Science.gov

Sample records for air transport policy

  1. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  2. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  3. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  4. Local impact of air pollution: lessons from recent practices in economics and in public policies in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Duprez, Fabien; Durand, Sandrine; Poisson, Fabrice; Aubert, Pierre-Louis; Chiron, Mireille; Crozet, Yves; Lambert, Jacques

    This paper focuses on the economic valuation of the impact of local air pollution. Two main issues are considered: 1. The scientific issue: what is estimated, how and why? The main studies from the nineties are presented here. Two strong issues are stressed, with the diversity of valuation methods, on the one hand, and the debates on how to take the long term into account and the discount technique, on the other. 2. The political issue: how the results from the economic field are analysed and used to establish official values for public policies? The methods used in the transport sector in three different European countries (France, Sweden and Switzerland) are studied here. To conclude, we highlight the discrepancy between these two processes and, wherever possible, offer solutions to reach better synergy.

  5. Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Kandlikar, Milind

    2008-08-15

    Between 2001 and 2003, public transport vehicles in New Delhi were required to switch their fuel to natural gas in an attemptto reduce their air pollution impacts. This study examines the climatic impacts of New Delhi's fuel switching policy, and outlines implications for such efforts in rapidly industrializing countries. Natural gas is mostly composed of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Emitted aerosols (black carbon, particulate organic carbon, and sulfate) also cause radiative forcing. We find that methane and black carbon emissions are critical contributors to the change in carbon dioxide equivalent [CO2(e)] emissions. In New Delhi, the switch to natural gas results in a 30% increase in CO2(e) when the impact of aerosols is not considered. However, when aerosol emissions are taken into account in our model, the net effect of the switch is estimated to be a 10% reduction in CO2(e), and there may be as much as a 30% reduction in CO2(e). There is significant potential for emissions reductions through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Clean Development Mechanism for such fuel switching projects.

  6. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  7. Policy and Technical Guidance for State and Local Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains policy guidance issued by EPA and/or the U.S. Department of Transportation to assist state and local transportation and air quality agencies implement the transportation conformity program.

  8. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  9. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  10. Transport and urban air pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Badami, Madhav G

    2005-08-01

    The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in India. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Indian experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in India and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.

  11. Rotorcraft air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Intermodal relationships and the particular ways in which they affect public transportation applications of rotorcraft are addressed. Some aspects of integrated services and general comparisons with other transportation modes are reviewed. Two potential application scenarios are discussed: down-to-downtown rotorcraft service and urban public transport rotorcraft service. It is concluded that to integrate well with ground access modes community rotorcraft service should be limited stop service with published schedules, and operate on a few specific routes between a few specific destinations. For downtown-to-downtown service, time savings favorable to rotorcraft are benefits that reflect its more direct access, relatively higher line-haul travel speeds, and less circuitous travel. For the scenario of public transport within urban areas, first, improving cruise speeds has a limited potential due to allowing for a ""station spacing'' effect. Secondly, public acceptance of higher acceleration/deceleration rates may be just as effective as a technological innovation as achieving higher cruise speeds.

  12. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  13. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  16. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is determined by the flag registry of the aircraft. The term “U.S. flag air carrier” means one of a class of...

  17. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is determined by the flag registry of the aircraft. The term “U.S. flag air carrier” means one of a class of...

  18. Impacts of Climate Policy on Regional Air Quality, Health, and Air Quality Regulatory Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2011-12-01

    Both the changing climate, and the policy implemented to address climate change can impact regional air quality. We evaluate the impacts of potential selected climate policies on modeled regional air quality with respect to national pollution standards, human health and the sensitivity of health uncertainty ranges. To assess changes in air quality due to climate policy, we couple output from a regional computable general equilibrium economic model (the US Regional Energy Policy [USREP] model), with a regional air quality model (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions [CAMx]). USREP uses economic variables to determine how potential future U.S. climate policy would change emissions of regional pollutants (CO, VOC, NOx, SO2, NH3, black carbon, and organic carbon) from ten emissions-heavy sectors of the economy (electricity, coal, gas, crude oil, refined oil, energy intensive industry, other industry, service, agriculture, and transportation [light duty and heavy duty]). Changes in emissions are then modeled using CAMx to determine the impact on air quality in several cities in the Northeast US. We first calculate the impact of climate policy by using regulatory procedures used to show attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter. Building on previous work, we compare those results with the calculated results and uncertainties associated with human health impacts due to climate policy. This work addresses a potential disconnect between NAAQS regulatory procedures and the cost/benefit analysis required for and by the Clean Air Act.

  19. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services. PMID:12894330

  20. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services.

  1. Development of the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The major developments are outlined in the U.S. scheduled air transport industry both domestic and international, together with a brief history of the European air transport system. The role and formulation of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board, International Civil Aviation Organization, and International Air Transport Association are also covered.

  2. Financing the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd-Jones, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

  3. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  4. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  5. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  6. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  7. Reducing Air Pollution from International Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of both traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases.

  8. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  9. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  10. The Market Demand for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    Although the presentation will touch upon the areas of market for air transportation, the theoretical foundations of the demand function, the demand models, and model selection and evaluation, the emphasis of the presentation will be on a qualitative description of the factors affecting the demand for air transportation. The presentation will rely heavily on the results of market surveys carried out by the Port of New York Authority, the University of Michigan, and Census of Transportation.

  11. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation. PMID:27625486

  12. Statewide air medical transports for Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Elizabeth; Mango, Nicholas K; Prenney, Brad

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) established a process to centralize air medical transport information. This database is one of the first statewide, population-based sources for civilian rotary-wing air medical transports (U.S. Coast Guard, police, and military missions are not included). The purpose of this database is to facilitate MDPH review of air medical transport service utilization, with input from a multidisciplinary committee. This article discusses the challenges in producing uniform data from multiple service submissions and presents aggregate "baseline" utilization information for 1996. These data served as a starting point for later studies using data linkage. This indexed article is the first to report statewide, population-based data for all types of air medical helicopter transports. The only other indexed "statewide air medical transport" paper focused on scene transports to trauma centers in Pennsylvania. A previous article by the authors in the July-September 2000 Air Medical Journal provided an overview of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes for 1 region of the state.

  13. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy. (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing...

  14. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy. (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing...

  15. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy. (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing...

  16. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy. (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing...

  17. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Air Force policy. 631.15 Section 631.15 National...-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.15 Air Force policy. (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing...

  18. Overview--Air Force policy on halons.

    PubMed

    Morehouse, E T

    1993-05-01

    Halons have been used for decades by the Air Force for a variety of fire protection applications. Their unique combination of effectiveness, low toxicity, ease of use, cleanliness, and low manufacturing cost appear to make them ideal for many situations. Unfortunately, they also deplete the earth's protective ozone layer and, consequently, their production is being phased out globally under the Montreal Protocol. United States legislation implementing the terms of the Protocol required an end to production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODCs) by the year 2000. In November 1991, the Air Force issued a policy requiring an end to ODC purchases by the end of 1997. In February 1992, President Bush announced an even more accelerated phaseout to 1995. The Montreal Protocol is expected to be amended to reflect the more aggressive US phaseout date. This accelerated date increases the urgency of the Air Force's search for ODC alternatives, especially for mission critical uses for which no alternatives have yet been identified. The search is complicated by the fact that the requirements an alternative must meet are unique to their specific application. This paper will provide an overview of the most important Air Force halon uses and review Air Force strategies for ensuring mission continuity until alternatives can be developed.

  19. The Operational Air National Guard: Relationship Changes and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-13

    spending, thirteen years of war, ambitious domestic programs and monetary policies aimed at overcoming the 2008 economic collapse led to the Budget...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE "OPERATIONAL" AIR NATIONAL GUARD: RELATIONSHIP CHANGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS by Todd L Remington...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Operational Air National Guard: Relationship Changes And Policy Implications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  20. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  1. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  2. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  3. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  4. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  5. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  6. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  9. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  10. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  11. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel.

  12. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  13. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  14. School Policies and Practices that Improve Indoor Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…

  15. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  16. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  17. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  18. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Derek John

    This dissertation looks at the relationship between American subnational governments and clean air policy in three different cases. I investigate the impact of state reduction policies on the emission of Greenhouse emissions, the subnational adoption of Greenhouse Gas tracking and reduction policies, and the impact of Clean Air Act standards on the siting of coal-fired power plants. The major finding is that in both the adoption and business response to these policies, a state's political context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States.

  19. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  20. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  1. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  2. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  3. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  4. Proceedings of the Air Transportation Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard (Editor); Tashker, Michael G. (Editor); Boyle, Angela M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Air Transportation Management (ATM) Workshop was held 31 Jan. - 1 Feb. 1995 at NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to develop an initial understanding of user concerns and requirements for future ATM capabilities and to initiate discussions of alternative means and technologies for achieving more effective ATM capabilities. The topics for the sessions were as follows: viewpoints of future ATM capabilities, user requirements, lessons learned, and technologies for ATM. In addition, two panel sessions discussed priorities for ATM, and potential contributions of NASA to ATM. The proceedings contain transcriptions of all sessions.

  5. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  6. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC.

  7. Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Caroline; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Edwards, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Theory, common sense and modelling studies suggest that some interventions to mitigate carbon emissions in the transport sector can also have substantial short-term benefits for population health. Policies that encourage active modes of transportation such as cycling may, for example, increase population physical activity and decrease air pollution, thus reducing the burden of conditions such as some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and dementia. In this Perspective we systematically review the evidence from 'real life' transport policies and their impacts on health and CO2 emissions. We identified a few studies that mostly involved personalized travel planning and showed modest increases in active transport such as walking, and reductions in vehicle use and CO2 emissions. Given the poor quality of the studies identified, urgent action is needed to provide more robust evidence for policies.

  8. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  9. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  10. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  11. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  12. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  13. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  15. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  17. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  18. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  19. Air Quality Co-Benefits of a Carbon Policy: Regional Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Rausch, S.; Saari, R.; Selin, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    We use an integrated modeling framework to assess the air quality influence of climate change policies in the Northeast U.S. states for air pollution, and their relative health and economic benefits. We analyze three carbon policy scenarios, each reducing the same total amount of GHG emissions in the Northeast United States: an economy-wide Cap and Trade (CAT) program reducing emissions from all sectors of the economy, a Clean Energy Scenario (CES) reducing emissions from the electricity sector only, and a Transportation Scenario (TRN) reducing emissions from the transportation sector only. Regional CES policy and a regional TRN policy will cost about 10 times and 50 times more than a CAT policy, respectively. Regional CAT policy will lead to a 6% greater reduction in carbon emissions nationally in the year 2030 compared to an electric or transportation sector cap with the same regional targets. This is because, unlike a total economy cap, targeted policy options will likely cause increases in carbon emissions outside of the region covered (called carbon leakage). The human health benefits of the CAT, CES and TRN policies are 530%, 118%, and 10% of the costs of each policy respectively, meaning that the CAT and CES policies will likely fully pay for themselves in the NE U.S. We estimate that the value of human health co-benefits associated with reductions of ground level ozone and particulate matter of the CES scenario is twice that of the CAT and TRN scenarios. Economic welfare costs for each of three regionally applied carbon emissions reduction scenario are shown in blue. The calculated dollar amount of the human health benefits point estimate is shown in red with the 95% confidence interval, associated with human health response only, shown using the green line. Values are in billions of year 2006 US dollars.

  20. Air Quality Measurements for Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality measurements and the methods used to conduct them are vital to advancing our knowledge of the source-to-receptor-to-health effects continuum1-3. This information then forms the basis for evaluating and managing air quality to protect human health and welfa...

  1. The utility of anger in promoting clean indoor air policies.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Quinlan, Margaret M; Quinlan, Margaret R

    2009-09-01

    This investigation examined antecedents associated with support for clean indoor air policies. Participants (N = 550) living in a Midwestern county (population = 62,223) were randomly sampled. Results suggest that beliefs in the health risks associated with secondhand smoke are positively associated with favorable attitudes toward clean indoor air policies, whereas trait reactance is negatively associated with these attitudes. Findings also indicate that risks and trait reactance are indirectly associated with support for clean indoor air policies, mediated through anger arousal toward exposure to secondhand smoke. In addition, regression analyses revealed that health risks, trait reactance, and smoking status explained a significant amount of variance regarding anger toward exposure to secondhand smoke, but only health risks and smoking status accounted for a significant amount of variance toward clean indoor air attitudes. Finally, the Smoking Status x Health Risks interaction was supported for anger toward exposure to secondhand smoke and favorable attitudes toward clean indoor air policies. Our findings suggest the incorporation of anger appeals when promoting clean indoor air policies.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 1. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Journal's mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  3. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and... PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY SERVICE FEES § 1510.7 Air transportation advertisements and solicitations... part as “September 11th Security Fee” in all its advertisements and solicitations for...

  4. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  6. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  7. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  8. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  9. UK airmisses involving commercial air transport, January-April 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the introduction the following are briefly discussed: origination of an airmiss; purpose of airmiss reports; investigation of airmiss reports; categorization of airmisses; involvement of commercial air transport aircraft; airmisses related to flying hours. Tabulated statistics of the following are presented: the number of incidents of commercial air transport airmisses; commercial air transport aircraft involved in airmisses; commercial air transport airmisses related to flying hours. Reports on the commercial air transport airmisses from Jan. - Apr. 1991 are presented. These contain summaries of: pilot reports, transcripts of relevant RT frequencies; radar video recordings, and reports from appropriate air traffic control and operating authorities. The working groups discussion is summarized, and the risk and cause assessed.

  10. Effects of China's Energy Policy on Future Air Quality in China and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Li, C. T.; Zhang, D.; Luo, X.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the effects of recently announced energy policies in mainland China on air quality in both China and the U.S. in 2030. China is the largest contributor to global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants, especially the precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Efforts to limit coal use in China under the country's National Air Pollution Action Plan will reduce these air pollutants. Control efforts are expected to not only decrease the concentration of ozone and PM2.5 locally in China, but also reduce the trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants to the U.S. We couple an energy-economic model with sub-national detail for China (the China Regional Energy Model, or C-REM) to a global atmospheric chemistry model (GEOS-Chem) to assess air pollution reductions under an energy policy scenario relative to a no policy baseline scenario. Future Chinese anthropogenic emissions are predicted by C-REM under a national energy policy scenario which achieves a 20% reduction in energy intensity from 2012 to 2017 by targeting fossil fuel use nationwide as specified in the National Air Pollution Action Plan and also meets the Plan's sub-national constraint that coal use must not increase above present levels in three largest urban regions (the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) through 2030. Using GEOS-Chem, we project changes in the surface concentration of ozone and PM2.5 over China and the U.S. in 2030. We find that air pollutants decrease substantially over both China and the U.S. under the national targets set by the Air Pollution Action Plan.

  11. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  12. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  13. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  14. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  15. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  16. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  17. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff publications shall not contain fares or charges, or their governing provisions, applicable to foreign...

  18. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff publications shall not contain fares or charges, or their governing provisions, applicable to foreign...

  19. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation....

  20. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  1. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  2. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  3. Examining antecedents of clean indoor air policy support: implications for campaigns promoting clean indoor air.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Bates, Benjamin R; Romina, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smokers were assessed across the aforementioned variables. The study sampled participants (N = 550) living in the Appalachian foothills as a means of conducting formative research prior to developing messages promoting clean indoor air policies. The study controlled for tobacco usage, age, biological sex, and income. Results revealed that awareness of risk is a good predictor of attitudes and social norms, and in return, attitudes and social norms are good predictors of support for clean indoor air policies. In addition, results reveal that nonsmokers maintain a significantly stronger belief in the dangers associated with environmental tobacco smoke, as well as more favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and support for clean indoor air policies when compared with smokers. These findings are discussed with a focus on message design strategies for practitioners and academics with interests in promoting clean indoor air policies.

  4. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  6. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  7. Energy Policy Act Transportation Rate Study: Final Report on Coal Transportation

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This is the final in a series of reports prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Secretary of Energy on coal distribution and transportation rates as mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates, of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486).

  8. Agenda and Presentations from Circumpolar Workshop: Transport and Clean Air

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its partners convened Transport and Clean Air, a Circumpolar Workshop held in December 2013. This seminar allowed leading experts to share best practices on reducing emissions of particulates and black carbon from diesel sources in the Arctic.

  9. Measuring the Air Quality and Transportation Impacts of Infill Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report summarizes three case studies. The analysis shows how standard forecasting tools can be modified to capture at least some of the transportation and air quality benefits of brownfield and infill development.

  10. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  11. Community rotorcraft air transportation benefits and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, G. A.; Freund, D. J.; Winick, R. M.; Cafarelli, N. J.; Hodgkins, R. F.; Vickers, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Information about rotorcraft that will assist community planners in assessing and planning for the use of rotorcraft transportation in their communities is provided. Information useful to helicopter researchers, manufacturers, and operators concerning helicopter opportunities and benefits is also given. Three primary topics are discussed: the current status and future projections of rotorcraft technology, and the comparison of that technology with other transportation vehicles; the community benefits of promising rotorcraft transportation opportunities; and the integration and interfacing considerations between rotorcraft and other transportation vehicles. Helicopter applications in a number of business and public service fields are examined in various geographical settings.

  12. Cleaning up the air: effectiveness of air quality policy for SO2 and NOx emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald J.; Mijling, Bas; Ding, Jieying; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Liu, Fei; Li, Qing; Mao, Huiqin; Theys, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Air quality observations by satellite instruments are global and have a regular temporal resolution, which makes them very useful in studying long-term trends in atmospheric species. To monitor air quality trends in China for the period 2005-2015, we derive SO2 columns and NOx emissions on a provincial level with improved accuracy. To put these trends into perspective they are compared with public data on energy consumption and the environmental policies of China. We distinguish the effect of air quality regulations from economic growth by comparing them relatively to fossil fuel consumption. Pollutant levels, per unit of fossil fuel, are used to assess the effectiveness of air quality regulations. We note that the desulfurization regulations enforced in 2005-2006 only had a significant effect in the years 2008-2009, when a much stricter control of the actual use of the installations began. For national NOx emissions a distinct decreasing trend is only visible from 2012 onwards, but the emission peak year differs from province to province. Unlike SO2, emissions of NOx are highly related to traffic. Furthermore, regulations for NOx emissions are partly decided on a provincial level. The last 3 years show a reduction both in SO2 and NOx emissions per fossil fuel unit, since the authorities have implemented several new environmental regulations. Despite an increasing fossil fuel consumption and a growing transport sector, the effects of air quality policy in China are clearly visible. Without the air quality regulations the concentration of SO2 would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.

  13. Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan Final Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Final Environmental Assessment Peterson Air Force Base Transportation Plan March 2013 FELSBURG H O L T & U L L E V I G Report Documentation Page Form...ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 PETERSON AIR...4-1 4.2 Off-Base Activities

  14. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  15. Transportation by Air-On the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Rolair air flotation system is a spinoff of NASA/General Motors technology developed for the Apollo Program. It allows heavy loads to be moved easily by separating the load from the ground by a thin air cushion, virtually eliminating surface friction. Rolair Systems, Inc. was formed by former General Motors engineers and has successfully employed the system for both aerospace and nonaerospace industries.

  16. Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, David; Ryan, Lisa

    2011-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

  17. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  18. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  19. Environic implications of lighter than air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsbrugh, P.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of any new system of transportation must now be reviewed in the physical context and texture of the landscape. Henceforward, all transportation systems will be considered in respect of their effects upon the environment to ensure that they afford an environic asset as well as provide an economic benefit. The obligations which now confront the buoyancy engineers are emphasized so that they may respond to these ethical and environic urgencies simultaneously with routine technical development.

  20. Impacts of potential CO2-reduction policies on air quality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Trail, Marcus A; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P; Liu, Peng; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Hu, Yongtao; Rudokas, Jason R; Miller, Paul J; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-04-21

    Impacts of emissions changes from four potential U.S. CO2 emission reduction policies on 2050 air quality are analyzed using the community multiscale air quality model (CMAQ). Future meteorology was downscaled from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE General Circulation Model (GCM) to the regional scale using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. We use emissions growth factors from the EPAUS9r MARKAL model to project emissions inventories for two climate tax scenarios, a combined transportation and energy scenario, a biomass energy scenario and a reference case. Implementation of a relatively aggressive carbon tax leads to improved PM2.5 air quality compared to the reference case as incentives increase for facilities to install flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. However, less capital is available to install NOX reduction technologies, resulting in an O3 increase. A policy aimed at reducing CO2 from the transportation sector and electricity production sectors leads to reduced emissions of mobile source NOX, thus reducing O3. Over most of the U.S., this scenario leads to reduced PM2.5 concentrations. However, increased primary PM2.5 emissions associated with fuel switching in the residential and industrial sectors leads to increased organic matter (OM) and PM2.5 in some cities.

  1. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  2. Synchronizing production and air transportation scheduling using mathematical programming models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandieh, M.; Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S.

    2009-08-01

    Traditional scheduling problems assume that there are always infinitely many resources for delivering finished jobs to their destinations, and no time is needed for their transportation, so that finished products can be transported to customers without delay. So, for coordination of these two different activities in the implementation of a supply chain solution, we studied the problem of synchronizing production and air transportation scheduling using mathematical programming models. The overall problem is decomposed into two sub-problems, which consists of air transportation allocation problem and a single machine scheduling problem which they are considered together. We have taken into consideration different constraints and assumptions in our modeling such as special flights, delivery tardiness and no delivery tardiness. For these purposes, a variety of models have been proposed to minimize supply chain total cost which encompass transportation, makespan, delivery earliness tardiness and departure time earliness tardiness costs.

  3. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  4. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  5. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  6. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  7. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  8. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall, within 15 days of the end of the month... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an...

  9. Air pollutant transport in a street canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Luke Chen; Hsu-Cheng Chang

    1996-12-31

    An air pollutant (CO) distribution in a typical street canyon is simulated to evaluate pedestrian exposure. In this study, we consider factors those may affect the pollutant distribution in a typical street canyon. The considered factors include aspect ratio of a street canyon, atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy effect. A two-dimensional domain that includes suburban roughness and urban street canyon is considered. The factors such as atmospheric stability, traffic load and turbulent buoyancy are imposed through the associated boundary conditions. With numerical simulation, the critical aspect ration of a street canyon the includes two vortices and results in pollutant accumulation are found. The buoyant effect is found to raise the same pollutant concentration up to the position higher than the results come out from the case without buoyancy. The pedestrian exposure to the street air pollutant under various traffic loads and atmospheric stability are evaluated. This study conclude that the local building regulations that specify the building height/street width ratio will not cause significant pedestrian exposure to the street air pollution in most of traffic loads and atmospheric stability conditions.

  10. An interpretive summary of the 1997 conference on policies for fostering sustainable transportation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    T.R. Lakshmanan, director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, offered the following definition from the Bruntland Commission: ``Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations.`` The technologies and policies that received the most attention would provide per-unit-of-service reduction of three kinds of social costs (external costs, in economist`s terminology) with respect to light duty transportation. The main factors to be reduced were oil use, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. Undesirable side effects of continually expanding transportation activity, including congestion and habitat loss, were also discussed. The conference included debate about priorities among these five categories of social cost, about which organizations should take action to achieve the reductions needed in each, and about what specific actions these organizations should take.

  11. Analysis of the Chinese provincial air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Liang, Bo-Yuan; Hong, Chen; Lordan, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    The air transportation system is of a great impact on the economy and globalization of a country. In this paper, we analyze the Chinese air transportation network (ATN) from a provincial perspective via the complex network framework, where all airports located in one province are abstracted as a single node and flights between two provinces are denoted by a link. The results show that the network exhibits small-world property, homogeneous structure and disassortative mixing. The variation of the flight flow within 24 h is investigated and an obvious tide phenomenon is found in the dynamics of Chinese provincial ATN for high output level of tertiary industry. Our work will offer a novel approach for understanding the characteristic of the Chinese air transportation network.

  12. Forecasting the demand potential for STOL air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Kanafani, A.; Mogharabi, A.

    1973-01-01

    A process for predicting the potential demand for STOL aircraft was investigated to provide a conceptual framework, and an analytical methodology for estimating the STOL air transportation market. It was found that: (1) schedule frequency has the strongest effect on the traveler's choice among available routes, (2) work related business constitutes approximately 50% of total travel volume, and (3) air travel demand follows economic trends.

  13. The accelerated growth of the worldwide air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Mark; Klingauf, Uwe; Zock, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Mobility by means of air transportation has a critical impact on the global economy. Especially against the backdrop of further growth and an aggravation of the energy crisis, it is crucial to design a sustainable air transportation system. Current approaches focus on air traffic management. Nevertheless, also the historically evolved network offers great potential for an optimized redesign. But the understanding of its complex structure and development is limited, although modern network science supplies a great set of new methods and tools. So far studies analyzing air transportation as a complex network are based on divers and poor data, which are either merely regional or strongly bounded time-wise. As a result, the current state of research is rather inconsistent regarding topological coefficients and incomplete regarding network evolution. Therefore, we use the historical, worldwide OAG flight schedules data between 1979 and 2007 for our study. Through analyzing by far the most comprehensive data base so far, a better understanding of the network, its evolution and further implications is being provided. To our knowledge we present the first study to determine that the degree distribution of the worldwide air transportation network is non-stationary and is subject to densification and accelerated growth, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Drinovec, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-08-01

    Transport regulation at local level for the abatement of air pollution has gained significant traction in the EU. In this work, we analyze the effect of different transportation changes on air quality in two similarly sized cities: Granada (Spain) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Several air pollutants were measured at both sites before and after the implementation of the changes. In Ljubljana, a 72% reduction of local black carbon (BC), from 5.6 to 1.6 μg/m3, was observed after the restriction was implemented. In Granada, statistically significant reductions of 1.3 μg/m3 (37%) in BC and of 15 μg/m3 (33%) in PM10 concentrations were observed after the public transportation re-organization. However, the improvement observed in air quality was very local since other areas of the cities did not improve significantly. We show that closing streets to private traffic, renewal of the bus fleet and re-organization of the public transportation significantly benefit air quality.

  15. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    SciTech Connect

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  16. The technical challenge of air transportation - A Government view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the research and technology that must be conducted, and the facility investments that must be made, in order to assure that the United States is adequately prepared to meet the challenges that air transportation will provide in the future. The technical focal points for the next decade are reviewed in the context of the emerging pattern of air transportation needs for the remainder of the Century and the prospects for satisfying these needs are discussed. Particular attention is given to the responsibility that the Government must assume in aviation R&T and to the relationship that must be encouraged between the Government, the Industry and the University Community.

  17. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate air pollution during commuting in European cities--recommendations and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Karanasiou, Angeliki; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; de Leeuw, Frank

    2014-08-15

    Commuting is considered as one of the high-exposure periods among various daily activities, especially in high vehicle-density metropolitan areas. There is a growing awareness of the need to change our transportation habits by reducing our use of cars and shifting instead to active transport, i.e. walking or cycling. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to better understand personal exposure during commuting by different modes of transport, and to suggest potential strategies to minimise exposure. The air pollutants studied include particulate matter, PM black carbon, BC and particle number concentration. We focused only in European studies in order to have comparable situation in terms of vehicle fleet and policy regulations applied. Studies on personal exposure to air pollutants during car commuting are more numerous than those dealing with other types of transport, and typically conclude by emphasising that travelling by car involves exposure to relatively high particulate matter, PM exposure concentrations. Thus, compared to other transport methods, travelling by car has been shown to involve exposure both to higher PM and BC as compared with cycling. Widespread dependence on private car transport has produced a significant daily health threat to the urban commuter. However, a forward-looking, integrated transport policy, involving the phased renovation of existing public vehicles and the withdrawal of the more polluting private vehicles, combined with incentives to use public transport and the encouragement of commuter physical exercise, would reduce commuters' exposure.

  18. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  19. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  20. High temperature transport properties of air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, E.; Partridge, Harry; Stallcop, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A general computer code was developed to allow calculation of atom-atom and ion-atom transport collision integrals from accurate potential energy curves described by a set of discrete data points for a broad range of scattering conditions. This code is based upon semiclassical approximations that properly account for quantum mechanical behavior such as tunneling effects near a barrier maximum, resonance charge exchange, and nuclear symmetry effects. Transport collision integrals were determined for N-N, O-O, N(+)-N, and O(+)-O interactions from complete sets of accurate potential functions derived from combined experimental and ab initio structure calculations. For the O-O case, this includes results for excited states. The calculated values of the N(+)-N and O(+)-O resonance charge exchange cross section Q(ex) agree well with measurements from beam experiment that are available at high energies where the diffusion cross section Q(d) satisfies Q(d) approximately equal to 2Q(ex).

  1. Improving policy responses to the risk of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Nathwani, Jatin; Pandey, Mahesh; Hurley, Fintan

    2007-02-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the need for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the available policy instruments for air pollution. To prioritize different possible actions, one needs to know which source of pollution causes how much damage. This requires an impact pathway analysis, that is, an analysis of the chain emission --> dispersion --> dose-response function --> monetary valuation. The methodology for this is described and illustrated with the results of the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) project series of the European Commission. Two examples of an application to CBA are shown: one where a proposed reduction of emission limits is justified, and one where it is not. It is advisable to subject any proposed regulation to a CBA, including an analysis of the uncertainties. Even if the uncertainties are large and a policy decision may have to take other considerations into account, a well-documented CBA clarifies the issues and provides a basis for rational discussion. One of the main sources of uncertainty lies in the monetary valuation of premature mortality, the dominant contribution to the damage cost of air pollution. As an alternative, an innovative policy tool is described, the Life Quality Index (LQI), a compound indicator comprising societal wealth and life expectancy. It is applied to the Canada-wide standards for particulate matter and ozone. Regardless of monetary valuation, a 50% reduction of PM10 concentrations in Europe and North America has been shown to yield a population-average life expectancy increase on the order of 4 to 5 mo.

  2. Arrow 227: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontempi, Michael; Bose, Dave; Brophy, Georgeann; Cashin, Timothy; Kanarios, Michael; Ryan, Steve; Peterson, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    The Arrow 227 is a student-designed commercial transport for use in a overnight package delivery network. The major goal of the concept was to provide the delivery service with the greatest potential return on investment. The design objectives of the Arrow 227 were based on three parameters; production cost, payload weight, and aerodynamic efficiency. Low production cost helps to reduce initial investment. Increased payload weight allows for a decrease in flight cycles and, therefore, less fuel consumption than an aircraft carrying less payload weight and requiring more flight cycles. In addition, fewer flight cycles will allow a fleet to last longer. Finally, increased aerodynamic efficiency in the form of high L/D will decrease fuel consumption.

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute has published the 1997 Proceedings of the Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society. Items published in this three volume, seven monograph series were presented at the triennial ATRG Conference held at the University of British Columbia, June 25-27, 1997. A wide variety of policy issues are discussed including the following: open- skies agreements, liberalization, globalization, airline competition, airport performance, pricing, hubs, and safety, among others.

  4. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along six avenues during the past year: investigation of fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft, experimentation with an ultrasonic altimeter, single pilot instrument flight, application of fiber optics in flight control systems, voice recognition inputs for navigation/communication receiver tuning, and computer aided aircraft design.

  5. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  6. Contact Information for EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You will find an EPA employee by name or by topic of interest, also, you will know who to contact if you want to find a specific transportation and air quality document, importing a vehicle to the US, and other frequently asked questions.

  7. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  8. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  10. 14 CFR 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  11. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  12. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air.

  13. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1–10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid–liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  14. Evaluating policy-relevant emission inventories for transportation and electricity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the challenges and opportunities in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories for transportation and electricity. These anthropogenic emissions respond in complex ways to technology and activity changes. Thus, it is essential that inventories capture historic emissions consistent with observations, as well as future emissions consistent with policy scenarios. For transportation, we focus on freight-related trucking emissions, represented by the Wisconsin Inventory for Freight Emissions (WIFE), developed with activity data from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework and emission factors from the EPA MOVES model. Because WIFE is linked to commodity flows and roadway speeds, it offers a useful data set to evaluate policy changes such as truck-to-rail modal shifts and alternative fuel choices. However, the value of the inventory in assessing these scenarios depends on its skill in calculating frieght-related emissions. Satellite data of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the OMI instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite is used to evaluate truck and rail NOx emissions, especially on rural highways away from ground-based monitors. For electricity, we use the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and power generation in response to policy and technology changes. These include renewable portfolio standards, conservation, increased natural gas, and response to building demand. To evaluate MyPower, we compare with the Clean Air Markets database, and 2007 calculated daily afternoon emissions with satellite-derived NO2 from OMI. Drawing on the results of these studies, we discuss strategies to meet the information demands of both historically correct air quality inputs and future-relevant policy scenarios.

  15. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  16. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  17. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  18. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  19. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  20. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  1. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  2. Clean Air Excellence Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These non-monetary awards honor sustainable efforts toward pollutant emissions reduction from innovators in clean air technology, community action and outreach, policy development, and transportation efficiency.

  3. What should ``damaged`` mean in air transport of fissile packages

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.E.; Falci, F.P.; Blackman, D.

    1995-12-31

    It is likely that the ongoing process to produce the 1996 version of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, IAEA Safety Series 6(SS 6) will result in a more stringent package qualification standard for air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) than is included in the 1990 version. During the process to define the scope of the new requirements there was extensive discussion of their impact on, and application to, fissile material package qualification criteria. Since fissile materials are shipped in a variety of packagings ranging from exempt to Type B, each packaging of each type must be evaluated for its ability to maintain subcriticality both alone and in arrays and in both damaged and undamaged condition. In the 1990 version of SS 6 ``damaged`` means the condition of a package after it had undergone the ``tests for demonstrating the ability to withstand accident conditions in transport,`` i.e., Type B qualification tests. These tests conditions are typical of severe accidents in surface modes, but are less severe than air mode qualification test environments to be applied to Type C packages. As a result, questions arose about the need for a corresponding change in the 1996 SS 6 to define ``damaged`` to include the Type C test regime for criticality evaluations of fissile packages in air transport.

  4. Vehicle expectations in air transportation for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the air transportation system for the year 2000 in terms of vehicle expectations. Emphasis is placed on civil air transportation with the time period approached from the standpoint of evolutionary changes for the near term and also with the assumption of more revolutionary changes for the far term. The view along the evolutionary path begins with a historical review of airline market growth and the impact that technologies have had on airplane designs. Projections of the life expectancy of existing, derivative, and new airplanes are examined in terms of their productivity and fuel efficiency in view of the present and projected fuel usage and availability. The factors influencing airline growth are outlined and some views on whether another new generation of subsonic airplanes are in the offing are given along with an assessment of the economic viability of an advanced commercial supersonic transport in terms of its higher speed, higher productivity, and higher fuel usage. With regard to revolutionary changes, major technology breakthroughs are assumed to occur at a specified date. As an example, the impact of a dramatic reduction in skin friction drag is examined in terms of its effect on the airplane configuration, its propulsion systems, it projected fuel usage, and the air transportation system in which it must operate.

  5. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  6. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    stringent emission levels of the gasoline fleet; update the detention of pollutant vehicles program; partial exemption of the inspection and maintenance program for cleaner and or highly efficient vehicles; substitution of 3,000 microbuses, 40,000 taxis and 1,200 buses; commissioning of the first Bus Rapid Transit system; implementation of a program for the emissions reduction for the 300 most polluted industrial facilities; and continuous update of the air quality environmental management programs. To continue improving the air quality in the MCMA, the environmental authorities will continue the implementation of the 2002-2010 Air Quality Improvement Program. In 2007 the Green Program was started, this includes those actions that have proven to be effective reduction of pollutant emissions and incorporates new actions for the reduction of local and global pollutant emissions. The most important of these new actions are: substitution of 9,500 microbuses; renewal of all the taxis fleet; commissioning of 10 Bus Rapid Transit lines; commissioning of Line 12 of the underground system; schedules and routes limitations to the cargo fleet; increase 5 percent the number of non-motorized trips (bicycling and walking); regulation of the private public transport passenger stops; requirement of private schools to provide school transport; regulation of non-occupied taxis in circulation; modifications to the circulation of 350 critical crossing points in the city; adoption of intelligent traffic lights systems; complete substitution of the local government vehicle's fleet; implement the inspection and maintenance of the cargo fleet; introduction of low- sulfur diesel, among other measures.

  7. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Monzón, Andrés; Guerrero, María-José

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

  8. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  9. Transportation Costs as a Consideration in Air Force Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-10

    46556 _______________________ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDR ESS 12. REPORT DATE .4 - . 79Mar 10 AIR _~~~~~~~~~~ ØJSIN~~S RESEARC~1 MANN3~ 4~NT...these costs be understood and controlled . Many transportation decisions are made by the con trac tor under F.O.B. destination contracts versus those...imperative therefore , that these costs be understood and controlled . Like many business organiza tions , the United States Air Force faces problems of

  10. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  11. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  12. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    PubMed

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  13. Aviation Security: Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-25

    Order Code RL34390 Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo February 25, 2008 Bart Elias Specialist in... Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for

  14. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of the air transportation technology program is presented. The following topics were examined: (1) fuel use characteristics of general aviation aircraft; (2) dead-reckoning concept incorporating a fluidic rate sensor; (3) experimentation with an ultrasonic altimeter; (4) development of laser-based collision avoidance systems; (5) flight path reconstruction from sequential DME data; (6) application of fiber optics in flight control systems; and (7) voice recognition inputs for navigation/communication receiver tuning.

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  16. Investigation of air transportation technology at Ohio University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    The operational development of Loran-C for enroute navigation and nonprecision approaches was studied, and is only one of the many projects funded by the Joint University Program for Air Transportation at Ohio University. Other projects included work on the DATAC data bus monitor, global positioning system test bed receiver development, fiber optic data bus application in general aviation aircraft, and advanced remote monitoring techniques.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  19. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  20. Intercontinental Transport of Aerosols: Implication for Regional Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 microns) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 microns), is one of the key atmospheric components that determine ambient air quality. Current US air quality standards for PM10 (particles with diameter < 10 microns) and PM2.5 (particles with diameter 2.5 microns) are 50 pg/cu m and 15 pg/cu m, respectively. While local and regional emission sources are the main cause of air pollution problems, aerosols can be transported on a hemispheric or global scale. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to quantify contributions of long-range transport vs. local/regional pollution sources and from natural vs. anthropogenic sources to PM concentrations different regions. In particular, we estimate the hemispheric impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and dust from major source areas on other regions in the world. The GOCART model results are compared with satellite remote sensing and ground-based network measurements of aerosol optical depth and concentrations.

  1. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  2. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  3. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  4. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  5. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  6. Air transport of infants in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. A.; Owers, J.; Horwood, P.

    1978-01-01

    Air transportation of 33 infants in small unpressurized aircraft over long distances is described. Twenty-six of the infants were transported more than 320 km in environmental temperatures varying from -35 to +21 degrees C. A commercially available incubator was used. Although more than half the infants had a rectal temperature within the normal range at the time of arrival at hospital, 12 infants had rectal temperatures above 37.5 degrees C as a result of efforts to diminish heat loss. Adequate oxygenation of infants at 3000 m in unpressurized aircraft can be difficult. Cold and vibration can affect equipment, and at high altitudes the readings from oxygen analysers may not be true. The use of an expanded transport team, which includes experienced nonmedical personnel, is particularly important in these cases. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 PMID:679112

  7. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  8. An integrated computer modeling environment for regional land use, air quality, and transportation planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, C.J.; Marshall, N.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME) represents an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. This environment provides predictive capability combined with a graphical and geographical interface. The graphical interface shows the causal relationships between data and policy scenarios and supports alternative model formulations. Scenarios are launched from within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and data produced by each model component at each time step within a simulation is stored in the GIS. A menu-driven query system is utilized to review link-based results and regional and area-wide results. These results can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. Using this environment, policies can be developed and implemented based on comparative analysis, rather than on single-step future projections. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  10. Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. PMID:21845172

  11. Impact of air pollutants from surface transport sources on human health: A modeling and epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Preeti; Jain, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    This study adopted an integrated 'source-to-receptor' assessment paradigm in order to determine the effects of emissions from passenger transport on urban air quality and human health in the megacity, Delhi. The emission modeling was carried out for the base year 2007 and three alternate (ALT) policy scenarios along with a business as usual (BAU) scenario for the year 2021. An Activity-Structure-Emission Factor (ASF) framework was adapted for emission modeling, followed by a grid-wise air quality assessment using AERMOD and a health impact assessment using an epidemiological approach. It was observed that a 2021-ALT-III scenario resulted in a maximum concentration reduction of ~24%, ~42% and ~58% for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM), respectively, compared to a 2021-BAU scenario. Further, it results in significant reductions in respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) by 41% and 58% on exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations when compared to the 2021-BAU scenario, respectively. In other words, a mix of proposed policy interventions namely the full-phased introduction of the Integrated Mass Transit System, fixed bus speed, stringent vehicle emission norms and a hike in parking fees for private vehicles would help in strengthening the capability of passenger transport to cater to a growing transport demand with a minimum health burden in the Delhi region. Further, the study estimated that the transport of goods would be responsible for ~5.5% additional VKT in the 2021-BAU scenario; however, it will contribute ~49% and ~55% additional NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, in the Delhi region. Implementation of diesel particulate filters for goods vehicles in the 2021-ALT-IV-O scenario would help in the reduction of ~87% of PM2.5 concentration, compared to the 2021-BAU scenario; translating into a gain of 1267 and 505 DALY per million people from exposure to PM2.5 and NO

  12. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  13. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  14. Transport and transformation of air pollutants from Israel's coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.; Almog, H.; Peleg, M.

    The occasional high ozone levels measured in Jerusalem could not be attributed solely to local sources such as vehicular traffic or industry. A satellite monitoring station was set up outside the city limits to explore the possibility of transport and transformation of air pollutants from the highly populated and industrialized coastal area of Israel to the inland hilly region. This study revealed that the high ozone levels were always associated with a parallel increase of SO 2 and that power plants and/or vehicles operating in the coastal region are a major source for the nitrogen oxides which undergo photochemical transformation to form ozone during inland travel of the air parcel under conditions of intense sunlight.

  15. Air transportation in the California Corridor of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, M.; Mahaffy, K.; Yanagi, G.; Lechmanski, L.; Riddle, T.; Howard, K.; Chan, C.; Gorman, M.; Bauer, B.

    1989-01-01

    The topic of the 1988-1989 NASA/USRA Advanced Design Project at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, was the development of an air transportation system to meet the needs of the California Corridor for the year 2010. As aircraft design is taught by two instructors having different philosophies about the teaching process, the two classes took different approaches to address the problem. The first part of this summary (California Air Transit System) represents the work done by the students of Professor A. E. Andreoli, who followed a systems approach, emphasizing the determination of the proper mission. The second part of the summary (Four Aircraft to Service the California Corridor) contains the four aircraft designed by Dr. D. R. Sandlin's class based on specifications determined from work done in previous years.

  16. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  17. Transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of high Rn-222 episodes (radonic storms) observed at three islands (Crozet, Kerguelen, and Amsterdam) in the subantarctic Indian Ocean is simulated using a three-dimensional chemical tracer model. The chemical tracer model is described and the simulated time series of Rn-222 concentrations at the three islands are compared to observations. The origin, seasonal frequencies, and periodicities of the storms are examined. It is found that the storms are due to fast boundary layer advection of air from South Africa, made possible by the conjunction of a subtropical high SE of Madagascar and a midlatitudes low off the southern tip of Africa. The implications of the results for the transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean are discussed.

  18. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  19. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  20. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  2. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  3. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  4. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The program proceeded along five avenues during 1985. Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear, application of artificial intelligence in flight control and air traffic control systems, the use of voice recognition in the cockpit, the effects of control saturation on closed-loop stability and response of open-loop unstable aircraft, and computer aided control system design are among the topics briefly considered. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is the subject of principal concern.

  5. Comparative assessment of transport risks--how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies.

    PubMed Central

    Kjellstrom, Tord; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Bammer, Gabriele; McMichael, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy-makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as the health risks and impacts of transport policy and planning activities. As yet, however, HIA and CRA have not been applied widely to the area of transport. We draw on the limited experience of the application of these tools in the context of road transport to explore how comparative assessment of transport risks can contribute to HIA of transport policies. PMID:12894331

  6. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  7. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  8. Policy Choice for Urban Low-carbon transportation in Beijing: Scenario Analysis Based on LEAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Beijing is a fast developing megacity with serious traffic problems, such as high energy consumption, high CO2 emission and traffic congestion. The coming 13th Five-Year Plan for Beijing economic and social development will focus on the low-carbon transportation policy to achieve the urban traffic sustainable development. In order to improve the feasibility of urban low-carbon transportation policies, this paper analyzes the future trends of CO2 emissions from transportation of Beijing. Firstly, five policies scenarios are developed according to the coming Beijing 13th Five-Year Plan, including the "Business As Usual (BAU)", the "Public Transportation Priority(PTP)", the "New Energy Vehicle(NEV)", the "Active Transportation(AT)", the "Private Car Regulation(PCR)" and the "Hybrid Policy(HP)". Then the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System(LEAP model) framework is adopted to estimate CO2 emission under given policies scenarios up to year 2020 and analyze the implications. The results demonstrate that the low-carbon transportation policies can reduce CO2 emission effectively. Specifically, the "Hybrid Policy(HP)" has the best performance. In terms of single policy effect, the "Private Car Regulation(PCR)" comes first followed by the "Public Transportation Priority(PTP)".

  9. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  10. A design methodology for evolutionary air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunsuk

    The air transportation demand at large hubs in the U.S. is anticipated to double in the near future. Current runway construction plans at selected airports can relieve some capacity and delay problems, but many are doubtful that this solution is sufficient to accommodate the anticipated demand growth in the National Airspace System (NAS). With the worsening congestion problem, it is imperative to seek alternative solutions other than costly runway constructions. In this respect, many researchers and organizations have been building models and performing analyses of the NAS. However, the complexity and size of the problem results in an overwhelming task for transportation system modelers. This research seeks to compose an active design algorithm for an evolutionary airline network model so as to include network specific control properties. An airline network designer, referred to as a network architect, can use this tool to assess the possibilities of gaining more capacity by changing the network configuration. Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the airline service network has evolved into a distinct Hub-and-Spoke (H&S) network. Enplanement demand on the H&S network is the sum of Origin-Destination (O-D) demand and transfer demand. Even though the flight or enplanement demand is a function of O-D demand and passenger routings on the airline network, the distinction between enplanement and O-D demand is not often made. Instead, many demand forecast practices in current days are based on scale-ups from the enplanements, which include the demand to and from transferring network hubs. Based on this research, it was found that the current demand prediction practice can be improved by dissecting enplanements further into smaller pieces of information. As a result, enplanement demand is decomposed into intrinsic and variable parts. The proposed intrinsic demand model is based on the concept of 'true' O-D demand which includes the direction of each round trip

  11. On Regional Modeling to Support Air Quality Policies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the use of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in simulating the changes in the extreme values of air quality that are of interest to the regulatory agencies. Year-to-year changes in ozone air quality are attributable to variations in the prevailing mete...

  12. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  13. Thermal analysis of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Oneto, Robert; Levine, Howard; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed a crash-resistant container, the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP), capable of surviving a worst-case plane crash, including both impact and subsequent fire, for the air transport of plutonium. This report presents thermal analyses of the full-scale PMATP in its undamaged (pre-test) condition and in bounding post-accident states. The goal of these thermal simulations was to evaluate the performance of the package in a worst-case post-crash fire. The full-scale package is approximately 1.6 m long by 0.8 m diameter. The thermal analyses were performed with the FLEX finite element code. This analysis clearly predicts that the PMATP provides acceptable thermal response characteristics, both for the post-accident fire of a one-hour duration and the after-fire heat-soak condition. All predicted temperatures for the primary containment vessel are well within design limits for safety.

  14. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  15. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  16. 75 FR 12328 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority AGENCY... it should not issue an order finding Charter Air Transport, Inc., fit, willing, and able,...

  17. Smoke-free air policies: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Andrew; Barnoya, Joaquin; Corral, Juan E

    2012-03-01

    Smoke-free policies have been an important tobacco control intervention. As recently as 20 years ago, few communities required workplaces and hospitality venues to be smoke-free, but today approximately 11% of the world's population live in countries with laws that require these places to be smoke-free. This paper briefly summarises important milestones in the history of indoor smoke-free policies, the role of scientific research in facilitating their adoption, a framework for smoke-free policy evaluation and industry efforts to undermine regulations. At present, smoke-free policies centre on workplaces, restaurants and pubs. In addition, many jurisdictions are now beginning to implement policies in outdoor areas and in shared multiunit housing settings. The future of smoke-free policy development depends on credible scientific data that documents the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure. Over the next 20 years smoke-free policies will very likely extend to outdoor and private areas, and changes in the types of tobacco products that are consumed may also have implications for the nature and scope of the smoke-free policies of the future.

  18. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or =10 microm) and SO2 have been reduced due to various measures taken to reduce or control sources of emissions, whereas NO2 is stable or slightly increased. However, air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  19. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  20. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-12-22

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  1. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David; Mason, Kylie; Borman, Barry

    2015-01-01

    An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (in)activity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality): 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt) accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt) are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development. PMID:26703699

  2. Air Force Officers: Personnel Policy Development, 1944-1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Postwar Officer Corps, 1944-1945 ....... 7 General Arnold Confronts the Problem ....................... 9 Planning Fails to Keep Pace...Contents Photographs General of the Army Henry H. Arnold ............................ 8 General of the Army George C. Marshall...7 Air Force Officers General of the Army Henry H. Arnold , Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, 1942-1946. The problem was rooted in the prewar

  3. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  4. Review of Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s Dekitting Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-A157 110 REVIEW OF OKLAHOMA CITY RIR LOGISTICS CENTER’S i/i DEKITTING POLICY(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC NATIONAL SECURITY AND...REKIRT BY THE U. S. General Accounting Office ( AD-A157 110 Review Of Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s Dekitting Policy The Oklahoma City Air...Glenn United States Senate Dear Senator Glenn: This letter is in response to your request that we review the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center’s

  5. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  6. Hybrid Power: Mobility Air Forces and Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    divisive term, ―smart power.‖ In order to capitalize on the potential that hybrid power has in influencing foreign policy, the entire paradigm of smart...current impact the military has in the formulation and execution of foreign policy. In order to capitalize on the potential that the military has in...military actions. The Wilsonian school, on the other hand, holds that the United States is morally obligated to spread its form of democracy and social

  7. Understanding municipal officials’ involvement in transportation policies supportive of walking and bicycling

    PubMed Central

    Zwald, Marissa L.; Eyler, Amy A.; Goins, Karin Valentine; Brownson, Ross C.; Schmid, Thomas L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Local transportation policies can impact the built environment and physical activity. Municipal officials play a critical role in transportation policy and planning decisions, yet little is known about what influences their involvement. Objective To describe municipal officials’ involvement in transportation policies that were supportive of walking and bicycling and to examine individual- and job-related predictors of involvement in transportation policies among municipal officials. Design A cross-sectional survey was administered online from June-July 2012 to municipal officials in 83 urban areas with a population of 50,000 or more residents across 8 states. Participants A total of 461 municipal officials from public health, planning, transportation, public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, city management, and municipal legislatures responded to the survey. Main Outcome Measure Participation in the development, adoption, or implementation of a municipal transportation policy supportive of walking or bicycling. Results Multivariate logistic regression analyses, conducted in September 2013, revealed that perceived importance of economic development and traffic congestion were positively associated with involvement in a municipal transportation policy (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.02–1.70; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.26–2.01, respectively). Higher perceived resident support of local government to address economic development was associated with an increased likelihood of participation in a transportation policy (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.24–2.32). Respondents who perceived lack of collaboration as a barrier were less likely to be involved in a transportation policy (OR=.78, 95% CI=.63–.97). Municipal officials that lived in the city or town in which they worked were significantly more likely to be involved in a transportation policy (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.05–3.17). Conclusions Involvement in a local transportation policy by a municipal official was

  8. Simplified curve fits for the transport properties of equilibrium air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Tannehill, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    New, improved curve fits for the transport properties of equilibruim air have been developed. The curve fits are for viscosity and Prandtl number as functions of temperature and density, and viscosity and thermal conductivity as functions of internal energy and density. The curve fits were constructed using grabau-type transition functions to model the tranport properties of Peng and Pindroh. The resulting curve fits are sufficiently accurate and self-contained so that they can be readily incorporated into new or existing computational fluid dynamics codes. The range of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 15,000 K densities from 10 to the -5 to 10 amagats (rho/rho sub o).

  9. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  10. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  11. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  12. A methodology for long-range prediction of air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; English, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A framework and methodology for long term projection of demand for aviation fuels is presented. The approach taken includes two basic components. The first was a new technique for establishing the socio-economic environment within which the future aviation industry is embedded. The concept utilized was a definition of an overall societal objective for the very long run future. Within a framework so defined, a set of scenarios by which the future will unfold are then written. These scenarios provide the determinants of the air transport industry operations and accordingly provide an assessment of future fuel requirements. The second part was the modeling of the industry in terms of an abstracted set of variables to represent the overall industry performance on a macro scale. The model was validated by testing the desired output variables from the model with historical data over the past decades.

  13. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  14. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  15. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  16. Proceedings of the Monterey Conference on Planning for Rotorcraft and Commuter Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Planning and technological issues involved in rotorcraft and commuter fixed-wing air transportation are discussed. Subject areas include the future community environment, aircraft technology, community transportation planning, and regulatory perspectives.

  17. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  18. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  19. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  20. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  1. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... transportation of hazardous materials by highway, rail, vessel, and air. The scope of the HMR includes hazardous.... Congress expressly authorized DOT to issue variances in the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1975... include: The safety record for hazardous materials transported; transportation operations......

  2. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  3. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research and Co-benefit to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.

    2007-05-01

    In recent decades air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities and large urban centers. Photochemical smog induced from motorization, industrial activities, power generation, and solvents, has now become the main source of concern for air quality. Air pollution has serious impacts on public health and ecosystems, causes urban and regional haze, and has the potential to contribute significantly to climate change. While an integrated approach is required to address air pollution problems to achieve and sustain improvements, policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air quality. This talk will address the air pollution problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and other large urban centers in Mexico, and the strategies undertaken by the Mexican authorities to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  5. Overview of mitigation policies and measures in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, J.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the author looks at the general question of what can be done in the transportation sector to address the problem of greenhouse gas emissions. Obviously, fewer vehicles is less emission. But on a global scale he reviews the population growth in major cities, the type of transport employed, the correlation of vehicle ownership and gross national product, as well as the costs, direct and indirect of letting more personal wealth drive one to personal vehicles as a way to transport oneself to work. The increased speed comes with many costs for the individual and for society. The development of mass transportation systems provides a number of benefits, in the form of urban development, less reliance on imported fuels, transport system health, general health and productivity of work force, and reduced costs to government to support transportation systems.

  6. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  7. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air... Department is publishing the following notice on the enforcement of its rules relating to disclosure of code... Transportation, Office of the Secretary, Washington, DC Guidance on Disclosure of Code-Share Service Under...

  8. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Guide for Accommodating Utilities Within Highway Right-of-Way” and “Roadside Design Guide” to assist in... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  9. Scale Issues in Air Quality Modeling Policy Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines the issues relating to the use of regional photochemical air quality models for evaluating their performance in reproducing the spatio-temporal features embedded in the observations and for designing emission control strategies needed to achieve compliance wit...

  10. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  13. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  14. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  15. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  16. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  17. A Review of the Thermodynamic, Transport, and Chemical Reaction Rate Properties of High-temperature Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C Frederick; Heims, Steve P

    1958-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of high temperature air, and the reaction rates for the important chemical processes which occur in air, are reviewed. Semiempirical, analytic expressions are presented for thermodynamic and transport properties of air. Examples are given illustrating the use of these properties to evaluate (1) equilibrium conditions following shock waves, (2) stagnation region heat flux to a blunt high-speed body, and (3) some chemical relaxation lengths in stagnation region flow.

  18. Air transport of the IABP patient. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump.

    PubMed

    Hatlestad, Daniel C; Van Horn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has evolved into an easily transported, computer-driven device for invasively assisting circulation. This article reviews the use of the IABP during interfacility patient transport by air. Air transport of the IABP-dependent patient creates unique clinical, logistical, and technical challenges. We review the function and clinical application of IABP in various air transport conditions. We also identify the complications of intra-aortic balloon pumping, such as hemorrhage, loss of trigger signals, cardiac arrest, and atmospheric pressure changes, and offer solutions. The effective clinical use of IABP in the air transport environment involves more than familiarity with the device and implications for its use; rapid identification of problems and implementation of solutions are required for successful transport and patient outcomes.

  19. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  20. Identification of terms to define unconstrained air transportation demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhilhau, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The factors involved in the evaluation of unconstrained air transportation systems were carefully analyzed. By definition an unconstrained system is taken to be one in which the design can employ innovative and advanced concepts no longer limited by present environmental, social, political or regulatory settings. Four principal evaluation criteria are involved: (1) service utilization, based on the operating performance characteristics as viewed by potential patrons; (2) community impacts, reflecting decisions based on the perceived impacts of the system; (3) technological feasibility, estimating what is required to reduce the system to practice; and (4) financial feasibility, predicting the ability of the concepts to attract financial support. For each of these criteria, a set of terms or descriptors was identified, which should be used in the evaluation to render it complete. It is also demonstrated that these descriptors have the following properties: (a) their interpretation may be made by different groups of evaluators; (b) their interpretations and the way they are used may depend on the stage of development of the system in which they are used; (c) in formulating the problem, all descriptors should be addressed independent of the evaluation technique selected.

  1. The Impact of Transportation Policies on the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowser, Leroy

    1976-01-01

    "The crises of suburban development, inner-city industrial movement, shopping centers, suburban executive offices, decline of mass transit, New Towns and 'no growth' policy all received a good deal of their impetus from the interstate highway system. The decline of the urban school system can be dated to the start of the interstate highway…

  2. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  3. Some considerations for air transportation analysis to non-urban areas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems associated with air transportation to and from nonurban areas. While a significant proportion of public transportation needs of nonurban areas are met by aircraft, there are indications that improvement in air transportation service are called for and would be rewarded by increased patronage. However, subsidized local service carriers are attracted by large aircraft operation, and there is a tendency to discontinue service to low density areas. Prospects and potential means for reversing this trend are discussed.

  4. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PMx, NO2 and C6H6. Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation.

  5. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ``Transportation Conformity.'' This approval will meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act (Act) and EPA's Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: This direct final rule will be effective October 18, 2010,...

  6. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  7. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Pinder, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that reduces 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using NASA GISS ModelE2, we look at the impacts in year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions and the rest of the world emissions are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in the future but result in positive radiative forcing. Surface PM2.5 is reduced by ~ 2 μg m-3 on average over the US, and surface ozone by ~ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the US, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (~ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduces the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) by both aerosols direct and indirect forcing: total RF is ~ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe; ~ 0.8 W m-2 over the US. Under the hypothetical climate policy, future US energy relies less on coal and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it leads to climate dis-benefits over the US. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing, while the global mean total RF is -0.06 W m-2 due to the dominant negative CO2 RF (instantaneous RF). To achieve a regional-scale climate benefit via a climate policy, it is critical (1) to have multi-national efforts to reduce GHGs emissions and (2) to target emission reduction of light-absorbing species (e.g., BC and O3) on top of long-lived species. The latter is very desirable as the

  8. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  9. Science and policy in regulatory decision making: getting the facts right about hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K

    1995-01-01

    Hazardous air pollutants are regulated under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The Amendments replace the risk-based approach mandated in the 1977 Amendments with a prescriptive, technology-based approach requiring that maximum achievable control technology (MACT) be applied to all major industrial sources of 189 hazardous air pollutants. The change reflects political, rather than scientific consensus that the public health benefits justify the costs. The choice is put into perspective by looking at the interface between science and policy that occurs as part of regular decisionmaking. Particular emphasis is given to examining the interrelationships among facts (science), judgments (science policy), and policy (values) in the context of the risk assessment paradigm. Science and policy are discussed in relation to Title III, contrasting the political consensus for action with the scientific uncertainty about risks and benefits. It is argued that a balanced research program is needed to get the facts right about hazardous air pollutants, including research to meet statutory requirements, to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment, and to address strategic issues. PMID:8549476

  10. Policies related to active transport to and from school: a multisite case study.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Doescher, Mark P; Evenson, Kelly R; Fesperman, Carrie E; Litt, Jill S; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E; Terpstra, Jennifer L; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that influence ATS initiatives. Nine elementary schools in seven states participated in this case study. Sixty-nine stakeholders were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed using a master thematic codebook. This study identified two distinct aspects of policies: 'influential factors' which are factors that might impact policies related to ATS and 'policy actions' which are policies reported by people involved in ATS initiatives that directly affected their success. Influential factors included sidewalks, crosswalks/crossing guards, funding, personal safety concerns, advocacy group involvement and others. Policy actions included policies on school speed zone, drop-off, no-transport zones, school siting, school start/dismissal time and school choice. Despite the diversity of the schools studied, similarities included influence of built environment, safety concerns, funding and transdisciplinary collaboration. Stakeholders need to work together to stimulate action and ensure successful initiatives. Influential factors appear to be important to this process.

  11. Stop! Look! Listen!: Are Your Child Transportation Policies Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Transportation is an important issue to consider when operating a program for the young. Children must be able to get to school, gym, church, or where the care is being provided, and back home. If the parent provides the ride for their own child, everything is fine. If an organization assumes responsibility for getting children to and from a…

  12. Air quality management: evolution of policy and practice in the UK as exemplified by the experience of English local government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, C. I.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Woodfield, N. K.

    The air quality management (AQM) framework in the UK is designed to be an effects-based solution to air pollutants currently affecting human health. The AQM process has been legislated through The Environment Act 1995, which required the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published. AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished since the publication of the NAQS in March 1997. This paper outlines the policy framework within which the UK operates, both at a domestic and European level, and reviews the air quality management process relating to current UK policy and EU policy. Data from questionnaire surveys are used to indicate the involvement of various sectors of local government in the air quality management process. These data indicate an increasing use of monitoring, and use of air dispersion modelling by English local authorities. Data relating to the management of air quality, for example, the existence and work of air quality groups, dissemination of information to the public and policy measures in place on a local scale to improve air quality, have also been reported. The UK NAQS has been reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved. The AQM process, as implemented by UK local authorities, provides an effective model for other European member states with regards to the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive. The future direction of air quality policy in the UK is also discussed.

  13. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  14. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  15. Effects of the Air Traffic Control System on the Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S.; McLaughlin, Milton D.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1965-01-01

    A study of the problems anticipated with the introduction of the supersonic transport into the air traffic control system indicated that supersonic transport design allowances for time and fuel for maneuvering during climbouts may not be sufficient, that there is a greater communications-navigation work- load for the supersonic transport than for the subsonic jet transport during descent, and that use of a flight director to command pitch control guidance for the pilot would be helpful.

  16. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  17. Simulating the Dynamic Effect of Land Use and Transport Policies on the Health of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Adriazola-Steil, Claudia; Mulvihill, Christine; Fitzharris, Michael; Salmon, Paul; Bonnington, C. Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We identified the features of a land use–transportation system that optimizes the health and well-being of the population. Methods. We developed a quantitative system dynamics model to represent relationships among land use, transport, economic development, and population health. Simulation experiments were conducted over a 10-year simulation period to compare the effect of different baseline conditions and land use–transport policies on the number of motor vehicle crash deaths and disability-adjusted life years lost. Results. Optimal reduction in the public health burden attributable to land transport was demonstrated when transport safety risk reduction policies were combined with land use and transport polices that minimized reliance on individual motorized transport and maximized use of active transport modes. The model’s results were particularly sensitive to the level of development that characterized each city at the start of the simulation period. Conclusions. Local, national, and international decision-makers are encouraged to address transport, land use, and health as an integrated whole to achieve the desired societal benefits of traffic safety, population health, and social equity. PMID:25689177

  18. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  19. Increasing Anthropogenic Emissions in China Offset Air Quality Policy Efforts in Western United States: A Satellite and Modelling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, F. F.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Williams, J. E.; Neu, J. L.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important greenhouse gas and a global air pollutant originating from photo-chemical oxidation of ozone precursors in the presence of NOX. Eastern Asia has the fastest growing anthropogenic emissions in the world, possibly affecting both the pollution in the local troposphere as well as in the trans-Pacific region. Local measurements over Asia show that tropospheric ozone has increased by 1 to 3% per year since the start of the millennium. This increase is often invoked to explain positive ozone trends observed in western United States, but to date there is no unambiguous evidence showing that enhanced Asian pollution is responsible for these trends. Here we interpret satellite measurements of tropospheric ozone and its precursor nitrate dioxide from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using the TM5 global chemistry-transport model to directly show that tropospheric ozone over China has increased by ~10% from 2005-2010 in response to both a ~15% rise in Chinese emissions and an increased downward ozone transport from the stratosphere. What is more, we demonstrate that Chinese export of ozone and its precursors have offset one-third of the reduction in free tropospheric ozone over the western United States that should have occurred during 2005-2010 via emissions reductions associated with air quality policies in the United States. The issue of export and long-range transport of pollution from other countries indicates that global efforts may be required to address both the global as well as the regional air quality and climate change.

  20. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  1. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  2. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Transport properties of high-temperature air in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C.; Giordano, D.

    2011-01-15

    Transport properties of equilibrium air plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the temperature is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.

  5. Combined Heat, Air, Moisture, and Pollutants Transport in Building Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianshun Jensen S.

    Combined heat, air, moisture and pollutants transport (CHAMP) exists across multi-scales of a building environmental system (BES): around the building, through the building shell/envelope, inside a multizone building, and in the micro-environments around occupants. This paper reviews previous work and presents a system model for simulating these transport processes and their impacts on indoor environmental quality. Components of the system model include a multizone network flow model for whole building, a room model for air and pollutant movement in ventilated spaces, a coupled heat, air, moisture, and pollutant transport model for building shell, an HVAC model for describing the dynamics of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and shared databases of weather conditions, transport properties of building materials, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from building materials and furnishings. The interactions among the different components, and challenges in developing the CHAMP system model for intelligent control of BES are also discussed.

  6. Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correnti, Vincenzo; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Capri, Salvatore; Inturri, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The volume of air traffic worldwide is still in constant growth despite unfair events that sometimes occur. The demand for regional air transport is also increasing, thanks in part to the use of new vehicles purposely designed for short range flights which make this means of transport more attractive than in the past. This paper studies the possibility of using aircraft capable of vertical or short takeoff or landing (V/STOL), in particular the tiltrotor, in the regional air transport market and the impact on airport capacity that the use of this craft would have. With this in mind the advantages and disadvantages of using this vehicle are identified, as well as the changes to be made to the air transport system in order to exploit its full potential.

  7. The Importance of Moving Air-Water Interfaces for Colloid Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the vadose zone, or in unsaturated porous media in general, transport of colloids is usually less pronounced than in groundwater. An important retention mechanism for colloids in unsaturated porous media is attachment to air-water interfaces. However, air-water interfaces can also lead to colloid mobilization and enhanced transport if air-water interfaces are moving, such as during infiltration, imbibition, and drainage. Colloid attachment to air-water interfaces is caused by surface tension forces, and these forces usually exceed other interactions forces; therefore, surface tension forces play a dominant role for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media. In this presentation, experimental and theoretical evidence of surface tension forces acting on colloids will be presented, and the role of moving air-water interfaces will be discussed.

  8. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  9. Comparative analysis of air pollution emissions by electric utilities: Public policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Martin; Jaggi, Bikki

    1991-09-01

    One of the objectives of US environmental regulations was to reduce industrial air pollution emissions, especially from the electric utility industry, the major industrial air polluter. In this study, a comparative analysis of air pollution emissions from fossil-fuel-burning electric utility plants is conducted. The analysis focuses on a 12-yr period from 1975 to 1987 for three air pollutants: particulates, surfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that particulate emissions have been significantly reduced but that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are still major problems for a number of plants. Furthermore, the disparity in the performance by plants indicates that by using current technology, the industry as a whole could greatly reduce these emissions. These results have policy implication for future environmental legislation.

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  11. Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0080 TITLE: Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP trial) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...IRB approval regarding changes to the protocol language. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prehospital; Tranexamic acid 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  12. A framework for assessing the impact of land use policy on community exposure to air toxics.

    PubMed

    Willis, Melvin R; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-04-01

    Our research focuses on the linkage between land use planning policy and the spatial pattern of exposure to air toxics emissions. Our objective is to develop a modeling framework for assessment of the community health risk implications of land use policy. The modeling framework is not intended to be a regulatory tool for small-scale land use decisions, but a long-range planning tool to assess the community health risk implications of alternative land use scenarios at a regional or subregional scale. This paper describes the development and application of an air toxic source model for generating aggregate emission factors for industrial and commercial zoning districts as a function of permitted uses. To address the uncertainty of estimating air toxics emission rates for planned general land use or zoning districts, the source model uses an emissions probability mass function that weights each incremental permitted land use activity by the likelihood of occurrence. We thus reduce the uncertainty involved in planning for development with no prior knowledge of the specific industries that may locate within the land use district. These air toxics emission factors can then be used to estimate pollutant atmospheric mass flux from land use zoning districts, which can then be input to air dispersion and human health risk assessment models to simulate the spatial pattern of air toxics exposure risk. The model database was constructed using the California Air Toxics Inventory, 1997 US Economic Census, and land assessment records from several California counties. The database contains information on more than 200 air toxics at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. We present a case study to illustrate application of the model. LUAIRTOX, the interactive spreadsheet model that applies our methodology to the California data, is available at http://www2.bren.ucsb.edu/~mwillis/LUAIRTOX.htm.

  13. Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: translating research evidence for use in policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Hilary; Jepson, Ruth; Hurley, Fintan; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Transport and its links to health and health inequalities suggest that it is important to assess both the direct and unintended indirect health and related impacts of transport initiatives and policies. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a framework to assess the possible health impacts of interventions such as transport. Policymakers and practitioners need access to well conducted research syntheses if research evidence is to be used to inform these assessments. The predictive validity of HIA depends heavily on the use and careful interpretation of supporting empirical evidence. Reviewing and digesting the vast volume and diversity of evidence in a field such as transport is likely to be beyond the scope of most HIAs. Collaborations between HIA practitioners and specialist reviewers to develop syntheses of best available evidence applied specifically to HIA could promote the use of evidence in practice. Methods Best available research evidence was synthesised using the principles of systematic review. The synthesis was developed to reflect the needs of HIA practitioners and policymakers. Results Aside from injury reduction measures, there is very little empirical data on the impact of road transport interventions. The possibility of impacts on a diverse range of outcomes and differential impacts across groups, make it difficult to assess overall benefit and harm. In addition, multiple mediating factors in the pathways between transport and hypothesised health impacts further complicate prospective assessment of impacts. Informed by the synthesis, a framework of questions was developed to help HIA practitioners identify the key questions which need to be considered in transport HIA. Conclusion Principles of systematic review are valuable in producing syntheses of best available evidence for use in HIA practice. Assessment of the health impacts of transport interventions is characterised by much uncertainty, competing values, and differential or

  14. Keeping Kids Moving: How Equitable Transportation Policy Can Prevent Childhood Obesity--What It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…

  15. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... public to electronically submit aviation service-related complaints against air carriers. DATES: Comments... U.S.C., Subtitle VII, to investigate and enforce consumer protection and civil rights laws...

  16. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity elements. (a) Within each of the service classifications prescribed in section -19-4, data shall be... equipment. The number of days that aircraft owned or acquired through rental or lease (but not...

  18. Aerosol properties and radiative forcing for three air masses transported in Summer 2011 to Sopot, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozwadowska, Anna; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Makuch, P.; Markowicz, K. M.; Petelski, T.; Strzałkowska, A.; Zieliński, T.

    2013-05-01

    Properties of atmospheric aerosols and solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface were measured during Summer 2011 in Sopot, Poland. Three cloudless days, characterized by different directions of incoming air-flows, which are typical transport pathways to Sopot, were used to estimate a radiative forcing due to aerosols present in each air mass.

  19. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braspenning Radu, Olivia; van den Berg, Maarten; Klimont, Zbigniew; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Muntean, Marilena; Heyes, Chris; Dentener, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios describe emission developments in 26 world regions for the 21st century, using a matrix of climate and air pollution policies. For climate policy, the study uses a baseline resulting in forcing levels slightly above RCP6.0 and an ambitious climate policy scenario similar to RCP2.6. For air pollution, the study explores increasingly tight emission standards, ranging from no improvement, current legislation and three variants assuming further improvements. For all pollutants, the results show that more stringent control policies are needed after 2030 to prevent a rise in emissions due to increased activities and further reduce emissions. The results also show that climate mitigation policies have the highest impact on SO2 and NOX emissions, while their impact on BC and OC emissions is relatively low, determined by the overlap between greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission sources. Climate policy can have important co-benefits; a 10% decrease in global CO2 emissions by 2100 leads to a decrease of SO2 and NOX emissions by about 10% and 5%, respectively compared to 2005 levels. In most regions, low levels of air pollutant emissions can also be achieved by solely implementing stringent air pollution policies. The largest differences across the scenarios are found in Asia and other developing regions, where a combination of climate and air pollution policy is needed to bring air pollution levels below those of today.

  20. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  1. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  2. The energy dilemma and its impact on air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. R. (Editor); Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Cribbins, P. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The dimensions of the energy situation are discussed in relation to air travel. Energy conservation, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency are examined, as well as the proposal for subsonic aircraft using hydrogen fuel.

  3. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  4. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  5. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  6. 75 FR 13332 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority Correction In notice document 2010-5555 appearing on page 12328 in the issue of Monday, March 15, 2010, make...

  7. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  8. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  9. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  10. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  11. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  12. The Role of the Federal Government in the Development of the US Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reviewed are the roles of the various Federal agencies in the regulation, control, and development of the Air System, with major emphasis on the Department of Transportation (Office of the Secretary, Federal Aviation Administration, and National Transportation Safety Board) and the Civil Aeronautics Board.

  13. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  14. Association between State Assistance on the Topic of Indoor Air Quality and School District-Level Policies That Promote Indoor Air Quality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Doroski, Brenda; Glick, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not…

  15. Proceedings of the United States Air Force STINFO Officers Policy Conference - 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Noller, R . B.; and Biondi, A.M.; Guide to Creative Action; Scribners & Sons; New York, 1977 24 AFWAL-TR-82-0002 18. Parnes, S . J. and Noller, Ruth B...manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to manufacture use, or sell any patented invention...STINFO OFFICERS POLICY CONFERENCE - 1981 S . PERFORMING OG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( s ) 9. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( s ) Air Force Wright Aeronautical

  16. Improving air pollution control policy in China--A perspective based on cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinglei; Yuan, Zengwei; Liu, Xuewei; Xia, Xiaoming; Huang, Xianjin; Dong, Zhanfeng

    2016-02-01

    To mitigate serious air pollution, the State Council of China promulgated the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013. To verify the feasibility and validity of industrial energy-saving and emission-reduction policies in the action plan, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis of implementing these policies in 31 provinces for the period of 2013 to 2017. We also completed a scenario analysis in this study to assess the cost-effectiveness of different measures within the energy-saving and the emission-reduction policies individually. The data were derived from field surveys, statistical yearbooks, government documents, and published literatures. The results show that total cost and total benefit are 118.39 and 748.15 billion Yuan, respectively, and the estimated benefit-cost ratio is 6.32 in the S3 scenario. For all the scenarios, these policies are cost-effective and the eastern region has higher satisfactory values. Furthermore, the end-of-pipe scenario has greater emission reduction potential than energy-saving scenario. We also found that gross domestic product and population are significantly correlated with the benefit-cost ratio value through the regression analysis of selected possible influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that benefit-cost ratio value is more sensitive to unit emission-reduction cost, unit subsidy, growth rate of gross domestic product, and discount rate among all the parameters. Compared with other provinces, the benefit-cost ratios of Beijing and Tianjin are more sensitive to changes of unit subsidy than unit emission-reduction cost. These findings may have significant implications for improving China's air pollution prevention policy.

  17. An air-breathing ballistic space transporter for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. A.; Buehler, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    With increasing transport requirements, reusable space transporters again receive serious consideration in Europe as successors to the Ariane family. The paper deals with a hydrogen-ramjet-propelled, 1-1/2-stage reusable ballistic space transporter with vertical take-off and landing and using liquid hydrogen/oxygen rockets. This novel concept was developed in a theoretical study at the University of Stuttgart. The results are compared with recently published studies of several other European space transporter concepts. The data derived for the Istra - concept are: 15.4 Mg payload into low Earth-orbit, 155 Mg gross lift-off mass, 10% payload ratio, which represents a 57% propellant saving, and 44% reduction in dry mass (structure and engines) compared with comparable two-stage pure rocket concepts.

  18. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation.

  19. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  20. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  1. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  2. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  3. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... not operate the type of aircraft best suited or requested for the flight, but in order not to lose a... carrier to operate the flight. It has been the longstanding policy of the Department in other contexts...; however, we ask for comment on whether we should require such confirmation and, if so, what type...

  4. Minimizing Air Pollution Exposure: A Practical Policy to Protect Vulnerable Older Adults from Death and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Nick; Levine, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes an estimated 200,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Older adults are at greater risk of mortality caused by air pollution. Here we quantify the number of older adult facilities in Los Angeles County that are exposed to high levels of traffic derived air pollution, and propose policy solutions to reduce pollution exposure to this vulnerable subgroup. Distances between 20,362 intersections and 858 elder care facilities were estimated, and roads or highways within 500 of facilities were used to estimate traffic volume exposure. Of the 858 facilities, 54 were located near at least one major roadway, defined as a traffic volume over 100,000 cars/day. These 54 facilities house approximately 6,000 older adults. Following standards established for schools, we recommend legislation mandating the placement of new elder care facilities a minimum of 500 feet from major roadways in order to reduce unnecessary mortality risk from pollution exposure. PMID:26640413

  5. Transporting Students into Thin Air: Using Science to Enhance Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Patricia; Rogowski, Nick; Hedt, Melissa; Rolfe, Nadeen

    2010-01-01

    The "Into Thin Air" unit, based on the book by Jon Krakauer, was designed as an interdisciplinary unit for a small group of academically gifted sixth-grade students. It included hands-on, minds-on activities that would immerse students in the scientific, social, and personal struggles people face while attempting to climb the world's tallest…

  6. Investigation of air transportation technology at Ohio University, 1981. [loran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The increased availability of Loran signals in the United States encouraged consideration of Loran for airborne applications. High quality signal processing to obtain effective signal-to-noise ratios which permit good reliability in position determination consistent with airborne applications is considered. Techniques for deriving air navigation quality information from Loran-C were investigated.

  7. Notification: Preliminary Research on the Office of Air and Radiation’s Timekeeping Practices and Compliance With Regulations and Policies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY17-0090, December 29, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the Office of Air and Radiation’s timekeeping practices and compliance with federal regulations and related EPA policies and procedures.

  8. Decision Support Model to Select the Optimal Municipal Solid Waste Management Policy at United States Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-03

    The United States Air Force has recently defined three objectives in developing strategies regarding the management of municipal solid waste at the...insight concerning the selection and implementation of a municipal solid waste management policy.

  9. Peroxy radicals and ozone photochemistry in air masses undergoing long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. E.; Monks, P. S.; Jacob, M. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Lewis, A. C.; Stewart, D. J.; Whalley, L. K.; Methven, J.; Stohl, A.

    2009-09-01

    Concentrations of peroxy radicals (HO2+ΣiRiO2) in addition to other trace gases were measured onboard the UK Meteorological Office/Natural Environment Research Council British Aerospace 146-300 atmospheric research aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors (ITOP) campaign based at Horta Airport, Faial, Azores (38.58° N, 28.72° W) in July/August 2004. The overall peroxy radical altitude profile displays an increase with altitude that is likely to have been impacted by the effects of long-range transport. The peroxy radical altitude profile for air classified as of marine origin shows no discernable altitude profile. A range of air-masses were intercepted with varying source signatures, including those with aged American and Asian signatures, air-masses of biomass burning origin, and those that originated from the east coast of the United States. Enhanced peroxy radical concentrations have been observed within this range of air-masses indicating that long-range transported air-masses traversing the Atlantic show significant photochemical activity. The net ozone production at clear sky limit is in general negative, and as such the summer mid-Atlantic troposphere is at limit net ozone destructive. However, there is clear evidence of positive ozone production even at clear sky limit within air masses undergoing long-range transport, and during ITOP especially between 5 and 5.5 km, which in the main corresponds to a flight that extensively sampled air with a biomass burning signature. Ozone production was NOx limited throughout ITOP, as evidenced by a good correlation (r2=0.72) between P(O3) and NO. Strong positive net ozone production has also been seen in varying source signature air-masses undergoing long-range transport, including but not limited to low-level export events, and export from the east coast of the United States.

  10. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration to ensure mutual understanding of long-term needs for the national air transportation system and... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses...

  11. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration to ensure mutual understanding of long-term needs for the national air transportation system and... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses...

  12. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administration to ensure mutual understanding of long-term needs for the national air transportation system and... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses...

  13. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration to ensure mutual understanding of long-term needs for the national air transportation system and... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses...

  14. 32 CFR 855.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration to ensure mutual understanding of long-term needs for the national air transportation system and... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS General Provisions § 855.1 Policy. The Air Force establishes and uses...

  15. 41 CFR 302-10.400 - What policies must we establish for authorizing transportation of a mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establish for authorizing transportation of a mobile home? 302-10.400 Section 302-10.400 Public Contracts... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE... mobile home? You must establish policies for authorizing transportation of a mobile home that...

  16. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  17. Chemical Transport and Reduced-Form Models for Assessing Air Quality Impacts of Current and Future Energy Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Though essential for informed decision-making, it is challenging to estimate the air quality and public health impacts associated with current and future energy generation scenarios because the analysis must address the complicated atmospheric processes that air pollutants undergo: emissions, dispersion, chemistry, and removal. Employing a chemical transport model (CTM) is the most rigorous way to address these atmospheric processes. However, CTMs are expensive from a computational standpoint and, therefore, beyond the reach of policy analysis for many types of problems. On the other hand, previously available reduced-form models used for policy analysis fall short of the rigor of CTMs and may lead to biased results. To address this gap, we developed the Estimating Air pollution Social Impacts Using Regression (EASIUR) method, which builds parameterizations that predict per-tonne social costs and intake fractions for pollutants emitted from any location in the United States. Derived from a large database of tagged CTM simulations, the EASIUR method predicts social costs almost indistinguishable from a full CTM but with negligible computational requirements. We found that the average mortality-related social costs from inorganic PM2.5 and its precursors in the United States are 150,000-180,000/t EC, 21,000-34,000/t SO2, 4,200-15,000/t NOx, and 29,000-85,000/t NH3. This talk will demonstrate examples of using both CTMs and reduced-form models for assessing air quality impacts associated with current energy production activities as well as a future deployment of carbon capture and sequestration.

  18. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  19. Improving microbial air quality in air-conditioned mass transport buses by opening the bus exhaust ventilation fans.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Arunchai, Nongphon; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2005-07-01

    The air quality in air-conditioned mass transport buses may affect bus drivers' health. In-bus air quality improvement with the voluntary participation of bus drivers by opening the exhaust ventilation fans in the bus was implemented in the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority. Four bus numbers, including bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166, were randomly selected to investigate microbial air quality and to observe the effect of opening the exhaust ventilation fans in the bus. With each bus number, 9 to 10 air-conditioned buses (total, 39 air-conditioned buses) were included. In-bus air samples were collected at 5 points in each studied bus using the Millipore Air Tester. A total of 195 air samples were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The results reveal that the exhaust ventilation fans of 17 air-conditioned buses (43.6%) were opened to ventilate in-bus air during the cycle of the bus route. The means +/- SD of bacterial counts and fungal counts in the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans (83.8 +/- 70.7 and 38.0 +/- 42.8 cfu/m3) were significantly lower than those in the studied buses without opened exhaust ventilation fans (199.6 +/- 138.8 and 294.1 +/- 178.7 cfu/m3), p < 0.0005. All the air samples collected from the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans were at acceptable levels (< 500 cfu/m3) compared with 4.6% of the air samples collected from the studied buses without opened exhaust ventilation fans, which had high levels (> 500 cfu/m3). Of the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans (17 buses), the bacterial and fungal counts after opening the exhaust ventilation fans (68.3 +/- 33.8 and 28.3 +/- 19.3 cfu/m3) were significantly lower than those before opening the exhaust ventilation fans (158.3 +/- 116.9 and 85.3 +/- 71.2 cfu/m3), p < 0.005.

  20. Safety policy and requirements for payloads using the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The safety policy and requirements are established applicable to the Space Transportation System (STS) payloads and their ground support equipment (GSE). The requirements are intended to protect flight and ground personnel, the STS, other payloads, GSE, the general public, public-private property, and the environment from payload-related hazards. The technical and system safety requirements applicable to STS payloads (including payload-provided ground and flight supports systems) during ground and flight operations are contained.

  1. Potential of hydrogen fuel for future air transportation systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, W. J.; Fetterman, D. E.; Bonner, T. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydrogen fuel can yield spectacular improvements in aircraft performance in addition to its more widely discussed environmental advantages. The characteristics of subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic transport aircraft using hydrogen fuel are discussed, and their performance and environmental impact are compared to that of similar aircraft using conventional fuel. The possibilities of developing hydrogen-fueled supersonic and hypersonic vehicles with sonic boom levels acceptable for overland flight are also explored.

  2. Fetal evaluation for transport by ultrasound performed by air medical teams: A case series.

    PubMed

    Polk, James D; Merlino, James I; Kovach, Betty L; Mancuso, Charlene; Fallon, William F

    2004-01-01

    The air medical team has limited options when evaluating the obstetrical patient and assessing fetal health during air transport to a high-risk obstetrical unit. Traditionally, physical examination and a Doppler stethoscope have been used to determine fetal heart rates and movement. However, with the advent of portable ultrasound technology, new information about the mother and child are available to the air medical crew. The Fetal Evaluation for Transport with Ultrasound (FETUS) is a screening examination that consists of an evaluation of the fetal heart rate, position, and movement and general condition of the placenta. The examination can be repeated in flight with no acoustic distortion from rotor noise. The additional information can be advantageous when transport decisions need to be made or when conditions do not allow Doppler stethoscope use.

  3. Particulate air pollution in transport micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian

    2009-06-01

    To understand the dynamics of particulate matter inside train coaches and public cars, an investigation was carried out during 2004-2006. For air-conditioned rail coaches, during peak journey times, the mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were 44 microg m(-3), 14 microg m(-3) and 12 microg m(-3), respectively. The levels fell by more than half (21 microg m(-3), 6 microg m(-3), and 4 microg m(-3)) for the same size fractions, on the same route, during the off-peak journeys. On the other hand, in non-air-conditioned coaches, the PM10 concentrations of up to 95 microg m(-3) were observed during both peak and off-peak journeys. However the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1 were 30 microg m(-3) and 12 microg m(-3) in peak journeys in comparison to 14 microg m(-3) and 6 microg m(-3) during off-peak journeys. Over a period of four months the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in car journeys were generally similar during both morning and evening journeys with average values of 21 microg m(-3) for PM10, 9 microg m(-3) for PM2.5 and 6 microg m(-3) for PM1. However during October the average concentration of PM10 was 31 microg m(-3). An analysis of nearby fixed monitoring sites for both PM10 and PM2.5 revealed an episode of high particulate pollution over southern England during one week of October. There was no statistically significant difference between particulate matter levels for morning and evening car journeys. A statistically significant correlation was found between morning and evening PM10 (0.45), PM2.5 (0.39) and PM1 (0.46). In train journeys, a statistically significant difference was observed for peak and off-peak levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in air-conditioned coaches. On the other hand, in non air-conditioned coaches a significant difference was documented only for PM2.5 and PM1.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  5. Atmospheric transport and deposition of acidic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Although general principles which govern atmospheric chemistry of sulfur are understood, a purely theoretical estimation of the magnitude of the processes is not likely to be useful. Furthermore, the data base necessary to make empirical estimates does not yet exist. The sulfur budget of the atmosphere appears to be dominated by man-associated sulfur. The important processes in deposition of man-associated sulfur are wet deposition of sulfate and dry deposition of SO/sub 2/. The relative importance of sulfate and SO/sub 2/ to sulfur deposition (input to watersheds) depends on the air concentrations, and either compound may be the greater contributor depending on conditions. (PSB)

  6. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... all cats and dogs transported by the carrier, regardless of whether the cat or dog is transported as a... required to report all incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of cats and dogs that occur while they are traveling in an airline's care, custody, or control, regardless of whether the cat or dog...

  7. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  8. Adjoint transport calculations for sensitivity analysis of the Hiroshima air-over-ground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Cacuci, D.G.; Pace, J.V. III

    1984-01-01

    A major effort within the US Dose Reassessment Program is aimed at recalculating the transport of initial nuclear radiation in an air-over-ground environment. This paper is the first report of results from adjoint calculations in the Hiroshima air-over-ground environment. The calculations use a Hiroshima/Nagasaki multi-element ground, ENDF/B-V nuclear data, one-dimensional ANISN flux weighting for neutron and gamma cross sections, a source obtained by two-dimensional hydrodynamic and three-dimensional transport calculations, and best-estimate atmospheric conditions from Japanese sources. 7 references, 2 figures.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model with which allows us to measure not only the changes in equilibrium outcomes and welfare consequences of liberalizing a bilateral air transport agreement, but also the distribution of the gains and losses to carriers and consumers of each bilateral country and those of the third foreign countries. Our model also allows to measure the effects of changes in a bilateral agreement on the amount of traffic diversion between the direct bilateral routes and the indirect routes via a third country. We also provide an extension of our model to a case of oligopoly market outcome (Coumot Nash equilibrium). In our model, quality aspects are treated in the framework of hedonic price theory by specifying the quality-adjusted price (quantity) as a multiplication of the observed price (quantity) by the reciprocal quality index function (the quality index function). Numerical simulations were conducted to measure the effects of changing the following major policy levers in a bilateral air transport agreement: 1) Removing price regulation while retaining frequency and entry restrictions; 2) Removing price and entry regulation while retaining frequency restrictions; 3) Removing frequency regulations while retaining price and entry regulations; 4) Removing frequency and entry regulations while retaining price regulation; 5) Removing price and frequency regulations while retaining entry restriction; and 6) Removing all price, frequency and entry regulations (de facto, open skies).

  11. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    PubMed

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-02-22

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modelling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer-lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterisations of photochemical ozone production from VOC oxidation in the presence of NOx. Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NOx and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NOx and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NOx and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Whereas 30% NOx reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NOx and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behaviour of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policy-makers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NOx and VOC reductions under consideration. IMPLICATIONS The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NOx and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their application in the air

  12. Assessing Impact of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport on Regional Air Quality and Climate: What Satellites Can Help

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence for intercontinental transport of aerosols suggests that aerosols from a region could significantly affect climate and air quality in downwind regions and continents. Current assessment of these impacts for the most part has been based on global model simulations that show large variability. The aerosol intercontinental transport and its influence on air quality and climate involve many processes at local, regional, and intercontinental scales. There is a pressing need to establish modeling systems that bridge the wide range of scales. The modeling systems need to be evaluated and constrained by observations, including satellite measurements. Columnar loadings of dust and combustion aerosols can be derived from the MODIS and MISR measurements of total aerosol optical depth and particle size and shape information. Characteristic transport heights of dust and combustion aerosols can be determined from the CALIPSO lidar and AIRS measurements. CALIPSO liar and OMI UV technique also have a unique capability of detecting aerosols above clouds, which could offer some insights into aerosol lofting processes and the importance of above-cloud transport pathway. In this presentation, I will discuss our efforts of integrating these satellite measurements and models to assess the significance of intercontinental transport of dust and combustion aerosols on regional air quality and climate.

  13. Assessment of air quality in a commercial cattle transport vehicle in Swedish summer and winter conditions.

    PubMed

    Wikner, I; Gebresenbet, G; Nilsson, C

    2003-03-01

    Transport by road can induce significant stress in cattle. Thermal stress is among the main stress producing factors during transport. The provision of ventilation in livestock transport vehicles is usually through openings along the sides of the vehicle. The incoming air will affect air quality inside by regulating temperature, relative humidity, gas levels and levels of other contaminants. The aim of the present investigation was to map out the air quality in a commercial cattle transport vehicle under various climatic conditions and with varying stocking densities and transport times. Distributions of air temperature, relative humidity and concentrations of ammonia, carbon dioxide, oxygen and methane have been determined during 35 experimental journeys. In average the mean temperature inside the compartment was about 3 degrees C and 6 degrees C higher than outside temperature in summer (+7.8(-)+24.0 degrees C) and winter (-24.3(-)+12.7 degrees C) conditions respectively. The temperature increment inside, as could be expected from theory, increased with reduced ventilation and increased animal density. Many stops to load new animals lowered the temperature increment and relative humidity in winter time. In summer more stops made the compartment temperature and relative humidity increase. The inside temperature distribution was less than about 3 degrees C during both summer and winter season. Average ammonia level varied between 3 and 6 ppm depending on stocking density and number of stops with a maximum value of 18 ppm. No detectable methane levels could be found inside the compartment at any time.

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  16. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  17. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  18. Houston’s Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating “air toxics” in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city’s attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact. PMID:25698880

  19. The Bunny: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, David; Gallagher, Patrick; Grannan, William; Martin, Jennifer; Mastej, Nicole; Wujek, Brett

    1993-01-01

    The Bunny is a single-engine, 100 passenger commercial transport designed to serve the high density short-to-medium range markets in AEROWORLD. The aircraft's design range is 10,000 feet at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. The aircraft features a low wing which incorporates polyhedral for roll control. Yaw and pitch control are accomplished by a rudder and elevator, respectively. Propulsion is provided by a nose-mounted Astro 15 electric motor powered by thirteen 1.2 V, 1000 mah batteries with a Zinger 12-6 propeller. The aircraft is structurally designed with a safety factor of 1.5 and is constructed primarily of balsa, bass, and birch wood. Passenger seating is arranged on two levels, with three-abreast on the lower level and two-abreast on the upper level. The factors which had the most significant influence on the final design were the direct operating cost and the take-off distance. The primary strength of The Bunny is its ability to compete economically with the HB-40. At full capacity and mid-range fuel costs, the cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSK) of this aircraft is 25% less than the HB-40. Another principal strength is its ability to operate in all airports in AEROWORLD. Also, The Bunny's two-piece removable wing is an advantage from a transportability standpoint.

  20. An air quality management system as a tool for establishing a SO 2- and NOx-policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenkerk, M.; Builtjes, P. J. H.; Zwerver, S.

    A description is given of the development and use of an Air Quality Management System (AQMS) directed to the support of policy decisions made with respect to the conservation and improvement of clean air in the Netherlands. The AQMS consists of three separate modules oriented to economy, transmission and impact assessment. Application of the AQMS to SO 2 has led to the construction of an environmental decision scheme, in which maximum acceptable emission levels are given as a function of the primary and secondary SO 2-air quality standard, the S import-export balance and acidification. Together with information on the socio-economic impacts and the energy options this formed the basis for the political decision to limit future SO 2-emissions in the Netherlands to a value not higher than 500 × 10 6 kg y -1, in fact to establish a ceiling value for the emissions of SO 2. For NOx the AQMS is still under development, so at the moment it is not possible to formulate a complete NOx-environmental decision scheme. Up till now the emphasis has been on the development of the transmission module of the AQMS for NOx, i.e. the impact of domestic and foreign emissions. The results of this module are presented in the paper. The (partly preliminary) results of the AQMS-calculations point out the importance of long-range transport of NOx and photochemical precursors and products for the countrywide NO 2-pattern. The results emphasize the need for the abatement of NOx [and especially hydrocarbons (HC)] on a European scale. Also abatement of automobile exhaust is needed in order to prevent violation of the NO 2-standard at sites with high circulation of traffic.

  1. Driving Parameters for Distributed and Centralized Air Transportation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feron, Eric

    2001-01-01

    This report considers the problem of intersecting aircraft flows under decentralized conflict avoidance rules. Using an Eulerian standpoint (aircraft flow through a fixed control volume), new air traffic control models and scenarios are defined that enable the study of long-term airspace stability problems. Considering a class of two intersecting aircraft flows, it is shown that airspace stability, defined both in terms of safety and performance, is preserved under decentralized conflict resolution algorithms. Performance bounds are derived for the aircraft flow problem under different maneuver models. Besides analytical approaches, numerical examples are presented to test the theoretical results, as well as to generate some insight about the structure of the traffic flow after resolution. Considering more than two intersecting aircraft flows, simulations indicate that flow stability may not be guaranteed under simple conflict avoidance rules. Finally, a comparison is made with centralized strategies to conflict resolution.

  2. The RTL-46: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Christian; Prette, John; Andersen, Gerald; Sprunck, Martin; Vogel, Christine; Rivera, Francisco

    1993-01-01

    The RTL-46 provides an aircraft which utilizes advanced technology within the fictional Aeroworld market to better service the air travel customers and airlines of Aeroworld. The RTL-46 is designed to serve the portion of the travel market which flies less than 10,000 feet per flight. The design cruise velocity for the aircraft is 35 ft/sec, which rapidly expedites travel through Aeroworld. The major focus of the endeavor was to design an aircraft which would serve the Aeroworld market better than the existing aircraft, the HB-40. This could have been done through targeting another portion of the Aeroworld market or through serving the current HB-40 market more effectively. Due to the fact that approximately 70 percent of the potential Aeroworld passengers desired flights of 10,000 ft or less, this range became the target market for the RTL-46.

  3. [Positive syphilis serodiagnositic tests in air transport workers].

    PubMed

    Castoro, G

    1980-07-14

    The present study was carried out by the Aeronautic Medicine Section of Alitalia at Fiumicino, where in the years 1976-1977 and in the first four months of 1978, 6700 samples of serum from ground and air personnel were analysed as part of a preventive medicine check-up. A high percentage of positivity (9 per thousand in 1976, 12 per thousand in 1977 and 11 per thousand in the first four months of 1978) was observed. The problems of continual travelling and staying in countries were syphilis presents a very high morbility rate are the reasons for the infection. Social, sanitary, deontological and human problems of department physicians delegated to treat the disease are discussed.

  4. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  5. An investigation of short haul air transportation in the southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Yuan, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    The specific objectives of this stage of the study are numerous. First, an attempt is made to characterize the travel patterns in the study region, both in terms of origin destination patterns, and connecting and through trip patterns. Second, the structure of the air service in the region is characterized in an attempt to develop an understanding of the evolution of the short haul air transportation network. Finally, a look is taken at the socioeconomic environment of Atlanta and the region in order to seek an explanation for the historic evolution of short haul air travel activities and the rather high growth rates experienced in recent years.

  6. But will I be re-elected? What happens to local level policy makers who support clean indoor air laws?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Merrill; McCotter, Orion; Sciacca, John

    2010-11-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of voting for clean indoor air ordinance on a local-level policy maker's re-election status. Secondary data were used to identify local tobacco ordinances in Arizona proposed between 2001 and 2005, score ordinance content for comprehensiveness, identify policy makers who voted and how they voted, and determine if the measure passed or failed. Participation in and outcomes of subsequent elections were documented from public records. Ninety-two local-level policy makers in 15 local jurisdictions considered clean indoor air laws between 2001 and 2005. Policy makers who voted for these ordinances were more likely to be re-elected than those who voted against them. Structured interviews revealed that policy makers did not believe the issue had an impact on re-election results and believed that although the issue may have been contentious, it was no longer salient in the community.

  7. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  8. A Capabilities Based Assessment of the United States Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Adrenaline Junkies  Resilience  Logistics of CCAT Equipment  Communication Flow of equipment purchasing  Communication flow between CCAT...Habitability Recommendation The USAF needs to develop equipment and policy that limit duration and impact of operating environment on personnel performance...Burnout o PTSD o Adrenaline Junkies o Resilience o Logistics of CCAT Equipment o Communication Flow of equipment purchasing o Communication

  9. The F-92 RELIANT: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The design proposal of a semester long design project by group 'F' for AE 441 is addressed. In formulating this design, the driving philosophy was not just to fulfill the mission requirements (discussed in chapter two), but to do so in a creative manner - this explains the unconventional aircraft design, named the F-92 RELIANT. Although unconventional, and perhaps more expensive to produce, the design has distinct advantages which could only be attained through such a creative design. Major components of the F-92 Reliant include: (1) unobstructed cargo bay, 1024 cu. in. capability; (2) loading ramp; (3) dual wing configuration; and (4) polyhedral wing configuration. These design components either originated or evolved to create an aircraft that would most effectively meet the goals of cargo transportation in AeroWorld at minimum cost.

  10. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  11. Clean Air Excellence Award Recipients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recipients are organized by award category within each year: Clean Air Technology, Community Action, Education/Outreach, Regulatory/Policy Innovations, Transportation Efficiency Innovations, Thomas W. Zosel individual, and Gregg Cooke Visionary Program.

  12. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  13. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias <2% and assisting in air quality policy making in near real time.

  14. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    .... DATES: Comments must be received by September 27, 2012. Comments received after this date will be... requirement for air carriers to report to the Department incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an... be received 60 days after publication of the NPRM, or by August 28, 2012. Request for Comment...

  15. 26 CFR 49.4271-1 - Tax on transportation of property by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certificated takeoff weight (as defined in section 4492(b)) of 6,000 pounds or less, unless such aircraft is... property, even though there may be stopovers in the United States (such as, for example, to consolidate... the business of transporting property by air for hire (for example, by a freight forwarder), the...

  16. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  17. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Three pairs of bollards of Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three pairs of bollards of Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site. (The third pair is visible beyond the trees). View facing south-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University is a program that emphasizes graduate and undergraduate student research. The program proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft, intelligent failure tolerant control, computer-aided heuristics for piloted flight, stochastic robustness of flight control systems, neural networks for flight control, and computer-aided control system design.

  20. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  1. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  2. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  3. The Gold Rush: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Amanda; Degiorgio, Chris; Galka, Edmund; Stumm, Albert; Valenta, Lisa; Winter, Tom

    1993-01-01

    The remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) GoldRush was designed to complete the mission of transporting passengers in AeroWorld at a lower cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSPK) than the competition, the HB-40. There were two major factors which were constant considerations in the design process. The cost of manufacturing was the most important. In light of this, the designs were kept as simple as possible while considering trade-offs in performance. For example, the wing was not tapered so that several ribs could be cut at one time. Also of major importance was the takeoff distance. In order to serve all the cities in AeroWorld it was necessary to maintain a takeoff distance requirement of 24 feet. The takeoff distance proved to be the number one force in driving the design process. The Astro 25 engine and 13 inch propellor, a large wing area, and the high lift Wortmann airfoil were all chosen in order to satisfy this objective.

  4. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Environmental and Air Quality Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Emissions and air pollution modeling, Vehicle energy and power analysis, Climate change impact studies, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  5. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  6. Removing volatile contaminants from the unsaturated zone by inducing advective air-phase transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, A.L.; Hoag, G.E.; Marley, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Organic liquids inadvertently spilled and then distributed in the unsaturated zone can pose a long-term threat to ground water. Many of these substances have significant volatility, and thereby establish a premise for contaminant removal from the unsaturated zone by inducing advective air-phase transport with wells screened in the unsaturated zone. In order to focus attention on the rates of mass transfer from liquid to vapour phases, sand columns were partially saturated with gasoline and vented under steady air-flow conditions. The ability of an equilibrium-based transport model to predict the hydrocarbon vapor flux from the columns implies an efficient rate of local phase transfer for reasonably high air-phase velocities. Thus the success of venting remediations will depend primarily on the ability to induce an air-flow field in a heterogeneous unsaturated zone that will intersect the distributed contaminant. To analyze this aspect of the technique, a mathematical model was developed to predict radially symmetric air flow induced by venting from a single well. This model allows for in-situ determinations of air-phase permeability, which is the fundamental design parameter, and for the analysis of the limitations of a single well design. A successful application of the technique at a site once contaminated by gasoline supports the optimism derived from the experimental and modeliing phases of this study, and illustrates the well construction and field methods used to document the volatile contaminant recovery. ?? 1989.

  7. COMIS -- an international multizone air-flow and contaminant transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings. A recent development in multizone air-flow modeling, the COMIS model, has a number of capabilities that go beyond previous models, much as COMIS can be used as either a stand-alone air-flow model with input and output features or as an infiltration module for thermal building simulation programs. COMIS was designed during a 12 month workshop at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in 1988-89. In 1990, the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program created a working group on multizone air-flow modeling, which continued work on COMIS. The group`s objectives were to study physical phenomena causing air flow and pollutant (e.g., moisture) transport in multizone buildings, develop numerical modules to be integrated in the previously designed multizone air flow modeling system, and evaluate the computer code. The working group supported by nine nations, officially finished in late 1997 with the release of IISiBat/COMIS 3.0, which contains the documented simulation program COMIS, the user interface IISiBat, and reports describing the evaluation exercise.

  8. Evaluating the Environmental Performance of the U.S. Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Michael; Augustine, Stephen; Ermatinger, Christopher; Difelici, John; Thompson, Terence R.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Creedon, Jeremiah F.

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impacts of several possible U.S. Next Generation Air Transportation scenarios have been quantitatively evaluated for noise, air-quality, fuel-efficiency, and CO2 impacts. Three principal findings have emerged. (1) 2025 traffic levels about 30% higher than 2006 are obtained by increasing traffic according to FAA projections while also limiting traffic at each airport using reasonable ratios of demand to capacity. NextGen operational capabilities alone enable attainment of an additional 10-15% more flights beyond that 2025 baseline level with negligible additional noise, air-quality, and fuel-efficiency impacts. (2) The addition of advanced engine and airframe technologies provides substantial additional reductions in noise and air-quality impacts, and further improves fuel efficiency. 2025 environmental goals based on projected system-wide improvement rates of about 1% per year for noise and fuel-efficiency (an air-quality goal is not yet formulated) are achieved using this new vehicle technology. (3) Overall air-transport "product", as measured by total flown distance or total payload distance, increases by about 50% relative to 2006, but total fuel consumption and CO2 production increase by only about 40% using NextGen operational capabilities. With the addition of advanced engine/airframe technologies, the increase in total fuel consumption and CO2 production can be reduced to about 30%.

  9. Safety policy and requirements for payloads using the Space Transportation System (STS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Transportation Operations (STO) safety policy is to minimize STO involvement in the payload and its GSE (ground support equipment) design process while maintaining the assurance of a safe operation. Requirements for assuring payload mission success are the responsibility of the payload organization and are beyond the scope of this document. The intent is to provide the overall safety policies and requirements while allowing for negotiation between the payload organization and the STO operator in the method of implementation of payload safety. This revision provides for a relaxation in the monitoring requirements for inhibits, allows the payload organization to pursue design options and reflects, additionally, some new requirements. As of the issue date of this NHB, payloads which have completed the formal safety assessment reviews of their preliminary design on the basis of the May 1979 issue will be reassessed for compliance with the above changes.

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  11. Influence of metallic vapours on thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe

    2016-09-01

    The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.

  12. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  13. 41 CFR 302-10.400 - What policies must we establish for authorizing transportation of a mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What policies must we establish for authorizing transportation of a mobile home? 302-10.400 Section 302-10.400 Public Contracts... responsibility for preparing and transporting an employee's mobile home; (b) To authorize an advance of funds...

  14. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  15. Sustainable development of urban transport systems and human exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Colvile, R N; Kaur, S; Britter, R; Robins, A; Bell, M C; Shallcross, D; Belcher, S E

    2004-12-01

    DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment, http://www.dapple.org.uk) is a major research project that will provide the understanding necessary to assess the sustainability of urban road transport in terms of exposure to traffic-related air pollution as an alternative to current indicators based on emissions, roadside, or far-from-road air pollution levels. The methodology is described, which combines on-street and laboratory measurement with modelling of the movement of air, vehicles, and vehicle exhaust emissions. The relationship between this kind of assessment and more realistic indicators of sustainability is discussed. The value of large-scale interdisciplinary research in this area is thus demonstrated.

  16. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  17. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come.

  18. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  19. Detecting air traffic controller interventions in recorded air transportation system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yul

    In this study, I propose a systematic method of detecting aircraft deviation due to air traffic controller (ATC) intervention. The aircraft deviations associated with ATC interventions are detected using a heuristic algorithm developed from analyzing the actual positions of an aircraft to its filed flight plan when the aircraft trajectories were identified as having an encounter in a loss-of-separation incident. An actual (closed-loop) flight trajectory of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZOB ARTCC) was collected from the FlightAware database. This was compared with the corresponding planned (open-loop) trajectory dataset generated by the Microsoft(c) Flight Simulator X (FSX). I implemented a conflict-detection algorithm in Matlab to identify open-loop flight trajectories that encounters in loss-of-separation. I analyzed the differences between the closed-loop and open-loop flight trajectories of aircrafts that were identified to have encounters in loss of separation. The analysis identified operationally significant deviations in the closed-loop trajectory data with respect to the horizontal paths of the aircrafts. I then developed and validated a heuristic algorithm, the ATC intervention detection algorithm, based on the findings from the analysis. When used with a test dataset to validate the algorithm, it achieved an 85.7% detection rate in detecting horizontal deviations made by the ATC in resolving identified conflicts, and a false-alarm rate of 68%. In addition to the ATC intervention detection algorithm, I present in this paper an analysis of deviated flight trajectories in an effort to display how the presented methodology can be utilized to provide insight into air traffic controller resolution strategies.

  20. Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. H.; Wang, C. Y.; Chen, K. S.

    Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Single- and two-phase regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by a threshold current density corresponding to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface. When the cell operates above the threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multicomponent mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone of the hydrophilic structure. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A cm -2 for dry inlet air.

  1. Observation of regional air pollutant transport between the megacity Beijing and the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingruo; Ye, Chunxiang; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junxia; Tan, Ziqiang; Lin, Weili; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong

    2016-11-01

    Megacities have strong interactions with the surrounding regions through transport of air pollutants. It has been frequently addressed that the air quality of Beijing is influenced by the influx of air pollutants from the North China Plain (NCP). Estimations of air pollutant cross-boundary transport between Beijing and the NCP are important for air quality management. However, evaluation of cross-boundary transport using long-term observations is very limited. Using the observational results of the gaseous pollutants SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and CO from August 2006 to October 2008 at the Yufa site, a cross-boundary site between the megacity Beijing and the NCP, together with meteorological parameters, we explored a method for evaluating the transport flux intensities at Yufa, as part of the "Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006-2008" (CAREBeijing 2006-2008). The hourly mean ± SD (median) concentration of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 15 ± 16 (9) ppb, 12 ± 25 (3) ppb, 24 ± 19 (20) ppb, 36 ± 39 (23) ppb, 28 ± 27 (21) ppb, 52 ± 24 (45) ppb, and 1.6 ± 1.4 (1.2) ppm during the observation period, respectively. The bivariate polar plots showed the dependence of pollutant concentrations on both wind speed and wind direction, and thus inferred their dominant transport directions. Surface flux intensity calculations further demonstrated the regional transport influence of Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. The net surface transport flux intensity (mean ± SD) of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 6.2 ± 89.5, -4.3 ± 29.5, -0.6 ± 72.3, -4.9 ± 93.0, 14.7 ± 187.8, 14.8 ± 234.9, and 70 ± 2830 µg s-1 m-2 during the observation period, respectively. For SO2, CO, O3, and Ox the surface flux intensities from the NCP to Yufa surpassed those from Beijing to Yufa in all seasons except winter, with the strongest net fluxes largely in summer, which were about 4-8 times those of other seasons. The surface transport flux intensity of NOx

  2. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  3. Heart rate, heart rate variability and behaviour of horses during air transport.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; de Gooijer, J-W; van den Broek, J; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2013-01-05

    Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and behaviour score (BS) of nine horses were evaluated during an eight-hour air transport between The Netherlands and New York. HR and HRV parameters were calculated every five minutes during the air transport. Compared with transit (40±3), mean HRs were higher during loading into the jet stall (67±21, P<0.001), loading into the aircraft (47±6, P=0.011), taxiing (50±8, P=0.001), and during periods of in-flight turbulence (46±7, P=0.017). During the flight, individual horses showed differences in mean HR (P=0.005) and peak HR (P<0.001). By contrast with HR data, HRV data did not differ between stages or horses. BS was highest during turbulence (3.2±0.4). However, behaviour did not always correspond with HR measurements: the least responsive horse had the highest HR. Loading into the jet stall caused the highest increase in HR and was considered the most stressful event. During transit, HR was generally comparable with resting rates. Previous studies have shown that loading and transporting by road caused more elevation in HR than during loading and transporting by air. HRV data were not found to be useful, and caution is needed when interpreting HRV data. Not every horse exhibited stress through visible (evasive) behaviour, and HR measurements may provide an additional tool to assess stress in horses.

  4. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  5. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    component. In order to apply the new emission factors to policy-relevant scenarios, a projection is made for the fleet inventory of infrastructure components necessary to distribute 21 billion gallons of ethanol (the 2022 federal mandate for advanced biofuels under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007) derived entirely from Miscanthus grass, for comparison to the baseline petroleum system. Due to geographic, physical and chemical properties of biomass and alcohols, the distribution system for Miscanthus-based ethanol is more capital- and energy-intensive than petroleum per unit of fuel energy delivered. The transportation of biofuels away from producer regions poses environmental, health, and economic trade-offs that are herein evaluated using a simplified national distribution network model. In just the last ten years, ethanol transportation within the contiguous United States is estimated to have increased more than ten-fold in total t-km as ethanol has increasingly been transported away from Midwest producers due to air quality regulations pertaining to gasoline, renewable fuel mandates, and the 10% blending limit (i.e., the E10 blend wall). From 2004 to 2009, approximately 10 billion t-km of ethanol transportation are estimated to have taken place annually for reasons other than the E10 blend wall, leading to annual freight costs greater than $240 million and more than 300,000 tonnes of CO2-e emissions and significant emissions of criteria air pollutants from the combustion of more than 90 million liters of diesel. Although emissions from distribution activities are small when normalized to each unit of fuel, they are large in scale. Archetypal fuel distribution routes by rail and by truck are created to evaluate the significance of mode choice and route location on the severity of public health impacts from locomotive and truck emissions, by calculating the average PM2.5 pollution intake fraction along each route. Exposure to pollution resulting from

  6. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  7. Point: clarifying policy evidence with potential-outcomes thinking--beyond exposure-response estimation in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin Matthew; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-12-15

    The regulatory environment surrounding policies to control air pollution warrants a new type of epidemiologic evidence. Whereas air pollution epidemiology has typically informed policies with estimates of exposure-response relationships between pollution and health outcomes, these estimates alone cannot support current debates surrounding the actual health effects of air quality regulations. We argue that directly evaluating specific control strategies is distinct from estimating exposure-response relationships and that increased emphasis on estimating effects of well-defined regulatory interventions would enhance the evidence that supports policy decisions. Appealing to similar calls for accountability assessment of whether regulatory actions impact health outcomes, we aim to sharpen the analytic distinctions between studies that directly evaluate policies and those that estimate exposure-response relationships, with particular focus on perspectives for causal inference. Our goal is not to review specific methodologies or studies, nor is it to extoll the advantages of "causal" versus "associational" evidence. Rather, we argue that potential-outcomes perspectives can elevate current policy debates with more direct evidence of the extent to which complex regulatory interventions affect health. Augmenting the existing body of exposure-response estimates with rigorous evidence of the causal effects of well-defined actions will ensure that the highest-level epidemiologic evidence continues to support regulatory policies.

  8. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research 1994-1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research (JUP) is a coordinated set of three grants co-sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Under JUP, three institutions: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, and Ohio Universities receive research grants and collaborate with FAA and NASA in defining and performing civil aeronautics research in a multitude of areas. Some of these disciplines are artificial intelligence, control theory, atmospheric hazards, navigation, avionics, human factors, flight dynamics, air traffic management, and electronic communications.

  9. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  10. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  11. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  12. Effects of transportation on energy and air quality. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Partial Contents: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Programs: Applicability of Government Incentives; Transitional Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Model; Forecasting Cost Path of Electric Vehicle Drive System: Monte Carlo Experience Curve Simulation; Another Way to Go. Some Implications of Light-duty Diesel Strategy; Use of Episodic Controls to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Air Pollution Events; Conformity: Long-Term Prognoses for Selected Ozone Nonattainment Areas in California; Development of Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model: Operating Under Hot-Stabilized Conditions; and Implications of Transient Mode Duration for Spatially Disaggregated High-Resolution Emission Inventory Studies.

  13. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  14. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the WCTR Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7h Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed every successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR- ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  16. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  17. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, C

    1998-11-01

    While it has been of general interest for a long time, the issue of a Medical Kit for Commercial Airlines is now close to the top of the priority list because of recent activities in Europe within the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and in the United States at the Congressional Level. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) requested its Air Transport Medicine Committee to review the situation and make recommendations for a basic medical kit for international airlines. After reviewing the contents of existing kits, and the limited amount of available data, a proposal was submitted to and accepted by the AsMA Council. This is just a beginning. The Air Transport Medicine Committee will continue to follow the evolution and periodically adapt the kit accordingly.

  18. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  19. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  20. Including health in transport policy agendas: the role of health impact assessment analyses and procedures in the European experience.

    PubMed Central

    Dora, Carlos; Racioppi, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    From the mid-1990s, research began to highlight the importance of a wide range of health impacts of transport policy decisions. The Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health adopted a Charter on Transport, Environment and Health based on four main components: bringing awareness of the nature, magnitude and costs of the health impacts of transport into intergovernmental processes; strengthening the arguments for integration of health into transport policies by developing in-depth analysis of the evidence; developing national case studies; and engaging ministries of environment, health and transport as well as intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. Negotiation of the Charter was based on two converging processes: the political process involved the interaction of stakeholders in transport, health and environment in Europe, which helped to frame the issues and the approaches to respond to them; the scientific process involved an international group of experts who produced state-of- the-art reviews of the health impacts resulting from transportation activities, identifying gaps in existing knowledge and methodological tools, specifying the policy implications of their findings, and suggesting possible targets for health improvements. Health arguments were used to strengthen environmental ones, clarify costs and benefits, and raise issues of health equity. The European experience shows that HIA can fulfil the need for simple procedures to be systematically applied to decisions regarding transport strategies at national, regional and local levels. Gaps were identified concerning models for quantifying health impacts and capacity building on how to use such tools. PMID:12894322

  1. Mitigating Task Saturation in Critical Care Air Transport Team Red Flag Checklist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    teamwork curriculum? Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13(6):417- 421. 29. Steinemann S, Berg B , Skinner A, DiTulio A, Anzelon K, et al. In situ...U b . ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...air transport. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2003; 15(2):221-231. 7. Davis B , Welch K, Walsh-Hart S, Hanseman D, Petro M, et al. Effective teamwork

  2. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  3. Investigation of air transportation technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    There were three areas of research sponsored in the Flight Transportation Lab. at MIT under the Joint University Research Program during 1986. The first was the completion of efforts investigating the possibility of using Loran-C for final approach guidance to a runway; the second is a preliminary exploration of the application of automated speech recognition in Air Traffic Control; the third is a continuation of a series of research topics into aircraft icing problems.

  4. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Princeton University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft; machine-intelligent, fault tolerant flight control; computer aided heuristics for piloted flight; stochastic robustness for flight control systems; neural networks for flight control; and computer aided control system design. These topics are briefly discussed, and an annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between January 1989 and June 1990 is given.

  5. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  6. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  7. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  8. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  9. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 8, No. 2. Volume 8, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Nickerson, Jocelyn (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. This journal contains articles on the following:Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft: A FlightOperationsQualityAssurance (F0QA) Analysis;Demand for Air Travel in the United States: Bottom-Up Econometric Estimation and Implications for Forecasts by Origin and Destination Pairs;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part I1 Political Oversight and Promotion;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part 111: Emerging Technologies;Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part Two B-Statistical Analysis of Current Practice;Integrating Human Factors into the Human-computer Interface: and How Best to Display Meteorological Information for Critical Aviation Decision-making and Performance.

  10. Turbulent transport across an interface between dry and humid air in a stratified environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallana, Luca; de Santi, Francesca; di Savino, Silvio; Iovieno, Michele; Ricchiardone, Renzo; Tordella, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    The transport of energy and water vapor across a thin layer which separates two decaying isotropic turbulent flows with different kinetic energy and humidity is considered. The interface is placed in a shearless stratified environment in temporal decay. This system reproduces a few aspects of small scale turbulent transport across a dry air/moist air interface in an atmospheric like context. In our incompressible DNS at Reλ = 250 , Boussinesq's approximation is used for momentum and energy transport while the vapor is modeled as a passive scalar (Kumar, Schumacher & Shaw 2014). We investigated different stratification levels with an initial Fr between 0.8 and 8 in presence of a kinetic energy ratio equal to 7. As the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial ones, a spatial redistribution of kinetic energy, dissipation and vapor concentration is observed. This eventually leads to the onset of a well of kinetic energy in the low energy side of the mixing layer which blocks the entrainment of dry air. Results are discussed and compared with laboratory and numerical experiments. A posteriori estimates of the eventual compression/expansion of fluid particles inside the interfacial mixing layer are given (Nance & Durran 1994).

  11. Network Theory: A Primer and Questions for Air Transportation Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    A new understanding (with potential applications to air transportation systems) has emerged in the past five years in the scientific field of networks. This development emerges in large part because we now have a new laboratory for developing theories about complex networks: The Internet. The premise of this new understanding is that most complex networks of interest, both of nature and of human contrivance, exhibit a fundamentally different behavior than thought for over two hundred years under classical graph theory. Classical theory held that networks exhibited random behavior, characterized by normal, (e.g., Gaussian or Poisson) degree distributions of the connectivity between nodes by links. The new understanding turns this idea on its head: networks of interest exhibit scale-free (or small world) degree distributions of connectivity, characterized by power law distributions. The implications of scale-free behavior for air transportation systems include the potential that some behaviors of complex system architectures might be analyzed through relatively simple approximations of local elements of the system. For air transportation applications, this presentation proposes a framework for constructing topologies (architectures) that represent the relationships between mobility, flight operations, aircraft requirements, and airspace capacity, and the related externalities in airspace procedures and architectures. The proposed architectures or topologies may serve as a framework for posing comparative and combinative analyses of performance, cost, security, environmental, and related metrics.

  12. The outlook for aeronautics, 1980 - 2000 - Study report. [trends affecting civil air transportation and defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Trends in civil and military aviation in the period 1980-2000 are examined in terms of the role that NASA should play in aeronautical research and development during this period. Factors considered include the pattern of industry and government relationships, the character of the aircraft to be developed, and the technology advances that will be required as well as demographic, economic, and social factors. Trends are expressed in terms of the most probable developments in civil air transportation and air defense and several characteristically different directions for future development are defined. The longer term opportunities created by developments in air transporation extending into the next century are also examined. Within this framework, a preferred NASA role and a preferred set of objectives are formulated for the research and technology which should be undertaken by NASA during the period 1976-1985.

  13. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  14. Feasibility of Remote Ischemic Peri-conditioning during Air Medical Transport of STEMI Patients.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Wayne, Max; Guyette, Francis X; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Toma, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic peri-conditioning (RIPC) has gained interest as a means of reducing ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are undergoing emergent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, process, and patient-related factors related to the delivery of RIPC during air medical transport of STEMI patients to tertiary pPCI centers. We performed a retrospective review of procedural outcomes of a cohort of STEMI patients who received RIPC as part of a clinical protocol in a multi-state air medical service over 16 months (March 2013 to June 2014). Eligible patients were transported to two tertiary PCI centers and received up to four cycles of RIPC by inflating a blood pressure cuff on an upper arm to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes and subsequently deflating the cuff for 5 minutes. Data regarding feasibility, process variables, patient comfort, and occurrence of hypotension were obtained from prehospital records and prospectively completed quality improvement surveys. The primary outcome was whether at least 3 cycles of RIPC were completed by air medical transport crews prior to pPCI. Secondary outcomes included the number of cycles completed prior to pPCI, time spent with the patient prior to transport (bedside time), patient discomfort level, and incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) during the procedure. RIPC was initiated in 99 patients (91 interfacility, 8 scene transports) and 83 (83.3%) received 3 or 4 cycles of RIPC, delivered over 25-35 minutes. Median bedside time for interfacility transfers was 8 minutes (IQR 7, 10). More than half of patients reported no pain related to the procedure (N = 53, 53.3%), whereas 5 (5.1%) patients reported discomfort greater than 5 out of 10. Two patients developed hypotension while receiving RIPC and both had experienced hypotension prior to initiation of RIPC. RIPC is feasible and safe to implement for STEMI patients

  15. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: the role of EU policy-industry interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Dentener, F.; Guizzardi, D.; Sindelarova, K.; Muntean, M.; Van Dingenen, R.; Granier, C.

    2015-07-01

    The EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) v4.3 global anthropogenic emissions inventory of several gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon (BC and OC)) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emission scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in fuels consumption, technology, end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields. This database presents changes in activity data, fuels and air pollution abatement technology for the past 4 decades, using international statistics and following guidelines for bottom-up emission inventory at the Tier 1 and Tier 2 levels with region-specific default values. With two further retrospective scenarios we assess (1) the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe (EOP) reduction measures in the European Union (EU) by considering a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors from 1970 and with no further abatement measures and improvement in European emissions standards, but fuel consumption occurring at historical pace, and (2) the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy use with constant fuel consumption since 1970, but technological development and end-of-pipe reductions. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, the manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject of multi-pollutant EU Air Quality regulations. If technology and European EOP reduction measures had stagnated at 1970 levels, EU air quality in 2010 would have suffered from 129 % higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions, demonstrating the large role of technology in reducing emissions in 2010. However, if fuel consumption had remained constant starting in 1970, the EU would have benefited from current technology and

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review.

    PubMed

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Biehl, João; Ribeiro, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Tackling climate change at the global level is central to a growing field of scientific research on topics such as environmental health, disease burden, and its resulting economic impacts. At the local level, cities constitute an important hub of atmospheric pollution due to the large amount of pollutants that they emit. As the world population shifts to urban centers, cities will increasingly concentrate more exposed populations. Yet, there is still significant progress to be made in understanding the contribution of urban pollutants other than CO2, such as vehicle emissions, to global climate change. It is therefore particularly important to study how local governments are managing urban air pollution. This paper presents an overview of local air pollution control policies and programs that aim to reduce air pollution levels in megacities. It also presents evidence measuring their efficacy. The paper argues that local air pollution policies are not only beneficial for cities but are also important for mitigating and adapting to global climate change. The results systematize several policy approaches used around the world and suggest the need for more in-depth cross-city studies with the potential to highlight best practices both locally and globally. Finally, it calls for the inclusion of a more human rights-based approach as a mean of guaranteeing of clean air for all and reducing factors that exacerbate climate change.

  18. An integrated assessment of two decades of air pollution policy making in Spain: Impacts, costs and improvements.

    PubMed

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Conlan, Beth; Rodríguez, María Encarnación; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; de la Paz, David; Pérez, Javier; Narros, Adolfo

    2015-09-15

    This paper analyses the effects of policy making for air pollution abatement in Spain between 2000 and 2020 under an integrated assessment approach with the AERIS model for number of pollutants (NOx/NO2, PM10/PM2.5, O3, SO2, NH3 and VOC). The analysis of the effects of air pollution focused on different aspects: compliance with the European limit values of Directive 2008/50/EC for NO2 and PM10 for the Spanish air quality management areas; the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen on ecosystems; the exceedance of critical levels of NO2 and SO2 in forest areas; the analysis of O3-induced crop damage for grapes, maize, potato, rice, tobacco, tomato, watermelon and wheat; health impacts caused by human exposure to O3 and PM2.5; and costs on society due to crop losses (O3), disability-related absence of work staff and damage to buildings and public property due to soot-related soiling (PM2.5). In general, air quality policy making has delivered improvements in air quality levels throughout Spain and has mitigated the severity of the impacts on ecosystems, health and vegetation in 2020 as target year. The findings of this work constitute an appropriate diagnosis for identifying improvement potentials for further mitigation for policy makers and stakeholders in Spain.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  20. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  1. Contributions of trans-boundary transport to summertime air quality in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiarui; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Bei, Naifang; Wang, Yichen; Feng, Tian; Huang, Rujin; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the WRF-CHEM model is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the air quality in Beijing during a persistent air pollution episode from 5 to 14 July 2015 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China. Generally, the predicted temporal variations and spatial distributions of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter), O3 (ozone), and NO2 are in good agreement with observations in BTH. The WRF-CHEM model also reproduces reasonably well the temporal variations of aerosol species compared to measurements in Beijing. The factor separation approach is employed to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions to the PM2.5 and O3 levels in Beijing. On average, in the afternoon during the simulation episode, the local emissions contribute 22.4 % to the O3 level in Beijing, less than 36.6 % from non-Beijing emissions. The O3 concentrations in Beijing are decreased by 5.1 % in the afternoon due to interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions. The non-Beijing emissions play a dominant role in the PM2.5 level in Beijing, with a contribution of 61.5 %, much higher than 13.7 %, from Beijing local emissions. The emission interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions enhance the PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, with a contribution of 5.9 %. Therefore, the air quality in Beijing is generally determined by the trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions during summertime, showing that the cooperation with neighboring provinces to mitigate pollutant emissions is key for Beijing to improve air quality.

  2. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen papers (presentations) from the 8th World Conference on Transportation Research are presented. Topics include European Airline competition, cost analyses, performance evaluations, deregulation; aviation policy in Southeast Asia; corporate involvement in European business transportation; and cycles in the airline industry.

  3. Flow mechanism for the long-range transport of air pollutants by the sea breeze causing inland nighttime high oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, H.; Mitsumoto, S.; Kurita, H.

    1988-02-01

    Flow mechanism causing nightttime smog was investigated by analyzing 1) continuous records of meteorological data and concentration of oxidants (Ox) for 15 days and 2) aircraft data along the transportation route of a polluted air mass.

  4. Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties of hydrocarbons with air. Part 4: Compositions corresponding to Rankine temperature schedules in part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S.

    1982-01-01

    The equilibrium compositions corresponding to the thermodynamic and transport combustion properties for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air are presented. The compositions presented correspond to Rankine temperature schedules.

  5. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  6. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  7. Formation of thermal flow fields and chemical transport in air and water by atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Iwafuchi, Yutaka; Morfill, Gregor E.; Sato, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is a potential tool for medical purposes, e.g. disinfection/sterilization. In order for it to be effective and functional, it is crucial to understand the transport mechanism of chemically reactive species in air as well as in liquid. An atmospheric plasma discharge was produced between a platinum pin electrode and the surface of water. The thermal flow field of a cold atmospheric plasma as well as its chemical components was measured. A gas flow with a velocity of around 15 m s-1 to the water's surface was shown to be induced by the discharge. This air flow induced a circulating flow in the water from the discharge point at the water's surface because of friction. It was also demonstrated that the chemical components generated in air dissolved in water and the properties of the water changed. The reactive species were believed to be distributed mainly by convective transport in water, because the variation in the pH profile indicated by a methyl red solution resembled the induced flow pattern.

  8. Influence of policy and climate change on air quality within the UK West Midlands plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. L.; Baker, J.

    2009-04-01

    The photochemical trajectory model (PTM), coupled with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.1), was used to assess the contribution of locally emitted anthropogenic and biogenic emissions to ambient secondary pollutant levels recorded in Birmingham, UK during the summer Pollution in the Urban Midlands Atmosphere (PUMA) campaign (9 June - 12 July 1999). The contribution to ozone (and particulate matter) formation were found to be small, 0.0 to 3.2 ppb (0 to 11 %), with an overall average contribution of about 0.35 ppb or 1.0 % of the total ozone during the period. Subsequently, a stationary or slowly advecting boundary layer scenario was used to assess the timescales for which the local emissions within the West Midlands react and impact on secondary pollutant levels within or downwind of the region. Considering averaged biogenic and anthropogenic emissions across the region as representative of the West Midlands plume, the formation of ozone was found to be VOC-limited, and increased emissions of BVOCs were found to overall increase the reactivity of the plume. Future emissions scenarios were then modelled for 2010, 2015 and 2020 taking into account implementation of European legislation and possible climate change. This work reports on the predicted effects of these policy implementations and possible climate changes have on air quality within and downwind of the West Midlands connurbation.

  9. Monitoring air pollution effects on children for supporting public health policy: the protocol of the prospective cohort MAPEC study

    PubMed Central

    Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; De Donno, A; Moretti, M; Carducci, A; Bonetta, S; Marrese, M R; Bonetti, A; Covolo, L; Bagordo, F; Villarini, M; Verani, M; Schilirò, T; Limina, R M; Grassi, T; Monarca, S; Casini, B; Carraro, E; Zani, C; Mazzoleni, G; Levaggi, R; Gelatti, U

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods and analysis Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6–8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614. PMID:25227631

  10. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  11. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Air Transportation Research Program at Princeton University proceeded along five avenues during the past year: (1) Flight Control System Robustness; (2) Microburst Hazards to Aircraft; (3) Wind Rotor Hazards to Aircraft; (4) Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace Systems; and (5) Aerospace Optical Communications. This research resulted in a number of publications, including theses, archival papers, and conference papers. An annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between June 1992 and June 1993 is included. The research that these papers describe was supported in whole or in part by the Joint University Program, including work that was completed prior to the reporting period.

  12. The impact of energy, transport, and trade on air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, J.P.H.; Casas, I.; He, C.F.

    2006-09-15

    A team of U.S.- and China-based geographers examines the relationship between China's economic development and its environment by modeling the effects of energy, transport, and trade on local air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide and soot particulates) using the Environmental Kuznets model. Specifically, the latter model is investigated using spatial econometrics that take into account potential regional spillover effects from high-polluting neighbors. The analysis finds an inverted-U relationship for sulfur dioxide but a U-shaped curve for soot particulates. This suggests that soot particulates such as black carbon may pose a more serious environmental problem in China than sulfur dioxide.

  13. Numerical Simulations of Dynamic Deformation of Air Transport Fresh Fuel Package in Accidental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, A. A.; Romanov, V. I.; Sotskov, G. I.

    2003-02-24

    Results of numerical investigations of dynamic deformations of packages for air transportation of fresh nuclear fuel from Nuclear Power Plants are presented for the cases of axis and on-side impacts with hard surface at a speed of 90 meters/second (m/s). Modeling results on deformed structure shapes and kinematical parameters (displacements, decelerations, cramping) for axis impact are compared with experimental data. Use of this numerical-experimental technology gives new capabilities to analyze correctly the safety of such a package in accidents through modeling, which does not require implantation of expensive testing, thereby saving money.

  14. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Dubin, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of the fuel-conserving alternatives has been investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000.

  15. Factors Affecting the Corporate Decision-Making Process of Air Transport Manufacturers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollila, R. G.; Hill, J. D.; Noton, B. R.; Duffy, M. A.; Epstein, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel economy is a pivotal question influencing the future sale and utilization of commercial aircraft. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program Office has a program intended to accelerate the readiness of advanced technologies for energy efficient aircraft. Because the decision to develop a new airframe or engine is a major financial hazard for manufacturers, it is important to know what factors influence the decision making process. A method is described for identifying and ranking individuals and organizations involved at each stage of commercial air transport development, and the barriers that must be overcome in adopting new technologies.

  16. Influence of regional development policies and clean technology adoption on future air pollution exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Bai, Song; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Handy, Susan L.; Gao, Shengyi; Lund, Jay R.; Sullivan, Dana Coe; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2010-02-01

    Future air pollution emissions in the year 2030 were estimated for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in central California using a combined system of land use, mobile, off-road, stationary, area, and biogenic emissions models. Four scenarios were developed that use different assumptions about the density of development and level of investment in transportation infrastructure to accommodate the expected doubling of the SJV population in the next 20 years. Scenario 1 reflects current land-use patterns and infrastructure while scenario 2 encouraged compact urban footprints including redevelopment of existing urban centers and investments in transit. Scenario 3 allowed sprawling development in the SJV with reduced population density in existing urban centers and construction of all planned freeways. Scenario 4 followed currently adopted land use and transportation plans for the SJV. The air quality resulting from these urban development scenarios was evaluated using meteorology from a winter stagnation event that occurred on December 15th, 2000 to January 7th 2001. Predicted base-case PM2.5 mass concentrations within the region exceeded 35 μg m -3 over the 22-day episode. Compact growth reduced the PM2.5 concentrations by ˜1 μg m -3 relative to the base-case over most of the SJV with the exception of increases (˜1 μg m -3) in urban centers driven by increased concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Low-density development increased the PM2.5 concentrations by 1-4 μg m -3 over most of the region, with decreases (0.5-2 μg m -3) around urban areas. Population-weighted average PM2.5 concentrations were very similar for all development scenarios ranging between 16 and 17.4 μg m -3. Exposure to primary PM components such as EC and OC increased 10-15% for high density development scenarios and decreased by 11-19% for low-density scenarios. Patterns for secondary PM components such as nitrate and ammonium ion were almost exactly reversed, with a 10

  17. Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-09-01

    The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.

  18. Civil air transport: A fresh look at power-by-wire and fly-by-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-05-01

    Power-by-wire (PBW) is a key element under subsonic transport flight systems technology with potential savings of over 10 percent in gross take-off-weight and in fuel consumption compared to today's transport aircraft. The PBW technology substitutes electrical actuation in place of centralized hydraulics, uses internal starter-motor/generators and eliminates the need for variable engine bleed air to supply cabin comfort. The application of advanced fiber optics to the electrical power system controls, to built-in-test (BITE) equipment, and to fly-by-light (FBL) flight controls provides additional benefits in lightning and high energy radio frequency (HERF) immunity over existing mechanical or even fly-by-wire controls. The program plan is reviewed and a snapshot is given of the key technologies and their benefits to all future aircraft, both civil and military.

  19. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A.

    2016-02-15

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  20. Integrating air pollution modelling with scenario testing in road transport planning: the TRAEMS approach.

    PubMed

    Affum, J K; Brown, A L; Chan, Y C

    2003-08-01

    Transport add-on environmental modelling system (TRAEMS) is a GIS-based environmental modelling system designed to evaluate the environmental consequences of road traffic in urban areas. Its development has been underpinned by the premises that the evaluation of road traffic impacts is best undertaken during the early planning stages of road networks, and that this can utilise much of the data generated by the transport planners themselves as they apply their travel demand models as to planning of road networks. The system integrates information about traffic-usually from travel-forecasting models-with information about land use, to provide the input data to a range of commonly used models that estimate pollution from a road traffic system, and the energy consumption of that system. TRAEMS facilitates this integration and allows land use, transport and environmental planners to have rapid feedback on the environmental effects of road transport network scenarios that are being developed and tested. Its purpose is to aid in the selection of environmentally-preferred road networks and to highlight where management of pollution levels on future road networks will be required. TRAEMS has a modular structure. This paper describes the main features of the air pollution and fuel consumption modules of the system and illustrates the system's utility through case studies at both metropolitan-wide- and local-area scales.

  1. Proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin in planar membranes assembled from air-water interface films

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, J. I.; Hwang, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin, in known amounts and controlled orientation, is incorporated into planar membrane films. These films are formed by the sequential transfer of two air-water interface films onto a thin, hydrophilic, electrically conductive support cast from nitrocellulose. The films are easily accessible to electrical measurements and to control of the ionic milieu on either side of the membrane. The area of the assembled membrane films can be varied between 2.3 x 10(-2) cm2 and 0.7 cm2. Illumination of these films produces photocurrents, photovoltages, and changes in the pH of the surrounding medium. The peak amplitude of the photocurrent increases linearly with light intensity for dim lights, and it approaches a saturating value for brighter lights. In the linear range, the stoichiometry of transport is 0.65 +/- 0.06 protons/absorbed photon. The rate of transport is linearly proportional to light at all intensities tested. The amplitude and kinetics of the photovoltage measured are accurately predicted by the photocurrent generated and the passive electrical features of the film. Parallel measurements of pH and photocurrent reveal that the light-induced changes in pH are fully accounted for by the rate and amount of charge transport across the membrane. Preceding the transport of protons, a transient photovoltage is detected that exhibits no detectable latency, reaches peak in about 80 microseconds, and probably arises from light-induced intramolecular charge displacements. PMID:10822498

  2. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thambiran, Tirusha; Diab, Roseanne D.

    2011-05-01

    The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences. In the city of Durban, South Africa, the growing dependence on privately-owned motor vehicles and increasing usage of roads for freight transport have all resulted in significant air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, an emissions inventory was developed for the road transport sector and was used as a basis to explore intervention opportunities that are likely to reduce simultaneously, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in this sector. It was found that reducing the vehicle kilometres travelled by privately-owned motor vehicles and improving the efficiency of road freight transport offered the greatest potential for achieving co-benefits.

  3. Large-scale transport of a CO-enhanced air mass from Europe to the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, V. S.; Miles, T.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    On November 14, 1981, the shuttle-borne Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment observed a carbon monoxide (CO) enhanced air mass in the middle troposphere over the Middle East. The primary source of this polluted air was estimated by constructing adiabatic isentropic trajectories backwards from the MAPS measurement location over a 36 h period. The isentropic diagnostics indicate that CO-enhanced air was transported southeastward over the Mediterranean from an organized synoptic-scale weather regime, albeit of moderate intensity, influencing central Europe on November 12. Examination of the evolving synoptic scale vertical velocity and precipitation patterns during this period, in conjuction with Meteosat visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery, suggests that the presence of this disturbed weather system over Europe may have created upward transport of CO-enhanced air between the boundary-layer and midtropospheric levels, and subsequent entrainment in the large-scale northwesterly jet stream flow over Europe and the Mediterranean.

  4. Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.

  5. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  6. Microbial air quality in mass transport buses and work-related illness among bus drivers of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Sundhiyodhin, Viboonsri; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2004-06-01

    The air quality in mass transport buses, especially air-conditioned buses may affect bus drivers who work full time. Bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166 of the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority were randomly selected to investigate for microbial air quality. Nine air-conditioned buses and 2-4 open-air buses for each number of the bus (36 air-conditioned buses and 12 open-air buses) were included. Five points of in-bus air samples in each studied bus were collected by using the Millipore A ir Tester Totally, 180 and 60 air samples collected from air-conditioned buses and open-air buses were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The bus drivers who drove the studied buses were interviewed towards histories of work-related illness while working. The results revealed that the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied open-air buses ranged from 358.50 +/- 146.66 CFU/m3 to 506 +/- 137.62 CFU/m3; bus number 16 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which ranged from 93.33 +/- 44.83 CFU/m3 to 302 +/- 294.65 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. Whereas, the mean +/- SD of bacterial counts in the studied air-conditioned buses ranged from 115.24 +/- 136.01 CFU/m3 to 244.69 +/- 234.85 CFU/m3; bus numbers 16 and 67 had the highest level. As well as the mean +/- SD of fungal counts which rangedfrom 18.84 +/- 39.42 CFU/m3 to 96.13 +/- 234.76 CFU/m3; bus number 166 had the highest level. When 180 and 60 studied air samples were analyzed in detail, it was found that 33.33% of the air samples from open-air buses and 6.11% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of bacterial counts (> 500 CFU/m3) while 6.67% of air samples from open-air buses and 2.78% of air samples from air-conditioned buses had a high level of fungal counts (> 500 CFU/m3). Data from the history of work-related illnesses among the studied bus drivers showed that 91.67% of open-air bus drivers and 57.28% of air-conditioned bus drivers had

  7. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  8. Calculations and curve fits of thermodynamic and transport properties for equilibrium air to 30000 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Thompson, Richard A.; Yos, Jerrold M.

    1991-01-01

    A self-consistent set of equilibrium air values were computed for enthalpy, total specific heat at constant pressure, compressibility factor, viscosity, total thermal conductivity, and total Prandtl number from 500 to 30,000 K over a range of 10(exp -4) atm to 10(exp 2) atm. The mixture values are calculated from the transport and thermodynamic properties of the individual species provided in a recent study by the authors. The concentrations of the individual species, required in the mixture relations, are obtained from a free energy minimization calculation procedure. Present calculations are based on an 11-species air model. For pressures less than 10(exp -2) atm and temperatures of about 15,000 K and greater, the concentrations of N(++) and O(++) become important, and consequently, they are included in the calculations determining the various properties. The computed properties are curve fitted as a function of temperature at a constant value of pressure. These curve fits reproduce the computed values within 5 percent for the entire temperature range considered here at specific pressures and provide an efficient means for computing the flowfield properties of equilibrium air, provided the elemental composition remains constant at 0.24 for oxygen and 0.76 for nitrogen by mass.

  9. Policy implications of genetic information on regulation under the Clean Air Act: the case of particulate matter and asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, C Bradley; Cullen, Alison C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2006-03-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) explicitly guarantees the protection of sensitive human subpopulations from adverse health effects associated with air pollution exposure. Identified subpopulations, such as asthmatics, may carry multiple genetic susceptibilities to disease onset and progression and thus qualify for special protection under the CAA. Scientific advances accelerated as a result of the groundbreaking Human Genome Project enable the quantification of genetic information that underlies such human variability in susceptibility and the cellular mechanisms of disease. In epidemiology and regulatory toxicology, genetic information can more clearly elucidate human susceptibility essential to risk assessment, such as in support of air quality regulation. In an effort to encourage the incorporation of genomic information in regulation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an Interim Policy on Genomics. Additional research strategy and policy documents from the National Academy of Science, the U.S. EPA, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services further promote the expansion of asthma genetics research for human health risk assessment. Through a review of these government documents, we find opportunities for the inclusion of genetic information in the regulation of air pollutants. In addition, we identify sources of information in recent scientific research on asthma genetics relevant to regulatory standard setting. We conclude with recommendations on how to integrate these approaches for the improvement of regulatory health science and the prerequisites for inclusion of genetic information in decision making.

  10. Climatology of wintertime long-distance transport of surface-layer air masses arriving urban Beijing in 2001-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Xiang-De, XU

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the FLEXPART-WRF coupled modeling system is used to conduct 12-year Lagrangian modeling over Beijing, China, for the winters of 2001-2012. Based on large trajectory tracking ensembles, the long-range air transport properties, in terms of geographic source regions within the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) and large-scale ventilation, and its association with air quality levels were quantified from a climatological perspective. The results show the following: (1) The air masses residing in the near-surface layer over Beijing potentially originate from broader atmospheric boundary-layer regions, which cover vast areas with the backward tracking time elapsed. However, atmospheric transport from northeastern China and, to a lesser extent, from the surrounding regions of Beijing is important. (2) The evolution of air quality over Beijing is negatively correlated with large-scale ventilation conditions, particularly at a synoptic timescale. Thus, the simple but robust backward-trajectory ventilation (BV) index defined in this study could facilitate operational forecasting of severe air pollution events. (3) By comparison, the relatively short-range transport occurring over transport timescales of less than 3 days from southern and southeastern Beijing and its surrounding areas plays a vital role in the formation of severe air pollution events during the wintertime. (4) Additionally, an interannual trend analysis suggests that the geographic sources and ventilation conditions also changed, at least over the last decade, corresponding to the strength variability of the winter East Asian monsoon.

  11. Air Power and Limited War: An Analysis of the Air Campaigns against North Vietnam as Instruments of National Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    the Pacific. To mAintain "round-the-clock" pressure on Germany, the Army Air Forces commanders resorted to blind bombing techniques that provided...34ac#.e to in arbtistice In a reasonable time.... To keep the attack from becoming overly costly," he observed. "it was clear. that we would have to use... keep the Chinese out of the war. Should they decide to intervene, he remarked. "air power would destroy them.൯ After the Chineon assult. he gave

  12. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  13. Win–Win strategies to promote air pollutant control policies and non-fossil energy target regulation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lining; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Liu, Bo; McLeod, Jeff; Clarke, Leon E.; Chen, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    The rapid growth of energy consumption in China has led to increased emissions of air pollutants. As a response, in its 12th Five Year Plan the Chinese government proposed mitigation targets for SO2 and NOx emissions. Herein we have investigated mitigation measures taken in different sectors and their corresponding impacts on the energy system. Additionally, as non-fossil energy development has gained traction in addressing energy and environmental challenges in China, we further investigated the impact of non-fossil energy development on air pollutant emissions, and then explored interactions and co-benefits between these two types of policies. An extended Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) was used in this study, which includes an additional air pollutant emissions control module coupling multiple end-of-pipe (EOP) control technologies with energy technologies, as well as more detailed end-use sectors in China. We find that implementing EOP control technologies would reduce air pollution in the near future, but with little room left to implement these EOP technologies, other cleaner and more efficient technologies are also effective. These technologies would reduce final energy consumption, increase electricity’s share in final energy, and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and electricity consumption. Increasing non-fossil energy usage at China’s proposed adoption rate would in turn also reduce SO2 and NOx emissions, however, the reductions from this policy alone still lag behind the targeted requirements of air pollutant reduction. Fortunately, a combination of air pollutant controls and non-fossil energy development could synergistically help realize the respective individual targets, and would result in lower costs than would addressing these issues separately.

  14. An integrative assessment of the commercial air transportation system via adaptive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Choon Giap

    The overarching research objective is to address the tightly-coupled interactions between the demand-side and supply-side components of the United States Commercial Air Transportation System (CATS) in a time-variant environment. A system-of-system perspective is adopted, where the scope is extended beyond the National Airspace System (NAS) level to the National Transportation System (NTS) level to capture the intermodal and multimodal relationships between the NTS stakeholders. The Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation technique is employed where the NTS/NAS is treated as an integrated Multi-Agent System comprising of consumer and service provider agents, representing the demand-side and supply-side components respectively. Successful calibration and validation of both model components against the observable real world data resulted in a CATS simulation tool where the aviation demand is estimated from socioeconomic and demographic properties of the population instead of merely based on enplanement growth multipliers. This valuable achievement enabled a 20-year outlook simulation study to investigate the implications of a global fuel price hike on the airline industry and the U.S. CATS at large. Simulation outcomes revealed insights into the airline competitive behaviors and the subsequent responses from transportation consumers.

  15. Legal and security requirements for the air transportation of cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacterial cells for legitimate research and analytical purposes.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Meriluoto, J A O; Codd, G A

    2006-05-25

    Cyanotoxins are now recognised by international and national health and environment agencies as significant health hazards. These toxins, and the cells which produce them, are also vulnerable to exploitation for illegitimate purposes. Cyanotoxins are increasingly being subjected to national and international guidelines and regulations governing their production, storage, packaging and transportation. In all of these respects, cyanotoxins are coming under the types of controls imposed on a wide range of chemicals and other biotoxins of microbial, plant and animal origin. These controls apply whether cyanotoxins are supplied on a commercial basis, or stored and transported in non-commercial research collaborations and programmes. Included are requirements concerning the transportation of these toxins as documented by the United Nations, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and national government regulations. The transportation regulations for "dangerous goods", which by definition include cyanotoxins, cover air mail, air freight, and goods checked in and carried on flights. Substances include those of determined toxicity and others of suspected or undetermined toxicity, covering purified cyanotoxins, cyanotoxin-producing laboratory strains and environmental samples of cyanobacteria. Implications of the regulations for the packaging and air-transport of dangerous goods, as they apply to cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacteria, are discussed.

  16. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  17. Modeling the air-soil transport pathway of perfluorooctanoic acid in the mid-Ohio Valley using linked air dispersion and vadose zone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ryan, P. Barry; Vieira, Verónica M.; Bartell, Scott M.

    2012-05-01

    As part of an extensive modeling effort on the air-soil-groundwater transport pathway of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), this study was designed to compare the performance of different air dispersion modeling systems (AERMOD vs. ISCST3), and different approaches to handling incomplete meteorological data using a data set with substantial soil measurements and a well characterized point source for air emissions. Two of the most commonly used EPA air dispersion models, AERMOD and ISCST3, were linked with the EPA vadose zone model PRZM-3. Predicted deposition rates from the air dispersion model were used as input values for the vadose zone model to estimate soil concentrations of PFOA at different depths. We applied 34 years of meteorological data including hourly surface measurements from Parkersburg Airport and 5 years of onsite wind direction and speed to the air dispersion models. We compared offsite measured soil concentrations to predictions made for the corresponding sampling depths, focusing on soil rather than air measurements because the offsite soil samples were less likely to be influenced by short-term variability in emission rates and meteorological conditions. PFOA concentrations in surface soil (0-30 cm depth) were under-predicted and those in subsurface soil (>30 cm depth) were over-predicted compared to observed concentrations by both linked air and vadose zone model. Overall, the simulated values from the linked modeling system were positively correlated with those observed in surface soil (Spearman's rho, Rsp = 0.59-0.70) and subsurface soil (Rsp = 0.46-0.48). This approach provides a useful modeling scheme for similar exposure and risk analyses where the air-soil-groundwater transport is a primary contamination pathway.

  18. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments.

  19. A self-consistent method to assess air quality co-benefits from U.S. climate policies.

    PubMed

    Saari, Rebecca K; Selin, Noelle E; Rausch, Sebastian; Thompson, Tammy M

    2015-01-01

    Air quality co-benefits can potentially reduce the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. However, whereas many studies of the cost of greenhouse gas mitigation model the macroeconomic welfare impacts of mitigation, most studies of air quality co-benefits do not. We employ a U.S. computable general equilibrium economic model previously linked to an air quality modeling system and enhance it to represent the economy-wide welfare impacts of fine particulate matter. We present a first application of this method to explore the efficiency and distributional implications of a Clean Energy Standard (CES) and a Cap and Trade (CAT) program that both reduce CO₂emissions by 10% in 2030 relative to 2006. We find that co-benefits from fine particulate matter reduction (median $6; $2 to $10/tCO₂) completely offset policy costs by 110% (40% to 190%), transforming the net welfare impact of the CAT into a gain of $1 (-$5 to $7) billion 2005$. For the CES, the corresponding co-benefit (median $8; $3 to $14/tCO₂) is a smaller fraction (median 5%; 2% to 9%) of its higher policy cost. The eastern United States garners 78% and 71% of co-benefits for the CES and CAT, respectively. By representing the effects of pollution-related morbidities and mortalities as an impact to labor and the demand for health services, we find that the welfare impact per unit of reduced pollution varies by region. These interregional differences can enhance the preference of some regions, such as Texas, for a CAT over a CES, or switch the calculation of which policy yields higher co-benefits, compared with an approach that uses one valuation for all regions. This framework could be applied to quantify consistent air quality impacts of other pricing instruments, subnational trading programs, or green tax swaps.

  20. Transport and its energy-related air pollution problems in Bangkok

    SciTech Connect

    Boontherawara, N.; Panich, S.; Phiu-Nual, K.

    1995-12-31

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is a major pollutant, followed by carbon monoxide and lead, as the ambient levels of these pollutants all exceed international standards such as those laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to meet these standards, it is necessary to reduce the emissions of these pollutants by 84.9%, 47.3%, and 13.0% respectively. Ambient air quality in Bangkok will continue to deteriorate to an unacceptable level by the year 2000, if no action is taken over and above implementation of already approved projects (including mass transit projects). Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions could be reduced by 28 and 22% respectively, with the implementation of Reasonable Technology Measures used to control vehicle emissions alone. These measures include inspection and maintenance programs. Their success is dependent on effective quality control and on the application of stringent standards. However, these measures would have little impact in reducing the emissions of SPM. It can therefore be concluded that Reasonable Technology Measures will be insufficient to address Bangkok`s air pollution problems, without complementary measures to reduce traffic congestion. Implementation of the traffic measures outlined under the Demand-Management Policy Scenario alone will reduce CO and HC emissions by up to 45%. These measures serve to reduce traffic congestion and increase the average travel speed. However, in order to improve air quality to internationally acceptable levels, traffic measures must be implemented in conjunction with the Reasonable Technology Scenario. This will provide an additional reduction of CO and HC emissions by 45%.

  1. Asthma and Air Quality in the Presence of Fires - A Foundation for Public Health Policy in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Luvall, Jeffrey; Sifford, Cody; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor air quality and its associated impacts on respiratory problems in Florida are of public health significance. Air quality in Florida can be poor during the extended wildfire season, threatening persons with compromised respiratory systems each year. Studies have demonstrated that particulate matter, which is generally elevated in the vicinity of wildfires, is associated with increases in hospital admissions and occurrences of acute asthma exacerbations. However, few studies have examined the modifying effect of socio-demographic characteristics of cities or regional areas on the relationship between air quality and health outcomes. In an ongoing university/multi-agency project, asthma hospital/emergency room (patient) data are being used to create a health outcome indicator of human response to environmental air quality. Environmental data are derived from satellite measurements, with special attention being given to the effect of wildfires and prescribed burns on air quality. This presentation will focus on the environmental data sets particulate matter, location of fires, smoke plumes that are being collected and processed for linkage with health data. After this linkage has been performed, space-time models of asthma rates as a function of air quality data and socio-demographic variables will be developed and validated. The Florida Department of Health (FDOH) will work with county health department staff and representatives from the medical community to establish a protocol with triggers for issuing public health advisories/alerts based on the developed and validated health outcome indicators. From this effort, a science-based policy for issuing public health advisories/alerts for asthma relating to air quality will be developed, giving FDOH the ability to (1) predict, with stated levels of uncertainty, case load of hospital admissions based on air quality, (2) reduce asthma exacerbations by forewarning asthmatics to limit outside activities on poor air

  2. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  3. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  4. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  5. Towards a Technology Policy: Implications for Education and Retraining. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Terwisga, Henk B.; van Rosmalen, Karel M. A.

    This paper investigates technology policy for national governments, particularly the importance of education and training and the role of institutions of higher education as components of such policies for the diffusion and absorption of knowledge, as part of an overall strategy for improving the competitive edge of a nation's enterprises. The…

  6. Effects of azide on electron transport of exoelectrogens in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangtong; Qu, Youpeng; Kim, Byung Hong; Choo, Pamela Yengfung; Liu, Jia; Du, Yue; He, Weihua; Chang, In Seop; Ren, Nanqi; Feng, Yujie

    2014-10-01

    The effects of azide on electron transport of exoelectrogens were investigated using air-cathode MFCs. These MFCs enriched with azide at the concentration higher than 0.5mM generated lower current and coulomb efficiency (CE) than the control reactors, but at the concentration lower than 0.2mM MFCs generated higher current and CE. Power density curves showed overshoot at higher azide concentrations, with power and current density decreasing simultaneously. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that azide at high concentration increased the charge transfer resistance. These analyses might reflect that a part of electrons were consumed by the anode microbial population rather than transferred to the anode. Bacterial population analyses showed azide-enriched anodes were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria compared with the controls. Based on these results it is hypothesized that azide can eliminate the growth of aerobic respiratory bacteria, and at the same time is used as an electron acceptor/sink.

  7. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving potential and cost effectiveness of numerous operational and technical options proposed for reducing the fuel consumption of the U.S. commercial airline fleet was examined and compared. The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs and airline profits when implemented in the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets was determined. A forecast estimate was made of the potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system. Specifically, the means for reducing the jet fuel consumption of the U.S. scheduled airlines in domestic and international passenger operations were investigated. A design analysis was made of two turboprop aircraft as possible fuel conserving derivatives of the DC-9-30.

  8. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  9. The Division of Military Air Transportation between Civilian and Military Carriers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-05-01

    AO-AOAO 379 RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA F/ B 15/5 THE DIVISION OF MILITARY AIR TRANSPORTATION BETWEEN CIVILIAN AN-ETC(U) MAY 69 L J KLEIGER UNCLASSIFIED...26.1 19b6 89.5 30.2 1967 90.8 33.7 1968 b 91.0 25.6 SOURCES: USAF, Military Airlift Command, Airl ift Service t.anagement Renort, 1959-1967; ibid...93,257 64.8 144,021 1965 87,326 45.0 106,630 55.0 193,956 L966 156,253 47.7 171,630 52.3 327,883 1967 328,441 55.0 269,132 45.0 597,573 1968 b 310,838

  10. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1993-1994 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, July 14-15, 1994. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to aircraft and airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  11. Underground air returns as active transportation pathways for radon gas entry into homes.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Metzger, R L; Holbert, K E

    1992-12-01

    Levels of elevated 222Rn in homes can fail to correlate with measured radium concentrations in soils and surrounding rocks for reasons which can include water sources, building materials, and unusual variations in climate or building construction. Several homes were identified in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area with soil radium concentrations of < 0.074 Bq g-1 (2.0 pCi g-1) which had elevated radon concentrations unexplained by geological sources alone. Continuous monitoring of eight houses under different conditions of cooling system usage revealed a definite role of the underground air returns as active transport pathways contributing to the enhancement of the indoor concentration of 222Rn in six of the houses. The ratio of indoor 222Rn concentrations on days when the cooling system was operated continuously compared to days the system was off ranged from essentially one up to a factor exceeding 10.

  12. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  13. Study of the cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Practical means were assessed for achieving reduced fuel consumption in commercial air transportation. Five areas were investigated: current aircraft types, revised operational procedures, modifications to current aircraft, derivatives of current aircraft and new near-term fuel conservative aircraft. As part of a multiparticipant coordinated effort, detailed performance and operating cost data in each of these areas were supplied to the contractor responsible for the overall analysis of the cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the domestic commercial air transportation system. A follow-on study was performed to assess the potential of an advanced turboprop transport aircraft concept. To provide a valid basis for comparison, an equivalent turbofan transport aircraft concept incorporating equal technology levels was also derived. The aircraft as compared on the basis of weight, size, fuel utilization, operational characteristics and costs.

  14. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  15. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-07-01

    An analysis of chemical composition data of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at the Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands) shows that desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). The study of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed the identification of the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the southern slope of the Atlas mountains emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring in Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria, Tunisia and the Atlantic coast of Morocco appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least 60 % of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90 % of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL may be influenced by soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2) receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  16. Transport of desert dust mixed with North African industrial pollutants in the subtropical Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, S.; Alastuey, A.; Alonso-Pérez, S.; Querol, X.; Cuevas, E.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; de La Rosa, J.

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition of particulate matter samples (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5) collected from 2002 to 2008 in the North Atlantic free troposphere at Izaña Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) observatory (Tenerife, The Canary Islands) was studied. The analysis of the samples collected in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) shows that soil desert dust is very frequently mixed with particulate pollutants. An analysis of this data set with Median Concentrations At Receptor (MCAR) plots allowed to identify the potential source regions of the dust and particulate pollutants. Areas located at the south of the Southern slope of Atlas emerge as the most frequent source of the soil desert dust advected to the northern edge of the SAL in summer. Industrial emissions occurring along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, Northern Algeria, Eastern Algeria and Tunisia appear as the most important source of the nitrate, ammonium and a fraction of sulphate (at least a 60% of the sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL. These emissions are mostly linked to crude oil refineries, phosphate-based fertilizer industry and power plants. Although desert dust emissions appear as the most frequent source of the phosphorous observed in the SAL, high P concentrations are observed when the SAL is affected by emissions from open mines of phosphate and phosphate based fertilizer industry. The results also show that a significant fraction of the sulphate (up to 90% of sulphate <10 μm transported from some regions) observed in the SAL is linked to soil emissions of evaporite minerals in well defined regions where dry saline lakes (chotts) are present. These interpretations of the MCAR plots are consistent with the results obtained with the Positive Matrix Factorization receptor modelling. The results of this study show that North African industrial pollutants may be mixed with desert dust and exported to the North Atlantic in the Saharan Air Layer.

  17. The mistral and its effect on air pollution transport and vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsmeier, U.; Behrendt, R.; Drobinski, Ph.; Kottmeier, Ch.

    2005-03-01

    Within the framework of ESCOMPTE, the influence of local wind systems like land-sea/mountain-valley winds on the distribution of air pollutants in the southern part of the Rhône valley and the coastal regions of southern France was investigated. In addition, the influence of the mistral on the long-range transport and vertical mixing of such substances on July 1, 2001 was analyzed. The results of the measurements of this mistral situation show high concentrations of O 3 and NO 2 in the layer just above the PBL at the southern exit of the Rhône valley near Avignon. By measurements from airborne and ground-based platforms and numerical simulations with the "Local Model" (LM) of the German Weather Service (DWD), it is shown that the mistral develops according to the theory conceived by Pettré [J. Atmos. Sci. 39 (1982) 542-554]. The synoptic-scale northerly flow through the Rhône valley is accelerated up to a Froude number ( Fr) of 2.1, while the valley widens. Then, near the Mediterranean coast, a hydraulic jump occurs and Fr drops down to values below 1.0. High ozone concentrations of 112 ppb measured above the mistral layer disappear due to enhanced mixing after the flow has passed the hydraulic jump. There is some evidence that the ozone-rich air originates from the source region of greater Paris or upwind. The results confirm that regional wind systems associated with transport of trace gases in the high-grade industrialized Rhône valley can be successfully predicted using data of operational weather forecast models.

  18. Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties of hydrocarbons with air. Part 1: Properties in SI units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties were calculated for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air. Three hydrogen-carbon atom ratios (H/C = 1.7, 2.0, 2.1) were selected to represent the range of aircraft fuels. For each of these H/C ratios, combustion properties were calculated for the following conditions: Equivalence ratio: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 Water - dry air mass ratio: 0, 0.03 Pressure, kPa: 1.01325, 10.1325, 101.325, 1013.25, 5066.25 (or in atm: 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50) Temperature, K: every 10 degrees from 200 to 900 K; every 50 degrees from 900 to 3000 K Temperature, R: every 20 degrees from 360 to 1600 R; very 100 degrees from 1600 to 5400 R. The properties presented are composition, density, molecular weight, enthalphy, entropy, specific heat at constant pressure, volume derivatives, isentropic exponent, velocity of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and Prandtl number. Property tables are based on composites that were calculated by assuming both: (1) chemical equilibrium (for both homogeneous and heterogeneous phases) and (2) constant compositions for all temperatures. Properties in SI units are presented in this report for the Kelvin temperature schedules.

  19. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along several avenues during the past year. A study of optimal trajectories for penetration of microbursts when encounter is unavoidable was conducted. The emphasis of current wind shear research is on developing an expert system for wind shear avoidance. A knowledge-based reconfigurable flight control system that is implemented with the Pascal programming language using parallel microprocessors was developed. This expert system could be considered a prototype for a failure-tolerant control system that can be constructed using existing hardware. Development of a real-time cockpit simulator continued during the year. The simulator provides a single-person crew station with both conventional and advanced control devices; it currently is programmed to simulate the Navion single-engine general aviation airplane. Alternatives for the air traffic control system giving particular attention to the institutional structure of the FAA are analyzed. A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of control systems is being investigated. The revitalization of the general aviation industry is also discussed.

  20. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.