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Sample records for air transportation management

  1. Proceedings of the Air Transportation Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard (Editor); Tashker, Michael G. (Editor); Boyle, Angela M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Air Transportation Management (ATM) Workshop was held 31 Jan. - 1 Feb. 1995 at NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to develop an initial understanding of user concerns and requirements for future ATM capabilities and to initiate discussions of alternative means and technologies for achieving more effective ATM capabilities. The topics for the sessions were as follows: viewpoints of future ATM capabilities, user requirements, lessons learned, and technologies for ATM. In addition, two panel sessions discussed priorities for ATM, and potential contributions of NASA to ATM. The proceedings contain transcriptions of all sessions.

  2. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  3. Analysis of air quality management with emphasis on transportation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. D.; Divita, E.; Lees, L.

    1980-01-01

    The current environment and practices of air quality management were examined for three regions: Denver, Phoenix, and the South Coast Air Basin of California. These regions were chosen because the majority of their air pollution emissions are related to mobile sources. The impact of auto exhaust on the air quality management process is characterized and assessed. An examination of the uncertainties in air pollutant measurements, emission inventories, meteorological parameters, atmospheric chemistry, and air quality simulation models is performed. The implications of these uncertainties to current air quality management practices is discussed. A set of corrective actions are recommended to reduce these uncertainties.

  4. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  5. Conflict Detection and Resolution for Future Air Transportation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krozel, Jimmy; Peters, Mark E.; Hunter, George

    1997-01-01

    With a Free Flight policy, the emphasis for air traffic control is shifting from active control to passive air traffic management with a policy of intervention by exception. Aircraft will be allowed to fly user preferred routes, as long as safety Alert Zones are not violated. If there is a potential conflict, two (or more) aircraft must be able to arrive at a solution for conflict resolution without controller intervention. Thus, decision aid tools are needed in Free Flight to detect and resolve conflicts, and several problems must be solved to develop such tools. In this report, we analyze and solve problems of proximity management, conflict detection, and conflict resolution under a Free Flight policy. For proximity management, we establish a system based on Delaunay Triangulations of aircraft at constant flight levels. Such a system provides a means for analyzing the neighbor relationships between aircraft and the nearby free space around air traffic which can be utilized later in conflict resolution. For conflict detection, we perform both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional analyses based on the penetration of the Protected Airspace Zone. Both deterministic and non-deterministic analyses are performed. We investigate several types of conflict warnings including tactical warnings prior to penetrating the Protected Airspace Zone, methods based on the reachability overlap of both aircraft, and conflict probability maps to establish strategic Alert Zones around aircraft.

  6. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  7. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  8. Air traffic control resource management strategies and the small aircraft transportation system: A system dynamics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, James J., Jr.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities at airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will also play a major role in the successful implementation of SATS, however, the administration is reluctant to embrace the unproven concept. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation is to determine if the FAA can pursue a resource management strategy that will support the current radar-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) system as well as a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)-based ATC system required by the SATS. The research centered around the use of the System Dynamics modeling methodology to determine the future behavior of the principle components of the ATC system over time. The research included a model of the ATC system consisting of people, facilities, equipment, airports, aircraft, the FAA budget, and the Airport and Airways Trust Fund. The model generated system performance behavior used to evaluate three scenarios. The first scenario depicted the base case behavior of the system if the FAA continued its current resource management practices. The second scenario depicted the behavior of the system if the FAA emphasized development of GPS-based ATC systems. The third scenario depicted a combined resource management strategy that supplemented radar systems with GPS systems. The findings of the research were that the FAA must pursue a resource management strategy that primarily funds a radar-based ATC system and directs lesser funding toward a GPS-based supplemental ATC system. The most significant contribution of this research was the insight and understanding gained of how

  9. The Relationship of Land Use and Transportation Planning to Air Quality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, George, Ed.

    Due to a lack of communication between urban, regional, and transportation planning agencies and air pollution control agencies, cooperative efforts in environmental planning have been nearly non-existent. This traditional lack of communication and understanding serves to obscure the fact that air pollution control agencies and planning agencies…

  10. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  11. Transforming air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Janet McCabe

    2005-04-01

    Earlier this year, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee submitted to EPA 38 recommendations intended to improve air quality management in the United States. This article summarizes the evaluation process leading up to the Committee's recommendations. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Air transportation noise technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggin, B.; Chestnutt, D.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA and DOT technology program planning for quieter air transportation systems is reviewed. To put this planning in context, the nature of the noise problem and the projected nature of the air transportation fleet are identified. The technology program planning reviewed here is discussed in relation to the following areas of activity: systems analysis, community acceptance, basic research and technology, and the various classes of civil aircraft, i.e. existing and advanced transports, powered-lift transports, and general aviation.

  13. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  14. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  15. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  16. Rotorcraft air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Intermodal relationships and the particular ways in which they affect public transportation applications of rotorcraft are addressed. Some aspects of integrated services and general comparisons with other transportation modes are reviewed. Two potential application scenarios are discussed: down-to-downtown rotorcraft service and urban public transport rotorcraft service. It is concluded that to integrate well with ground access modes community rotorcraft service should be limited stop service with published schedules, and operate on a few specific routes between a few specific destinations. For downtown-to-downtown service, time savings favorable to rotorcraft are benefits that reflect its more direct access, relatively higher line-haul travel speeds, and less circuitous travel. For the scenario of public transport within urban areas, first, improving cruise speeds has a limited potential due to allowing for a ""station spacing'' effect. Secondly, public acceptance of higher acceleration/deceleration rates may be just as effective as a technological innovation as achieving higher cruise speeds.

  17. Tomorrows' Air Transportation System Breakout Series Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss tomorrow's air transportation system. Section of this presentation includes: chair comments; other general comments; surface congestion alleviation; runway productivity; enhanced arrival/departure tools; integrated airspace decision support tools; national traffic flow management, runway independent operations; ATM TFM weather; and terminal weather.

  18. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  19. An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter F.; Adams, Milton B.; Allinger, Deborah F.; Rosch, Gene; Kuchar, James

    1998-01-01

    The continuing growth of air traffic will place demands on NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that cannot be accommodated without the creation of significant delays and economic impacts. To deal with this situation, work has begun to develop new approaches to providing a safe and economical air transportation infrastructure. Many of these emerging air transport technologies will represent radically new approaches to ATM, both for ground and air operations.

  20. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  1. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  2. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  3. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  4. [The prevalence of hearing impairment in transport workers and peculiarities of management of occupational loss of hearing (as exemplified by the situation in the air and railway transport)].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Skryabina, L Yu; Kas'kov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    This article presents data on the prevalence of hearing impairment among the workers engaged in the main means of transportation(air and railway transport). They show that the relative frequency of occupational loss of hearing in the cockpit members of commercial aviation amounts to one third of all cases of analogous diseases in this country. The main professional groups of transport works suffering from hearing impairment are constituted by the representatives of the so-called elite specialities, such as flying crew personnel, locomotive engineers, and their assistants. This fact constitutes an important aspect (not only of medical but also of socio-economic significance) of the problem under consideration. The high prevalence of professional hearing impairment among the transport workers is attributable to the high noise level in the cabins of locomotives and aircraft cockpits as well as to the inadequate expert and diagnostic work or imperfection of the regulatory documentation. PMID:26977561

  5. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  6. Development of the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The major developments are outlined in the U.S. scheduled air transport industry both domestic and international, together with a brief history of the European air transport system. The role and formulation of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board, International Civil Aviation Organization, and International Air Transport Association are also covered.

  7. Financing the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd-Jones, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

  8. Transport solutions for cleaner air.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Zhu, Tong

    2016-05-20

    In cities across the globe, road transport remains an important source of air pollutants that are linked with acute and chronic health effects. Decreasing vehicle emissions--while maintaining or increasing commuter journeys--remains a major challenge for city administrators. In London, congestion-charging and a citywide low-emission zone failed to bring nitrogen dioxide concentrations under control. In Beijing, controls on the purchase and use of cars have not decreased transport emissions to a sufficient extent. As cities continue to grow, not even zero-emission vehicles are the solution. Moving increasingly large numbers of people efficiently around a city can only be achieved by expanding mass transit systems. PMID:27199415

  9. Study of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Low density air transport refers to air service to sparsely populated regions. There are two major objectives. The first is to examine those characteristics of sparsely populated areas which pertain to air transportation. This involves determination of geographical, commercial and population trends, as well as those traveler characteristics which affect the viability of air transport in the region. The second objective is to analyze the technical, economic and operational characteristics of low density air service. Two representative, but diverse arenas, West Virginia and Arizona, were selected for analysis: The results indicate that Arizona can support air service under certain assumptions whereas West Virginia cannot.

  10. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  11. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  12. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transportation of commodities subject to this part. Subpart D of 22 CFR part 228 does not apply to this provision. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... § 228.22 Air transportation. The Fly America Act, Title 49 of the United States Code, Subtitle VII,...

  13. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transportation of commodities subject to this part. Subpart D of 22 CFR part 228 does not apply to this provision. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... § 228.22 Air transportation. The Fly America Act, Title 49 of the United States Code, Subtitle VII,...

  14. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transportation of commodities subject to this part. Subpart D of 22 CFR part 228 does not apply to this provision. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... § 228.22 Air transportation. The Fly America Act, Title 49 of the United States Code, Subtitle VII,...

  15. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services. PMID:21226561

  16. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  17. Air medical transport of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Essebag, Vidal; Halabi, Abdul R; Churchill-Smith, Michael; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2003-11-01

    The air medical transport of cardiac patients is a rapidly expanding practice. For various medical, social, and economic indications, patients are being flown longer distances at commercial altitudes, including international and intercontinental flights. There are data supporting the use of short-distance helicopter flights early in the course of a cardiac event for patients needing emergent transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention or aortocoronary bypass. When considering elective long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients for social or economic reasons, it is necessary to weigh the benefits against the potential risks of flight. A few recent studies suggest that long-distance air medical transport is safe under certain circumstances. Current guidelines for air travel after myocardial infarction do not address the use of medical escorts or air ambulances equipped with intensive care facilities. Further research using larger prospective studies is needed to better define criteria for safe long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients. PMID:14605071

  18. The Market Demand for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    Although the presentation will touch upon the areas of market for air transportation, the theoretical foundations of the demand function, the demand models, and model selection and evaluation, the emphasis of the presentation will be on a qualitative description of the factors affecting the demand for air transportation. The presentation will rely heavily on the results of market surveys carried out by the Port of New York Authority, the University of Michigan, and Census of Transportation.

  19. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Himanshu; Mehta, Yatin; Dubey, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Long distance air travel for medical needs is on the increase worldwide. The condition of some patients necessitates specially modified aircraft, and monitoring and interventions during transport by trained medical personnel. This article presents our experience in domestic and international interhospital air medical transportation from January 2010 to January 2014. Material and Methods: Hospital records of all air medical transportation undertaken to the institute during the period were analyzed for demographics, primary etiology, and events during transport. Results: 586 patients, 453 (77.3%) males and 133 (22.6%) females of ages 46.7 ± 12.6 years and 53.4 ± 9.7 years were transported by us to the institute. It took 3030 flying hours with an average of 474 ± 72 min for each mission. The most common indication for transport was cardiovascular diseases in 210 (35.8%) and central nervous system disease in 120 (20.4%) cases. The overall complication rate was 5.3% There was no transport related mortality. Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation. PMID:27625486

  20. Statewide air medical transports for Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Elizabeth; Mango, Nicholas K; Prenney, Brad

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) established a process to centralize air medical transport information. This database is one of the first statewide, population-based sources for civilian rotary-wing air medical transports (U.S. Coast Guard, police, and military missions are not included). The purpose of this database is to facilitate MDPH review of air medical transport service utilization, with input from a multidisciplinary committee. This article discusses the challenges in producing uniform data from multiple service submissions and presents aggregate "baseline" utilization information for 1996. These data served as a starting point for later studies using data linkage. This indexed article is the first to report statewide, population-based data for all types of air medical helicopter transports. The only other indexed "statewide air medical transport" paper focused on scene transports to trauma centers in Pennsylvania. A previous article by the authors in the July-September 2000 Air Medical Journal provided an overview of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes for 1 region of the state. PMID:12585073

  1. NASA technology program for future civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, H. T.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of the development status of technology, applicable to future civil air transport design, which is currently undergoing conceptual study or testing at NASA facilities. The NASA civil air transport effort emphasizes advanced aerodynamic computational capabilities, fuel-efficient engines, advanced turboprops, composite primary structure materials, advanced aerodynamic concepts in boundary layer laminarization and aircraft configuration, refined control, guidance and flight management systems, and the integration of all these design elements into optimal systems. Attention is given to such novel transport aircraft design concepts as forward swept wings, twin fuselages, sandwich composite structures, and swept blade propfans.

  2. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  3. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  4. Indoor Air Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    In an effort to provide Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) management guidance, Anne Arundel County Public Schools was selected by the Maryland State Department of Education to develop a program that could be used by other school systems. A major goal was to produce a handbook that was "user friendly." Hence, its contents are a mix of history, philosophy,…

  5. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  6. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  7. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements.

  8. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  9. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  10. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  11. Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Paul T.; Caviness, Michael L.; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  12. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  13. Technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements and opportunities for technological development in transport aircraft of the next generation are reviewed, focusing primarily on conventional, subsonic aircraft. Advances in computational aerodynamics and computer-aided design and manufacturing (in numerically controlled processes) are noted as well as improved wind tunnel testing and drag reduction techniques. Advances in aeroelasticity prediction have made it possible to use flexible, high-aspect-ratio wings without large weight penalties. Weight reduction may be achieved by the use of composite aircraft structures and superplastic forming combined with diffusion bonding, however composites require improvement in manufacturing techniques and mechanical properties in order to gain general acceptance. Propulsion systems can be improved in engine fuel efficiency, control, durability, environmental compatibility (exhaust and noise emissions), and fuel specifications. In avionics, due to the growth of low-cost, miniaturized packages, opportunities exist in the fields of digital controls, navigation, guidance and communication. Applications of new technologies to various aspects of flight safety are also outlined.

  14. Managing intracellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Chua, John J.E.; Jahn, Reinhard; Klopfenstein, Dieter R.

    2013-01-01

    Formation and normal function of neuronal synapses are intimately dependent on the delivery to and removal of biological materials from synapses by the intracellular transport machinery. Indeed, defects in intracellular transport contribute to the development and aggravation of neurodegenerative disorders. Despite its importance, regulatory mechanisms underlying this machinery remain poorly defined. We recently uncovered a phosphorylation-regulated mechanism that controls FEZ1-mediated Kinesin-1-based delivery of Stx1 into neuronal axons. Using C. elegans as a model organism to investigate transport defects, we show that FEZ1 mutations resulted in abnormal Stx1 aggregation in neuronal cell bodies and axons. This phenomenon closely resembles transport defects observed in neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, diminished transport due to mutations of FEZ1 and Kinesin-1 were concomitant with increased accumulation of autophagosomes. Here, we discuss the significance of our findings in a broader context in relation to regulation of Kinesin-mediated transport and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24058857

  15. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  16. Electronic information sharing in air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Handel, E.D.; Mitro, S.; Smith, E.C.; Tropea, L.C. Jr.; Koorse, S.J.; Cox, E.; Ahladas, J.

    1997-12-31

    The State Advisory Board on Air Pollution (SAB) was asked by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board to explore issues related to electronic information sharing in air quality management and to advise the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) on ways to set the scope, priority and long-term goals for electronic information sharing in air quality management.

  17. Pupil Transportation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anthony R.

    The safest means of transportation in the United States is the school bus fleet. Each school day, over 350,000 school buses transport about 22,000,000 children ages 3 to 21--from wheelchair pupils to varsity football players--to and from school in weather conditions ranging from those for Fairbanks, Alaska, to those typical of Cave Creek, Arizona.…

  18. International Air Transport and Federal Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal policy which establishes guidelines for future U.S. participation in the international air transportation industry is discussed. The policy issues discussed include the following: (1) aircraft hijacking, both foreign and domestic, (2) relationship of scheduled services and charter services, (3) capacity problems, and (4) rate regulation.

  19. The accelerated growth of the worldwide air transportation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, Mark; Klingauf, Uwe; Zock, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Mobility by means of air transportation has a critical impact on the global economy. Especially against the backdrop of further growth and an aggravation of the energy crisis, it is crucial to design a sustainable air transportation system. Current approaches focus on air traffic management. Nevertheless, also the historically evolved network offers great potential for an optimized redesign. But the understanding of its complex structure and development is limited, although modern network science supplies a great set of new methods and tools. So far studies analyzing air transportation as a complex network are based on divers and poor data, which are either merely regional or strongly bounded time-wise. As a result, the current state of research is rather inconsistent regarding topological coefficients and incomplete regarding network evolution. Therefore, we use the historical, worldwide OAG flight schedules data between 1979 and 2007 for our study. Through analyzing by far the most comprehensive data base so far, a better understanding of the network, its evolution and further implications is being provided. To our knowledge we present the first study to determine that the degree distribution of the worldwide air transportation network is non-stationary and is subject to densification and accelerated growth, respectively.

  20. Burbank Transportation Management Organization: Impact Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Aabakken, J.

    2006-11-01

    The Burbank Transportation Management Organization (BTMO), a private, membership-based, nonprofit organization dedicated to traffic reduction and air quality improvement, contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. Department of Energy-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory, to analyze its member programs and their benefits and effects. This report uses trip data collected by the BTMO, and defines and implements a methodology for quantifying non-traffic benefits such as gasoline savings, productivity, and pollution reduction.

  1. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  2. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  3. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  4. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL...

  5. Computing Thermodynamic And Transport Properties Of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Richard A.; Gupta, Roop N.; Lee, Kam-Pui

    1994-01-01

    EQAIRS computer program is set of FORTRAN 77 routines for computing thermodynamic and transport properties of equilibrium air for temperatures from 100 to 30,000 K. Computes properties from 11-species, curve-fit mathematical model. Successfully implemented on DEC VAX-series computer running VMS, Sun4-series computer running SunOS, and IBM PC-compatible computer running MS-DOS.

  6. Planning air transport network in Appalachia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. C.; Morlok, E. K.

    1975-01-01

    Main issues to be considered in designing an air transport system are discussed, and a model for the selection of an optimal air network for a region is presented. It was desired to have the ability to consider a dense network of nodes and air routes and variations in schedules on routes, which in combination would represent virtually all conceivable alternatives. Linear and integer programming were chosen as the most promising analysis methodologies. Integer programming was found to be intractable, while linear programming provided efficient solutions. The model was applied to studying the feasibility of a STOL network in West Virginia. Based on allowable paths, an examination of intercity demands, and established growth points, desired levels of service expressed as minimum flights were determined for certain city pairs.

  7. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  8. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  9. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  10. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  11. 29 CFR 1202.12 - National Air Transport Adjustment Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Air Transport Adjustment Board. 1202.12 Section... § 1202.12 National Air Transport Adjustment Board. Under section 205, title II, of the Railway Labor Act... four representatives to constitute a Board known as the National Air Transport Adjustment Board....

  12. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management plan. (c) Contents. An air tour management plan for a park— (1) May prohibit commercial air tour... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air tour management plans (ATMP). 136.39... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.39 Air...

  13. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  14. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC. PMID:23504461

  15. MANAGING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of managing indoor air quality (IAQ) in the U.S. In contrast to outdoor air, which is regulated through various federal and state statutes, there is no unified and comprehensive governmental regulation of IAQ. Therefore, IAQ is managed through variou...

  16. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  17. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and solicitations. 1510.7 Section 1510.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  19. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  20. 49 CFR 1510.7 - Air transportation advertisements and solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air transportation advertisements and solicitations. 1510.7 Section 1510.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES PASSENGER CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.223 - Transportation of Federal Air Marshals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transportation of Federal Air Marshals. 1544.223 Section 1544.223 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR...

  3. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  4. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  5. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  6. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5 Section 221.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff...

  7. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA Ames researchers have been investigating ways to improve the air transportation system through the development of decision support automation. These software advances, such as the Center-TRACON Automation System (eTAS) have been developed with teams of engineers, software developers, human factors experts, and air traffic controllers; some ASA Ames decision support tools are currently operational in Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facilities and some are in use by the airlines. These tools have provided air traffic controllers and traffic managers the capabilities to help reduce overall delays and holding, and provide significant cost savings to the airlines as well as more manageable workload levels for air traffic service providers. NASA is continuing to collaborate with the FAA, as well as other government agencies, to plan and develop the next generation of decision support tools that will support anticipated changes in the air transportation system, including a projected increase to three times today's air-traffic levels by 2025. The presentation will review some of NASA Ames' recent achievements in air traffic management research, and discuss future tool developments and concepts currently under consideration.

  8. Maximizing algebraic connectivity in air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng

    In air transportation networks the robustness of a network regarding node and link failures is a key factor for its design. An experiment based on the real air transportation network is performed to show that the algebraic connectivity is a good measure for network robustness. Three optimization problems of algebraic connectivity maximization are then formulated in order to find the most robust network design under different constraints. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem with flight routes addition or deletion is first formulated. Three methods to optimize and analyze the network algebraic connectivity are proposed. The Modified Greedy Perturbation Algorithm (MGP) provides a sub-optimal solution in a fast iterative manner. The Weighted Tabu Search (WTS) is designed to offer a near optimal solution with longer running time. The relaxed semi-definite programming (SDP) is used to set a performance upper bound and three rounding techniques are discussed to find the feasible solution. The simulation results present the trade-off among the three methods. The case study on two air transportation networks of Virgin America and Southwest Airlines show that the developed methods can be applied in real world large scale networks. The algebraic connectivity maximization problem is extended by adding the leg number constraint, which considers the traveler's tolerance for the total connecting stops. The Binary Semi-Definite Programming (BSDP) with cutting plane method provides the optimal solution. The tabu search and 2-opt search heuristics can find the optimal solution in small scale networks and the near optimal solution in large scale networks. The third algebraic connectivity maximization problem with operating cost constraint is formulated. When the total operating cost budget is given, the number of the edges to be added is not fixed. Each edge weight needs to be calculated instead of being pre-determined. It is illustrated that the edge addition and the

  9. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  10. Permanent internal pacemaker safety in air medical transport.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R S; O'Dell, K B

    1991-02-01

    Helicopter and fixed-wing air medical transportation provides an important role in the management of critically-ill patients. As the use of cardiac pacemakers continues to grow, knowledge of their expanding capabilities and sophistication is important. The environments of our "airborne intensive care units" are subject to many sources of electromagnetic and vibrational interference. Although pacemaker shielding mechanisms have become quite elaborate, further studies are needed to define their reliability in modern aircraft. Further, the possible effects of electromagnetic and vibrational interference upon inflight reprogramming require further study. PMID:10109075

  11. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  12. Weighted multiplex network of air transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Imre

    2016-06-01

    In several real networks large heterogeneity of links is present either in intensity or in the nature of relationships. Therefore, recent studies in network science indicate that more detailed topological information are available if weighted or multi-layer aspect is applied. In the age of globalization air transportation is a representative example of huge complex infrastructure systems, which has been analyzed from different points of view. In this paper a novel approach is applied to study the airport network as a weighted multiplex taking into account the fact that the rules and fashion of domestic and international flights differ. Restricting study to only topological features and their correlations in the system (disregarding traffic) one can see reasons why simple network approximation is not adequate.

  13. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aviation Systems Division at the NASA Ames Research Center conducts leading edge research in air traffic management concepts and technologies. This overview will present concepts and simulation results for research in traffic flow management, safe and efficient airport surface operations, super density terminal area operations, separation assurance and system wide modeling and simulation. A brief review of the ongoing air traffic management technology demonstration (ATD-1) will also be presented. A panel discussion, with Mr. Davis serving as a panelist, on air traffic research will follow the briefing.

  14. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  15. UK airmisses involving commercial air transport, January-April 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the introduction the following are briefly discussed: origination of an airmiss; purpose of airmiss reports; investigation of airmiss reports; categorization of airmisses; involvement of commercial air transport aircraft; airmisses related to flying hours. Tabulated statistics of the following are presented: the number of incidents of commercial air transport airmisses; commercial air transport aircraft involved in airmisses; commercial air transport airmisses related to flying hours. Reports on the commercial air transport airmisses from Jan. - Apr. 1991 are presented. These contain summaries of: pilot reports, transcripts of relevant RT frequencies; radar video recordings, and reports from appropriate air traffic control and operating authorities. The working groups discussion is summarized, and the risk and cause assessed.

  16. Air quality management in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    William Chameides; Daniel Greenbaum; Raymond Wassel; K. John Holmes; Karl Gustavson; Amanda Staudt

    2005-07-01

    In 2004, the National Research Council released Air Quality Management in the United States, a report prepared in response to a congressional request for an independent evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the Clean Air Act. Based on that report, this article summarizes the committee's findings and recommendations. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  18. 14 CFR 221.5 - Unauthorized air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unauthorized air transportation. 221.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS General § 221.5 Unauthorized air transportation. Tariff publications shall not contain fares or charges, or their governing provisions, applicable to foreign...

  19. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation....

  20. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation....

  1. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation....

  2. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation....

  3. Air quality management programs in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, J.

    1996-12-31

    Degradation of air quality in Asia due to economic growth during Past two decades is evident. The World Bank with its new mandate for sustainable development is working with Asian Governments to reverse the trend. This paper briefly describes initiatives called URBAIR and RAINS-ASIA. Urban Air Quality Strategy in Asia (URBAIR) program seeks to assist governments and the private sector in developing tools to identify immediate and long-term actions to restore air quality in Asian cities. The URBAIR program, conducted for four selected cities (Bombay, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Manila). Since air pollution management in Asian cities is in a preliminary stage, there is need to develop a comprehensive Action Plan as a framework for preparing the Air Quality Management Strategy in each city. In preparing this Action Plan, URBAIR has identified the main aspects of air pollution in the cities. These include major pollutants, their sources, and their health and economic impacts. Air quality models have been evaluated and adapted to the data available for these cities, and monitoring needs identified. An Action Plan has been proposed by the city based working groups for a comprehensive Air Quality Management Strategy.

  4. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  5. 75 FR 51392 - Federal Management Regulation; Transportation Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... 1] RIN 3090-AJ03 Federal Management Regulation; Transportation Management AGENCY: Office of... Administration (GSA) is amending the Federal Management Regulation (FMR) by updating its coverage on transportation management. This final rule updates definitions and corrects mailing and Web site addresses....

  6. Multidisciplinary investigation of the fate, transport, and remediation of chlorinated solvents in fractured rocks at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC): Scientific and management challenges, and strategies for a successful research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedeman, C. R.; Goode, D. J.; Shapiro, A. M.; Lacombe, P. J.; Chapelle, F. H.; Bradley, P. M.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Williams, J. H.; Curtis, G. P.; Hsieh, P. A.

    2008-12-01

    At the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton NJ, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Navy and under support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), is investigating the fate, transport, and remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its daughter products in dipping, fractured mudstones underlying the site. TCE concentrations in ground water are as high as ~100 mg/L. Objectives of multidisciplinary research at the NAWC include (1) understanding the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes and properties affecting the fate, transport, and removal of chlorinated solvents in fractured rocks, (2) assessing the efficiency of different remediation methods (pump and treat, natural and enhanced biodegradation), and (3) transferring the results to help remediate other contaminated fractured rock aquifers. There are numerous scientific and technical challenges to meeting these goals, including the extreme spatial variability of flow and transport properties at the NAWC and the complex distribution of contaminants, geochemical constituents, and microorganisms in fractures and the rock matrix. In addition, there are management challenges that are equally important to address in order to achieve a successful research program. These include balancing the requirements of the many parties involved at the site, including researchers, the site owner, and regulatory agencies; and ensuring that limited research funds are directed towards work that addresses the most important scientific questions as well as stakeholder concerns. Strategies for the scientific challenges at NAWC include developing a carefully planned program to characterize spatial variability in rock properties and groundwater constituents so that the data obtained are applicable to solving research questions focused on remediation. Strategies for the management challenges include fostering open lines of communication among all parties and

  7. Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbe, Jeffery G.; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-06-01

    A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.

  8. Southern Appalachian Mountains initiative: Regional partnership for air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, P.F.

    1999-07-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) is a voluntary partnership of state and federal agencies, industry, environmental groups, academia, and interested public. SAMI was established to identify and recommend air emissions management strategies to remedy existing and prevent future adverse air quality impacts to natural resources in Southern Appalachia, with particular focus on Class I national park and wilderness areas. SAMI's integrated assessment is focusing simultaneously on ozone, visibility impairment, and acid deposition. Computer models are linking emissions, atmospheric transport, exposures, and environmental and socioeconomic effects. The assessment is considering the impacts of existing and newly enacted federal air regulatory requirements and alternative emissions management strategies that SAMI might recommend for regional, state, or community-based actions.

  9. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  10. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    PubMed

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network. PMID:26312421

  11. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  12. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  13. Physiology and behavior of dogs during air transport

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Renée; Scott, Shannon L.; Émond, Jean-Pierre; Mercier, Florent; Cook, Nigel J.; Schaefer, Al L.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four beagles were used to measure physiological and behavioral reactions to air transport. Each of 3 groups of 4 sedated (with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of acepromazine maleate) and 4 non-sedated (control) dogs was flown on a separate flight between Montreal, Quebec, and Toronto, Ontario, after being transported by road from Quebec City to Montreal. Saliva and blood samples were taken before ground and air transport and after air transport. The heart rate was monitored during the whole experiment except during ground transport, and behavior was monitored by video during air transport. Sedation did not affect any of the variables measured. The mean plasma cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after ground transport than at baseline (225.3 vs 134.5 nmol/L); the mean salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after both ground and air transport than at baseline (16.2 and 14.8, respectively, vs 12.6 nmol/L). The mean neutrophil count was significantly higher (P < 0.05) after both ground and air transport than at baseline (80.6 and 81.4, respectively, vs 69.5 per 100 white blood cells), whereas the mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower (P < 0.05) (13.2 and 13.7, respectively, vs 22.4 per 100 white blood cells). Loading and unloading procedures caused the largest increase in heart rate. On average, the dogs spent more than 50% of the time lying down, and they remained inactive for approximately 75% of the time, except during take-off. These results suggest that transportation is stressful for dogs and that sedation with acepromazine, at the dosage and timing used, does not affect the physiological and behavioral stress responses of dogs to air transport. PMID:12146895

  14. Investigation of air transportation technology at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research done by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is addressed including Loran-C for guidance in flying approaches, an air traffic control simulator for the Manned Vehicle Simulation Research Facility, and an air traffic collision model theory.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  16. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  17. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  18. Semiautomated Management Of Arriving Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1992-01-01

    System of computers, graphical workstations, and computer programs developed for semiautomated management of approach and arrival of numerous aircraft at airport. System comprises three subsystems: traffic-management advisor, used for controlling traffic into terminal area; descent advisor generates information integrated into plan-view display of traffic on monitor; and final-approach-spacing tool used to merge traffic converging on final approach path while making sure aircraft are properly spaced. Not intended to restrict decisions of air-traffic controllers.

  19. Community rotorcraft air transportation benefits and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, G. A.; Freund, D. J.; Winick, R. M.; Cafarelli, N. J.; Hodgkins, R. F.; Vickers, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Information about rotorcraft that will assist community planners in assessing and planning for the use of rotorcraft transportation in their communities is provided. Information useful to helicopter researchers, manufacturers, and operators concerning helicopter opportunities and benefits is also given. Three primary topics are discussed: the current status and future projections of rotorcraft technology, and the comparison of that technology with other transportation vehicles; the community benefits of promising rotorcraft transportation opportunities; and the integration and interfacing considerations between rotorcraft and other transportation vehicles. Helicopter applications in a number of business and public service fields are examined in various geographical settings.

  20. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  1. Transportation by Air-On the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Rolair air flotation system is a spinoff of NASA/General Motors technology developed for the Apollo Program. It allows heavy loads to be moved easily by separating the load from the ground by a thin air cushion, virtually eliminating surface friction. Rolair Systems, Inc. was formed by former General Motors engineers and has successfully employed the system for both aerospace and nonaerospace industries.

  2. Dynamic Density: An Air Traffic Management Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudeman, I. V.; Shelden, S. G.; Branstrom, R.; Brasil, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of a metric of air traffic controller workload based on air traffic characteristics is essential to the development of both air traffic management automation and air traffic procedures. Dynamic density is a proposed concept for a metric that includes both traffic density (a count of aircraft in a volume of airspace) and traffic complexity (a measure of the complexity of the air traffic in a volume of airspace). It was hypothesized that a metric that includes terms that capture air traffic complexity will be a better measure of air traffic controller workload than current measures based only on traffic density. A weighted linear dynamic density function was developed and validated operationally. The proposed dynamic density function includes a traffic density term and eight traffic complexity terms. A unit-weighted dynamic density function was able to account for an average of 22% of the variance in observed controller activity not accounted for by traffic density alone. A comparative analysis of unit weights, subjective weights, and regression weights for the terms in the dynamic density equation was conducted. The best predictor of controller activity was the dynamic density equation with regression-weighted complexity terms.

  3. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Air transportation research being carried on at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, and Ohio University is discussed. Global Positioning System experiments, Loran-C monitoring, inertial navigation, the optimization of aircraft trajectories through severe microbursts, fault tolerant flight control systems, and expert systems for air traffic control are among the topics covered.

  4. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  5. Environic implications of lighter than air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsbrugh, P.

    1975-01-01

    The advent of any new system of transportation must now be reviewed in the physical context and texture of the landscape. Henceforward, all transportation systems will be considered in respect of their effects upon the environment to ensure that they afford an environic asset as well as provide an economic benefit. The obligations which now confront the buoyancy engineers are emphasized so that they may respond to these ethical and environic urgencies simultaneously with routine technical development.

  6. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.5 - What is transportation management?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is transportation... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT General § 102-117.5 What is transportation management? Transportation management is agency oversight...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.5 - What is transportation management?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is transportation... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT General § 102-117.5 What is transportation management? Transportation management is agency oversight...

  9. 41 CFR 102-117.5 - What is transportation management?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is transportation... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT General § 102-117.5 What is transportation management? Transportation management is agency oversight...

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.5 - What is transportation management?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is transportation... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT General § 102-117.5 What is transportation management? Transportation management is agency oversight...

  11. 41 CFR 102-117.5 - What is transportation management?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is transportation... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT General § 102-117.5 What is transportation management? Transportation management is agency oversight...

  12. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  13. Time-based collision risk modeling for air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan E.

    Since the emergence of commercial aviation in the early part of last century, economic forces have driven a steadily increasing demand for air transportation. Increasing density of aircraft operating in a finite volume of airspace is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the risk of collision, and in response to a growing number of incidents and accidents involving collisions between aircraft, governments worldwide have developed air traffic control systems and procedures to mitigate this risk. The objective of any collision risk management system is to project conflicts and provide operators with sufficient opportunity to recognize potential collisions and take necessary actions to avoid them. It is therefore the assertion of this research that the currency of collision risk management is time. Future Air Traffic Management Systems are being designed around the foundational principle of four dimensional trajectory based operations, a method that replaces legacy first-come, first-served sequencing priorities with time-based reservations throughout the airspace system. This research will demonstrate that if aircraft are to be sequenced in four dimensions, they must also be separated in four dimensions. In order to separate aircraft in four dimensions, time must emerge as the primary tool by which air traffic is managed. A functional relationship exists between the time-based performance of aircraft, the interval between aircraft scheduled to cross some three dimensional point in space, and the risk of collision. This research models that relationship and presents two key findings. First, a method is developed by which the ability of an aircraft to meet a required time of arrival may be expressed as a robust standard for both industry and operations. Second, a method by which airspace system capacity may be increased while maintaining an acceptable level of collision risk is presented and demonstrated for the purpose of formulating recommendations for procedures

  14. South coast air quality management district

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    The first of several state-of-the-art sampling instruments to monitor acid fog in the South Coast Air Basin on an on-going basis has been in stalled in Rubidoux by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The automated equipment, called the Caltech Active Strand Collector (CASC), is part of a long-term acid fog monitoring program developed by AQMD. The collecting process involves drawing a fog-laden air sample into the collector where fog droplets strike a series of teflon strands and run down to a collection trough. The sample is then sent to AQMD's laboratory to determine acidity and chemical composition. The monitoring equipment will be moved to Pomona later this winter, and to Crestline in the spring. Following this initial evaluation period, additional CASC units will be sited in the region.

  15. New hazmat transportation regulations for air

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation focuses on the eighth edition of UN recommendations on the transport of hazardous materials. The 1995--1996 edition of the ICAO technical instructions are evaluated. The author discusses the different classes of hazardous materials, focusing on flammability, combustibility, and the properties of self-reactive substances.

  16. Computational Modeling of Transport Limitations in Li-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Emily M.; Ferris, Kim F.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-02-22

    In this paper we investigate transport limitations in the electrodes of lithium-air batteries through computational modeling. We use meso-scale models to consider the effects of dendrites on the current and potential at the anode surface, and to investigate the effects of reaction and transport parameters on the formation of precipitates in the cathode. The formation of dendrites on the anode surface during cycling reduces the transport of ions and can lead to short circuits in the cell. Growth of precipitates in the cathode reduces the specific capacity of the cell due to surface passivation and pore clogging. Both of these degradation mechanisms depend on meso-scale phenomena, such as the pore-scale reactive transport in the cathode. To understand the effects of the meso-scale transport and precipitation on the performance and lifetime of Li-air batteries, meso-scale modeling is needed that is able to resolve the electrodes and their microstructures.

  17. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  18. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  19. Preliminary estimates of operating costs for lighter than air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Ardema, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary set of operating cost relationships are presented for airship transports. The starting point for the development of the relationships is the direct operating cost formulae and the indirect operating cost categories commonly used for estimating costs of heavier than air commercial transports. Modifications are made to the relationships to account for the unique features of airships. To illustrate the cost estimating method, the operating costs of selected airship cargo transports are computed. Conventional fully buoyant and hybrid semi-buoyant systems are investigated for a variety of speeds, payloads, ranges, and altitudes. Comparisons are made with aircraft transports for a range of cargo densities.

  20. Preliminary estimates of operating costs for lighter than air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Ardema, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Presented is a preliminary set of operating cost relationships for airship transports. The starting point for the development of the relationships is the direct operating cost formulae and the indirect operating cost categories commonly used for estimating costs of heavier than air commercial transports. Modifications are made to the relationships to account for the unique features of airships. To illustrate the cost estimating method, the operating costs of selected airship cargo transports are computed. Conventional fully buoyant and hybrid semi-buoyant systems are investigated for a variety of speeds, payloads, ranges, and altitudes. Comparisons are made with aircraft transports for a range of cargo densities.

  1. CTAS and NASA Air Traffic Management Fact Sheets for En Route Descent Advisor and Surface Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Management System (SMS) is a decision support tool that will help controllers, traffic managers, and NAS users manage the movements of aircraft on the surface of busy airports, improving capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. The Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project at NASA is developing SMS in cooperation with the FAA's Free Flight Phase 2 (FFP2) pro5ram. SMS consists of three parts: a traffic management tool, a controller tool, and a National Airspace System (NAS) information tool.

  2. Forecasting the demand potential for STOL air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Kanafani, A.; Mogharabi, A.

    1973-01-01

    A process for predicting the potential demand for STOL aircraft was investigated to provide a conceptual framework, and an analytical methodology for estimating the STOL air transportation market. It was found that: (1) schedule frequency has the strongest effect on the traveler's choice among available routes, (2) work related business constitutes approximately 50% of total travel volume, and (3) air travel demand follows economic trends.

  3. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  4. Evaluation of the impact of transportation changes on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titos, G.; Lyamani, H.; Drinovec, L.; Olmo, F. J.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-08-01

    Transport regulation at local level for the abatement of air pollution has gained significant traction in the EU. In this work, we analyze the effect of different transportation changes on air quality in two similarly sized cities: Granada (Spain) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Several air pollutants were measured at both sites before and after the implementation of the changes. In Ljubljana, a 72% reduction of local black carbon (BC), from 5.6 to 1.6 μg/m3, was observed after the restriction was implemented. In Granada, statistically significant reductions of 1.3 μg/m3 (37%) in BC and of 15 μg/m3 (33%) in PM10 concentrations were observed after the public transportation re-organization. However, the improvement observed in air quality was very local since other areas of the cities did not improve significantly. We show that closing streets to private traffic, renewal of the bus fleet and re-organization of the public transportation significantly benefit air quality.

  5. Air transport and the fate of pneumothorax in pleural adhesions.

    PubMed Central

    Haid, M M; Paladini, P; Maccherini, M; Di Bisceglie, M; Biagi, G; Gotti, G

    1992-01-01

    Air travel is contraindicated in patients with a pneumothorax but was necessary because of the exigencies of war in three patients. Three patients with high velocity missile injuries to the chest and pleural adhesions are reported. All had to be evacuated by air, without an intercostal drain or oxygen supplement, from the war stricken area of Northern Somalia (Horn of Africa) to Mogadishu. Two patients with a partial pneumothorax flew on military transport aeroplanes at an altitude of 3000 m in a non-pressurised cabin and recovered rapidly after a few days in hospital. One patient, transported on a small Cessna aeroplane, died after developing bilateral tension pneumothoraces. Images PMID:1481187

  6. Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).

    SciTech Connect

    Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

  7. Arrow 227: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bontempi, Michael; Bose, Dave; Brophy, Georgeann; Cashin, Timothy; Kanarios, Michael; Ryan, Steve; Peterson, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    The Arrow 227 is a student-designed commercial transport for use in a overnight package delivery network. The major goal of the concept was to provide the delivery service with the greatest potential return on investment. The design objectives of the Arrow 227 were based on three parameters; production cost, payload weight, and aerodynamic efficiency. Low production cost helps to reduce initial investment. Increased payload weight allows for a decrease in flight cycles and, therefore, less fuel consumption than an aircraft carrying less payload weight and requiring more flight cycles. In addition, fewer flight cycles will allow a fleet to last longer. Finally, increased aerodynamic efficiency in the form of high L/D will decrease fuel consumption.

  8. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton proceeded along four avenues: Guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; Application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; Computer aided control system design; and Effects of control saturation on closed loop stability and response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of prime concern.

  9. Integrated management of optical transport networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Zeng, QingJi; Yang, Xudong

    2000-12-01

    Optical transport networks (OTN) technology is expected to play a vital role in the next-generation transport networks. In this paper, the technology of OTN and management of OTN is discussed. Combined with TMN, SNMP and CORBA, integrated management of OTN is investigated. Q-adapter is proposed to integrate TMN and SNMP together, and a direct CORBA/SNMP interface is given to implement the integration of CORBA and SNMP. Finally, several issues concerning integrated management of OTN are also discussed, such as integrate routing of OTN in IP layer and in optical layer, multilayer protection of OTN and OAM technology of OTN.

  10. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  11. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in 40 CFR 1501.3 and 1501.5 through 1501.8 (for the purposes of complying with 40 CFR 1501.3 and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air tour management plans (ATMP). 136.39... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Parks Air Tour Management § 136.39 Air...

  12. Transportation and General Traffic Management, Change 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth those transportation and general traffic management responsibilities, guidelines, and procedures governing the use of commercial and Government transportation for NASA. Transportation is an integral function of the logistic process, involving all activities incident to the movement of persons and things. The fundamental and continuous objectives of transportation are to control and diminish the time-distance of lines of communication by the most suitable means. The function of transportation is accomplished through, and encompasses all, the planning, direction, supervision, and execution of the technical, operational, and administrative tasks required to procure or furnish efficient and economical conveyance of cargo and personnel by all modes of commercial and Government transportation. This Handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  13. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  14. ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

  15. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research on air transportation is addressed including navigation; guidance, control and display concepts; and hardware, with special emphasis on applications to general aviation aircraft. Completed works and status reports are presented also included are annotated bibliographies of all published research sponsored on these grants since 1972.

  16. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  17. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-07-30

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1-10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid-liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  18. Acoustophoretic contactless transport and handling of matter in air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Klingauf, Mirko; Ferrari, Aldo; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    Levitation and controlled motion of matter in air have a wealth of potential applications ranging from materials processing to biochemistry and pharmaceuticals. We present a unique acoustophoretic concept for the contactless transport and handling of matter in air. Spatiotemporal modulation of the levitation acoustic field allows continuous planar transport and processing of multiple objects, from near-spherical (volume of 0.1–10 μL) to wire-like, without being limited by the acoustic wavelength. The independence of the handling principle from special material properties (magnetic, optical, or electrical) is illustrated with a wide palette of application experiments, such as contactless droplet coalescence and mixing, solid–liquid encapsulation, absorption, dissolution, and DNA transfection. More than a century after the pioneering work of Lord Rayleigh on acoustic radiation pressure, a path-breaking concept is proposed to harvest the significant benefits of acoustic levitation in air. PMID:23858454

  19. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  20. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  1. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  2. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  3. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  4. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transport agreements....-Flag Carriers 47.403-2 Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air...

  5. 14 CFR Sec. 19-5 - Air transport traffic and capacity elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport traffic and capacity elements... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-5 Air transport traffic and capacity... reported as applicable to specified air transport traffic and capacity elements. (b) These reported...

  6. "Defence-in-Depth" Strategy in Transport Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanek, Andrzej

    Safety management is a kind of system management, that is management by purposes. Taking "defence-in-depth" strategy, DDS - there can be defined four main aims and four method groups of risk management in transport: 1. minimizing transport accidents risk; 2. minimizing number of undesirable transport events (incidents, conflicts, collisions, accidents). Above purposes relate stages of safety management in transport. At each level of management should be elaborated methods, procedures and technologies of minimizing transport accidents risk. According to DDS any management system of transport safety should have a structure of multilevel chain protections which supervise main transport processes. About those problems in the paper.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  8. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indoor Environment Management Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has developed an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for analyzing the impact of sources, sinks, ventilation, and air cleaners on indoor air quality. Early ...

  9. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  10. 77 FR 53779 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...This action extends the comment period of an NPRM on the reporting of incidents involving animals during air transport that was published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2012. See 77 FR 38747. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 28, 2012, to September 27, 2012. This extension is a result of a......

  11. Vehicle expectations in air transportation for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the air transportation system for the year 2000 in terms of vehicle expectations. Emphasis is placed on civil air transportation with the time period approached from the standpoint of evolutionary changes for the near term and also with the assumption of more revolutionary changes for the far term. The view along the evolutionary path begins with a historical review of airline market growth and the impact that technologies have had on airplane designs. Projections of the life expectancy of existing, derivative, and new airplanes are examined in terms of their productivity and fuel efficiency in view of the present and projected fuel usage and availability. The factors influencing airline growth are outlined and some views on whether another new generation of subsonic airplanes are in the offing are given along with an assessment of the economic viability of an advanced commercial supersonic transport in terms of its higher speed, higher productivity, and higher fuel usage. With regard to revolutionary changes, major technology breakthroughs are assumed to occur at a specified date. As an example, the impact of a dramatic reduction in skin friction drag is examined in terms of its effect on the airplane configuration, its propulsion systems, it projected fuel usage, and the air transportation system in which it must operate.

  12. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  13. The development of effects-based air quality management regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhurst, J. W. S.; Irwin, J. G.; Chatterton, T. J.; Hayes, E. T.; Leksmono, N. S.; Symons, J. K.

    This paper considers the evolution of attempts to control and manage air pollution, principally but not exclusively focussing upon the challenge of managing air pollution in urban environments. The development and implementation of a range of air pollution control measures are considered. Initially the measures implemented primarily addressed point sources, a small number of fuel types and a limited number of pollutants. The adequacy of such a source-control approach is assessed within the context of a changing and challenging air pollution climate. An assessment of air quality management in the United Kingdom over a 50-year timeframe exemplifies the range of issues and challenges in contemporary air quality management. The need for new approaches is explored and the development and implementation of an effects-based, risk management system for air quality regulation is evaluated.

  14. Air transportation energy consumption - Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy consumption by aviation is reviewed and projections of its growth are discussed. Forecasts of domestic passenger demand are presented, and the effect of restricted fuel supply and increased fuel prices is considered. The most promising sources for aircraft fuels, their availability and cost, and possible alternative fuels are reviewed. The energy consumption by various air and surface transportation modes is identified and compared on typical portal-to-portal trips. A measure of the indirect energy consumed by ground and air modes is defined. Historical trends in aircraft energy intensities are presented and the potential fuel savings with new technologies are discussed.

  15. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  16. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  17. Comprehensive Software Eases Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    To help air traffic control centers improve the safety and the efficiency of the National Airspace System, Ames Research Center developed the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) software, which won NASA's 2006 "Software of the Year" competition. In 2005, Ames licensed FACET to Flight Explorer Inc., for integration into its Flight Explorer (version 6.0) software. The primary FACET features incorporated in the Flight Explorer software system alert airspace users to forecasted demand and capacity imbalances. Advance access to this information helps dispatchers anticipate congested sectors (airspace) and delays at airports, and decide if they need to reroute flights. FACET is now a fully integrated feature in the Flight Explorer Professional Edition (version 7.0). Flight Explorer Professional offers end-users other benefits, including ease of operation; automatic alerts to inform users of important events such as weather conditions and potential airport delays; and international, real-time flight coverage over Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and sections of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Flight Explorer Inc. recently broadened coverage by partnering with Honeywell International Inc.'s Global Data Center, Blue Sky Network, Sky Connect LLC, SITA, ARINC Incorporated, Latitude Technologies Corporation, and Wingspeed Corporation, to track their aircraft anywhere in the world.

  18. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University, a program emphasizing graduate and undergraduate student research, proceeded along four avenues during 1984: (1) guidance and control strategies for penetration of microbursts and wind shear; (2) application of artificial intelligence in flight control systems; (3) effects of control saturation on closed loop stability; and (4) response of open loop unstable aircraft. Areas of investigation relate to guidance and control of commercial transports as well as to general aviation aircraft. Interaction between the flight crew and automatic systems is a subject of principle concern. These areas of investigation are briefly discussed.

  19. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  20. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    SciTech Connect

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  1. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The research conducted under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA and the FAA, one each with the Mass. Inst. of Tech., Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of activities is presented.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  3. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted during the academic year 1989-90 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation research is discussed. Completed works, status reports and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors, and expert systems concepts applied to airport operations. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  4. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  5. Intercontinental Transport of Aerosols: Implication for Regional Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ginoux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol particles, also known as PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 microns) and PM10 (particle diameter less than 10 microns), is one of the key atmospheric components that determine ambient air quality. Current US air quality standards for PM10 (particles with diameter < 10 microns) and PM2.5 (particles with diameter 2.5 microns) are 50 pg/cu m and 15 pg/cu m, respectively. While local and regional emission sources are the main cause of air pollution problems, aerosols can be transported on a hemispheric or global scale. In this study, we use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to quantify contributions of long-range transport vs. local/regional pollution sources and from natural vs. anthropogenic sources to PM concentrations different regions. In particular, we estimate the hemispheric impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and dust from major source areas on other regions in the world. The GOCART model results are compared with satellite remote sensing and ground-based network measurements of aerosol optical depth and concentrations.

  6. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  7. 76 FR 2744 - Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Disclosure of Code-Share Service by Air Carriers and Sellers of Air...-share service on Internet Web sites and elsewhere by air carriers, their agents, and third party sellers of air transportation in view of recent amendments to 49 U.S.C. 41712. FOR FURTHER...

  8. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  9. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Management District (AVAQMD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast...

  10. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  11. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  12. Statistical Engineering in Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is working to develop an integrated set of advanced technologies to enable efficient arrival operations in high-density terminal airspace for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. This integrated arrival solution is being validated and verified in laboratories and transitioned to a field prototype for an operational demonstration at a major U.S. airport. Within NASA, this is a collaborative effort between Ames and Langley Research Centers involving a multi-year iterative experimentation process. Designing and analyzing a series of sequential batch computer simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments across multiple facilities and simulation environments involves a number of statistical challenges. Experiments conducted in separate laboratories typically have different limitations and constraints, and can take different approaches with respect to the fundamental principles of statistical design of experiments. This often makes it difficult to compare results from multiple experiments and incorporate findings into the next experiment in the series. A statistical engineering approach is being employed within this project to support risk-informed decision making and maximize the knowledge gained within the available resources. This presentation describes a statistical engineering case study from NASA, highlights statistical challenges, and discusses areas where existing statistical methodology is adapted and extended.

  13. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  14. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  15. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  16. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  17. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  18. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  19. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  20. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  1. 14 CFR 206.4 - Exemption of air carriers for military transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. 206.4 Section 206.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AUTHORIZATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS § 206.4 Exemption of air carriers for military transportation. Air...

  2. Overview of NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the research for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Included is a review of the current air transportation system and the challenges of air transportation research. Also included is a review of the current research highlights and significant accomplishments.

  3. Air transport of the patient requiring intra-aortic balloon pumping.

    PubMed

    Mertlich, G; Quaal, S J

    1989-09-01

    Air transport of the IABC patient requires a high level of skill and competence. The nurse caring for the IABP patient must be experienced in balloon pumping in a variety of settings (catheterization laboratory, operating room) and during unstable hemodynamic conditions, such as occur with arrhythmias, pacemakers, severe cardiogenic shock, and cardiac arrest. The nurse must be trained in all aspects of console operation and troubleshooting. Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, examined its experiences in ground transportation of 50 IABP patients over a 5-year period. The hospital has put forth several important principles that we have incorporated into our recommendations for air transport of the IABC patient: 1. Transport personnel should be completely familiar with the function of the IABP console; capable of handling bleeding at the balloon site, should it occur; capable of delivering intravenous medications, CPR, and ACLS; and proficient in operation of the ventilator, hemodynamic monitoring, and aerohemodynamics. 2. All patients must be stabilized before transfer. Appropriate management of hemodynamic instability and/or respiratory distress should be undertaken prior to beginning transport. 3. Medical personnel delivering care must transfer patients into and out of transport vehicles with minimal interruption of IABP. 4. Health-care professionals present during transport should be thoroughly familiar with the patient's medical status and anticipated complications. This article was not intended to teach basic principles of intra-aortic balloon pumping; rather its purpose was to discuss those characteristics of balloon pumping that are unique to flight transport and how they impact on balloon pumping. Console operation should follow manufacturer's recommendations. Table 3 summarizes features of the Aries, Datascope, Kontron, and Mansfield transport balloon pumps. Manufacturers and aircraft suppliers should be consulted for specific balloon-pump operating

  4. Long-range transport of air pollution into the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Berg, T.; Breivik, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Fjæraa, A.; Forster, C.; Herber, A.; Lunder, C.; McMillan, W. W.; None, N.; Manø, S.; Oltmans, S.; Shiobara, M.; Stebel, K.; Hirdman, D.; Stroem, J.; Tørseth, K.; Treffeisen, R.; Virkkunen, K.; Yttri, K. E.; Andrews, E.; Kowal, D.; Mefford, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Stone, R.; Hoch, S.; Wehrli, C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of air pollution transport into the Arctic. The major transport processes will be highlighted, as well as their seasonal, interannual, and spatial variability. The source regions of Arctic air pollution will be discussed, with a focus on black carbon (BC) sources, as BC can produce significant radiative forcing in the Arctic. It is found that Europe is the main source region for BC in winter, whereas boreal forest fires are the strongest source in summer, especially in years of strong burning. Two case studies of recent extreme Arctic air pollution events will be presented. In summer 2004, boreal forest fires in Alaska and Canada caused pan-Arctic enhancements of black carbon. The BC concentrations measured at Barrow (Alaska), Alert (Canada), Summit (Greenland) and Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) were all episodically elevated, as a result of the long-range transport of the biomass burning emissions. Aerosol optical depth was also episodically elevated at these stations, with an almost continuous elevation over more than a month at Summit. During the second episode in spring 2006, new records were set for all measured air pollutant species at the Zeppelin station (Spitsbergen) as well as for ozone in Iceland. At Zeppelin, BC, AOD, aerosol mass, ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds all reached new record levels, compared to the long-term monitoring record. The episode was caused by transport of polluted air masses from Eastern Europe deep into the Arctic, a consequence of the unusual warmth in the European Arctic during the episode. While fossil fuel combustion sources certainly contributed to this episode, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe was the dominant pollution component. We also suggest a new revolatilization mechanism for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stored in soils and vegetation by fires, as POPs were strongly elevated during both episodes. All this suggests a considerable influence of biomass burning on

  5. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  6. Implementation of Satellite Techniques in the Air Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, Andrzej; Jafernik, Henryk

    2016-06-01

    The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

  7. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  8. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  9. Transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of high Rn-222 episodes (radonic storms) observed at three islands (Crozet, Kerguelen, and Amsterdam) in the subantarctic Indian Ocean is simulated using a three-dimensional chemical tracer model. The chemical tracer model is described and the simulated time series of Rn-222 concentrations at the three islands are compared to observations. The origin, seasonal frequencies, and periodicities of the storms are examined. It is found that the storms are due to fast boundary layer advection of air from South Africa, made possible by the conjunction of a subtropical high SE of Madagascar and a midlatitudes low off the southern tip of Africa. The implications of the results for the transport of continental air to the subantarctic Indian Ocean are discussed.

  10. Air transportation in the California Corridor of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, M.; Mahaffy, K.; Yanagi, G.; Lechmanski, L.; Riddle, T.; Howard, K.; Chan, C.; Gorman, M.; Bauer, B.

    1989-01-01

    The topic of the 1988-1989 NASA/USRA Advanced Design Project at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, was the development of an air transportation system to meet the needs of the California Corridor for the year 2010. As aircraft design is taught by two instructors having different philosophies about the teaching process, the two classes took different approaches to address the problem. The first part of this summary (California Air Transit System) represents the work done by the students of Professor A. E. Andreoli, who followed a systems approach, emphasizing the determination of the proper mission. The second part of the summary (Four Aircraft to Service the California Corridor) contains the four aircraft designed by Dr. D. R. Sandlin's class based on specifications determined from work done in previous years.

  11. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during the academic year 1991-1992 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, June 18-19, 1992. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (NGL-22-009-640), Ohio University (NGR-36-009-017), and Princeton University (NGL-31-001-252). Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance and control theory and practice, intelligent flight control, flight dynamics, human factors, and air traffic control processes. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  12. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  13. Air transportation systems for the California corridor of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 NASA and USRA identified Cal Poly as one of seven 'Centers of Aircraft Design Education', and accepted a proposal from Cal Poly to conduct a three-year study of the potential for Lighter-Than-Air (LTA), Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL), and Short Take-Off and landing (STOL) aircraft concepts for air transportation within the California corridor. The project emphasizes configurations that are both innovative and unconventional in design for use in the 2010 time period. The topic of LTA/VTOL/STOL aircraft was selected because it is consistent with the mission of the NASA Ames Research Center and is a broad topic that succeeding classes at Cal Poly can continue to iterate and refine to produce meaningful results for NASA. Along with studying the technical issues normally involved in any aircraft design problem, the topics of safety, noise, public acceptance, and economic viability in commercial operations are also addressed.

  14. Critical care air transport team (CCATT) nurses' deployed experience.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Theresa L; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use descriptive and phenomenological methods with Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) nurses to identify knowledge and skills required to provide care for critically ill patients in a combat environment. Unstructured interviews, focus groups, written narratives, group interviews, participant observation, and review of in-flight documentation of care were used to obtain data from 23 registered nurses who had deployed with CCATT missions. Dimensions that emerged from the data included: clinical and operational competence, personal, physical, and psychosocial readiness, soldier and survival skills, leadership, administrative concerns, group identification and integration, aircraft air and evacuation familiarity, and nurse characteristics. This information should be shared with CCATT trainers and unit personnel to better prepare them for the realities of future deployments. Future research could incorporate these data into a self-assessment scale to evaluate CCATT nurses' readiness for future deployments. PMID:20731282

  15. Fuel conservative propulsion concepts for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.; Witherspoon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study of proposed fuel conservative propulsion concepts for air transports with an assumed Mach 0.8 cruise capability are summarized. All engines considered are based on projected 1985 technology. Operating fuel requirements, propulsion operating costs, and noise characteristics are compared with those of a present technology turbofan engine. The study indicates that an advanced Brayton cycle gas generator in a turbofan engine or geared to an advanced multibladed, small diameter propeller with a projected efficiency of 80% at Mach 0.8 offers the greatest potential for energy conservation.

  16. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1984 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the schools is also presented.

  17. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1988-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The research conducted during 1988 to 1989 under the NASA/FAA-sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  18. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The research conducted during 1983 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The material was presented at a conference held at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, Altantic City, New Jersey, December 16, 1983. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, control, and display concepts. An overview of the year's activities for each of the universities is also presented.

  19. Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The research conducted during 1987 under the NASA/FAA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of 3 grants sponsored by NASA-Langley and the FAA, one each with the MIT, Ohio Univ., and Princeton Univ. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include computer science, guidance and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, flight dynamics, and applied experimental psychology. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  20. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  1. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  2. Acute management of vascular air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-01-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers. PMID:20009308

  3. Acute management of vascular air embolism.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-09-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers. PMID:20009308

  4. A design methodology for evolutionary air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunsuk

    The air transportation demand at large hubs in the U.S. is anticipated to double in the near future. Current runway construction plans at selected airports can relieve some capacity and delay problems, but many are doubtful that this solution is sufficient to accommodate the anticipated demand growth in the National Airspace System (NAS). With the worsening congestion problem, it is imperative to seek alternative solutions other than costly runway constructions. In this respect, many researchers and organizations have been building models and performing analyses of the NAS. However, the complexity and size of the problem results in an overwhelming task for transportation system modelers. This research seeks to compose an active design algorithm for an evolutionary airline network model so as to include network specific control properties. An airline network designer, referred to as a network architect, can use this tool to assess the possibilities of gaining more capacity by changing the network configuration. Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the airline service network has evolved into a distinct Hub-and-Spoke (H&S) network. Enplanement demand on the H&S network is the sum of Origin-Destination (O-D) demand and transfer demand. Even though the flight or enplanement demand is a function of O-D demand and passenger routings on the airline network, the distinction between enplanement and O-D demand is not often made. Instead, many demand forecast practices in current days are based on scale-ups from the enplanements, which include the demand to and from transferring network hubs. Based on this research, it was found that the current demand prediction practice can be improved by dissecting enplanements further into smaller pieces of information. As a result, enplanement demand is decomposed into intrinsic and variable parts. The proposed intrinsic demand model is based on the concept of 'true' O-D demand which includes the direction of each round trip

  5. Innovations in transportation and air quality: Twelve exemplary projects. Congestion mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Since its creation, the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program has spurred innovation in the types of programs and projects supported by Federal transportation dollars. The projects mentioned in this brochure show that the CMAQ program has been in the forefront of ISTEA`s effort to revamp the transportation planning process toward an intermodal focus. The CMAQ program is multimodal by design; it is a virtual requirement that new players beyond the highway and transit communities be a part of its implementation. Its success in meeting the congressional mandates of ISTEA is also documented by its unprecendented flexibility and robust spending rates. CMAQ funding needs now compete on an event footing with more traditional transportation programs for congressionally set spending authority.

  6. The Air Force Air Program and Information Management System (APIMS): A flexible tool for managing your Title V Operating Permits

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.A.; Gordon, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Air Force Command Core System (CCS) is an integrated, activity-based risk management system designed to support the information needs of Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) professionals. These professionals are responsible for managing a complex and often dynamic set of requirements, and therefore, have a need for an information system that can readily be customized to meet their specific needs. This dynamic environment also drives the need for flexibility in the system. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) is a module within CCS designed to not only manage permit compliance and emission inventories, but also support the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements related to air quality issues. This paper will describe the underlying foundation of CCS, the information linkages within the database, and then summarize the functionality available within the APIMS module to support the Air Quality Managers' information needs, placing emphasis on the flexibility the system provides to manage Title V Operating Permits.

  7. Thermal analysis of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototype.

    SciTech Connect

    Oneto, Robert; Levine, Howard; Mould, John; Pierce, Jim Dwight

    2003-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has designed a crash-resistant container, the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP), capable of surviving a worst-case plane crash, including both impact and subsequent fire, for the air transport of plutonium. This report presents thermal analyses of the full-scale PMATP in its undamaged (pre-test) condition and in bounding post-accident states. The goal of these thermal simulations was to evaluate the performance of the package in a worst-case post-crash fire. The full-scale package is approximately 1.6 m long by 0.8 m diameter. The thermal analyses were performed with the FLEX finite element code. This analysis clearly predicts that the PMATP provides acceptable thermal response characteristics, both for the post-accident fire of a one-hour duration and the after-fire heat-soak condition. All predicted temperatures for the primary containment vessel are well within design limits for safety.

  8. 77 FR 2496 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District and Imperial Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

  9. Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a

  10. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 8, No. 2. Volume 8, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Nickerson, Jocelyn (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. This journal contains articles on the following:Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft: A FlightOperationsQualityAssurance (F0QA) Analysis;Demand for Air Travel in the United States: Bottom-Up Econometric Estimation and Implications for Forecasts by Origin and Destination Pairs;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part I1 Political Oversight and Promotion;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part 111: Emerging Technologies;Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part Two B-Statistical Analysis of Current Practice;Integrating Human Factors into the Human-computer Interface: and How Best to Display Meteorological Information for Critical Aviation Decision-making and Performance.

  11. 75 FR 12328 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority AGENCY... it should not issue an order finding Charter Air Transport, Inc., fit, willing, and able,...

  12. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.74 Accident conditions for air transport...

  13. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.74 Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. (a) Test conditions—Sequence...

  14. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.74 Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. (a) Test conditions—Sequence...

  15. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.74 Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. (a) Test conditions—Sequence...

  16. 10 CFR 71.74 - Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. 71.74 Section 71.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.74 Accident conditions for air transport of plutonium. (a) Test conditions—Sequence...

  17. The Role of Exposure Science in Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality standards and regulations are designed to protect public health and the environment. However, there are issues regarding whether the current standards and regulations should be adjusted to be more protective or to more effectively target air quality management activi...

  18. 77 FR 12526 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Management District and Mojave Desert Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion...

  19. Encouraging School Transportation Effective Energy Management (ESTEEM). Fuel Economy Management Handbook for Directors of Pupil Transportation; School District Administrators; Transportation Department Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

    This handbook offers a practical approach for pupil transportation energy management by suggesting ideas to save fuel in the purchasing, planning, routing, scheduling, driving, and maintenance areas of the pupil transportation operation. The handbook is divided into seven parts. Part 1 and 2 provide insight into energy management in pupil…

  20. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...EPA is taking final action under section 110 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to approve a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This SIP revision incorporates District Rule 1714--Prevention of Significant Deterioration for Greenhouse Gases into the California SIP.......

  1. A methodology for long-range prediction of air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayati, M. B.; English, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A framework and methodology for long term projection of demand for aviation fuels is presented. The approach taken includes two basic components. The first was a new technique for establishing the socio-economic environment within which the future aviation industry is embedded. The concept utilized was a definition of an overall societal objective for the very long run future. Within a framework so defined, a set of scenarios by which the future will unfold are then written. These scenarios provide the determinants of the air transport industry operations and accordingly provide an assessment of future fuel requirements. The second part was the modeling of the industry in terms of an abstracted set of variables to represent the overall industry performance on a macro scale. The model was validated by testing the desired output variables from the model with historical data over the past decades.

  2. Simplified curve fits for the transport properties of equilibrium air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Tannehill, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    New, improved curve fits for the transport properties of equilibruim air have been developed. The curve fits are for viscosity and Prandtl number as functions of temperature and density, and viscosity and thermal conductivity as functions of internal energy and density. The curve fits were constructed using grabau-type transition functions to model the tranport properties of Peng and Pindroh. The resulting curve fits are sufficiently accurate and self-contained so that they can be readily incorporated into new or existing computational fluid dynamics codes. The range of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 15,000 K densities from 10 to the -5 to 10 amagats (rho/rho sub o).

  3. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α=2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality. PMID:26764752

  4. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  5. The Economic Effect of Competition in the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The air transportation industry has been described as a highly-competitive, regulated oligopoly or as a price-regulated cartel with blocked entry, resulting in excessive service and low load factors. The current structure of the industry has been strongly influenced by the hypotheses that increased levels of competition are desirable per se, and that more competing carriers can be economically supported in larger markets, in longer haul markets, with lower unit costs, and with higher fare levels. An elementary application of competition/game theory casts doubt on the validity of these hypotheses, but rather emphasizes the critical importance of the short-term non-variable costs in determining economic levels of competition.

  6. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  7. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  8. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  9. Managing Indoor Air Quality in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolums, Jennifer

    This publication examines the causes and effects of poor indoor air quality and provides information for reducing exposure to indoor contaminants in schools. It discusses the various indoor pollutants found in schools, including dust, chemical agents, gases, and volatile organic compounds; where they are found in schools; and their health effects…

  10. A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

  11. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  12. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  13. An inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Guohe; Qin, Xiaosheng

    2010-07-01

    Regional air pollution is a major concern for almost every country because it not only directly relates to economic development, but also poses significant threats to environment and public health. In this study, an inexact fuzzy-chance-constrained air quality management model (IFAMM) was developed for regional air quality management under uncertainty. IFAMM was formulated through integrating interval linear programming (ILP) within a fuzzy-chance-constrained programming (FCCP) framework and could deal with uncertainties expressed as not only possibilistic distributions but also discrete intervals in air quality management systems. Moreover, the constraints with fuzzy variables could be satisfied at different confidence levels such that various solutions with different risk and cost considerations could be obtained. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of regional air quality management. Six abatement technologies and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission trading under uncertainty were taken into consideration. The results demonstrated that IFAMM could help decision-makers generate cost-effective air quality management patterns, gain in-depth insights into effects of the uncertainties, and analyze tradeoffs between system economy and reliability. The results also implied that the trading scheme could achieve lower total abatement cost than a nontrading one. PMID:20681428

  14. FAA/NASA Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrell, Frederick R. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted during the academic year 1992-1993 under the FAA/NASA sponsored Joint University Program for Air Transportation Research is summarized. The year end review was held at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 17-18 June 1993. The Joint University Program is a coordinated set of three grants sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and NASA Langley Research Center, one each with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ohio University, and Princeton University. Completed works, status reports, and annotated bibliographies are presented for research topics, which include navigation, guidance, and control theory and practice, aircraft performance, human factors and air traffic management. An overview of the year's activities for each university is also presented.

  15. Proceedings of the Monterey Conference on Planning for Rotorcraft and Commuter Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    Planning and technological issues involved in rotorcraft and commuter fixed-wing air transportation are discussed. Subject areas include the future community environment, aircraft technology, community transportation planning, and regulatory perspectives.

  16. Evolutionary Concepts for Decentralized Air Traffic Flow Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Milton; Kolitz, Stephan; Milner, Joseph; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Alternative concepts for modifying the policies and procedures under which the air traffic flow management system operates are described, and an approach to the evaluation of those concepts is discussed. Here, air traffic flow management includes all activities related to the management of the flow of aircraft and related system resources from 'block to block.' The alternative concepts represent stages in the evolution from the current system, in which air traffic management decision making is largely centralized within the FAA, to a more decentralized approach wherein the airlines and other airspace users collaborate in air traffic management decision making with the FAA. The emphasis in the discussion is on a viable medium-term partially decentralized scenario representing a phase of this evolution that is consistent with the decision-making approaches embodied in proposed Free Flight concepts for air traffic management. System-level metrics for analyzing and evaluating the various alternatives are defined, and a simulation testbed developed to generate values for those metrics is described. The fundamental issue of modeling airline behavior in decentralized environments is also raised, and an example of such a model, which deals with the preservation of flight bank integrity in hub airports, is presented.

  17. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  18. Multicriteria methodological approach to manage urban air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Achillas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

    2011-08-01

    Managing urban air pollution necessitates a feasible and efficient abatement strategy which is characterised as a defined set of specific control measures. In practice, hard budget constraints are present in any decision-making process and therefore available alternatives need to be hierarchised in a fast but still reliable manner. Moreover, realistic strategies require adequate information on the available control measures, taking also into account the area's special characteristics. The selection of the most applicable bundle of measures rests in achieving stakeholders' consensus, while taking into consideration mutually conflicting views and criteria. A preliminary qualitative comparison of alternative control measures would be most handy for decision-makers, forming the grounds for an in-depth analysis of the most promising ones. This paper presents an easy-to-follow multicriteria methodological approach in order to include and synthesise multi-disciplinary knowledge from various stakeholders so as to result into a priority list of abatement options, achieve consensus and secure the adoption of the resulting optimal solution. The approach relies on the active involvement of public authorities and local stakeholders in order to incorporate their environmental, economic and social preferences. The methodological scheme is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, an area considered among the most polluted cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles. Intense police control, natural gas penetration in buildings and metro construction equally result into the most "promising" alternatives in order to control air pollution in the GTA. The three optimal alternatives belong to different thematic areas, namely road transport, thermal heating and infrastructure. Thus, it is obvious that efforts should spread throughout all thematic areas. Natural gas penetration in industrial units, intense monitoring of environmental standards and regular

  19. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  20. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  1. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  2. INL Site Executable Plan for Energy and Transportation Fuels Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest L. Fossum

    2008-11-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that sustainable energy and transportation fuels management will be integrated into DOE operations to meet obligations under Executive Order (EO) 13423 "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management," the Instructions for Implementation of EO 13423, as well as Guidance Documents issued in accordance thereto and any modifcations or amendments that may be issued from time to time. In furtherance of this obligation, DOE established strategic performance-based energy and transportation fuels goals and strategies through the Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Initiative, which were incorporated into DOE Order 430.2B "Departmental Energy, Renewable energy, and Transportation Management" and were also identified in DOE Order 450.1A, "Environmental Protection Program." These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of energy and transportation fuels management into site Environmental Management Systems (EMS).

  3. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  4. Modeling Air Traffic Management Technologies with a Queuing Network Model of the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

  5. Foam and Entrained Air Management: A Practical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Sal; Hoekstra, Philip M.

    Paper machines and the papermaking process have undergone remarkable changes in terms of chemistry applications and design parameters. These trends increase the likelihood that the stock will foam and generate turbulence, thus allowing air to be drawn in. For example, higher machine speeds and gap former technology cause more air to be present in the white water, which could ultimately lead to foam problems if not managed correctly.

  6. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  7. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Rule (CAIR), 70 FR 25172 (May 12, 2005); and Transport Rule or Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, 76 FR... our July 30, 2012 proposal for Arizona regarding interstate transport for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS (77 FR... significant deterioration of air quality for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS (78 FR 4337). We will act on the...

  8. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. 119.53 Section 119.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  9. The Future of Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G.; Erzberger, Heinz; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for the control of terminal area traffic to improve productivity, referred to as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), is being developed at NASA's Ames Research Center under a joint program with the FAA. CTAS consists of a set of integrated tools that provide computer-generated advisories for en-route and terminal area controllers. The premise behind the design of CTAS has been that successful planning of traffic requires accurate trajectory prediction. Data bases consisting of representative aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures and a three dimensional wind model support the trajectory prediction. The research effort has been the design of a set of automation tools that make use of this trajectory prediction capability to assist controllers in overall management of traffic. The first tool, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), provides the overall flow management between the en route and terminal areas. A second tool, the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) provides terminal area controllers with sequence and runway advisories to allow optimal use of the runways. The TMA and FAST are now being used in daily operations at Dallas/Ft. Worth airport. Additional activities include the development of several other tools. These include: 1) the En Route Descent Advisor that assist the en route controller in issuing conflict free descents and ascents; 2) the extension of FAST to include speed and heading advisories and the Expedite Departure Path (EDP) that assists the terminal controller in management of departures; and 3) the Collaborative Arrival Planner (CAP) that will assist the airlines in operational decision making. The purpose of this presentation is to review the CTAS concept and to present the results of recent field tests. The paper will first discuss the overall concept and then discuss the status of the individual tools.

  10. Identification of terms to define unconstrained air transportation demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhilhau, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The factors involved in the evaluation of unconstrained air transportation systems were carefully analyzed. By definition an unconstrained system is taken to be one in which the design can employ innovative and advanced concepts no longer limited by present environmental, social, political or regulatory settings. Four principal evaluation criteria are involved: (1) service utilization, based on the operating performance characteristics as viewed by potential patrons; (2) community impacts, reflecting decisions based on the perceived impacts of the system; (3) technological feasibility, estimating what is required to reduce the system to practice; and (4) financial feasibility, predicting the ability of the concepts to attract financial support. For each of these criteria, a set of terms or descriptors was identified, which should be used in the evaluation to render it complete. It is also demonstrated that these descriptors have the following properties: (a) their interpretation may be made by different groups of evaluators; (b) their interpretations and the way they are used may depend on the stage of development of the system in which they are used; (c) in formulating the problem, all descriptors should be addressed independent of the evaluation technique selected.

  11. Crisis management of air embolism in the or.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Patricia C; Yang, Zhao; Munoz, Ruben

    2015-04-01

    An air embolism in the OR is a life-threatening emergency that demands prompt coordinated interventions by all perioperative team members. Specific applications of protocols and guidelines, such as the flowchart provided in this article, provide key components of traditional and effective responses to surgical crises. Successful management of an air embolism event requires critical skills of perioperative nurses who must consider both the risks for VAE or AAE and preventive actions, be aware of the resources available during an air embolism in the OR, and collaborate with their team members through precise and accurate communication. PMID:25835011

  12. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  13. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  14. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  15. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  16. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation management areas. 450.320 Section 450.320 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The...

  17. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on... 18900 as fully as if that air carrier or foreign air carrier had in fact filed a properly...

  18. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on... 18900 as fully as if that air carrier or foreign air carrier had in fact filed a properly...

  19. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on... 18900 as fully as if that air carrier or foreign air carrier had in fact filed a properly...

  20. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on... 18900 as fully as if that air carrier or foreign air carrier had in fact filed a properly...

  1. A Review of the Thermodynamic, Transport, and Chemical Reaction Rate Properties of High-temperature Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C Frederick; Heims, Steve P

    1958-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of high temperature air, and the reaction rates for the important chemical processes which occur in air, are reviewed. Semiempirical, analytic expressions are presented for thermodynamic and transport properties of air. Examples are given illustrating the use of these properties to evaluate (1) equilibrium conditions following shock waves, (2) stagnation region heat flux to a blunt high-speed body, and (3) some chemical relaxation lengths in stagnation region flow.

  2. Pan Air Geometry Management System (PAGMS): A data-base management system for PAN AIR geometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    A data-base management system called PAGMS was developed to facilitate the data transfer in applications computer programs that create, modify, plot or otherwise manipulate PAN AIR type geometry data in preparation for input to the PAN AIR system of computer programs. PAGMS is composed of a series of FORTRAN callable subroutines which can be accessed directly from applications programs. Currently only a NOS version of PAGMS has been developed.

  3. DESCRIPTION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Key differences among many types of air quality models are the way atmospheric advection and turbulent diffusion processes are treated. Gaussian models use analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equations. Lagrangian models use a hypothetical air parcel concept effecti...

  4. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  5. Some considerations for air transportation analysis to non-urban areas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems associated with air transportation to and from nonurban areas. While a significant proportion of public transportation needs of nonurban areas are met by aircraft, there are indications that improvement in air transportation service are called for and would be rewarded by increased patronage. However, subsidized local service carriers are attracted by large aircraft operation, and there is a tendency to discontinue service to low density areas. Prospects and potential means for reversing this trend are discussed.

  6. United States International Air Transport Policy, the Promise and the Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, J. E.; Phillips, G.

    1972-01-01

    The United States international air transportation policy is discussed. The major departure of the current policy lies in the relationship between scheduled and charter services. Various provisions of the transportation charter are analyzed to show the restrictions as well as the benefits the legislation holds for commercial aviation. It is stated that a group of full service carriers can meet the full spectrum of demands for air transportation more efficiently than two or more groups.

  7. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Robert E.; Wangler, Michael W.; Selling, Hendrik A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations.

  8. Practical approaches for health care: Indoor air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, A.R.; Poulakos, E.M.

    1996-05-01

    The management of indoor air quality (IAQ) is of interest to building occupants, managers, owners, and regulators alike. Whether by poor design, improper attention, inadequate maintenance or the intent to save energy, many buildings today have significantly degraded IAQ levels. Acceptable IAQ is defined by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in Standard 62-1989 {open_quotes}Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality{close_quotes} as {open_quotes}air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority (80 percent or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.{close_quotes} ASHRAE`s definition not only addresses the chemical compounds that may be present in the air, but it also recognizes a need to address both physiological and psychosocial comfort. The second step is to conduct a performance review of the HVAC systems based on equipment design specifications and guidelines for acceptable IAQ. And the third step is to identify potential chemical, physical and biological sources that are known to contribute to adverse air quality. Upon completion of these three steps, you will able to identify the more significant contributors to IAQ problems and establish applications for prevention and mitigation.

  9. 2001 AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION DELEGATION TO CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a visit to the People's Republic of China (China) by members of the Air & Waste Management Association in October-November 2001 as part of a People to People Ambassador Program delegation. The delegation's main goal was to exchange information in the field of ...

  10. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD),...

  11. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA. PMID:22175178

  12. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  13. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  14. Occurrence of secondary insults of traumatic brain injury in patients transported by critical care air transport teams from Iraq/Afghanistan: 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Susan F; Bridges, Elizabeth; Johantgen, Meg

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury patients are susceptible to secondary insults to the injured brain. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to describe the occurrence of secondary insults in 63 combat casualties with severe isolated traumatic brain injury who were transported by the U.S. Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) from 2003 through 2006. Data were obtained from the Wartime Critical Care Air Transport Database, which describes the patient's physiological state and care as they are transported across the continuum of care from the area of responsibility (Iraq/Afghanistan) to Germany and the United States. Fifty-three percent of the patients had at least one documented episode of a secondary insult. Hyperthermia was the most common secondary insult and was associated with severity of injury. The hyperthermia rate increased across the continuum, which has implications for en route targeted temperature management. Hypoxia occurred most frequently within the area of responsibility, but was rare during CCATT flights, suggesting that concerns for altitude-induced hypoxia may not be a major factor in the decision when to move a patient. Similar research is needed for polytrauma casualties and analysis of the association between physiological status and care across the continuum and long-term outcomes. PMID:23356112

  15. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. PMID:20599249

  16. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  17. Standard operating procedure for air quality stationary source management at Air Force installations in the Air Force Materiel Command

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.M.; Ryckman, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    To sustain compliance and avoid future enforcement actions associated with air quality stationary sources and to provide installation commanders with a certification process for Title V permitting, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Stationary Source Management has been developed. The SOP consists of two major sections: Stationary Source Planning and Administration, and Stationary Source Operations These two main sections are further subdivided into twelve subsections which delineate requirements (e.g. maintaining inventories, applying for and maintaining permits, keeping records, reporting and certifying compliance) and assign ownership of processes and responsibilities (e.g. appointing a manager/alternate for each identified stationary air source). In addition, the SOP suggests training that should be provided from operator to commander levels to ensure that all personnel involved with a stationary air source are aware of their responsibilities. Implementation of the SOP should provide for the essential control necessary for installation commanders to eliminate stationary air source non-compliance and to certify compliance in accordance with the Title V Operating Permit requirements. This paper will discuss: the background and purpose for the SOPs content, the twelve subsections of the SOP, the success of implementation at various installations, the relevance or the recommended training, the success of negotiating with various labor unions for SOP implementation and the success of the SOP in reference to its intended purpose.

  18. Problems and issues for short-haul air transportation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of developing an efficient short-haul air system are not primarily technical, but economic and political. The key issues are whether the community will accept new and expanded air facilities, what standards of service the passengers will demand and how the system will evolve. The solutions recommended are national in scope and require the federal government to take a leading role.

  19. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  20. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  1. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  3. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  4. 77 FR 33793 - Optimized Transportation Management, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION Optimized Transportation Management, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 5, 2012. It appears... concerning the securities of Optimized Transportation Management, Inc. (``Optimized Transportation Management... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of Optimized...

  5. Transportation demand management and ridesharing. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, N.

    1996-12-31

    ;Contents: Developing a Travel Time Congestion Index; Measuring and Estimating Congestion Using Travel Time-Based Procedures; Evaluation of Speed Measurement and Prediction Techniques for Signalized Arterials; Estimating the Effect of Operational Improvements in the Houston Area; Toward a Common Parking Policy: A Cross-Jurisdictional Matrix Comparison of Municipal Off-Street Parking Regulations in Metropolitan Dade County, Florida; Optimization Model for Parking in the Campus Environment; and How Do We Know Employer-Based Transportation Demand Mangement Works. The Need for Experimental Design.

  6. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing brick and concrete paving of patio, and circular planters. View facing east. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site showing stone wall around patio. View facing east-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Transport properties of high-temperature air in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, D.; Capitelli, M.; Catalfamo, C.; Giordano, D.

    2011-01-15

    Transport properties of equilibrium air plasmas in a magnetic field are calculated with the Chapman-Enskog method. The range considered for the temperature is [50-50 000] K and for the magnetic induction is [0-300] T.

  9. Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correnti, Vincenzo; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Capri, Salvatore; Inturri, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The volume of air traffic worldwide is still in constant growth despite unfair events that sometimes occur. The demand for regional air transport is also increasing, thanks in part to the use of new vehicles purposely designed for short range flights which make this means of transport more attractive than in the past. This paper studies the possibility of using aircraft capable of vertical or short takeoff or landing (V/STOL), in particular the tiltrotor, in the regional air transport market and the impact on airport capacity that the use of this craft would have. With this in mind the advantages and disadvantages of using this vehicle are identified, as well as the changes to be made to the air transport system in order to exploit its full potential.

  10. 77 FR 38747 - Reports by Air Carriers on Incidents Involving Animals During Air Transport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may... implementing section 710 of AIR-21. See 68 FR 47798. The rule required air carriers that provide scheduled... regulations. See 70 FR 7392. The rule is codified at 14 CFR 234.13. Section 234.13 requires air carriers...

  11. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  12. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Monterey Bay Unified Air...

  13. 77 FR 26475 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD), Eastern Kern Air Pollution...

  14. The energy dilemma and its impact on air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. R. (Editor); Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Cribbins, P. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The dimensions of the energy situation are discussed in relation to air travel. Energy conservation, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency are examined, as well as the proposal for subsonic aircraft using hydrogen fuel.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  16. E&P forum land transport safety management guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.; Carouso, M.; Covil, M.

    1996-11-01

    Against a general background of falling lost time injuries the member of serious incidents and fatalities in the upstream E&P industry involving motor vehicles employed in land transport remains stubbornly high. In consequence the E&P Forum has prepared guidelines to provide the E&P industry with clear guidance and a shared aim in minimizing vehicle incidents and their costs. Logistics and land transport are multifunctional activities involving personnel throughout the E&P industry. All those involved in land transport share a joint commitment to amazing land transport risks in their operation and to preventing incidents and fatalities as stated in their HSE policies. Historically management`s focus has been on those activities which have a higher perceived risk. This attention has resulted in significant reductions in the number of accidents in these areas. The management of land transport safety requires the same approach and the same proactive emphasis as the management of other HSE risks within the business activity. Companies should have in place a management system for land transport operations based on a full and careful appraisal of the risks, followed by a clear management strategy to minimis and control those risks to a level as low as reasonably practicable.

  17. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  18. A proposed method for quantifying low-air-loss mattress performance by moisture transport.

    PubMed

    Figliola, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Because they are believed to control the microclimate of the skin by removing or reducing perspiration accumulation and providing localized cooling, low-air-loss mattress systems are used for the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers. However, no clear, universally agreed upon definition exists for their design, and reproducible standards on which to base their performance or assess their anticipated clinical effect are lacking. A clinically relevant, reproducible, mechanistic, controlled laboratory test methodology was developed to assess and compare the moisture transport properties of a variety of low-air-loss products by measuring and balancing the complete moisture transport into and out of low-air-loss mattress systems. Using a controlled and defined operating environment, the low-air-loss system is moisture- and weight-loaded using a patient skin moisture analog. Moisture and air transport properties into and out of the environment are measured. Total moisture balance, comparing total moisture change of the analog against the time-based moisture transport data, validates the results. Using mattresses from various manufacturers, time-based data using the study method showed important differences in low-air-loss characteristics related to mattress system design, performance, and function. The observed time-averaged moisture transport performance values indicate that several systems meet an acceptable minimum level of performance, but performance levels between different low-air-loss mattress systems vary markedly. PMID:12532032

  19. MANAGING EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the factors to be considered in managing indoor air pollutants in residential and office environments to reduce occupant exposures. Techniques for managing indoor air pollution sources include: source elimination, substitution, modification, and pretreatment a...

  20. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  1. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  3. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  5. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  6. Waste management issues at US Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    Air Force installations are industrial bases for projecting men and machinery around the globe. Supporting this mission typically requires large quantities of stockpiled potentially hazardous materials. Over the past several decades, spills, poor accounting, mis-handling, and lack of understanding have led to discharges of hazardous substances into the environment. The Installation Restoration Program (IRP) is a Department of Defense directed program aimed at remediating discharges of hazardous substances, POL (petroleum, oil, and lubricants), and solid waste disposal at defense installations. The IRP is broader in scope than even the US EPA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and requires the Air Force managers to integrate their programs with a broad range of regulations (See Table 1 below). Managing the wastes generated by the remediation program is one of the unexpected problems the Air Force has faced in their remediation efforts. The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, to pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don`t really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. Moreover, these policies ignore a fundamental technology available to today`s environmental managers: waste minimization.

  7. Waste management issues at US Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    Air Force installations are industrial bases for projecting men and machinery around the globe. Supporting this mission typically requires large quantities of stockpiled potentially hazardous materials. Over the past several decades, spills, poor accounting, mis-handling, and lack of understanding have led to discharges of hazardous substances into the environment. The Installation Restoration Program (IRP) is a Department of Defense directed program aimed at remediating discharges of hazardous substances, POL (petroleum, oil, and lubricants), and solid waste disposal at defense installations. The IRP is broader in scope than even the US EPA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and requires the Air Force managers to integrate their programs with a broad range of regulations (See Table 1 below). Managing the wastes generated by the remediation program is one of the unexpected problems the Air Force has faced in their remediation efforts. The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, to pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. Moreover, these policies ignore a fundamental technology available to today's environmental managers: waste minimization.

  8. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT 2010) Since this contract involves... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and...

  9. An air-breathing ballistic space transporter for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. A.; Buehler, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    With increasing transport requirements, reusable space transporters again receive serious consideration in Europe as successors to the Ariane family. The paper deals with a hydrogen-ramjet-propelled, 1-1/2-stage reusable ballistic space transporter with vertical take-off and landing and using liquid hydrogen/oxygen rockets. This novel concept was developed in a theoretical study at the University of Stuttgart. The results are compared with recently published studies of several other European space transporter concepts. The data derived for the Istra - concept are: 15.4 Mg payload into low Earth-orbit, 155 Mg gross lift-off mass, 10% payload ratio, which represents a 57% propellant saving, and 44% reduction in dry mass (structure and engines) compared with comparable two-stage pure rocket concepts.

  10. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  11. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  12. 75 FR 13332 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority Correction In notice document 2010-5555 appearing on page 12328 in the issue of Monday, March 15, 2010, make...

  13. The Role of the Federal Government in the Development of the US Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reviewed are the roles of the various Federal agencies in the regulation, control, and development of the Air System, with major emphasis on the Department of Transportation (Office of the Secretary, Federal Aviation Administration, and National Transportation Safety Board) and the Civil Aeronautics Board.

  14. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation. 221.61 Section 221.61 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.61 Rules and...

  15. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS...

  16. Air traffic control by distributed management in a MLS environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Hart, S.

    1977-01-01

    The microwave landing system (MLS) is a technically feasible means for increasing runway capacity since it could support curved approaches to a short final. The shorter the final segment of the approach, the wider the variety of speed mixes possible so that theoretically, capacity would ultimately be limited by runway occupance time only. An experiment contrasted air traffic control in a MLS environment under a centralized form of management and under distributed management which was supported by a traffic situation display in each of the 3 piloted simulators. Objective flight data, verbal communication and subjective responses were recorded on 18 trial runs lasting about 20 minutes each. The results were in general agreement with previous distributed management research. In particular, distributed management permitted a smaller spread of intercrossing times and both pilots and controllers perceived distributed management as the more 'ideal' system in this task. It is concluded from this and previous research that distributed management offers a viable alternative to centralized management with definite potential for dealing with dense traffic in a safe, orderly and expeditious manner.

  17. Air transport in connection with the Hiroshima-Nagasaki dose-reevaluation effort

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, G.P.; Little, R.C.; Seamon, R.E.; Soran, P.D.

    1982-07-01

    During calendar year 1981 one man-year of effort on the part of the Monte Carlo Group at Los Alamos was committed to the renormalization of cross sections for use in air-over-ground calculations. Calculations of the Army Pulsed Reactor Division (APRD) measurements, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) broomstick experiments, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pulsed sphere experiments carried out with the view to renormalizing the air transport cross sections are described in this report. On the basis of our calculations, it is impossible to conclude that there is anything grossly in error with the air transport cross sections.

  18. Practical approaches for healthcare: Indoor air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, A.R.; Poulakos, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    The management of indoor air quality (IAQ) is of interest to building occupants, managers, owners, and regulators alike. Whether by poor design, improper attention, inadequate maintenance or the intent to save energy, many buildings today have significantly degraded IAQ levels. Considering the increase of facilities and occupants in the non-industrial sector of the nation`s workforce, the consequences of inadequate IAQ, as related to productivity, human wellness and healthcare costs in the commercial (healthcare) environment, have become increasingly urgent issues to design professionals, building owners and managers, safety and health professionals, interior product manufacturers, and HVAC control vendors. The first step of proper IAQ management is to fully understand the issue of IAQ and to a certain elemental degree, the extent of the problem(s), causes and possible solution applications. The second step is to conduct a performance review of the HVAC systems based on equipment design specifications and guidelines for acceptable IAQ. And the third step is to identify potential chemical, physical and biological sources that are known to contribute to adverse air quality.

  19. Principled negotiation and distributed optimization for advanced air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangermann, John Paul

    Today's aircraft/airspace system faces complex challenges. Congestion and delays are widespread as air traffic continues to grow. Airlines want to better optimize their operations, and general aviation wants easier access to the system. Additionally, the accident rate must decline just to keep the number of accidents each year constant. New technology provides an opportunity to rethink the air traffic management process. Faster computers, new sensors, and high-bandwidth communications can be used to create new operating models. The choice is no longer between "inflexible" strategic separation assurance and "flexible" tactical conflict resolution. With suitable operating procedures, it is possible to have strategic, four-dimensional separation assurance that is flexible and allows system users maximum freedom to optimize operations. This thesis describes an operating model based on principled negotiation between agents. Many multi-agent systems have agents that have different, competing interests but have a shared interest in coordinating their actions. Principled negotiation is a method of finding agreement between agents with different interests. By focusing on fundamental interests and searching for options for mutual gain, agents with different interests reach agreements that provide benefits for both sides. Using principled negotiation, distributed optimization by each agent can be coordinated leading to iterative optimization of the system. Principled negotiation is well-suited to aircraft/airspace systems. It allows aircraft and operators to propose changes to air traffic control. Air traffic managers check the proposal maintains required aircraft separation. If it does, the proposal is either accepted or passed to agents whose trajectories change as part of the proposal for approval. Aircraft and operators can use all the data at hand to develop proposals that optimize their operations, while traffic managers can focus on their primary duty of ensuring

  20. Transport of Aerosols: Regional and Global Implications for Climate, Weather, and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine; Kahn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols can have a significant impact on global climate, regional weather, and local air quality. In this study, we use a global model GOCART together with satellite data and ground-based measurements to assess the emission and transport of pollution, dust, biomass burning, and volcanic aerosols and their implications. In particular, we will show the impact of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols from major pollution and dust source regions to (1) the surface air quality, (2) the atmospheric heating rates, and (3) surface radiation change near the source and downwind regions.

  1. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  2. Transporting Students into Thin Air: Using Science to Enhance Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Patricia; Rogowski, Nick; Hedt, Melissa; Rolfe, Nadeen

    2010-01-01

    The "Into Thin Air" unit, based on the book by Jon Krakauer, was designed as an interdisciplinary unit for a small group of academically gifted sixth-grade students. It included hands-on, minds-on activities that would immerse students in the scientific, social, and personal struggles people face while attempting to climb the world's tallest…

  3. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  4. The Use of Atmospheric Science to Determine Optimal Air Quality Management Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.

    2002-05-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) has required that states meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) through the development of State Implementation Plans (SIPs). In the case of relatively long-lived pollutants such as tropospheric ozone and fine particulate matter it is often not possible for an individual state to attain compliance with the NAAQS simply by controlling its own emissions because of long-range transport of these pollutants and their precursors from outside the state. Recognizing this problem, the 1990 CAA amendments provided for the establishment of multi-state air quality management regions. One such region is the eleven northeastern states which form the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (OTR). These states have cooperated in the creation of a NOx emissions trading program among large stationary sources. However, cooperation has been problematic and numerous lawsuits have resulted. If federal authority existed to define non-attainment areas such that they included all sources which contributed to the violation, regardless of whether they were in different states, attainment of environmental goals would be facilitated. The use of atmospheric chemical tracer models in conjunction with measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants could be used to determine the distribution of the sources that significantly contribute to the violation of the NAAQS in a given region and the spatial and temporal dependences of the air quality violations on the emission sources. With federal authority, a non-attainment region could then be defined and addressed in a scientifically coherent fashion rather than in a way determined by political jurisdictions. In this talk I will discuss how a national policy goal of determining appropriate scales for air quality control could catalyze additional scientific research including analysis of measurements of ambient pollutant concentrations, improvements in air quality models, and the development of chemical weather

  5. Airspace Complexity and its Application in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano; Sheth, Kapil; Edwards, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The United States Air Traffic Management (ATM) system provides services to enable safe, orderly and efficient aircraft operations within the airspace over the continental United States and over large portions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. It consists of two components, Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The ATC function ensures that the aircraft within the airspace are separated at all times while the TFM function organizes the aircraft into a flow pattern to ensure their safe and efficient movement. In order to accomplish the ATC and TFM functions, the airspace over United States is organized into 22 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). The Center airspace is stratified into low-altitude, high-altitude and super-high altitude groups of Sectors. Each vertical layer is further partitioned into several horizontal Sectors. A typical ARTCC airspace is partitioned into 20 to 80 Sectors. These Sectors are the basic control units within the ATM system.

  6. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  7. Semantic Representation and Scale-Up of Integrated Air Traffic Management Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Ranjan, Shubha; Wei, Mie; Eshow, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Each day, the global air transportation industry generates a vast amount of heterogeneous data from air carriers, air traffic control providers, and secondary aviation entities handling baggage, ticketing, catering, fuel delivery, and other services. Generally, these data are stored in isolated data systems, separated from each other by significant political, regulatory, economic, and technological divides. These realities aside, integrating aviation data into a single, queryable, big data store could enable insights leading to major efficiency, safety, and cost advantages. In this paper, we describe an implemented system for combining heterogeneous air traffic management data using semantic integration techniques. The system transforms data from its original disparate source formats into a unified semantic representation within an ontology-based triple store. Our initial prototype stores only a small sliver of air traffic data covering one day of operations at a major airport. The paper also describes our analysis of difficulties ahead as we prepare to scale up data storage to accommodate successively larger quantities of data -- eventually covering all US commercial domestic flights over an extended multi-year timeframe. We review several approaches to mitigating scale-up related query performance concerns.

  8. 78 FR 59880 - Enhanced Consumer Protections for Charter Air Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may....'' 31 FR 4771, March 22, 1966. Clearly the CAB and the Department, as well as the DOD, considered... transportation by airlines. There is a special category in Part 241 for reporting of ``Nonscheduled...

  9. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... shipped in a single package containing no more than an A2 quantity of plutonium in any isotope or...

  10. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... shipped in a single package containing no more than an A2 quantity of plutonium in any isotope or...

  11. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... shipped in a single package containing no more than an A2 quantity of plutonium in any isotope or...

  12. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... shipped in a single package containing no more than an A2 quantity of plutonium in any isotope or...

  13. MODELING TRANSPORT BY CONVECTIVE CLOUDS FOR REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model is developed to account for regional scale vertical transport of pollutants from the mixed layer to the overlying free troposphere by an ensemble of non-precipitating cumulus convective clouds. The model determines acceptable cloud classes for given atmospheric state repr...

  14. Designing and managing the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarias, J.S.; Sylte, W.W. )

    1991-09-01

    The field measurement phase of the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study, which was conducted in the summer of 1990, was the largest and most sophisticated study of its kind ever conducted in this country. The San Joaquin Valley has the nation's second worst overall air quality problem and is using the study results to conduct regional modeling to refine its control strategies. The study began in 1985 and will continue into the mid-1990s. The origins of the study, and the manner in which it is being funded and administered, reflect a unique and highly successful collaboration among several levels of government and the private sector. The temporary organizational structure formed to manage the study sets an interesting precedent for how political-level leaders can work effectively with the scientific community to conduct a long term technical study.

  15. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  16. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  17. Potential of hydrogen fuel for future air transportation systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, W. J.; Fetterman, D. E.; Bonner, T. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydrogen fuel can yield spectacular improvements in aircraft performance in addition to its more widely discussed environmental advantages. The characteristics of subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic transport aircraft using hydrogen fuel are discussed, and their performance and environmental impact are compared to that of similar aircraft using conventional fuel. The possibilities of developing hydrogen-fueled supersonic and hypersonic vehicles with sonic boom levels acceptable for overland flight are also explored.

  18. On the pathways and timescales of intercontinental air pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; Forster, Caroline; James, Paul; Spichtinger, Nicole

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents results of a 1-year simulation of the transport of six passive tracers, released over the continents according to an emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Lagrangian concepts are introduced to derive age spectra of the tracer concentrations on a global grid in order to determine the timescales and pathways of pollution export from the continents. Calculating these age spectra is equivalent to simulating many (quasi continuous) plumes, each starting at a different time, which are subsequently merged. Movies of the tracer dispersion have been made available on an Internet website. It is found that emissions from Asia experience the fastest vertical transport, whereas European emissions have the strongest tendency to remain in the lower troposphere. European emissions are transported primarily into the Arctic and appear to be the major contributor to the Arctic haze problem. Tracers from an upwind continent first arrive over a receptor continent in the upper troposphere, typically after some 4 days. Only later foreign tracers also arrive in the lower troposphere. Assuming a 2-day lifetime, the domestic tracers dominate total tracer columns over all continents except over Australia where foreign tracers account for 20% of the tracer mass. In contrast, for a 20-day lifetime even continents with high domestic emissions receive more than half of their tracer burden from foreign continents. Three special regions were identified where tracers are transported to, and tracer dilution is slow. Future field studies therefore should be deployed in the following regions: (1) In the winter, the Asia tracer accumulates over Indonesia and the Indian Ocean, a region speculated to be a stratospheric fountain. (2) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the Asia tracer are found in the Middle East. (3) In the summer, the highest concentrations of the North America tracer are found in the Mediterranean.

  19. Effect of road blockages on local air pollution during the Hong Kong protests and its implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Roadside air quality in urban areas is largely affected by the traffic emissions. Changes in emissions and transport control policy are often assumed to yield benefits in air quality, but have often not always been effective in producing perceptible improvements due to the complexity of meteorological conditions. This study evaluates the air quality before, during and after a temporary roadway blockage event in Hong Kong that took place during Hong Kong protests from late September to mid-December, 2014. The local regulatory air quality monitoring data from both roadside and general ambient stations were used to assess the impact of roadway blockages on the air quality. There was a public perception of improved air quality, but analysis of the data shows the changes can be difficult to discern. This study showed some benefits deriving from road blockages on the local air quality, but the impact was not always apparent because of seasonal variation in meteorological conditions and synoptic transport of pollutants. The finding suggests care is required before making policy changes based on claimed benefits of shifting transport routes. The study highlights the needs to remove seasonal and meteorological change when examining air pollution data to develop strategies to improve air quality. PMID:26245533

  20. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  1. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  2. The worldwide air transportation network: Anomalous centrality, community structure, and cities' global roles

    PubMed Central

    Guimerà, R.; Mossa, S.; Turtschi, A.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the global structure of the worldwide air transportation network, a critical infrastructure with an enormous impact on local, national, and international economies. We find that the worldwide air transportation network is a scale-free small-world network. In contrast to the prediction of scale-free network models, however, we find that the most connected cities are not necessarily the most central, resulting in anomalous values of the centrality. We demonstrate that these anomalies arise because of the multicommunity structure of the network. We identify the communities in the air transportation network and show that the community structure cannot be explained solely based on geographical constraints and that geopolitical considerations have to be taken into account. We identify each city's global role based on its pattern of intercommunity and intracommunity connections, which enables us to obtain scale-specific representations of the network. PMID:15911778

  3. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-11-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis.

  4. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis. PMID:24212104

  5. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal... of transportation, is being kept as a pet in a family household in the United States....

  6. 14 CFR 234.13 - Reports by air carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Protection Division a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal... of transportation, is being kept as a pet in a family household in the United States....

  7. The Bunny: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, David; Gallagher, Patrick; Grannan, William; Martin, Jennifer; Mastej, Nicole; Wujek, Brett

    1993-01-01

    The Bunny is a single-engine, 100 passenger commercial transport designed to serve the high density short-to-medium range markets in AEROWORLD. The aircraft's design range is 10,000 feet at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. The aircraft features a low wing which incorporates polyhedral for roll control. Yaw and pitch control are accomplished by a rudder and elevator, respectively. Propulsion is provided by a nose-mounted Astro 15 electric motor powered by thirteen 1.2 V, 1000 mah batteries with a Zinger 12-6 propeller. The aircraft is structurally designed with a safety factor of 1.5 and is constructed primarily of balsa, bass, and birch wood. Passenger seating is arranged on two levels, with three-abreast on the lower level and two-abreast on the upper level. The factors which had the most significant influence on the final design were the direct operating cost and the take-off distance. The primary strength of The Bunny is its ability to compete economically with the HB-40. At full capacity and mid-range fuel costs, the cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSK) of this aircraft is 25% less than the HB-40. Another principal strength is its ability to operate in all airports in AEROWORLD. Also, The Bunny's two-piece removable wing is an advantage from a transportability standpoint.

  8. Driving Parameters for Distributed and Centralized Air Transportation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feron, Eric

    2001-01-01

    This report considers the problem of intersecting aircraft flows under decentralized conflict avoidance rules. Using an Eulerian standpoint (aircraft flow through a fixed control volume), new air traffic control models and scenarios are defined that enable the study of long-term airspace stability problems. Considering a class of two intersecting aircraft flows, it is shown that airspace stability, defined both in terms of safety and performance, is preserved under decentralized conflict resolution algorithms. Performance bounds are derived for the aircraft flow problem under different maneuver models. Besides analytical approaches, numerical examples are presented to test the theoretical results, as well as to generate some insight about the structure of the traffic flow after resolution. Considering more than two intersecting aircraft flows, simulations indicate that flow stability may not be guaranteed under simple conflict avoidance rules. Finally, a comparison is made with centralized strategies to conflict resolution.

  9. The RTL-46: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Christian; Prette, John; Andersen, Gerald; Sprunck, Martin; Vogel, Christine; Rivera, Francisco

    1993-01-01

    The RTL-46 provides an aircraft which utilizes advanced technology within the fictional Aeroworld market to better service the air travel customers and airlines of Aeroworld. The RTL-46 is designed to serve the portion of the travel market which flies less than 10,000 feet per flight. The design cruise velocity for the aircraft is 35 ft/sec, which rapidly expedites travel through Aeroworld. The major focus of the endeavor was to design an aircraft which would serve the Aeroworld market better than the existing aircraft, the HB-40. This could have been done through targeting another portion of the Aeroworld market or through serving the current HB-40 market more effectively. Due to the fact that approximately 70 percent of the potential Aeroworld passengers desired flights of 10,000 ft or less, this range became the target market for the RTL-46.

  10. 75 FR 39091 - RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Government/Industry Air... public of a meeting of RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC)....

  11. 75 FR 61552 - RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Government/Industry Air... of a meeting of RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC) DATES:...

  12. 75 FR 1116 - RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic... RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be...

  13. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... proposing to approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air...

  14. 75 FR 27618 - RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Government/Industry Air... public of a meeting of RTCA Government/Industry Air Traffic Management Advisory Committee (ATMAC)....

  15. 77 FR 12527 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Management District and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental... Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105-3901. Instructions: All comments will be included in the...

  16. The role of technology as air transportation faces the fuel situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1980-01-01

    Perspectives on the air transportation fuel stituation are discussed including intercity air traffic, airline fuel consumption, fuel price effects on ticket price, and projected traffic and fuel useage between now and the year 2000. Actions taken by the airlines to reduce consumption are reviewed, as well as efforts currently underway to improve fuel consumption. Longer range technology payoffs resulting from NASA research programs are reviewed and results from studies on the use of alternate fuels are discussed.

  17. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  19. Adjoint transport calculations for sensitivity analysis of the Hiroshima air-over-ground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Cacuci, D.G.; Pace, J.V. III

    1984-01-01

    A major effort within the US Dose Reassessment Program is aimed at recalculating the transport of initial nuclear radiation in an air-over-ground environment. This paper is the first report of results from adjoint calculations in the Hiroshima air-over-ground environment. The calculations use a Hiroshima/Nagasaki multi-element ground, ENDF/B-V nuclear data, one-dimensional ANISN flux weighting for neutron and gamma cross sections, a source obtained by two-dimensional hydrodynamic and three-dimensional transport calculations, and best-estimate atmospheric conditions from Japanese sources. 7 references, 2 figures.

  20. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  1. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  2. Assessing Impact of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport on Regional Air Quality and Climate: What Satellites Can Help

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence for intercontinental transport of aerosols suggests that aerosols from a region could significantly affect climate and air quality in downwind regions and continents. Current assessment of these impacts for the most part has been based on global model simulations that show large variability. The aerosol intercontinental transport and its influence on air quality and climate involve many processes at local, regional, and intercontinental scales. There is a pressing need to establish modeling systems that bridge the wide range of scales. The modeling systems need to be evaluated and constrained by observations, including satellite measurements. Columnar loadings of dust and combustion aerosols can be derived from the MODIS and MISR measurements of total aerosol optical depth and particle size and shape information. Characteristic transport heights of dust and combustion aerosols can be determined from the CALIPSO lidar and AIRS measurements. CALIPSO liar and OMI UV technique also have a unique capability of detecting aerosols above clouds, which could offer some insights into aerosol lofting processes and the importance of above-cloud transport pathway. In this presentation, I will discuss our efforts of integrating these satellite measurements and models to assess the significance of intercontinental transport of dust and combustion aerosols on regional air quality and climate.

  3. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  4. Air transportation - Energy cost-effective or not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1974-01-01

    Current technology aircraft have energy intensities comparable to ground transport modes. Operational changes can further improve their relative energy performance. Wide-body aircraft have already significantly improved fleet energy intensity and will continue to do so as they become more predominant. This is reflected in the 1972 fleet-wide energy intensity data which show both the domestic and international carriers at the lowest jet aircraft intensity levels ever attained. Technological improvements decreased the energy requirements of wide-body aircraft while also significantly reducing aircraft noise and pollution emission levels. Load factor is the most significant parameter affecting existing aircraft energy intensity and therefore should be raised. Fuel scarcity is now forcing such a change.

  5. The F-92 RELIANT: Air transport system design simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The design proposal of a semester long design project by group 'F' for AE 441 is addressed. In formulating this design, the driving philosophy was not just to fulfill the mission requirements (discussed in chapter two), but to do so in a creative manner - this explains the unconventional aircraft design, named the F-92 RELIANT. Although unconventional, and perhaps more expensive to produce, the design has distinct advantages which could only be attained through such a creative design. Major components of the F-92 Reliant include: (1) unobstructed cargo bay, 1024 cu. in. capability; (2) loading ramp; (3) dual wing configuration; and (4) polyhedral wing configuration. These design components either originated or evolved to create an aircraft that would most effectively meet the goals of cargo transportation in AeroWorld at minimum cost.

  6. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  7. Trajectory Assessment and Modification Tools for Next Generation Air Traffic Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasil, Connie; Lee, Paul; Mainini, Matthew; Lee, Homola; Lee, Hwasoo; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) based high fidelity air traffic control human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations, with a focus on the expected requirement of enhanced automated trajectory assessment and modification tools to support future air traffic flow management (ATFM) planning positions. The simulations were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Centers Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) in 2009 and 2010. The test airspace for all three simulations assumed the mid-term NextGenEn-Route high altitude environment utilizing high altitude sectors from the Kansas City and Memphis Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Trajectory assessment, modification and coordination decision support tools were developed at the AOL in order to perform future ATFM tasks. Overall tool usage results and user acceptability ratings were collected across three areas of NextGen operatoins to evaluate the tools. In addition to the usefulness and usability feedback, feasibility issues, benefits, and future requirements were also addressed. Overall, the tool sets were rated very useful and usable, and many elements of the tools received high scores and were used frequently and successfully. Tool utilization results in all three HITLs showed both user and system benefits including better airspace throughput, reduced controller workload, and highly effective communication protocols in both full Data Comm and mixed-equipage environments.

  8. Electronic transport properties of pentacene single crystals upon exposure to air

    SciTech Connect

    Jurchescu, Oana D.; Baas, Jacob; Palstra, Thomas T.M.

    2005-08-01

    We report the effect of air exposure on the electronic properties of pentacene single crystals. Air can diffuse reversibly in and out of the crystals and influences the physical properties. We discern two competing mechanisms that modulate the electronic transport. The presence of oxygen increases the hole conduction, as in dark four O{sub 2} molecules introduce one charge carrier. This effect is enhanced by the presence of visible light. Contrarily, water, present in ambient air, is incorporated in the crystal lattice and forms trapping sites for injected charges.

  9. Electronic transport properties of pentacene single crystals upon exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Oana D.; Baas, Jacob; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2005-08-01

    We report the effect of air exposure on the electronic properties of pentacene single crystals. Air can diffuse reversibly in and out of the crystals and influences the physical properties. We discern two competing mechanisms that modulate the electronic transport. The presence of oxygen increases the hole conduction, as in dark four O2 molecules introduce one charge carrier. This effect is enhanced by the presence of visible light. Contrarily, water, present in ambient air, is incorporated in the crystal lattice and forms trapping sites for injected charges.

  10. An investigation of short haul air transportation in the southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Yuan, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    The specific objectives of this stage of the study are numerous. First, an attempt is made to characterize the travel patterns in the study region, both in terms of origin destination patterns, and connecting and through trip patterns. Second, the structure of the air service in the region is characterized in an attempt to develop an understanding of the evolution of the short haul air transportation network. Finally, a look is taken at the socioeconomic environment of Atlanta and the region in order to seek an explanation for the historic evolution of short haul air travel activities and the rather high growth rates experienced in recent years.

  11. Security plan for the Automated Transportation Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) is an unclassified non-sensitive system consisting of hardware and software designed to facilitate the shipment of goods for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system is secured against waste, fraud, abuse, misuse, and programming errors through a series of security measures that are discussed in detail in this document.

  12. The San Francisco Joint Institutional Transportation Systems Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira; LaPointe, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Transportation systems management (TSM) programs are discussed, particularly the 1977 program of the University of California, San Francisco, which led to traffic reduction and improved vehicle flow. The city's implementation plan for a similar TSM program for 14 educational institutions and hospitals is described. (MLW)

  13. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations. PMID:9749937

  14. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  15. An Assessment of Civil Tiltrotor Concept of Operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Salvano, Dan; Rinehart, David; Young, Ray; Cheng, Victor; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    Based on a previous Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) National Airspace System (NAS) performance analysis study, CTR operations were evaluated over selected routes and terminal airspace configurations assuming noninterference operations (NIO) and runway-independent operations (RIO). This assessment aims to further identify issues associated with these concepts of operations (ConOps), and their dependency on the airspace configuration and interaction with conventional fixed-wing traffic. Safety analysis following a traditional Safety Management System (SMS) methodology was applied to CTR-unique departure and arrival failures in the selected airspace to identify any operational and certification issues. Additional CTR operational cases were then developed to get a broader understanding of issues and gaps that will need to be addressed in future CTR operational studies. Finally, needed enhancements to National Airspace System performance analysis tools were reviewed, and recommendations were made on improvements in these tools that are likely to be required to support future progress toward CTR fleet operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

  16. Commentary: Is the Air Pollution Health Research Community Prepared to Support a Multipollutant Air Quality Management Framework?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively “multipollutant” manne...

  17. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  18. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted by NRMRL's Air pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch in Research Triangle Park, NC, has been the basis for developing a better understanding of the relationship between indoor air quality (IAQ) and emissions sources, h...

  19. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  20. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  1. Assessment of ambient ozone air quality and evidence of transport effects in eastern Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Beutelman, H.P.; Hallman, P.K.; Franz, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Edwards AFB is located in the Mojave desert of southern California. The bulk of the base is located in the eastern part of Kern County, and is classified as serious non-attainment for ozone. However, geographically the eastern part of Kern County is separated form the western part of the county by some of the tallest mountains in the continental US. It has long been suspected, but not well quantified, that the air quality in eastern Kern County is impacted by transport of ozone from the San Joaquin area (as well as possible transport from the Los Angeles Basin area). Because of the significance of the ozone non-attainment designation with regards to the Department of Defense Base Realignment and Closure process, improved assessment of ambient ozone air quality and possible routes of transport in eastern Kern County was required. This was accomplished by; installing and operating an ambient air quality monitoring station at Edwards AFB; and comparing at least one year of data (ozone, NO{sub x} and meteorological) from the Edwards AFB station with similar data from the California Air Resources Board operated stations in the upwind locations (along possible transport routes) of Edison (western Kern County), Mojave (eastern Kern County) and Lancaster (northern Los Angeles County). Empirical analysis of this and other data indicate that; (1) compared to western Kern County, eastern Kern County is in a significantly different and isolated air basin; (2) the peak ambient ozone levels in eastern Kern County are substantially lower than in western Kern County; (3) peak ambient ozone levels in eastern Kern County occur late afternoon/early evening and are indicative of transport of ozone and (4) direct transport of ozone from the San Joaquin and/or South Coast area does occur (given proper conditions). This paper will address the elements of this study and its conclusions.

  2. The Gold Rush: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Amanda; Degiorgio, Chris; Galka, Edmund; Stumm, Albert; Valenta, Lisa; Winter, Tom

    1993-01-01

    The remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) GoldRush was designed to complete the mission of transporting passengers in AeroWorld at a lower cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSPK) than the competition, the HB-40. There were two major factors which were constant considerations in the design process. The cost of manufacturing was the most important. In light of this, the designs were kept as simple as possible while considering trade-offs in performance. For example, the wing was not tapered so that several ribs could be cut at one time. Also of major importance was the takeoff distance. In order to serve all the cities in AeroWorld it was necessary to maintain a takeoff distance requirement of 24 feet. The takeoff distance proved to be the number one force in driving the design process. The Astro 25 engine and 13 inch propellor, a large wing area, and the high lift Wortmann airfoil were all chosen in order to satisfy this objective.

  3. Transportation functions of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Attaway, C.R.; Pope, R.B. ); Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L. ); Dixon, L.D. , Martinez, GA ); Jones, R.H. , Los Gatos, CA ); Klimas, M.J. ); Peterson, R.W

    1992-03-01

    Within the framework of Public Law 97.425 and provisions specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 961, the US Department of Energy has the responsibility to accept and transport spent fuel and high-level waste from various organizations which have entered into a contract with the federal government in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and workers. In implementing these requirements, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has, among other things, supported the identification of functions that must be performed by a transportation system (TS) that will accept the waste for transport to a federal facility for storage and/or disposal. This document, through the application of system engineering principles, identifies the functions that must be performed to transport waste under this law.

  4. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations.

  5. Guide to transportation-demand management plans for employers

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.M.; Gerwig, K.L.; Shirazi, E.

    1988-09-01

    This guide is designed to introduce employers, transportation agencies, consultants, government officials and others to the elements of transportation demand management (TDM) plans. TDM plans use a variety of strategies to orchestrate employees' commute-related activities, including use of carpools, vanpools, bicycles, and buses, use of variable work hours to spread or reduce peak hour congestion, and telecommuting (working from home or a satellite office). The guide contains a description of the typical elements in a TDM plan, including an assessment of the current employee transportation program, methods for measuring vehicle occupancy, strategies for program improvement, and implementing and monitoring the transportation program. The procedure is illustrated for a fictitious employer in the Los Angeles Central Business District.

  6. A Method for Making Cross-Comparable Estimates of the Benefits of Decision Support Technologies for Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David; Long, Dou; Etheridge, Mel; Plugge, Joana; Johnson, Jesse; Kostiuk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We present a general method for making cross comparable estimates of the benefits of NASA-developed decision support technologies for air traffic management, and we apply a specific implementation of the method to estimate benefits of three decision support tools (DSTs) under development in NASA's advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program: Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (A-FAST), Expedite Departure Path (EDP), and Conflict Probe and Trial Planning Tool (CPTP). The report also reviews data about the present operation of the national airspace system (NAS) to identify opportunities for DST's to reduce delays and inefficiencies.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 1. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Journal's mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  8. Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site at the east side showing walkway and building foundation. View facing west-northwest. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Three pairs of bollards of Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three pairs of bollards of Pan American Airways/Naval Air Transport Service/destroyer base site. (The third pair is visible beyond the trees). View facing south-southeast. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pearl City Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University is a program that emphasizes graduate and undergraduate student research. The program proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft, intelligent failure tolerant control, computer-aided heuristics for piloted flight, stochastic robustness of flight control systems, neural networks for flight control, and computer-aided control system design.

  11. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  12. Investigation of air transportation technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Several technological aspects governing air transportation at major airports were investigated. Three major areas were emphasized: (1) development of automated decision making for dynamic scheduling of runway operations at a major airport; (2) flight evaluation of the performance of low cost Loran C receivers; and (3) design of microcomputer based electronic flight displays for general aviation aircraft.

  13. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, A.F.; Burnazyan, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  14. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  15. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  16. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  17. 76 FR 77939 - Proposed Provision of Navigation Services for the Next Generation Air Transportation System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks comments on a proposed transition of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) navigation infrastructure to enable performance-based navigation (PBN) as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The FAA plans to transition from defining airways, routes and procedures using VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) and other legacy......

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  20. Detecting air traffic controller interventions in recorded air transportation system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yul

    In this study, I propose a systematic method of detecting aircraft deviation due to air traffic controller (ATC) intervention. The aircraft deviations associated with ATC interventions are detected using a heuristic algorithm developed from analyzing the actual positions of an aircraft to its filed flight plan when the aircraft trajectories were identified as having an encounter in a loss-of-separation incident. An actual (closed-loop) flight trajectory of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center (ZOB ARTCC) was collected from the FlightAware database. This was compared with the corresponding planned (open-loop) trajectory dataset generated by the Microsoft(c) Flight Simulator X (FSX). I implemented a conflict-detection algorithm in Matlab to identify open-loop flight trajectories that encounters in loss-of-separation. I analyzed the differences between the closed-loop and open-loop flight trajectories of aircrafts that were identified to have encounters in loss of separation. The analysis identified operationally significant deviations in the closed-loop trajectory data with respect to the horizontal paths of the aircrafts. I then developed and validated a heuristic algorithm, the ATC intervention detection algorithm, based on the findings from the analysis. When used with a test dataset to validate the algorithm, it achieved an 85.7% detection rate in detecting horizontal deviations made by the ATC in resolving identified conflicts, and a false-alarm rate of 68%. In addition to the ATC intervention detection algorithm, I present in this paper an analysis of deviated flight trajectories in an effort to display how the presented methodology can be utilized to provide insight into air traffic controller resolution strategies.

  1. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Environmental and Air Quality Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Emissions and air pollution modeling, Vehicle energy and power analysis, Climate change impact studies, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  2. COMIS -- an international multizone air-flow and contaminant transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1998-08-01

    A number of interzonal models have been developed to calculate air flows and pollutant transport mechanisms in both single and multizone buildings. A recent development in multizone air-flow modeling, the COMIS model, has a number of capabilities that go beyond previous models, much as COMIS can be used as either a stand-alone air-flow model with input and output features or as an infiltration module for thermal building simulation programs. COMIS was designed during a 12 month workshop at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in 1988-89. In 1990, the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems program created a working group on multizone air-flow modeling, which continued work on COMIS. The group`s objectives were to study physical phenomena causing air flow and pollutant (e.g., moisture) transport in multizone buildings, develop numerical modules to be integrated in the previously designed multizone air flow modeling system, and evaluate the computer code. The working group supported by nine nations, officially finished in late 1997 with the release of IISiBat/COMIS 3.0, which contains the documented simulation program COMIS, the user interface IISiBat, and reports describing the evaluation exercise.

  3. Evaluating the Environmental Performance of the U.S. Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Michael; Augustine, Stephen; Ermatinger, Christopher; Difelici, John; Thompson, Terence R.; Marcolini, Michael A.; Creedon, Jeremiah F.

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impacts of several possible U.S. Next Generation Air Transportation scenarios have been quantitatively evaluated for noise, air-quality, fuel-efficiency, and CO2 impacts. Three principal findings have emerged. (1) 2025 traffic levels about 30% higher than 2006 are obtained by increasing traffic according to FAA projections while also limiting traffic at each airport using reasonable ratios of demand to capacity. NextGen operational capabilities alone enable attainment of an additional 10-15% more flights beyond that 2025 baseline level with negligible additional noise, air-quality, and fuel-efficiency impacts. (2) The addition of advanced engine and airframe technologies provides substantial additional reductions in noise and air-quality impacts, and further improves fuel efficiency. 2025 environmental goals based on projected system-wide improvement rates of about 1% per year for noise and fuel-efficiency (an air-quality goal is not yet formulated) are achieved using this new vehicle technology. (3) Overall air-transport "product", as measured by total flown distance or total payload distance, increases by about 50% relative to 2006, but total fuel consumption and CO2 production increase by only about 40% using NextGen operational capabilities. With the addition of advanced engine/airframe technologies, the increase in total fuel consumption and CO2 production can be reduced to about 30%.

  4. "INSIDE IAQ" -- EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH UPDATE (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL).

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Inside IAQ" is published twice a year and highlights indoor air quality (IAQ) research conducted by EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Indoor Environment Management Branch and other parts of EPA's Office of Research and Development.To view previous issues of ...

  5. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  6. Laboratory testing during critical care transport: point-of-care testing in air ambulances.

    PubMed

    Di Serio, Francesca; Petronelli, Maria Antonia; Sammartino, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    Air and ground transport are used for prehospital transport of patients in acute life-threatening situations, and increasingly, critically ill patients undergo interhospital transportation. Results from clinical studies suggest that critical tests performed during the transport of critically ill patients presents a potential opportunity to improve patient care. Our project was to identify, according to the recommendations published at this time, a model of point-of-care testing (POCT) (arterial blood gases analysis and glucose, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, hematocrit/hemoglobin measurements) in air ambulances. In order to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving our objective, an analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT analysis) was incorporated into our planning model prior to starting the project. To allow the entire POCT process (pre-, intra-, and post-analytic steps) to be under the control of the reference laboratory, an experimental model of information technology was applied. Real-time results during transport of critically ill patients must be considered to be an integral part of the patient care process and excellent channels of communication are needed between the intensive care units, emergency medical services and laboratories. With technological and computer advances, POCT during critical care transport will certainly increase in the future: this will be a challenge from a laboratory and clinical context. PMID:20406127

  7. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    PubMed

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come. PMID:21413425

  8. Feasibility of using the MIRADS data management system for a state air pollution agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The MIRADS is a generalized data management system. The feasibility of using MIRADS by the State of Alabama Air Pollution Control Commission is explored. The State's enforcement management system and the emission inventory system were implemented into MIRADS.

  9. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  10. Integrated energy management study. Energy efficient transport program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Energy Management (IEM) Study investigated the practicality and feasibility of a closed-loop energy management system for transport aircraft. The study involved: (1) instrumentation and collection of in-flight data for a United Airlines 727-200 flying 80 revenue flights throughout the United Airlines network,(2) analysis of the in-flight data to select representative city pairs and establish operational procedures employed in flying a reference flight profile, (3) simulation of the reference profile in a fast-time model to verify the model and establish performance values against which to measure IEM benefits, (4) development of IEM algorithms, and (5) assessment of the IEM concept.

  11. AIR CLEANER RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using air cleaners to remove pollutants from indoor air is part an integrated indoor air quality strategy. Air cleaners can be used either alone or in combination with other control options when source control and improvements in ventilation are insufficient, impractical, or oth...

  12. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  13. Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    WANG,Z.H.; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

    2000-03-20

    Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Four regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by defining three threshold current densities and a maximum current density. They correspond to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface, extension of the gas-liquid two-phase zone to the cathode/channel interface, saturated moist air exiting the gas channel, and complete consumption of oxygen by the electrochemical reaction. When the cell operates above the first threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multi-component mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A/cm{sup 2}.

  14. A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, E.; Hao, W.; Baker, S.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Miller, W.; Weise, D. R.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Prescribed fire is a significant emissions source in the U.S. and that needs to be adequately characterized in atmospheric transport/chemistry models. In addition, the Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Several published papers contain a few emission factors for prescribed fire and additional results are found in unpublished documents whose quality has to be assessed. In conjunction with three research projects developing detailed new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately, this database will be available on the Internet and will contain older emissions information that has been assessed and newer emissions information that has been developed from both laboratory-scale and field measurements. The database currently contains emissions information from over 300 burns of different wildland vegetation types, including grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, forests, and tundra over much of North America. A summary of the compiled data will be presented, along with suggestions for additional categories.

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics reported on in the proceedings include: Industrial reform and air transport development in China; the economic effects of airline deregulation and the Open-Sky policy of Korea; Open Skies in India; Japanese domestic air fares under the regulatory regime; the competitive position of airline networks; air transport and regional economic development in the European Union; and corporate dilemmas and strategies of European Airlines.

  16. Understanding and managing disaster evacuation on a transportation network.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James H; Parlak, Ayse I; Zhou, Qian; Miller, John S; Fontaine, Michael D; Guterbock, Thomas M; Clements, Janet L; Thekdi, Shital A

    2013-01-01

    Uncertain population behaviors in a regional emergency could potentially harm the performance of the region's transportation system and subsequent evacuation effort. The integration of behavioral survey data with travel demand modeling enables an assessment of transportation system performance and the identification of operational and public health countermeasures. This paper analyzes transportation system demand and system performance for emergency management in three disaster scenarios. A two-step methodology first estimates the number of trips evacuating the region, thereby capturing behavioral aspects in a scientifically defensible manner based on survey results, and second, assigns these trips to a regional highway network, using geographic information systems software, thereby making the methodology transferable to other locations. Performance measures are generated for each scenario including maps of volume-to-capacity ratios, geographic contours of evacuation time from the center of the region, and link-specific metrics such as weighted average speed and traffic volume. The methods are demonstrated on a 600 segment transportation network in Washington, DC (USA) and are applied to three scenarios involving attacks from radiological dispersion devices (e.g., dirty bombs). The results suggests that: (1) a single detonation would degrade transportation system performance two to three times more than that which occurs during a typical weekday afternoon peak hour, (2) volume on several critical arterials within the network would exceed capacity in the represented scenarios, and (3) resulting travel times to reach intended destinations imply that un-aided evacuation is impractical. These results assist decisions made by two categories of emergency responders: (1) transportation managers who provide traveler information and who make operational adjustments to improve the network (e.g., signal retiming) and (2) public health officials who maintain shelters, food and

  17. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  18. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport. PMID:15504492

  19. Location Management in a Transport Layer Mobility Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Ishac, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Mobility architectures that place complexity in end nodes rather than in the network interior have many advantageous properties and are becoming popular research topics. Such architectures typically push mobility support into higher layers of the protocol stack than network layer approaches like Mobile IP. The literature is ripe with proposals to provide mobility services in the transport, session, and application layers. In this paper, we focus on a mobility architecture that makes the most significant changes to the transport layer. A common problem amongst all mobility protocols at various layers is location management, which entails translating some form of static identifier into a mobile node's dynamic location. Location management is required for mobile nodes to be able to provide globally-reachable services on-demand to other hosts. In this paper, we describe the challenges of location management in a transport layer mobility architecture, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various solutions proposed in the literature. Our conclusion is that, in principle, secure dynamic DNS is most desirable, although it may have current operational limitations. We note that this topic has room for further exploration, and we present this paper largely as a starting point for comparing possible solutions.

  20. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of......

  1. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    As the world gets ready to begin the second decade of the twenty-first century, global climate change has been recognized as a real threat to civilization as we know it. The rapid and successful economic growth of developing nations, particularly China and India, is contributing to climate change. The route to initial economic success in China followed that of the developed nations through the development of industries. Unfortunately, China's environmental protection efforts have not been the same as in developed countries because China is vastly different culturally, socially, economically and, especially, politically from developed nations. When China started to deal with environmental concerns in the late 1970s, it took advantage of the experiences of other countries in establishing environmental standards and regulations, but it did not have a model to follow when it came to implementing these standards and regulations because of the abovementioned differences. Economically, China is transitioning from an agricultural base into an industrial base; however, even now, 60% of the population remains farmers. China has been and still is heavily dependent upon coal for energy, resulting in serious atmospheric particulate pollution. While growing efforts have been expended on the environment, at this juncture of its economic development, China would be well served to revisit the traditional "develop first and clean up later" approach and to find a balance between development and protecting the environment. Against this backdrop, a reflective look of the effort to manage air quality from 1949-2008 (with an emphasis on the past 30 years) in China is presented in this paper. The environmental component of the 2008 Olympic Games is examined as a special example to illustrate the current measures being used to improve air quality in China.

  2. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  3. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  4. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  5. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  6. Dynamic stochastic optimization models for air traffic flow management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Avijit

    This dissertation presents dynamic stochastic optimization models for Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) that enables decisions to adapt to new information on evolving capacities of National Airspace System (NAS) resources. Uncertainty is represented by a set of capacity scenarios, each depicting a particular time-varying capacity profile of NAS resources. We use the concept of a scenario tree in which multiple scenarios are possible initially. Scenarios are eliminated as possibilities in a succession of branching points, until the specific scenario that will be realized on a particular day is known. Thus the scenario tree branching provides updated information on evolving scenarios, and allows ATFM decisions to be re-addressed and revised. First, we propose a dynamic stochastic model for a single airport ground holding problem (SAGHP) that can be used for planning Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) when there is uncertainty about future airport arrival capacities. Ground delays of non-departed flights can be revised based on updated information from scenario tree branching. The problem is formulated so that a wide range of objective functions, including non-linear delay cost functions and functions that reflect equity concerns can be optimized. Furthermore, the model improves on existing practice by ensuring efficient use of available capacity without necessarily exempting long-haul flights. Following this, we present a methodology and optimization models that can be used for decentralized decision making by individual airlines in the GDP planning process, using the solutions from the stochastic dynamic SAGHP. Airlines are allowed to perform cancellations, and re-allocate slots to remaining flights by substitutions. We also present an optimization model that can be used by the FAA, after the airlines perform cancellation and substitutions, to re-utilize vacant arrival slots that are created due to cancellations. Finally, we present three stochastic integer programming

  7. Effects of transportation on energy and air quality. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Partial Contents: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Programs: Applicability of Government Incentives; Transitional Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Model; Forecasting Cost Path of Electric Vehicle Drive System: Monte Carlo Experience Curve Simulation; Another Way to Go. Some Implications of Light-duty Diesel Strategy; Use of Episodic Controls to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Air Pollution Events; Conformity: Long-Term Prognoses for Selected Ozone Nonattainment Areas in California; Development of Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model: Operating Under Hot-Stabilized Conditions; and Implications of Transient Mode Duration for Spatially Disaggregated High-Resolution Emission Inventory Studies.

  8. 77 FR 32483 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the...

  9. 75 FR 32353 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the...

  10. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from residential......

  11. IMPLEMENTING ACCOUNTABILITY WITHIN A MULTI-POLLUTANT AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2004, the National Research Council (NRC) published a major assessment of air quality management practices: Air Quality Management in the United States. The assessment resulted from a Congressional directive that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency commission the Nationa...

  12. Influence of film thickness and air exposure on the transport gap of manganese phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Haidu, F.; Fechner, A.; Salvan, G.; Gordan, O. D.; Fronk, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Lehmann, D.; Mahns, B.; Knupfer, M.

    2013-06-15

    The interface formation between manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) and cobalt was investigated combining ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy. The transport band gap of the MnPc increases with the film thickness up to a value of (1.2 {+-} 0.3) eV while the optical band gap as determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry amounts to 0.5 eV. The gap values are smaller compared to other phthalocyanines due to metallic Mn 3d states close to the Fermi level. The transport band gap was found to open upon air exposure as a result of the disappearance of the occupied 3d electronic states.

  13. Building air quality: A guide for building owners and facility managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The guide was intended to help those individuals responsible for air quality control in buildings to prevent indoor air quality problems from developing and resolving such problems quickly should they develop. Background information and guidance on dealing with indoor air quality problems were provided. Specific topics included: factors which affect indoor air quality; sources of indoor air contaminants; heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; the role of building occupants; effective communication between managers and others involved; developing an indoor air quality (IAQ) profile; managing a building for good IAQ; diagnosing IAQ problems; mitigating IAQ problems, hiring professional assistance to solve an IAQ problem; common IAQ measurements; HVAC systems and IAQ; moisture with resultant mold and mildew conditions; asbestos (1332214); radon (10043922); and resources through which additional information can be obtained. Indoor air quality forms were included which can be modified to meet individual needs.

  14. Cost/benefit trade-offs for reducing the energy consumption of commercial air transportation (RECAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Leshane, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The RECAT study evaluated the opportunities for reducing the energy requirements of the U.S. domestic air passenger transport system through improved operational techniques, modified in-service aircraft, derivatives of current production models, or new aircraft using either current or advanced technology. Each of these fuel-conserving alternatives was investigated individually to test its potential for fuel conservation relative to a hypothetical baseline case in which current, in-production aircraft types are assumed to operate, without modification and with current operational techniques, into the future out to the year 2000. Consequently, while the RECAT results lend insight into the directions in which technology can best be pursued for improved air transport fuel economy, no single option studied in the RECAT program is indicative of a realistic future scenario.

  15. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  16. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines. Air Transport Medicine Committee, Aerospace Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, C

    1998-11-01

    While it has been of general interest for a long time, the issue of a Medical Kit for Commercial Airlines is now close to the top of the priority list because of recent activities in Europe within the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and in the United States at the Congressional Level. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) requested its Air Transport Medicine Committee to review the situation and make recommendations for a basic medical kit for international airlines. After reviewing the contents of existing kits, and the limited amount of available data, a proposal was submitted to and accepted by the AsMA Council. This is just a beginning. The Air Transport Medicine Committee will continue to follow the evolution and periodically adapt the kit accordingly. PMID:9819172

  17. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  18. Investigation of Air Transportation Technology at Princeton University, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Transportation Technology Program at Princeton University proceeded along six avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft; machine-intelligent, fault tolerant flight control; computer aided heuristics for piloted flight; stochastic robustness for flight control systems; neural networks for flight control; and computer aided control system design. These topics are briefly discussed, and an annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between January 1989 and June 1990 is given.

  19. Investigation of air transportation technology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    There were three areas of research sponsored in the Flight Transportation Lab. at MIT under the Joint University Research Program during 1986. The first was the completion of efforts investigating the possibility of using Loran-C for final approach guidance to a runway; the second is a preliminary exploration of the application of automated speech recognition in Air Traffic Control; the third is a continuation of a series of research topics into aircraft icing problems.

  20. An investigation of air transportation technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of air transportation technology at MIT during 1992 - 1993 is presented. One completed project and two continuing research activities are under the sponsorship of the FAA/NASA Joint University Program. The completed project was on tracking aircraft around a turn with wind effects. Active research projects are on ASLOTS - an interactive adaptive system of automated approach spacing of aircraft and alerting in automated and datalink capable cockpits.

  1. Investigation of air transportation technology at Princeton University: 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    The Air Transportation Research Program at Princeton University proceeded along four avenues during the past year: microburst hazards to aircraft; wind rotor hazards to aircraft; flight control system robustness; and intelligent aircraft/airspace systems. This research has resulted in a number of publications, including theses, archival papers, and conference papers. An annotated bibliography of publications that appeared between June 1993 and June 1994 appears at the end of this report.

  2. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model. Version 2.0; User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a guide for using the model in analysis. Those interested in making enhancements or modification to the model should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Technical Description.

  3. Linking agricultural crop management and air quality models for regional to national-scale nitrogen assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooter, E. J.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Ran, L.

    2012-05-01

    While nitrogen (N) is an essential element for life, human population growth and demands for energy, transportation and food can lead to excess nitrogen in the environment. A modeling framework is described and implemented, to promote a more integrated, process-based and system-level approach to the estimation of ammonia (NH3) emissions resulting from the application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers to agricultural soils in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate plant demand-driven fertilizer applications to commercial cropland throughout the continental US. This information is coupled with a process-based air quality model to produce continental-scale NH3 emission estimates. Regional cropland NH3 emissions are driven by the timing and amount of fertilizer applied, local meteorology, and ambient air concentrations. An evaluation of EPIC-simulated crop management activities associated with fertilizer application at planting compared with similar USDA state-level event estimates shows temporally progressive spatial patterns that agree well with one another. EPIC annual inorganic fertilizer application amounts also agree well with reported spatial patterns produced by others, but domain-wide the EPIC values are biased about 6 % low. Preliminary application of the integrated fertilizer application and air quality modeling system produces a modified geospatial pattern of seasonal NH3 emissions that improves current simulations of observed atmospheric nitrate concentrations. This modeling framework provides a more dynamic, flexible, and spatially and temporally resolved estimate of NH3 emissions than previous factor-based NH3 inventories, and will facilitate evaluation of alternative nitrogen and air quality policy and adaptation strategies associated with future climate and land use changes.

  4. The outlook for aeronautics, 1980 - 2000 - Study report. [trends affecting civil air transportation and defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Trends in civil and military aviation in the period 1980-2000 are examined in terms of the role that NASA should play in aeronautical research and development during this period. Factors considered include the pattern of industry and government relationships, the character of the aircraft to be developed, and the technology advances that will be required as well as demographic, economic, and social factors. Trends are expressed in terms of the most probable developments in civil air transportation and air defense and several characteristically different directions for future development are defined. The longer term opportunities created by developments in air transporation extending into the next century are also examined. Within this framework, a preferred NASA role and a preferred set of objectives are formulated for the research and technology which should be undertaken by NASA during the period 1976-1985.

  5. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  6. Gas transport evaluation in lithium-air batteries with micro/nano-structured cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Wen, Kechun; Song, Yuanqiang; Ye, Luhan; Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Pan, Yu; Lv, Weiqiang; Liao, Yulong; He, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Inefficient gas transport in the porous cathode is disastrous for the lithium-air battery to achieve a high electrochemical performance. Previous evaluation of the cathode diffusivity relies on indirect calculations based on multiple V-I data obtained over the intact battery system, which inevitably induces evaluation uncertainty and material waste. In this report, an electrochemical device is designed for the out-of-cell diffusivity measurement in the lithium-air battery with micro/nano-sized cathodes. With the measured diffusivity, a few electrochemical parameters including the limiting current density and the concentration polarization associated with the porous cathodes can thus be directly evaluated. The work facilitates the development of highly-efficient cathode materials in the general field of metal-air battery field.

  7. Network Theory: A Primer and Questions for Air Transportation Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    A new understanding (with potential applications to air transportation systems) has emerged in the past five years in the scientific field of networks. This development emerges in large part because we now have a new laboratory for developing theories about complex networks: The Internet. The premise of this new understanding is that most complex networks of interest, both of nature and of human contrivance, exhibit a fundamentally different behavior than thought for over two hundred years under classical graph theory. Classical theory held that networks exhibited random behavior, characterized by normal, (e.g., Gaussian or Poisson) degree distributions of the connectivity between nodes by links. The new understanding turns this idea on its head: networks of interest exhibit scale-free (or small world) degree distributions of connectivity, characterized by power law distributions. The implications of scale-free behavior for air transportation systems include the potential that some behaviors of complex system architectures might be analyzed through relatively simple approximations of local elements of the system. For air transportation applications, this presentation proposes a framework for constructing topologies (architectures) that represent the relationships between mobility, flight operations, aircraft requirements, and airspace capacity, and the related externalities in airspace procedures and architectures. The proposed architectures or topologies may serve as a framework for posing comparative and combinative analyses of performance, cost, security, environmental, and related metrics.

  8. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  9. Feasibility of Remote Ischemic Peri-conditioning during Air Medical Transport of STEMI Patients.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Wayne, Max; Guyette, Francis X; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Toma, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic peri-conditioning (RIPC) has gained interest as a means of reducing ischemic injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are undergoing emergent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, process, and patient-related factors related to the delivery of RIPC during air medical transport of STEMI patients to tertiary pPCI centers. We performed a retrospective review of procedural outcomes of a cohort of STEMI patients who received RIPC as part of a clinical protocol in a multi-state air medical service over 16 months (March 2013 to June 2014). Eligible patients were transported to two tertiary PCI centers and received up to four cycles of RIPC by inflating a blood pressure cuff on an upper arm to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes and subsequently deflating the cuff for 5 minutes. Data regarding feasibility, process variables, patient comfort, and occurrence of hypotension were obtained from prehospital records and prospectively completed quality improvement surveys. The primary outcome was whether at least 3 cycles of RIPC were completed by air medical transport crews prior to pPCI. Secondary outcomes included the number of cycles completed prior to pPCI, time spent with the patient prior to transport (bedside time), patient discomfort level, and incidence of hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) during the procedure. RIPC was initiated in 99 patients (91 interfacility, 8 scene transports) and 83 (83.3%) received 3 or 4 cycles of RIPC, delivered over 25-35 minutes. Median bedside time for interfacility transfers was 8 minutes (IQR 7, 10). More than half of patients reported no pain related to the procedure (N = 53, 53.3%), whereas 5 (5.1%) patients reported discomfort greater than 5 out of 10. Two patients developed hypotension while receiving RIPC and both had experienced hypotension prior to initiation of RIPC. RIPC is feasible and safe to implement for STEMI patients

  10. [Motor transport emission, ambient air quality, and the Moscow population's health].

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, A V; Volkova, I F; Kornienko, A P

    2007-01-01

    As of 2006, the city's motor transport fleet amounted to as many as 3 million units that annually consume about 5 million tons of petrol. The use rate of all kinds of vehicles has increased, resulting in the growth of the proportion of ambient air pollutants discharged by motor transport, which surpasses the increase of the absolute size of the fleet. The contribution of traveling sources to ambient air pollution is growing steadily and it has been recently about 90% (1 million tons). Implementation of measures and developed managerial decisions, and ecological programs, improvement of Moscow town-planning measures, and environment-improving measures against motor vehicles have contributed to a reduction in chemical and physical burdens on the population. The characteristics of the capital's ambient air pollution have been recently observed to become stable and improve. There is stabilization in morbidity due to respiratory diseases in all population groups. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases in children is on the decrease, the increase rate was 1.4% versus 33.5% in the preceding period. Assessment of carcinogenic risk showed that ambient air pollution and drinking water contamination had a negative impact on the Moscow population. PMID:18161184

  11. Effect Of Air-Water Interface On Microorganism Transport Under Unsaturated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkzaban, S.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Schijven, J. F.

    2005-12-01

    Groundwater may become contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms from land application of treated wastewater, septic wells, and effluent from septic tanks, and leaking sewage pipes. The unsaturated zone is of special importance since it often represents the first line of natural defense against groundwater pollution. Moreover, many experimental studies have shown that contaminant removal is more significant under lower saturation levels. Interaction of microbial particles with the air-water interfaces (AWI) has been previously suggested to explain high removal of pathogenic microorganisms during transport through unsaturated soil. The objective of this research was to explore the effect of AWI on virus transport. The transport of bacteriophages MS2 and FiX174 in sand columns was studied under various conditions, such as different pH, and saturation levels. Fitting of a transport model to the breakthrough curves was performed to determine the adsorption parameters. FiX174 with isoelectric point of 6.7 exhibited high affinity to the air-water interface by decreasing pH from 7.5 to 6.2. MS2 with isoelectric point of 3.5 has lower affinity to air-water interfaces than FiX174, but has similar pH- dependence. These results show the importance of electrostatic interactions, instead of hydrophobic, between the AWI and viruses. Adsorption to AWI is strongly pH dependent, increasing as pH decreases. It was found that two-site kinetic model should be used for modeling of virus transport under unsaturated conditions Moreover, by draining the unsaturated column, we found out that the attached viruses to AWI are viable, which is in contrast with the literature where retained viruses to AWI are considered as inactivated.

  12. Design of workshops in air quality management for senior managers in Mexico (Taller de la calidad del aire para mandos superiores)

    SciTech Connect

    Auberle, W.M.; Alvarez, V.M.; Leary, J.; Paramo, V.H.

    1999-07-01

    A collaborative program among agencies and professionals in Mexico and the US is designing, developing and delivering specialized workshops for Mexican officials responsible for air quality management. The initial project is development and pilot delivery (Spring 1999) of a workshop for senior officials of SEMARNAP plus selected state and municipal officials. This paper describes the process for design of professional development programs in air quality management for Mexican officials. Key issues include optimum learning styles and delivery techniques; available time of senior managers for education; need for new materials versus adaptation of existing air quality management information; and utilization of the Internet and asynchronous methods to supplement the traditional workshop format. The paper describes the results of this analysis and design features and content of the initial workshop.

  13. Development of a Micro-scale Air Monitoring and Modeling System for a Urban District Air Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung Heon; Woo, Jung-Hun; Ryoo, Rina; Jung, Bujeon; Seo, Jun Seong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Boem Lim, Sang; Kim, Hyungseok

    2010-05-01

    As the city is urbanized, its landscape is getting more complex due to the construction of high-rise buildings. The smaller scale wind-field in an urban district may change frequently due to the complex terrain, the diverse landuse, and high-rise buildings. It also leads to dynamic changes of air pollution in that area. The conventional urban scale air quality management system, however, is too coarse to effectively manage such a small area. In this study, we set up a micro-scale air quality management testbed near Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea. A ubiquities sensor monitoring network, high resolution emission database, and CFD-based air quality modeling system were developed, and then applied to the testbed. A sensor data management system using wireless technology and multi-modal scientific visualization module were combined in support of the management system. The sensor based monitoring system shows reasonably good performance for wind speed, temperature, and carbon dioxide from inter-comparison study against conventional large format analyzers. The sensor data have been successfully collected using a wireless sensor data collection network during a 6months operation period from July, 2009. The fire pollution event simulation using the CFD model reveals the effect of high rise buildings in the testbed.

  14. Aerial observations of air masses transported from East Asia to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori

    2014-11-01

    There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the East China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from East Asia and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69 μg m-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200 m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000 m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000 m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700 m) and at 2300 m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500 m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000 m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the East China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000 m.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  16. Advanced air transport concepts. [review of design methods for very large aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concepts of laminar flow control, very large all-wing aircraft, an aerial relay transportation system and alternative fuels, which would enable large improvements in fuel conservation in air transportation in the 1990's are discussed. Laminar boundary layer control through suction would greatly reduce skin friction and has been reported to reduce fuel consumption by up to 29%. Distributed load aircraft, in which all fuel and payload are carried in the wing and the fuselage is absent, permit the use of lighter construction materials and the elimination of fuselage and tail drag. Spanloader aircraft with laminar flow control could be used in an aerial relay transportation system which would employ a network of continuously flying liners supplied with fuel, cargo and crews by smaller feeder aircraft. Liquid hydrogen and methane fuels derived from coal are shown to be more weight efficient and less costly than coal-derived synthetic jet fuels.

  17. The role of air quality management programs in improving public health: a brief synopsis.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, John J

    2005-02-01

    Observations of adverse effects of air pollution on public health, illustrated by the London smog events in the 1950s, led to legislation in the United States requiring development of federal, state, and local air quality management programs. The implementation of management programs has resulted in significant reductions in air pollutant emissions from stationary and mobile sources and hence their ambient concentrations and associated health risks. Evidence of benefits from improvements in air quality can be identified from studies in which rapid changes in air quality have occurred. Health risk assessment and benefits estimates also can be predictive, resulting in mean estimates of avoided mortality in excess of many thousands of cases per year as a result of implementation of air quality management programs in the United States. PMID:15696091

  18. Computer program for obtaining thermodynamic and transport properties of air and products of combustion of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.

  19. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  20. Wind Prediction Accuracy for Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Rod; Green, Steve; Jardin, Matt; Schwartz, Barry; Benjamin, Stan

    2000-01-01

    The performance of Air Traffic Management and flight deck decision support tools depends in large part on the accuracy of the supporting 4D trajectory predictions. This is particularly relevant to conflict prediction and active advisories for the resolution of conflicts and the conformance with of traffic-flow management flow-rate constraints (e.g., arrival metering / required time of arrival). Flight test results have indicated that wind prediction errors may represent the largest source of trajectory prediction error. The tests also discovered relatively large errors (e.g., greater than 20 knots), existing in pockets of space and time critical to ATM DST performance (one or more sectors, greater than 20 minutes), are inadequately represented by the classic RMS aggregate prediction-accuracy studies of the past. To facilitate the identification and reduction of DST-critical wind-prediction errors, NASA has lead a collaborative research and development activity with MIT Lincoln Laboratories and the Forecast Systems Lab of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This activity, begun in 1996, has focussed on the development of key metrics for ATM DST performance, assessment of wind-prediction skill for state of the art systems, and development/validation of system enhancements to improve skill. A 13 month study was conducted for the Denver Center airspace in 1997. Two complementary wind-prediction systems were analyzed and compared to the forecast performance of the then standard 60 km Rapid Update Cycle - version 1 (RUC-1). One system, developed by NOAA, was the prototype 40-km RUC-2 that became operational at NCEP in 1999. RUC-2 introduced a faster cycle (1 hr vs. 3 hr) and improved mesoscale physics. The second system, Augmented Winds (AW), is a prototype en route wind application developed by MITLL based on the Integrated Terminal Wind System (ITWS). AW is run at a local facility (Center) level, and updates RUC predictions based on an

  1. Environmental Information for the U.S. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J.; Miner, C.; Pace, D.; Minnis, P.; Mecikalski, J.; Feltz, W.; Johnson, D.; Iskendarian, H.; Haynes, J.

    2009-09-01

    It is estimated that weather is responsible for approximately 70% of all air traffic delays and cancellations in the United States. Annually, this produces an overall economic loss of nearly 40B. The FAA and NASA have determined that weather impacts and other environmental constraints on the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) will increase to the point of system unsustainability unless the NAS is radically transformed. A Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is planned to accommodate the anticipated demand for increased system capacity and the super-density operations that this transformation will entail. The heart of the environmental information component that is being developed for NextGen will be a 4-dimensional data cube which will include a single authoritative source comprising probabilistic weather information for NextGen Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. Aviation weather constraints and safety hazards typically comprise meso-scale, storm-scale and microscale observables that can significantly impact both terminal and enroute aviation operations. With these operational impacts in mind, functional and performance requirements for the NextGen weather system were established which require significant improvements in observation and forecasting capabilities. This will include satellite observations from geostationary and/or polar-orbiting hyperspectral sounders, multi-spectral imagers, lightning mappers, space weather monitors and other environmental observing systems. It will also require improved in situ and remotely sensed observations from ground-based and airborne systems. These observations will be used to better understand and to develop forecasting applications for convective weather, in-flight icing, turbulence, ceilings and visibility, volcanic ash, space weather and the environmental impacts of aviation. Cutting-edge collaborative research efforts and results from NASA, NOAA and the FAA which address these phenomena are summarized

  2. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment and Management for Railway Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammini, Francesco; Gaglione, Andrea; Mazzocca, Nicola; Pragliola, Concetta

    Scientists have been long investigating procedures, models and tools for the risk analysis in several domains, from economics to computer networks. This paper presents a quantitative method and a tool for the security risk assessment and management specifically tailored to the context of railway transportation systems, which are exposed to threats ranging from vandalism to terrorism. The method is based on a reference mathematical model and it is supported by a specifically developed tool. The tool allows for the management of data, including attributes of attack scenarios and effectiveness of protection mechanisms, and the computation of results, including risk and cost/benefit indices. The main focus is on the design of physical protection systems, but the analysis can be extended to logical threats as well. The cost/benefit analysis allows for the evaluation of the return on investment, which is a nowadays important issue to be addressed by risk analysts.

  3. [Transport and differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air from Dashiwei karst Sinkholes in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Sheng; Qi, Shi-Hua; Sun, Qian; Huang, Bao-Jian

    2012-12-01

    The typical karst Dashiwei Sinkholes located in Leye County, Guangxi were chosen as the study object. The air samples from the opening of Dashiwei Sinkholes to the underground river profiles were collected by polyurethane foam passive samplers (PUF-PAS), and the meteorological parameters were observed. The 16 PAHs were analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that the total PAHs concentration in air in Dashiwei Sinkholes ranged from 33.76 ng x d(-1) to 150.86 ng x d(-1), with an average of 80.36 ng x d(-1). The mean concentrations in the cliff, the bottom and the underground river profiles were 67.17, 85.36 and 101.67 ng x d(-1), respectively. The 2-3 rings PAHs (including phenanthrene, anthracene, napnthalene and fluorene) accounted for 87.97% of the total of PAHs. The transport and accumulation processes of PAHs in air in Dashiwei Sinkholes were: the ground to the cliff section to the bottom section and then to the underground river, and the total PAHs concentrations showed an obvious increasing tendency with the decrease in altitude or increase in the length of the underground river. Low molecular weight PAHs compounds (including phenanthrene, anthracene, flourene and fluoranthene) in air went through differentiation at the bottom of the west peak, the bottom of the sinkhole and the underground river. The primary sources of PAHs were pyrogenic sources with atmosphere transport. Ambient temperature was the predominating factor influencing the transport and accumulation of gas phase PAHs in Dashiwei Sinkholes, following by wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity. Relative humidity and the temperature were the predominating factors influencing the differentiation, following by wind speed and wind direction. As a whole, a "cold trapping effect" of POPs was showed obviously in Dashiwei Sinkholes. PMID:23379144

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  5. Auditing and assessing nutrient management for air quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential adverse effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) on the environment are a growing concern. Until recently, the effects of CAFO on air quality have received little attention. The air quality concerns of CAFO vary with the location, type of operation, and other factors....

  6. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  7. Pavement management and weigh-in-motion. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Cation, K.A.; Shahin, M.Y.; Scullion, T.; Lytton, R.L.; Butt, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers in the report deal with the following areas: development of a preventive maintenance algorithm for use in pavement-management systems; pavement-performance prediction model using the Markov Process; roadway modeling and data conversion for a transportation-facilities information system; development of a methodology to estimate pavement maintenance and repair costs for different ranges of pavement-condition index; new techniques for modeling pavement deterioration; pavement management at the local government level; a comprehensive ranking system for local-agency pavement management; expert system as a part of pavement management; MAPCON: a pavement-evaluation data-analysis computer system; a microcomputer procedure to analyze axle load limits and pavement damage responsibility; selected results from the first three years of the Oregon automatic monitoring demonstration project; automated acquisition of truck-tire pressure data; calibration and accuracy testing of weigh-in-motion systems; accuracy and tolerances of weigh-in-motion systems; on-site calibration of weigh-in-motion systems.

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Own, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Institute University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Monograph series has published the Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the World Conference on Transportation Research Society (WCTR) volume 1, number 3. The topics included in this document are: 1) Industrial Reform and Air Transport Development in China; 2) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 3) The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation and the Open-Sky Policy of Korea; 4) "Open Skies" in India-Is the policy succeeding? 5) The Japanese Domestic Air Fares under the Regulatory Regime: What will be expected after the revision of current charging system? 6) The Competitive Position of Airline Networks; and 7) Air Transport and Regional Economic Development in the European Union.

  9. Flow mechanism for the long-range transport of air pollutants by the sea breeze causing inland nighttime high oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, H.; Mitsumoto, S.; Kurita, H.

    1988-02-01

    Flow mechanism causing nightttime smog was investigated by analyzing 1) continuous records of meteorological data and concentration of oxidants (Ox) for 15 days and 2) aircraft data along the transportation route of a polluted air mass.

  10. Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties of hydrocarbons with air. Part 4: Compositions corresponding to Rankine temperature schedules in part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S.

    1982-01-01

    The equilibrium compositions corresponding to the thermodynamic and transport combustion properties for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air are presented. The compositions presented correspond to Rankine temperature schedules.

  11. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  12. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  13. Simulating the fate and transport of TCE from groundwater to indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth

    2009-07-21

    This work provides an exploratory analysis on the relative importance of various factors controlling the fate and transport of volatile organic contaminants (in this case, TCE) from a DNAPL source zone located below the water table and into the indoor air. The analysis is conducted using the multi-phase compositional model CompFlow Bio, with the base scenario problem geometry reminiscent of a field experiment conducted by Rivett [Rivett, M.O., (1995), Soil-gas signatures from volatile chlorinated solvents: Borden field experiments. Groundwater, 33(1), 84-98.] at the Borden aquifer where groundwater was observed to transport a contaminant plume a substantial distance without vertical mass transport of the contaminant across the capillary fringe and into the vadose zone. Results for the base scenario model indicate that the structure of the permeability field was largely responsible for deflecting the groundwater plume upward towards the capillary fringe, permitting aqueous phase diffusion to transport the TCE into the vadose zone. Alternative permeability realizations, generated as part of a Monte Carlo simulation process, at times deflected the groundwater plume downwards causing the extended thickness of the saturated zone to insulate the vadose zone from exposure to the TCE by upward diffusive transport. Comparison of attenuation coefficients calculated using the CompFlow Bio and Johnson and Ettinger [Johnson, P.C. and Ettinger, R.A., (1991), Heuristic model for predicting the intrusion rate of contaminant vapors into buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 25, 1445-1452.] heuristic model exhibited fortuitous agreement for the base scenario problem geometry, with this agreement diverging for the alternative permeability realizations as well as when parameters such as the foundation slab fracture aperture, the indoor air pressure drop, the capillary fringe thickness, and the infiltration rate were varied over typical ranges. PMID:19525028

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  15. Air flow management in an internal combustion engine through the use of electronically controlled air jets

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a means for producing an air/fuel mixture in the valve pocket and means for directing the air/fuel mixture past the intake valve into the combustion chamber, the improvement comprising a device for generating a swirling flow of the air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber to thereby obtain greater combustion stability. The device has a nozzle positioned within the valve pocket and directed at an acute angle toward the intake valve comprising at least one opening for receiving air, connected to a first pathway, and at least one opening for expelling air, connected, to a second pathway joined to the first pathway and extending to the expulsion opening. The device also includes a means for controlling the flow of air through the pathway and out the expulsion opening comprising: (i) a stopper having sides complementary in shape to the pair of opposed arcuate walls movable from an open position allowing air through the pathway to a closed position, wherein the sides of the stopper are in a sealed relationship with the opposed arcaute sides of the junction thereby preventing the flow of air through the second pathway and out of the expulsion opening; and (ii) an electronic computer which determines the size and duration of the pathway opening.

  16. Transport of polluted boundary layer air from the Po Valley to high-alpine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Kromp-kolb, Helga; Kasper, Anne; Kalina, Michael; Puxbaum, Hans; Jost, Dieter T.; Schwikowski, Margit; Baltensperger, Urs

    Within the EUROTRAC subproject ALPTRAC the occurrence of reactive trace species at high-alpine sites was investigated. As a part of these studies, the transport of boundary layer air from the Po Valley, which is one potential major source region for air pollution in the Alps, to the high-mountain sites Sonnblick (3106 m) in Austria and Jungfraujoch (3579 m) in Switzerland was studied. A case study based on isentropic trajectories derived from a fine-mesh analysis showed the potential of such transports to cause substantial peaks in the aerosol concentration at Sonnblick. However, on a climatological basis the Po Valley does not seem to cause higher-than-average concentrations of species such as SO 2, SO 2-4, NH +4 and NO -3. Its contribution was estimated to be about 15% in summer and much less in winter. Indications of orographically induced, subgrid vertical transports were found which are important for the interpretation of data from pollution monitoring programmes at high-alpine sites.

  17. The Effects of Geographic and Management Factors on the Cost of Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alspaugh, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between school districts' geography and management strategies and their collective influence on student transportation cost, using 1990-91 data from 533 Missouri school districts. Management factors influence transportation costs more than geography does. When both factors are considered, contracted transportation is more…

  18. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... Contracts 970.5223-6 Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation... FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT 2010) Since this contract...

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... Contracts 970.5223-6 Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation... Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management (OCT 2010) Since this contract...

  20. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... Contracts 970.5223-6 Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation... Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management (OCT 2010) Since this contract...