01

    A new rapid test of drilling fluid toxicity is based on the spontaneous bioluminescence of Pyrocystis lunula, an easy-to-culture alga that vigorously responds to shear stress (mixing) by emitting a sharp burst of light. In contrast to other bioluminescence methods, a cumulative flux of light is measured with a photomultiplier that eliminates the effect of exposure time on test results. Light quenching, caused by the presence of a toxicant, results in the dose/response relationship (DSR) typical for the enzymatic reaction kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten (dissociation) constant is used as a direct measure of toxicity. The evaluation study involved multiple experiments with 60 samples of drilling fluids from the U.S. gulf coast, as well as such typical toxicants as diesel oil, mineral oil, and chrome lignosulfonate (CLS). In this paper, the results of the test error analysis and comparisons with the Microtox and Mysid shrimp assays are reported.

  11. [Progress in studies of the male reproductive toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides].

    PubMed

    Yao, Ke-Wen; Wang, Jie-Dong

    2008-03-01

    As a new type of pesticides and because of their high performance and low toxicity, pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in place of organochlorine insecticides both in agriculture and in the home. In the recent years, more and more evidence indicates that pyrethroid insecticides can reduce sperm count and motility, cause deformity of the sperm head, increase the count of abnormal sperm, damage sperm DNA and induce its aneuploidy rate, as well as affect sex hormone levels and produce reproductive toxicity. The present article reviews the advances in the studies of male reproductive toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides by experiment in animals and human population, discusses the mechanism of male reproductive toxicity of pesticides and raises some problems concerning the evaluation of human reproductive hazards.

  12. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  13. Urban compaction or dispersion? An air quality modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Helena

    2012-07-01

    Urban sprawl is altering the landscape, with current trends pointing to further changes in land use that will, in turn, lead to changes in population, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions and air quality. Urban planners have debated on the most sustainable urban structure, with arguments in favour and against urban compaction and dispersion. However, it is clear that other areas of expertise have to be involved. Urban air quality and human exposure to atmospheric pollutants as indicators of urban sustainability can contribute to the discussion, namely through the study of the relation between urban structure and air quality. This paper addresses the issue by analysing the impacts of alternative urban growth patterns on the air quality of Porto urban region in Portugal, through a 1-year simulation with the MM5-CAMx modelling system. This region has been experiencing one of the highest European rates of urban sprawl, and at the same time presents a poor air quality. As part of the modelling system setup, a sensitivity study was conducted regarding different land use datasets and spatial distribution of emissions. Two urban development scenarios were defined, SPRAWL and COMPACT, together with their new land use and emission datasets; then meteorological and air quality simulations were performed. Results reveal that SPRAWL land use changes resulted in an average temperature increase of 0.4 °C, with local increases reaching as high as 1.5 °C. SPRAWL results also show an aggravation of PM10 annual average values and an increase in the exceedances to the daily limit value. For ozone, differences between scenarios were smaller, with SPRAWL presenting larger concentration differences than COMPACT. Finally, despite the higher concentrations found in SPRAWL, population exposure to the pollutants is higher for COMPACT because more inhabitants are found in areas of highest concentration levels.

  14. The Gillings Sampler--an electrostatic air sampler as an alternative method for aerosol in vitro exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Jose; Lichtveld, Kim; Ebersviller, Seth; Carson, Johnny L; Walters, Glenn W; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E; Sexton, Kenneth G; Vizuete, William

    2014-09-01

    There is growing interest in studying the toxicity and health risk of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures found in ambient air, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving towards setting standards for these types of mixtures. Additionally, the Health Effects Institute's strategic plan aims to develop and apply next-generation multi-pollutant approaches to understanding the health effects of air pollutants. There's increasing concern that conventional in vitro exposure methods are not adequate to meet EPA's strategic plan to demonstrate a direct link between air pollution and health effects. To meet the demand for new in vitro technology that better represents direct air-to-cell inhalation exposures, a new system that exposes cells at the air-liquid interface was developed. This new system, named the Gillings Sampler, is a modified two-stage electrostatic precipitator that provides a viable environment for cultured cells. Polystyrene latex spheres were used to determine deposition efficiencies (38-45%), while microscopy and imaging techniques were used to confirm uniform particle deposition. Negative control A549 cell exposures indicated the sampler can be operated for up to 4h without inducing any significant toxic effects on cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). A novel positive aerosol control exposure method, consisting of a p-tolualdehyde (TOLALD) impregnated mineral oil aerosol (MOA), was developed to test this system. Exposures to the toxic MOA at a 1 ng/cm(2) dose of TOLALD yielded a reproducible 1.4 and 2-fold increase in LDH and IL-8 mRNA levels over controls. This new system is intended to be used as an alternative research tool for aerosol in vitro exposure studies. While further testing and optimization is still required to produce a "commercially ready" system, it serves as a stepping-stone in the development of cost-effective in vitro technology that can be made accessible to researchers in the

  15. Subchronic inhalation exposure study of an airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri; Thorne, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Although inhalation of atmospheric PCBs is the most universal exposure route and has become a substantial concern in urban areas, research is lacking to determine the body burden of inhaled PCBs and consequent health effects. To reflect the Chicago airshed environment and mimic the PCB profile in Chicago air, we generated vapors from a Chicago Air Mixture (CAM). Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the CAM vapor for 1.6 hr/day via nose-only inhalation for 4 wks, 520±10 μg/m3. Congener-specific quantification in tissue and air samples was performed by GC/MS/MS. In contrast to the lower-chlorinated congener enriched vapor, body tissues mainly contained tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls. Congener profiles varied between vapor and tissues, and among different organs. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) were also investigated for tissue distribution. We evaluated a variety of endpoints to catalog the effects of long-term inhalation exposure, including immune responses, enzyme induction, cellular toxicity and histopathologic abnormalities. GSSG/GSH ratio was increased in blood of exposed animals, accompanied by elevation of hematocrit. This study demonstrated that inhalation contributed to the body burden of mostly tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls and produced a distinct profile of congeners in tissue, yet minimal toxicity was found at this exposure dose estimated at 134 μg/rat. PMID:22846166

  16. Chronic toxicity study of cyclohexanone in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1986-10-01

    A 2-year chronic toxicity assay of cyclohexanone (CAS: 108-94-1) was conducted in F344 rats and (C57BL/6 X C3H)F1 mice by administering a solution of cyclohexanone in drinking water. Two concentrations were given to rats, 6,500 and 3,300 ppm (wt/vol). Male mice received 13,000 and 6,500 ppm, while female mice were given three concentrations, 25,000, 13,000, and 6,500 ppm. Each treatment group consisted of 50 or 52 male and 50 or 52 female rats or mice, except 47 male mice treated with the highest dose and 41 female mice treated with the highest dose, and there was a group of untreated controls of each species. Survival and weight gain were similar to those of controls at the lowest cyclohexanone dose in both sexes of both species, but weight gain was depressed at all of the higher doses. Survival was good (greater than 80% at 90 wk) in all groups except in female mice at the 2 highest doses; at 25,000 ppm of cyclohexanone, only 50% of mice lived beyond 1 year. Most of the neoplasms in the treated groups did not differ significantly in number from those in the controls. Male rats receiving 3,300 ppm cyclohexanone had a 13% incidence of adrenal cortex adenomas (7 animals) compared with an incidence of 2% in controls; the incidence of this neoplasm did not increase in the male rats receiving 6,500 ppm or in the female rats given either dose. The mice had a statistically significant increase in incidence of lymphomas-leukemias among the females given 6,500 ppm, but not among the groups given higher doses of cyclohexanone. Male mice given 6,500 ppm cyclohexanone showed an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas, 50% versus 32.5% in controls, but the incidence of these neoplasms was only 37% in the male mice given 13,000 ppm cyclohexanone. The incidence of lymphomas in male mice and of hepatocellular neoplasms in female mice given cyclohexanone did not differ from that in the controls. The evidence for carcinogenic activity of cyclohexanone is

  17. Linking waterlogging tolerance with Mn²⁺ toxicity: a case study for barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Shabala, S; Shabala, L; Rengel, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, G; Zhou, M

    2015-01-01

    Vast agricultural areas are affected by flooding, causing up to 80% yield reduction and resulting in multibillion dollar losses. Up to now, the focus of plant breeders was predominantly on detrimental effects of anoxia, while other (potentially equally important) traits were essentially neglected; one of these is soil elemental toxicity. Excess water triggers a progressive decrease in soil redox potential, thus increasing the concentration of Mn(2+) that can be toxic to plants if above a specific threshold. This work aimed to quantify the relative contribution of Mn(2+) toxicity to waterlogging stress tolerance, using barley as a case study. Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes contrasting in waterlogging stress tolerance were studied for their ability to cope with toxic (1 mm) amounts of Mn(2+) in the root rhizosphere. Under Mn(2+) toxicity, chlorophyll content of most waterlogging-tolerant genotypes (TX9425, Yerong, CPI-71284-48 and CM72) remained above 60% of the control value, whereas sensitive genotypes (Franklin and Naso Nijo) had 35% less chlorophyll than 35% of controls. Manganese concentration in leaves was not related to visual Mn(2+) toxicity symptoms, suggesting that various Mn(2+) tolerance mechanisms might operate in different tolerant genotypes, i.e. avoidance versus tissue tolerance. The overall significant (r = 0.60) correlation between tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity and waterlogging in barley suggests that plant breeding for tolerance to waterlogging traits may be advanced by targeting mechanisms conferring tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity, at least in this species. PMID:24985051

  18. The visualization and dissemination of the Great Lakes Regional Toxic Air Emissions Inventory: Using geographic information systems and interactive Internet mapping applications

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The eight Great Lakes states, the Canadian province of Ontario and the Great Lakes Commission are involved in a collective effort to develop a regional inventory of toxic air emissions for 49 targeted toxic pollutants from point and area sources. The regional inventory will soon be expanded to include emissions from mobile sources. The inventory, when aggregated for all eight states and Ontario, will eventually reside at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). To aid in the understanding and interpretation of the inventory`s data, an effort has been undertaken to generate two map series for the entire region: (1) choropleth maps of total toxic air emissions at the county level of geography and (2) dot maps showing facility locations. To ensure an effective and efficient dissemination process among the province and various states, an interactive Internet mapping interface prototype was modified and used for the project. With an interactive online visualization tool, the inventory collectors, managers and researchers can quickly and effectively view the inventory`s data on maps, charts or spreadsheets. These graphics can be used as: (1) a QA/QC function for the inventory collectors, (2) a simple communication of complex data to support managers decision making and (3) a means for easy access to complex data and information about any geographic area in the region for the researchers or general public. This paper describes the development and use of PC Arc/Info, ArcView and MapInfo geographic information systems (GIS), mapping and Internet interfacing applications to visualize, disseminate and convey the emissions inventory data in a meaningful and useful manner. The various methods developed and implemented to convert, process and prepare the inventory data and Internet interface for use with a standard Internet web browser also are described in this paper.

  19. Preliminary studies on model development for rodent toxicity and its interspecies correlation with aquatic toxicities of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Das, Rudra Narayan; Sanderson, Hans; Mwambo, Andrew E; Roy, Kunal

    2013-03-01

    Environmental toxicity due to pharmaceuticals has been an issue of serious concern for long time. Development of chemometric models with reliable predictive power has been considered as an effective tool for the design of new drug agents with reduced or without ecotoxic potential. Considering a higher degree of similarity in genetic homology towards drug receptor with mammals, we have used a dataset of 194 compounds with reported rodent, fish, daphnia and algae toxicity data for extrapolation of their toxicity towards humans. Allowing for rodents as the most surrogate to human physiology, attempts have also been made to develop interspecies correlation models keeping rodent toxicity as dependent variable so that any drug without reported rodent toxicity can be predicted using fish, daphnia or algae toxicity data which can be consequently extrapolated to human toxicity. The developed models have been subjected to multiple validation strategies. Acceptable results have been obtained in both cases of direct and interspecies extrapolation quantitative structure-activity relationship models. PMID:23238824

  20. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Gillian C.; West, Catharine M.L.; Coles, Charlotte E.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Talbot, Christopher J.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Tanteles, George A.; Symonds, R. Paul; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Dunning, Alison M.; Burnet, Neil G.; Bentzen, Soren M.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  1. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  2. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  3. ECAIM : Air Quality Studies and its Impact in Central Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, L. G.; Torres, R.; Garcia-Reynoso, J. A.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Grutter, M.; Delgado-Campos, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area has been the object of several well know intensive campaigns. Since MARI (1991) , IMADA (1997), MCMA 2003 and MILAGRO (2006). The spatial scope of these studies have gone from urban to regional to continental, with the focus on MCMA as an emissions source. During MILAGRO, the influence on MCMA of wildfires and agricultural biomass burning around the megacity was considered. However, around Mexico City a crown of metropolis and middle size cities make a region known as the Central Mexico Regional Crow (CRCM for its acronym in Spanish language) or Central Mexico City Belt. It contains 32 million inhabitants and produces 40% of national gross product. The region undergoes an uncontrolled urban sprawl. Evidence is building-up on complex air pollution transport processes between the air basins within CRCM. However, only MCMA counts with reliable long-term records of criteria pollutants monitoring. Only few intensive campaigns have been done in the air basins surrounding MCMA. ECAIM project has several goals: a) To use ground and satellite observations to assess emissions inventories; b) To use ground and satellite observations to assess the performance of air quality models for the whole region; c) to produce critical levels exceedence maps; d) To produce a preliminary diagnostic of air quality for the CRCM; e) to produce a preliminary estimate of the cost of air pollution within the CRCM. In this work we show the method approach to use the best available information from local AQM networks, field campaigns, satellite observations and modeling to achieve those goals. We show some preliminary results.

  4. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series: Estimation of air impacts for air stripping of contaminated water

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Smith, S.; Hunt, M.

    1991-05-01

    Analysis of the air impacts associated with the alternatives to cleaning up Superfund sites is frequently required for planning purposes prior to actual cleanup. Such analyses depend on estimates rather than on field measurements. The report provides procedures for estimating the emissions and ambient air concentrations associated with air stripping - a widely used technique for removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from contaminated water. Procedures are given to evaluate the effect of the concentration of contaminants in water, the stripping efficiency and the stripping rate on the emission rates and on the ambient air concentrations at selected distances from the air stripper. Henry's Law constants are provided for over 130 compounds to assist in determining stripping efficiencies. Health-based action levels are also provided for the 130 compounds for comparison to the estimated ambient air concentrations. Action levels are also expressed in terms of water concentrations using conservative estimates of emissions and dispersion.

  5. Multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Qu, Xiaolei; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Wang, Tianxiao; Riepe, Celeste; Liu, Zheng; Li, Qilin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-02-17

    The booming nanotechnology industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. At the population level, our system measures food consumption of thousands of animals to evaluate population fitness. At the organism level, our automated system analyzes hundreds of individual animals for body length, locomotion speed, and lifespan. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we applied this technology to test the toxicity of 20 nanomaterials at four concentrations. Only fullerene nanoparticles (nC60), fullerol, TiO2, and CeO2 showed little or no toxicity. Various degrees of toxicity were detected from different forms of carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black, Ag, and fumed SiO2 nanoparticles. Aminofullerene and ultraviolet-irradiated nC60 also showed small but significant toxicity. We further investigated the effects of nanomaterial size, shape, surface chemistry, and exposure conditions on toxicity. Our data are publicly available at the open-access nanotoxicity database www.QuantWorm.org/nano. PMID:25611253

  6. A multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Qu, Xiaolei; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Wang, Tianxiao; Riepe, Celeste; Liu, Zheng; Li, Qilin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The booming nanotech industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. At the population level, our system measures food consumption of thousands of animals to evaluate population fitness. At the organism level, our automated system analyzes hundreds of individual animals for body length, locomotion speed, and lifespan. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we applied this technology to test the toxicity of 20 nanomaterials under four concentrations. Only fullerene nanoparticles (nC60), fullerol, TiO2, and CeO2 showed little or no toxicity. Various degrees of toxicity were detected from different forms of carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black, Ag, and fumed SiO2 nanoparticles. Aminofullerene and UV irradiated nC60 also showed small but significant toxicity. We further investigated the effects of nanomaterial size, shape, surface chemistry, and exposure conditions on toxicity. Our data are publicly available at the open-access nanotoxicity database www.QuantWorm.org/nano. PMID:25611253

  7. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. PMID:22440551

  8. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  9. Usefulness of Intratracheal Instillation Studies for Estimating Nanoparticle-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujishima, Kei; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation studies are the gold standard for the estimation of the harmful effects of respirable chemical substances, while there is limited evidence of the harmful effects of chemical substances by intratracheal instillation. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation studies for estimating the hazards of nanoparticles, mainly using papers in which both inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies were performed using the same nanoparticles. Compared to inhalation studies, there is a tendency in intratracheal instillation studies that pulmonary inflammation lasted longer in the lungs. A difference in pulmonary inflammation between high and low toxicity nanoparticles was observed in the intratracheal instillation studies, as in the inhalation studies. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, the kinetics of neutrophil counts, percentage of neutrophils, and chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), reflected pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that these markers may be considered the predictive markers of pulmonary toxicity in both types of study. When comparing pulmonary inflammation between intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies under the same initial lung burden, there is a tendency that the inflammatory response following the intratracheal instillation of nanoparticles is greater than or equal to that following the inhalation of nanoparticles. If the difference in clearance in both studies is not large, the estimations of pulmonary toxicity are close. We suggest that intratracheal instillation studies can be useful for ranking the hazard of nanoparticles through pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26828483

  10. Usefulness of Intratracheal Instillation Studies for Estimating Nanoparticle-Induced Pulmonary Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujishima, Kei; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-27

    Inhalation studies are the gold standard for the estimation of the harmful effects of respirable chemical substances, while there is limited evidence of the harmful effects of chemical substances by intratracheal instillation. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation studies for estimating the hazards of nanoparticles, mainly using papers in which both inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies were performed using the same nanoparticles. Compared to inhalation studies, there is a tendency in intratracheal instillation studies that pulmonary inflammation lasted longer in the lungs. A difference in pulmonary inflammation between high and low toxicity nanoparticles was observed in the intratracheal instillation studies, as in the inhalation studies. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, the kinetics of neutrophil counts, percentage of neutrophils, and chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), reflected pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that these markers may be considered the predictive markers of pulmonary toxicity in both types of study. When comparing pulmonary inflammation between intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies under the same initial lung burden, there is a tendency that the inflammatory response following the intratracheal instillation of nanoparticles is greater than or equal to that following the inhalation of nanoparticles. If the difference in clearance in both studies is not large, the estimations of pulmonary toxicity are close. We suggest that intratracheal instillation studies can be useful for ranking the hazard of nanoparticles through pulmonary inflammation.

  11. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  12. New Jersey: A Case Study of the Reduction in Urban and Suburban Air Pollution from the 1950s to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been a topic of intense concern and study for hundreds of years. During the second half of the 20th century, the United States implemented regulations and controls to reduce the levels of criteria air pollutants and achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the protection of human health, while concurrently reducing the levels of toxic air pollutants. Objective: In this commentary we trace the changes in air pollution in New Jersey as a case study, demonstrating the impact of local, state, and federal strategies to control emissions of pollutants and pollutant precursors from the 1950s until today. Discussion: The original NAAQS (1970–1995) have been achieved, and significant progress has been made to achieve revised standards for ozone and particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) in New Jersey, which in the past was considered a highly polluted industrial state. Conclusions: Assuming no reversals on current regulations because of some major event or energy infrastructure disruption, outdoor air pollution reductions will continue to address health risks among specific segments of the general population affected by ozone/PM and pollution caused by neighborhood, local, and regional point and mobile sources. PMID:21622086

  13. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.

  15. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Y.; Peltola, E.; Sipilae, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, A.

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage (CALS) systems was launched in VTT in the course of the year 1990. The study was undertaken partly in the Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering and partly in the Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Laboratory. Information on existing mines in Finland which could be used as storage caverns were collected (part 2). The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were also estimated. This information was used in the first (and present) part of the report to calculate the economics of CAES. In the present part (part 1) of the study, an analysis of the different possible systems was given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with the CALS system. In the second system, wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straight-forward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  16. Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

  17. Powered air-purifying respirator study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    da Roza, R.A.; Cadena-Fix, C.A.; Kramer, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    Three brands of powered air-purifying respirators were subjected to a simulated-work-place study. They were worn by six human subjects while working at 80% of their cardiac reserve on a treadmill. The air flow into the respirator was controlled to match that of a respirator with a newly charged battery and with various stages of battery discharge and filter plugging. The simulation took place in a large quantitative fit test chamber containing PEG 400 aerosol. The penetration of aerosol into the breathing zone of the respirator, the pressure in it, and the air flow were monitored while the subject was warming up as well as during the 80% tests. The exercises recommended in ANSI Z88.2 for helmets were also used after the 80% tests were completed. The subjects were tested clean shaven, with three days' growth of stubble, and with a two-month beard growth. A striking result was that the aerosol penetration into the two-helmet respirators increased dramatically as the subjects work rate increased. On the other hand, penetration into the half mask did not change with work rate. The penetration increased as the air flow was decreased in all cases for the helmets and for beard and stubble cases for the half mask. However, for he tight-fitting half mask on a clean-shaven face, the average penetration stayed below 0.001 for all flows. 18 figs, 5 tabs.

  18. Experimental study on cyclone air gasification of wood powder.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaozeng; Zhao, Yijun; Tian, Hongming; Ling, Feng; Su, Fengming

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, effects of the equivalence ratio (ER) and the secondary air on the gasification system were studied. The results indicate that as the ER varies in the range of 0.20-0.26, the low heating value (LHV) of the producer gas is in the range of 3.64-5.76 MJ/Nm(3), the carbon conversion is 55%-67% and the cold gas efficiency of the gasification system is 33%-47%. In contrast to the gasification without the secondary air, air staged process is a gasification method capable of increasing the LHV of the producer gas from 4.63 to 5.67 MJ/Nm(3), the carbon conversion from 65.5% to 81.2%, and the cold gas efficiency of the gasifier from 42.5% to 56.87%, while the tar content of the producer gas decreases from 13.96 to 5.6g/Nm(3). There exists an optimum ratio of the secondary air.

  19. [Synthesis of new mandelic acid derivatives with preservative action. Synthesis and acute toxicity study].

    PubMed

    Stan, Cătălina; Năstase, V; Pavelescu, M; Vasile, Cornelia; Dumitrache, M; Gherase, Florenţa; Năstasă, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the antiseptic action of DL mandelic acid, there were synthesized a series of esters of the mandelic acid, esters which could have preservative action. This study present the synthesis, structure validation and the acute toxicity study, for the new synthesized compounds. The esters were obtained by acylating 4-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl, ethyl, methyl esters and salicylic acid with the DL mandelic chloride (that was protected initially by the hydroxylic group). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by quantitative elemental analysis and RMN 1H spectral measurements. The acute toxicity was determined for two of the esters, who proved to had a preservative action (previously studied) and indicated that these esters have a small toxicity.

  20. PRIORITIZATION OF NTP REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANTS FOR FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population studies evaluate human reproductive impairment are time consuming,
    expensive, logistically difficult and with limited resources must be prioritized to
    effectivelyprevent the adverse health effects in humans. Interactions among
    health scientists, unions,a...

  1. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  2. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems. PMID:27539747

  3. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems.

  4. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days.

  5. Theoretical and experimental studies on air gap membrane distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. L.; Zhu, C.; Cheung, C. S.; Leung, C. W.

    Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) is an innovative membrane separation technique for pure water extraction from aqueous solutions. In this study, both theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out on AGMD of different aqueous solutions, namely, tap water, salted water, dyed solutions, acid solutions, and alkali solutions. A simple mechanistic model of heat and mass transfer associated with AGMD is developed. Simple relationships of permeate flux, total heating or cooling load and thermal efficiency of AGMD with respect to the membrane distillation temperature difference are obtained. Effects of solution concentration and the width of the air gap in AGMD are analyzed. In the experimental study, the experiments were conducted using 1m PTFE membrane with a membrane distillation temperature difference up to 55∘C. The AGMD system yields a permeate flux of pure water of up to 28kg/m2h. Direct comparison of the experimental results with the proposed modeling predictions shows a fairly good match.

  6. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  7. 40 CFR 798.4900 - Developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sacrifice or death during the study, the dam shall be examined macroscopically for any structural... should be recorded for dams that are sacrificed. Gravid uterine weights should not be obtained from dead... individually, the weights recorded, and the mean fetal weight derived. (v) Following removal, each fetus...

  8. 40 CFR 798.4900 - Developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sacrifice or death during the study, the dam shall be examined macroscopically for any structural... should be recorded for dams that are sacrificed. Gravid uterine weights should not be obtained from dead... individually, the weights recorded, and the mean fetal weight derived. (v) Following removal, each fetus...

  9. 40 CFR 798.4900 - Developmental toxicity study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of each abnormal sign and its subsequent course. (v) Food, body weight and uterine weight data. (vi.... (v) Measurements should be made weekly of food consumption for all animals in the study. (vi) Animals.... (f) Data and reporting—(1) Treatment of results. Data shall be summarized in tablular form,...

  10. Strengths and limitations of using repeat-dose toxicity studies to predict effects on fertility.

    PubMed

    Dent, M P

    2007-08-01

    The upcoming European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) will require the risk assessment of many thousands of chemicals. It is therefore necessary to develop intelligent testing strategies to ensure that chemicals of concern are identified whilst minimising the testing of chemicals using animals. Xenobiotics may perturb the reproductive cycle, and for this reason several reproductive studies are recommended under REACH. One of the endpoints assessed in this battery of tests is mating performance and fertility. Animal tests that address this endpoint use a relatively large number of animals and are also costly in terms of resource, time, and money. If it can be shown that data from non-reproductive studies such as in-vitro or repeat-dose toxicity tests are capable of generating reliable alerts for effects on fertility then some animal testing may be avoided. Available rat sub-chronic and fertility data for 44 chemicals that have been classified by the European Union as toxic to fertility were therefore analysed for concordance of effects. Because it was considered appropriate to read across data for some chemicals these data sets were considered relevant for 73 of the 102 chemicals currently classified as toxic to reproduction (fertility) under this system. For all but 5 of these chemicals it was considered that a well-performed sub-chronic toxicity study would have detected pathology in the male, and in some cases, the female reproductive tract. Three showed evidence of direct interaction with oestrogen or androgen receptors (linuron, nonylphenol, and fenarimol). The remaining chemicals (quinomethionate and azafenidin) act by modes of action that do not require direct interaction with steroid receptors. However, both these materials caused in-utero deaths in pre-natal developmental toxicity studies, and the relatively low NOAELs and the nature of the hazard identified in the sub-chronic tests provides an alert

  11. Characterisation of carbon nanotubes in the context of toxicity studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.K.; Stanley, C.J.; Ruenraroengsak, P.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionise our futures, but has also prompted concerns about the possibility that nanomaterials may harm humans or the biosphere. The unique properties of nanoparticles, that give them novel size dependent functionalities, may also have the potential to cause harm. Discrepancies in existing human health and environmental studies have shown the importance of good quality, well-characterized reference nanomaterials for toxicological studies. Here we make a case for the importance of the detailed characterization of nanoparticles, using several methods, particularly to allow the recognition of impurities and the presence of chemically identical but structurally distinct phases. Methods to characterise fully, commercially available multi-wall carbon nanotubes at different scales, are presented. ?? 2009 Berhanu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Analgesic activity, toxicity study and phytochemical screening of standardized Cinnomomum iners leaves methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Mustaffa, F.; Indurkar, J.; Ismail, S.; Mordi, M. N.; Ramanathan, S.; Mansor, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Cinnomomum iners standardized leaves methanolic extract (CSLE) was subjected to analgesic, toxicity and phytochemical studies. The analgesic activity of CSLE was evaluated using formalin, hot plate and tail flick tests at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg. CSLE showed significant activity (P < 0.05) in the formalin model (late phase) on the rats at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg. However, CSLE did not show activity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. The results obtained suggest that CSLE acts peripherally to relieve pain. For the toxicity study, CSLE was orally administered to the Swiss albino mice according to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guideline 423. There was no lethality or toxic symptoms observed for all the tested doses throughout the 14-day period. Phytochemical screening of CSLE showed the presence of cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, polyphenol, saponin, sugar, tannin and terpenoid. PMID:21808545

  13. Xenotransplantation Models to Study the Effects of Toxicants on Human Fetal Tissues1

    PubMed Central

    Spade, Daniel J.; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Heger, Nicholas E.; Sanders, Jennifer A.; Saffarini, Camelia M.; Gruppuso, Philip A.; De Paepe, Monique E.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases that manifest throughout the lifetime are influenced by factors affecting fetal development. Fetal exposure to xenobiotics, in particular, may influence the development of adult diseases. Established animal models provide systems for characterizing both developmental biology and developmental toxicology. However, animal model systems do not allow researchers to assess the mechanistic effects of toxicants on developing human tissue. Human fetal tissue xenotransplantation models have recently been implemented to provide human-relevant mechanistic data on the many tissue-level functions that may be affected by fetal exposure to toxicants. This review describes the development of human fetal tissue xenotransplant models for testis, prostate, lung, liver, and adipose tissue, aimed at studying the effects of xenobiotics on tissue development, including implications for testicular dysgenesis, prostate disease, lung disease, and metabolic syndrome. The mechanistic data obtained from these models can complement data from epidemiology, traditional animal models, and in vitro studies to quantify the risks of toxicant exposures during human development. PMID:25477288

  14. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Yacovitch, Tara I.; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W. Berk; Kolb, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency’s E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources. PMID:26819556

  15. Fort Hall air emissions study, Fort Hall Indian Reservation, Fort Hall, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.W.; Sonnenfeld, N.L.; Rolka, D.L.; Kaye, W.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted a cross-sectional health study at the Fort Hall Indian Reservation in Idaho to investigate concerns about the health effects on reservation residents that might be attributed to two phosphate-processing plants located near the reservation`s southern border. In addition to increased particulates, air emissions from these plants included phosphorus pentoxide, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, uranium, and its daughter radionuclides. A total of 515 participants -- 229 from Fort Hall and 286 from a comparison group at the Duck Valley Indian Reservation -- were interviewed in person by trained American Indian interviewers. Approximately 100 residents of each reservation performed pulmonary function tests and provided urine specimens that were analyzed for cadmium, chromium, fluoride, and several renal biomarkers.

  16. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study.

    PubMed

    Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W Berk; Kolb, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4-1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources. PMID:26819556

  17. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory During the BEE-TEX Field Study.

    PubMed

    Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Floerchinger, Cody; Knighton, W Berk; Kolb, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO2. Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb) exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4-1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources.

  18. Per- and polyfluoro toxicity (LC(50) inhalation) study in rat and mouse using QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-03-15

    Fully or partially fluorinated compounds, known as per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are widely distributed in the environment and released because of their use in different household and industrial products. Few of these long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are classified as emerging pollutants, and their environmental and toxicological effects are unveiled in the literature. This has diverted the production of long chain compounds, considered as more toxic, to short chains, but concerns regarding the toxicity of both types of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals are alarming. There are few experimental data available on the environmental behavior and toxicity of these compounds, and moreover, toxicity profiles are found to be different for the types of animals and species used. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is applied to a combination of short and long chain per- and polyfluorinated chemicals, for the first time, to model and predict the toxicity on two species of rodents, rat (Rattus) and mouse (Mus), by modeling inhalation (LC(50)) data. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models using the ordinary-least-squares (OLS) method, based on theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithm (GA), were used for QSAR studies. Training and prediction sets were prepared a priori, and these sets were used to derive statistically robust and predictive (both internally and externally) models. The structural applicability domain (AD) of the model was verified on a larger set of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals retrieved from different databases and journals. The descriptors involved, the similarities, and the differences observed between models pertaining to the toxicity related to the two species are discussed. Chemometric methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were used to select most toxic compounds from those within the AD of both models, which will be subjected to experimental tests

  19. Studies on bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments: bioavailability, biodegradability, and toxicity issues.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Lazorchak, James M; Lei, Li; Khodadoust, Amid P; Antia, Jimmy E; Bagchi, Rajesh; Suidan, Makram T

    2003-03-01

    The widespread contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes. This research studied a chronically PAH-contaminated estuarine sediment from the East River (ER; NY, USA) characterized by high concentrations of PAHs (approximately 4-190 ppm), sulfide, and metals and a marine sediment from New York/ New Jersey Harbor (NY/NJH; USA) with only trace quantities of PAHs (0.1-0.6 ppm). The focus was to examine the relationship between bioavailability of PAHs and their biological removal in a slurry system. Freshwater and marine sediment toxicity tests were conducted to measure baseline toxicity of both sediments to amphipods, aquatic worms, fathead and sheepshead minnow larvae, and a vascular plant; to determine the cause of toxicity; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the biotreatment strategies in reducing toxicity. Results showed the ER sediment was acutely toxic to all freshwater and marine organisms tested and that the toxicity was mainly caused by sulfide, PAHs, and metals present in the sediment. In spite of the high toxicity, most of the PAH compounds showed significant degradation in the aerobic sediment/water slurry system if the initial high oxygen demand due to the high sulfide content of the sediment was overcome. The removal of PAHs by biodegradation was closely related to their desorbed amount in 90% isopropanol solution during 24 h of contact, while the desorption of model PAH compounds from freshly spiked NY/NJH sediment did not describe the bioavailability of PAHs in the East River sediment well. The research improves our understanding of bioavailability as a controlling factor in bioremediation of PAHs and the potential of aerobic biodegradation for PAH removal and ecotoxicity reduction. PMID:12627632

  20. Al-toxicity studies in yeast using gallium as an aluminum analogue.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Raghupathi, Shyam Sundar

    2008-08-01

    Aluminum (Al) is normally present in soils as the insoluble, harmless Al2O3. The highly toxic Al3+ and AlOH2+ monomeric cations are formed in acid soils but there is little consensus on the physiological basis of Al toxicity in plants. A major factor that has retarded progress in understanding aluminum toxicity in vascular plants is the lack of a convenient radioisotope for Al. Yeast and vascular plants share similar membrane transport mechanisms and so yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) provides a convenient model system for studies of Al-toxicity. Al and gallium (Ga) have closely similar toxic effects on the yeast cells (Ki approximately 100 mmol m-3) and Ga3+ and Al3+, respond similarly to pH and are both reversible by a chelation agent (citric acid). We tested the feasibility of using 67Ga radioisotope as a tracer for Al transport with the view of using it to investigate the mechanism of Al uptake and toxicity in plants. The clinically available 67Ga citrate is unsuitable to use as an aluminum analogue because the chelated form is not toxic. Arrangements need to be made for it to be supplied as 67GaCl3. Large amounts of 67Ga rapidly bind to the cell wall of yeasts with a t 1/2 of approximately 1 s. There is a very slow net uptake of 67Ga into a second phase, presumably the cytoplasm. Uptake into the slow phase has a Vmax of only approximately 16 +/- 4 pmol m(-2) s(-1) (n = 16). The Km of 67Ga uptake could not be precisely determined but is below 100 mmol m(-3) (45 +/- 42 mmol m(-3), n = 16).

  1. Studies on bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments: bioavailability, biodegradability, and toxicity issues.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Lazorchak, James M; Lei, Li; Khodadoust, Amid P; Antia, Jimmy E; Bagchi, Rajesh; Suidan, Makram T

    2003-03-01

    The widespread contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes. This research studied a chronically PAH-contaminated estuarine sediment from the East River (ER; NY, USA) characterized by high concentrations of PAHs (approximately 4-190 ppm), sulfide, and metals and a marine sediment from New York/ New Jersey Harbor (NY/NJH; USA) with only trace quantities of PAHs (0.1-0.6 ppm). The focus was to examine the relationship between bioavailability of PAHs and their biological removal in a slurry system. Freshwater and marine sediment toxicity tests were conducted to measure baseline toxicity of both sediments to amphipods, aquatic worms, fathead and sheepshead minnow larvae, and a vascular plant; to determine the cause of toxicity; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the biotreatment strategies in reducing toxicity. Results showed the ER sediment was acutely toxic to all freshwater and marine organisms tested and that the toxicity was mainly caused by sulfide, PAHs, and metals present in the sediment. In spite of the high toxicity, most of the PAH compounds showed significant degradation in the aerobic sediment/water slurry system if the initial high oxygen demand due to the high sulfide content of the sediment was overcome. The removal of PAHs by biodegradation was closely related to their desorbed amount in 90% isopropanol solution during 24 h of contact, while the desorption of model PAH compounds from freshly spiked NY/NJH sediment did not describe the bioavailability of PAHs in the East River sediment well. The research improves our understanding of bioavailability as a controlling factor in bioremediation of PAHs and the potential of aerobic biodegradation for PAH removal and ecotoxicity reduction.

  2. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes.

  3. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  4. Recent evidence from epidemiological studies on methylmercury toxicity.

    PubMed

    Murata, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwata, Toyoto; Karita, Kanae; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2011-09-01

    More than fifty years have passed since the outbreak of Minamata disease, and large-scale methylmercury poisoning due to industrial effluents or methylmercury-containing fungicide intoxication has scarcely happened in developed countries. On the other hand, widespread environmental mercury contamination has occurred in gold and mercury mining areas of developing countries. In this article, we provided an overview of recent studies addressing human health effects of methylmercury, which we searched using the PubMed of the US National Library of Medicine. The following suggestions were obtained for low-level methylmercury exposure: (1) In recent years, the proportion of human studies addressing methylmercury has tended to decrease. (2) Prenatal exposure to methylmercury through fish intake, even at low levels, adversely affects child development after adjusting for polychlorinated biphenyls and maternal fish intake during pregnancy, whereas maternal seafood intake has some benefits. (3) Long-term methylmercury exposure through consumption of fish such as bigeye tuna and swordfish may pose a potential risk of cardiac events involving sympathovagal imbalance. (4) In measuring methylmercury levels in preserved umbilical cord collected from inhabitants born in Minamata areas between 1945 and 1989, the elevated concentrations (≥1 mg/g) were observed mainly in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968, and the peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. (5) Since some developing countries appear to be in similar situations to Japan in the past, attention should be directed toward early recognition of a risky agent and precautions should be taken against it.

  5. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near-Road Exposures to Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...

  6. In vivo Toxicity Studies on Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50 value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50 value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50 value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of

  7. Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

    1997-01-01

    The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena.

  8. Pulmonary toxicity of cyclophosphamide: a 1-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, C.C.; Sigler, C.; Lock, S.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The development of cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary lesions over a 1-year period was studied in mice. Male BALB/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Within 3 weeks there were scattered foci of intraalveolar foamy macrophages. With time, these foci increased in size and, 1 year later, occupied large areas in all lung lobes. There was also diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Chemical determination done 3, 12, 24, and 52 weeks after cyclophosphamide showed that lungs of animals treated with cyclophosphamide had significantly more hydroxyproline per lung than controls. One year after cyclophosphamide pressure - volume curves measured in vivo were shifted down and to the right and total lung volumes were decreased. A single injection of cyclophosphamide produced an irreversible and progressive pulmonary lesion. 16 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Recent evidence from epidemiological studies on methylmercury toxicity.

    PubMed

    Murata, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwata, Toyoto; Karita, Kanae; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2011-09-01

    More than fifty years have passed since the outbreak of Minamata disease, and large-scale methylmercury poisoning due to industrial effluents or methylmercury-containing fungicide intoxication has scarcely happened in developed countries. On the other hand, widespread environmental mercury contamination has occurred in gold and mercury mining areas of developing countries. In this article, we provided an overview of recent studies addressing human health effects of methylmercury, which we searched using the PubMed of the US National Library of Medicine. The following suggestions were obtained for low-level methylmercury exposure: (1) In recent years, the proportion of human studies addressing methylmercury has tended to decrease. (2) Prenatal exposure to methylmercury through fish intake, even at low levels, adversely affects child development after adjusting for polychlorinated biphenyls and maternal fish intake during pregnancy, whereas maternal seafood intake has some benefits. (3) Long-term methylmercury exposure through consumption of fish such as bigeye tuna and swordfish may pose a potential risk of cardiac events involving sympathovagal imbalance. (4) In measuring methylmercury levels in preserved umbilical cord collected from inhabitants born in Minamata areas between 1945 and 1989, the elevated concentrations (≥1 mg/g) were observed mainly in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968, and the peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. (5) Since some developing countries appear to be in similar situations to Japan in the past, attention should be directed toward early recognition of a risky agent and precautions should be taken against it. PMID:21996768

  10. Evaluations of the trans-sulfuration pathway in multiple liver toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schnackenberg, Laura K. Chen Minjun; Sun, Jinchun; Holland, Ricky D.; Dragan, Yvonne; Tong Weida; Welsh, William; Beger, Richard D.

    2009-02-15

    Drug-induced liver injury has been associated with the generation of reactive metabolites, which are primarily detoxified via glutathione conjugation. In this study, it was hypothesized that molecules involved in the synthesis of glutathione would be diminished to replenish the glutathione depleted through conjugation reactions. Since S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is the primary source of the sulfur atom in glutathione, UPLC/MS and NMR were used to evaluate metabolites involved with the transulfuration pathway in urine samples collected during studies of eight liver toxic compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary levels of creatine were increased on day 1 or day 2 in 8 high dose liver toxicity studies. Taurine concentration in urine was increased in only 3 of 8 liver toxicity studies while SAMe was found to be reduced in 4 of 5 liver toxicity studies. To further validate the results from the metabonomic studies, microarray data from rat liver samples following treatment with acetaminophen was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Some genes involved in the trans-sulfuration pathway, including guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and cysteine dioxygenase were found to be significantly decreased while methionine adenosyl transferase II, alpha increased at 24 h post-dosing, which is consistent with the SAMe and creatine findings. The metabolic and transcriptomic results show that the trans-sulfuration pathway from SAMe to glutathione was disturbed due to the administration of heptatotoxicants.

  11. Evaluations of the trans-sulfuration pathway in multiple liver toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Chen, Minjun; Sun, Jinchun; Holland, Ricky D; Dragan, Yvonne; Tong, Weida; Welsh, William; Beger, Richard D

    2009-02-15

    Drug-induced liver injury has been associated with the generation of reactive metabolites, which are primarily detoxified via glutathione conjugation. In this study, it was hypothesized that molecules involved in the synthesis of glutathione would be diminished to replenish the glutathione depleted through conjugation reactions. Since S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is the primary source of the sulfur atom in glutathione, UPLC/MS and NMR were used to evaluate metabolites involved with the transulfuration pathway in urine samples collected during studies of eight liver toxic compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary levels of creatine were increased on day 1 or day 2 in 8 high dose liver toxicity studies. Taurine concentration in urine was increased in only 3 of 8 liver toxicity studies while SAMe was found to be reduced in 4 of 5 liver toxicity studies. To further validate the results from the metabonomic studies, microarray data from rat liver samples following treatment with acetaminophen was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Some genes involved in the trans-sulfuration pathway, including guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and cysteine dioxygenase were found to be significantly decreased while methionine adenosyl transferase II, alpha increased at 24 h post-dosing, which is consistent with the SAMe and creatine findings. The metabolic and transcriptomic results show that the trans-sulfuration pathway from SAMe to glutathione was disturbed due to the administration of heptatotoxicants.

  12. Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cobalt sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bucher, J R; Hailey, J R; Roycroft, J R; Haseman, J K; Sills, R C; Grumbein, S L; Mellick, P W; Chou, B J

    1999-05-01

    Cobalt sulfate is a water-soluble cobalt salt with a variety of industrial and agricultural uses. Several cobalt compounds have induced sarcomas at injection sites in animals, and reports have suggested that exposure to cobalt-containing materials may cause lung cancer in humans. The present studies were done because no adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies had been performed with a soluble cobalt salt using a route relevant to occupational exposures. Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to aerosols containing 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 cobalt sulfate hexahydrate, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 104 weeks. Survival and body weights of exposed rats and mice were generally unaffected by the exposures. In rats, proteinosis, alveolar epithelial metaplasia, granulomatous alveolar inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis were observed in the lung in all exposed groups. Nonneoplastic lesions of the nose and larynx were also attributed to exposure to all concentrations of cobalt sulfate. In 3.0 mg/m3 male rats and in female rats exposed to 1.0 or 3.0 mg/m3, the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms were increased over those in the control groups. Lung tumors occurred with significant positive trends in both sexes. The incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma in 1.0 mg/m3 male rats and in 3.0 mg/m3 female rats were increased. Nonneoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract were less severe in mice than in rats. In mice, alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms in 3.0 mg/m3 males and females were greater than those in the controls, and lung tumors occurred with significantly positive trends. Male mice had liver lesions consistent with a Helicobacter hepaticus infection. Incidences of liver hemangiosarcomas were increased in exposed groups of male mice; however, because of the infection, no conclusion could be reached concerning an association between liver hemangiosarcomas and cobalt sulfate. In summary, exposure to cobalt sulfate by inhalation

  13. Study on the Refrigeration Cycle of Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Junichiro; Honda, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Koji; Ohba, Hideki; Uemura, Masakazu

    The steady state characteristics of a refrigeration cycle for automotive air-conditioners using Freon 12 gas is studied numerically. The numerical method for the simulation of a refrigeration cycle executed on a personal computer is presented. The model for a refrigeration cycle consists of a compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. Non linear equations for pressure, temperature and refrigerant mass are calculated by the Newton-Raphson method. In particular, experimental date are employed for calculation of compressor condition and influence of refrigerator oil is considered. From the comparison with the experiment, it is made c1ear that this simulation is useful for the prediction of the performance of a refrigeration cycle. Therefore, the optimum design and the shortening of the design process for automotive air-conditioners are possible by this simulation.

  14. Formaldehyde--study of indoor air pollution in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koeck, M; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Schlacher, R

    1997-09-01

    As part of a long-term study of indoor air pollution, formaldehyde concentrations were determined in 792 apartments following complaints by inhabitants. Measurements were carried out using Draeger tubes as well as the acetyl acetone method. In 157 apartments, HCHO concentrations of more than 0.1 ppm, exceeding the recommended standard values for indoor air concentrations, were determined. The concentrations determined tended to decrease over time. As far as they were caused by furnishings, they were limited to the spaces where these furnishings were installed. In older-style prefabricated houses with foam-filled particle-board wall systems, concentrations of more than 1.0 ppm were determined. In spite of legal regulations governing the release of formaldehyde from substances, preparations and products containing formaldehyde which have been in existence in Austria since 1990, this substance must still be considered as a possible factor of indoor pollution in causing feelings of ill-health. PMID:9386898

  15. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  16. QSAR study of the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to river bacteria and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, X.; Lu, G.; Lang, P.

    1997-01-01

    Since nitrobenzenes constitute a class of industrial chemicals that are present in Songhua River and probably in many other industrialized countries as well, it is useful to gain insight into their potential hazard to aquatic organisms. For this reason, it was decided to determine data on the toxicity for bacteria in the Songhua River. Furthermore, the toxicity to Ph. phosphoreum was determined in the Microtox assay, in order to further evaluate the usefulness of this assay for hazard assessment. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have been developed for aromatic nitro compound toxicity to aquatic species, but no data on the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to environmental bacteria were used. In this study, the toxicity of various substituted nitrobenzenes to bacteria in Songhua River and to Ph. phosphoreum has been investigated, establishing quantitative structure-activity relationships with n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log P), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E{sub LUMO}) and the sum of substituent constant ({Sigma}{sigma}-). 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Toxics Use Reduction in the Home: Lessons Learned from Household Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dunagan, Sarah C.; Dodson, Robin E.; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Brody, Julia G.

    2010-01-01

    Workers and fence-line communities have been the first to benefit from the substantial reductions in toxic chemical use and byproducts in industrial production resulting from the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA). As TURA motivates reformulation of products as well as retooling of production processes, benefits could extend more broadly to large-scale reductions in everyday exposures for the general population. Household exposure studies, including those conducted by Silent Spring Institute, show that people are exposed to complex mixtures of indoor toxics from building materials and a myriad of consumer products. Pollutants in homes are likely to have multiple health effects because many are classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), with the ability to interfere with the body's hormone system. Product-related EDCs measured in homes include phthalates, halogenated flame retardants, and alkylphenols. Silent Spring Institute's chemical analysis of personal care and cleaning products confirms many are potential sources of EDCs, highlighting the need for a more comprehensive toxics use reduction (TUR) approach to reduce those exposures. Toxics use reduction targeted at EDCs in consumer products has the potential to substantially reduce occupational and residential exposures. The lessons that have emerged from household exposure research can inform improved chemicals management policies at the state and national levels, leading to safer products and widespread health and environmental benefits. PMID:21516227

  18. Acute, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and subchronic oral toxicity studies of diaveridine in rodents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan

    2015-09-01

    Diaveridine (DVD) is a member of the 2,4-pyrimidinediamine class of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. It is used in combination with sulfaquinoxaline as an antiprotozoal agent in animals for the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis and leucocytozoonosis. Herein, we report a complete toxicological safety assessment of DVD for clinical use. The study of toxicity, genetic toxicity (mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, mice sperm abnormality test and in vivo chromosome aberration test of mammalian bone marrow), 90-day sub-chronic toxicity and teratogenicity test were performed. In the acute oral toxicity tests, median lethal dose, LD50, was more than 2378mg/kg body weight in Sprague Dawley rats (1025mg/kg body weight in ICR mice). The testing results for three terms of mutagenicity toxicity (mouse chromosome aberration, erythrocyte micronucleus and sperm abnormality) were all negative at 128-512mg/kg body weight. For 90-day feeding of DVD at the dosage of 10mg/kg body weight in both male and female SD rats, no signs of toxicological effects were detected. Meanwhile, for teratogenicity test in female SD rats at the dosage of 37mg/kg body weight, there were no toxicological signs observed. Thus, our results suggested that the DVD is safe when administered orally in rats at 10mg/kg body weight per day. PMID:26397222

  19. Proteomics study of silver nanoparticles toxicity on Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Mirzajani, Fateme; Askari, Hossein; Hamzelou, Sara; Schober, Yvonne; Römpp, Andreas; Ghassempour, Alireza; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles, (AgNPs), will inevitably result in their release into the environment and thereby cause the exposure to plants. It was claimed that using AgNPs is a safe and efficient method to preserve and treat agents of disease in agriculture. This study tries to understand the protein populations and sub-populations and follow up environmental AgNPs stresses. To accomplish these, the action of homemade spherical AgNPs colloidal suspension against Oryza sativa L. was investigated by a proteomic approach (2-DE and NanoLC/FT-ICR MS identification). Twenty-eight responsive (decrement/increment in abundance) proteins were identified. Proteomic results revealed that an exposure of O. sativa L., root with different concentrations of AgNPs resulted in an accumulation of protein precursors, indicative of the dissipation of a proton motive force. The identified proteins are involved in oxidative stress tolerance, Ca(2+) regulation and signaling, transcription and protein degradation, cell wall and DNA/RNA/protein direct damage, cell division and apoptosis. The expression pattern of these proteins and their possible involvement in the nontoxicity mechanisms were discussed.

  20. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.