Science.gov

Sample records for air travel general

  1. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved health Before your flightOne key to air travel is to prepare ahead of time. If you are carrying on a bag, make ... need to change if your eating and sleeping times will change at your destination.If you have diabetes or epilepsy, you should travel with your ID card. For instance, the American ...

  2. Reengineering the Air Travel Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-1999 to xx-xx-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reengineering the Air Travel Process Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT...RELEASE , 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Every year, Department of Defense (DOD) travelers make thousands of trips that include air transportation

  3. [Health risks of long-distance air travel. Role of the general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain

    2010-06-01

    Air transport is seeing an increase in long-distance flights (12-16 hours average flight time), greater seating capacity, and a higher proportion of elderly, and hence more fragile, passengers. The French Academy of Medicine recommends that medical care be reinforced, particularly on long-distance flights, through the following measures: (i) passengers should be informed in advance of potential risks, through a Passenger's Guide, (ii) all future passengers should be encouraged to seek health advice and information from their general practitioner, (iii) flight crew members should receive training as "in-flight medical correspondents", and (iv) airlines and plane designers should reserve a "medical space" on the plane, equipped with appropriate medical materials.

  4. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    Every day in the United States the airline industry boards over 1.7 million passengers for a total of 600 million passengers per year. As these passengers enter the cabin of their aircraft few are aware of the artificial environment that will protect them from the hazards of flight. Passengers are exposed to reduced atmospheric pressure, reduced available oxygen, noise, vibration, and are subject to below zero temperatures that are only a quarter inch away-the thickness of the aircraft's skin. Over the past decade there have been both technical and lay articles written on the perception of poor cabin air quality. Studies have, in part, supported some of those concerns, but, in general, the air quality exceeds that found in most enclosed spaces on terra firma. Since the events of September 11th, passengers have not only been exposed to the physical stress of flight, but also to social and emotional stress preceding departure. There has been a significant increase in air rage on board aircraft, which poses a threat to flight safety and a fear of harm to passengers and crew. The phrase "economy class syndrome" has received popular press attention and refers to the possibility of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the tight confines of an aircraft cabin. Studies have been conducted that demonstrate DVT can occur in flight just as it occurs in other modes of transportation or with prolonged sitting. In part, because of the stress related to commercial flight it is not a mode of transportation for everyone. Certain cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neuropsychiatric conditions are best left on the ground. Although medical problems and death are rare in flight, they do occur, and one major airline reported 1.52 medical diversions per billion revenue passenger miles flown. To provide medical support at 36,000 ft (11,000 m) most airlines now carry on-board medical kits as well as automatic external defibrillators. A recent survey conducted by a major airline revealed that there was

  5. Helping patients travel by air.

    PubMed Central

    Skjenna, O W; Evans, J F; Moore, M S; Thibeault, C; Tucker, A G

    1991-01-01

    Although safe and rapid, air travel may present problems for people with certain medical conditions. Most medical emergencies that occur during a flight are preventable by judicious screening and preparation. We provide guidelines for physicians who are consulted about the wisdom of undertaking a journey by air. Potential stresses before, during and after the flight are outlined, including decreased atmospheric pressure, low humidity, turbulence, inactivity and time changes. We recommend precautionary measures for passengers with certain medical conditions, such as recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary disorders, pneumothorax, cerebrovascular accidents and diabetes and for those who have recently had surgery. The policy regarding air travel for pregnant women varies with each airline, but for certain conditions associated with pregnancy supplemental oxygen should be ordered before the trip. The special equipment and care that most airlines offer to ill or disabled people are described. PMID:1989707

  6. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 443: Air travel during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    In the absence of obstetric or medical complications, pregnant women can observe the same precautions for air travel as the general population and can fly safely. Pregnant women should be instructed to continuously use their seat belts while seated, as should all air travelers. Pregnant air travelers may take precautions to ease in-flight discomfort and, although no hard evidence exists, preventive measures can be used to minimize risks of venous thrombosis. For most air travelers, the risks to the fetus from exposure to cosmic radiation are negligible. For pregnant aircrew members and other frequent flyers, this exposure may be higher. Information is available from the FAA to estimate this exposure.

  7. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  8. Development and Evaluation of the Air Travel Stress Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Jonathan B.

    2005-01-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting that air travel is personally demanding, little research has examined air travel stress. To address these issues, the author developed and evaluated the 1st known measure of air travel stress-the Air Travel Stress Scale-in 3 studies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated 3 components: (a)…

  9. The influence of air travel on athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, S D; O'Connor, P J

    1999-09-01

    Rapid transmeridian flight is a common reality for modern athletes and it has often been assumed that air travel has detrimental effects on athletic performance. The plausibility of this assumption is supported by established deteriorations in sleep and mood following transmeridian flight. However, the scientific evidence supporting the assumption is neither consistent nor compelling. Studies that have assessed athletic performance following transmeridian flight have produced mixed results and are characterised by major methodological flaws. Recent retrospective assessments of athletic team performance based on distance travelled have generally failed to indicate performance impairments following transmeridian flight. The plausibility of transmeridian air travel impairing athletic performance would be indicated by demonstration of an internally-driven circadian rhythm of athletic performance, or of deleterious performance consequences following sleep deprivation or desynchronisation between the circadian system and the environment. More rigorous research is needed to establish whether athletic performance is influenced by air travel.

  10. Rubella contact tracing associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Curi; Chavez, Pollyanna; Pierce, Abbi; Murray, Andrew; Sander, Molly; Kenyon, Cynthia; Sharangpani, Ruta; Abernathy, Emily; Icenogle, Joseph; Kutty, Preeta K; Redd, Susan B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Neatherlin, John; Marienau, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report reviews U.S. guidelines for the identification of persons exposed to rubella during air travel. In response to an individual with rubella who traveled on multiple flights, CDC conducted an airline contact investigation that was expanded beyond customary protocol to assess if current operating procedures are adequate. Of 250 potentially exposed airline passengers, 215 (86%) were contacted and none developed a rubella-like rash, arguing against the need to notify passengers beyond the standard protocol in most cases.

  11. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Edema What causes leg and foot swelling during air travel? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Leg and foot ... 191. Sterns RH. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of edema in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...

  12. Food-poisoning and commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    McMullan, R; Edwards, P J; Kelly, M J; Millar, B C; Rooney, P J; Moore, J E

    2007-09-01

    With the introduction of budget airlines and greater competitiveness amongst all airlines, air travel has now become an extremely popular form of travel, presenting its own unique set of risks from food poisoning. Foodborne illness associated with air travel is quite uncommon in the modern era. However, when it occurs, it may have serious implications for passengers and when crew are affected, has the potential to threaten safety. Quality, safe, in-flight catering relies on high standards of food preparation and storage; this applies at the airport kitchens (or at subcontractors' facilities), on the aircraft and in the transportation vehicles which carry the food from the ground source to the aircraft. This is especially challenging in certain countries. Several foodborne outbreaks have been recorded by the airline industry as a result of a number of different failures of these systems. These have provided an opportunity to learn from past mistakes and current practice has, therefore, reached such a standard so as to minimise risk of failures of this kind. This review examines: (i) the origin of food safety in modern commercial aviation; (ii) outbreaks which have occurred previously relating to aviation travel; (iii) the microbiological quality of food and water on board commercial aircraft; and (iv) how Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points may be employed to maintain food safety in aviation travel.

  13. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Methods Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. Results The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. Discussion The continuing growth in air

  14. World Air Travel Demand, 1950-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarames, G. N.

    1972-01-01

    Total world scheduled air passenger traffic carried by the airlines of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), excluding the U.S.S.R., increased from 17.4 billion passenger miles in 1950 to 237.4 billion in 1970. This represents an average annual growth rate of 14% during the past two decades. The U.S.S.R. became a member of ICAO in 1970, and Aeroflot - the only Russian airline - reported 49 billion passenger miles for 1970. This traffic, which encompasses both domestic and international travel as well as some nonscheduled flights, is not included in the ICAO world totals shown in this report.

  15. Hemorrhage from an enlarged emphysematous bulla during commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Li, Min-Hui; Yan, Horng-Chin; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary bullae are a common late complication in patients with emphysema. Non-communicating emphysematous bullae may expand during air travel when the ambient pressure is reduced, resulting in various forms of barotrauma including pneumothorax and air embolism. We report a 62-yr-old man with emphysema who developed hemoptysis during international commercial air travel. CT scan of the chest obtained after the travel showed air-fluid level in an enlarged bulla. He underwent resection of the bulla and had a full recovery. This is a unique presentation of stretch injury of a bulla as a form of pulmonary barotrauma occurring during commercial air travel. With the most recent ruling by the Federal Aviation Administration to allow patients with advanced chronic obstructive lung disease to travel by air with their own supplemental oxygen devices, physicians need to be aware of this type of pulmonary barotrauma and properly advise such patients who are planning to travel by air.

  16. Coupling between air travel and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Barkley, Hannah C.; Martin, Jonathan E.

    2015-12-01

    The airline industry closely monitors the midlatitude jet stream for short-term planning of flight paths and arrival times. In addition to passenger safety and on-time metrics, this is due to the acute sensitivity of airline profits to fuel cost. US carriers spent US$47 billion on jet fuel in 2011, compared with a total industry operating revenue of US$192 billion. Beyond the timescale of synoptic weather, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) and other modes of variability modulate the strength and position of the Aleutian low and Pacific high on interannual timescales, which influence the tendency of the exit region of the midlatitude Pacific jet stream to extend, retract and meander poleward and equatorward. The impact of global aviation on climate change has been studied for decades owing to the radiative forcing of emitted greenhouse gases, contrails and other effects. The impact of climate variability on air travel, however, has only recently come into focus, primarily in terms of turbulence. Shifting attention to flight durations, here we show that 88% of the interannual variance in domestic flight times between Hawaii and the continental US is explained by a linear combination of ENSO and the AO. Further, we extend our analysis to CMIP5 model projections to explore potential feedbacks between anthropogenic climate change and air travel.

  17. 78 FR 67881 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... CFR Part 27 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and Automated Kiosks at U.S... and foreign air carriers to make their Web sites that market air transportation to the general...

  18. The Value of Time in Air Travel: Theory and Evidence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The roles of time and money cost in the demand for air travel are analyzed. The first step is to construct the theory of consumer demand under a...time constraint and to deduce its theorems. Then these theorems are applied to air travel through use of a total price demand function. This analysis...air travel . Many results concerning elasticities are obtained, including a necessary relationship between the time, price, and total price

  19. Is air travel safe for those with lung disease?

    PubMed

    Coker, R K; Shiner, R J; Partridge, M R

    2007-12-01

    Airlines commonly report respiratory in-flight emergencies; flight outcomes have not been examined prospectively in large numbers of respiratory patients. The current authors conducted a prospective, observational study of flight outcomes in this group. UK respiratory specialists were invited to recruit patients planning air travel. Centres undertook their usual pre-flight assessment. Within 2 weeks of returning, patients completed a questionnaire documenting symptoms, in-flight oxygen use and unscheduled healthcare use. In total, 616 patients were recruited. Of these, 500 (81%) returned questionnaires. The most common diagnoses were airway (54%) and diffuse parenchymal lung disease (23%). In total, 12 patients died, seven before flying and five within 1 month. Pre-flight assessment included oximetry (96%), spirometry (95%), hypoxic challenge (45%) and walk test (10%). Of the patients, 11% did not fly. In those who flew, unscheduled respiratory healthcare use increased from 9% in the 4 weeks prior to travel to 19% in the 4 weeks after travel. However, when compared with self-reported data during the preceding year, medical consultations increased by just 2%. In patients flying after careful respiratory specialist assessment, commercial air travel appears generally safe.

  20. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  1. Stroke associated with pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, F; Borron, S W; Surget, V; Sordelet, D; Lapandry, C; Adnet, F

    2003-06-24

    Prolonged air travel is associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic events. The occurrence of stroke was studied in patients with pulmonary embolism after air travel in a review of all flights arriving at Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris during an 8-year period. Thromboembolic stroke and patent foramen ovale were diagnosed in four patients with pulmonary embolus.

  2. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 2; Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. (Compiler); Mankins, J. (Editor); Bekey, I. (Editor); Rogers, T. (Editor); Stallmer, E. (Editor); Piland, W. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Space Transportation Association and NASA conducted a General Public Space Travel study between 1996 and 1998. During the study, a workshop was held at Georgetown University. Participants included representatives from the travel, aerospace, and construction industries. This report is the proceedings from that workshop. Sections include infrastructure needs, travel packages, policy related issues, and potential near-term activities.

  3. Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travel.

    PubMed Central

    Grais, R. F.; Ellis, J. H.; Glass, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    Instituting air travel restrictions to slow the geographical spread of smallpox cases would have significant consequences and present serious logistical concerns. Public health decision makers must weigh the potential benefits of such restrictions against their negative impact. The goal of this research is to provide a basic analytical framework to explore some of the issues surrounding the use of air travel restrictions as a part of an overall containment strategy. We report preliminary results of a compartmental model for the inter-city spread of smallpox cases resulting from US domestic air travel. Although air traffic can be halted within hours as was shown following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, these results suggest that the consequences of halting domestic air travel may not be outweighed by public health benefits. PMID:14596525

  4. Survey of general practitioners' advice for travellers to Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, V; Usherwood, T P

    1989-01-01

    Fifty general practitioners replied to a survey of the advice that they would offer to a tourist planning a package holiday in western Turkey. The range of prophylactic immunizations and other medication recommended by the respondents was wide, suggesting that some tourists travel without adequate protection, while some receive unnecessary injections. Most of the doctors would offer little other health advice to the traveller. General practitioners receive conflicting guidance on prophylactics for travellers, and it is suggested that the disagreements should be resolved. Wider availability of written advice for the traveller would also be valuable. PMID:2559989

  5. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  6. Commercial air travel after pneumothorax: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Andy; Duchateau, François-Xavier; Verner, Laurent; Truwit, Jonathon; O'Connor, Robert; Brady, William

    2013-01-01

    Because of the physiological stresses of commercial air travel, the presence of a pneumothorax has long been felt to be an absolute contraindication to flight. Additionally, most medical societies recommend that patients wait at least 2 weeks after radiographic resolution of the pneumothorax before they attempt to travel in a nonurgent fashion via commercial air transport. This review sought to survey the current body of literature on this topic to determine if a medical consensus exists; furthermore, this review considered the scientific support, if any, supporting these recommendations. In this review, we found a paucity of data on the issue and noted only a handful of prospective and retrospective studies; thus, true evidence-based recommendations are difficult to develop at this time. We have made recommendations, when possible, addressing the nonurgent commercial air travel for the patient with a recent pneumothorax. However, more scientific research is necessary in order to reach an evidence-based conclusion on pneumothoraces and flying.

  7. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  8. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  9. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  10. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  11. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  12. [Preparing patients with chronic pulmonary disease for air travel].

    PubMed

    Felkai, Péter; Böszörményi Nagy, György; Gyarmati, Ildikó

    2013-03-03

    Flying is the most important way of travelling in the continually growing international tourism. Number of passengers and those with preexisting diseases, mainly with cardiopulmonary problems, is increasing over years. One of the main tasks of the pre-travel advice is to assess tolerance to hypoxia of the traveler, and specify the necessity, as well as the type and volume of supplementary oxygen therapy. It is indispensable to know the cabin-environment and impact of that on the travelers' health. Travel medicine specialist has to be aware of the examinations which provide information for the appropriate decision on the fit-to-fly condition of the patient. The physician who prepares the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for repatriation by regular flight and the escorting doctor have to be fully aware of the possibilities, modalities, advantages and contraindications of the on-board oxygen supply and therapy. In this review, the authors give a summary of literature data, outline the tools of in-flight oxygen therapy as well as discuss possibilities for the preflight assessment of patients' condition including blood gas parameters required for safe air travel, as recommended in international medical literature. The preparation process for repatriation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also discussed.

  13. SARS preventive and risk behaviours of Hong Kong air travellers.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Yang, Xilin; Tsui, Hiyi; Pang, Ellie; Kim, Jean H.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-related behaviours of travellers returning to Hong Kong by air. A total of 820 travellers returning to Hong Kong by air were interviewed about their SARS-related behaviours in April 2003. Three quarters of the respondents wore a mask most/all of the time on board, 15% did so in public places at the travel destination. Perceived susceptibility to SARS at the destination predicted mask-wearing in public places and avoidance of crowded places, and perceived efficacy was a predictor for mask-wearing during flight. Approximately 16% of the respondents stated that they would delay their medical consultation for flu-like symptoms until returning to Hong Kong. Nearly 18.2% stated that they would not wear a mask in public places at the destination if they had flu-like symptoms. Education programmes, special services and effective thermal screening are required to minimize the chance of the spread of SARS by air travellers. PMID:15310175

  14. 78 FR 10608 - David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... of the Secretary David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel... States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement Demonstration Project. This... MTF, and sustain readiness-related medical skills activities for the military providers....

  15. An ultrasonic air pump using an acoustic traveling wave along a small air gap.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Daisuke; Wada, Yuji; Nakamura, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Masato; Nakagawa, Tatsuyuki; Kihara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic air pump that uses a traveling wave along a small air gap between a bending vibrator and a reflector is discussed. The authors investigate ultrasonic air pumps that make use of bending vibrators and reflectors and confirm that air can be induced to flow by generating an asymmetric acoustic standing wave along an air gap. In this paper, we proposed a novel ultrasonic air pump in which a traveling wave along an air gap induces acoustic streaming and achieves one-way airflow. Two new reflector configurations, stepped and tapered, were designed and used to generate traveling waves. To predict airflow generation, sound pressure distribution in the air gap was calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, 2 FEA models were compared: one piezoelectric-structure-acoustic model and one piezoelectric- structure-fluid model, which included the viscosity effect of the fluid. The sound pressure distribution in the air gap, including fluid viscosity, was calculated by the FEA because it is expected to be dominant and thus have a strong effect on the sound pressure field in such a thin fluid layer. Based on the FEA results of the stepped and the tapered reflectors, it was determined that acoustic traveling waves could propagate along the gaps. Experiments were carried out with the designed bending vibrator and the reflectors. The acoustic fields in the air gap were measured via a fiber optic probe, and it was determined that the sound pressure and the phase distribution tendencies corresponded well with the results computed by FEA. Through our experiments, one-way airflow generation, in the same direction of the traveling wave and with the maximum flow velocity of 5.6 cm/s, was achieved.

  16. High-Speed Civil Transport Will Revolutionize Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced technologies that will allow industry to build a high-speed civil transport that will revolutionize overseas air travel. The technology challenges include developing low-cost materials and structural concepts as well as supersonic engines that can meet stringent noise and emissions standards. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will reduce the travel time to the Far East by 50 percent within 25 years, and do so at today's subsonic ticket prices. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  17. Effects of travel mode on exposures to particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David J; de Hoogh, Kees; Morris, Chloe; Gulliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring was carried out of particulate concentrations whilst simultaneously walking and driving 48 routes in London, UK. Monitoring was undertaken during May and June 2005. Route lengths ranged from 601 to 1351 m, and most routes were travelled in both directions. Individual journey times ranged from 1.5 to 15 min by car (average 3.7 min) and 7.3 to 30 min (average 12.8 min) whilst walking; car trips were therefore repeated up to 5 times for each single walking trip and the results averaged for the route. Car trips were made with windows closed and the ventilation system on a moderate setting. Results show that mean exposures while walking are greatly in excess of those while driving, by a factor 4.7 for the coarse particle mass (PM10-PM2.5), 2.2 for the fine particle mass (PM2.5-PM1), 1.9 for the very fine particle mass (air pollution present in the street. When account is also taken of the additional travel time involved in walking, these excesses are further increased: to factors of 15.6, 7.4, 6.5 and 4.4, respectively. Individuals who change their travel mode from car to walking in response to policies aimed at encouraging a modal shift in travel behavior are thus likely to experience considerably increased journey-time personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution. More effort is consequently needed to increase separation between road vehicles and pedestrians if negative effects of these policies are to be avoided.

  18. 20 CFR 404.999a - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999a Payment of certain travel expenses—general. When you file a claim for Social Security benefits, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  19. 20 CFR 404.999a - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999a Payment of certain travel expenses—general. When you file a claim for Social Security benefits, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  20. 20 CFR 404.999a - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999a Payment of certain travel expenses—general. When you file a claim for Social Security benefits, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  1. 20 CFR 404.999a - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 404.999a Payment of certain travel expenses—general. When you file a claim for Social Security benefits, you may incur certain travel expenses...

  2. Evaluating hypoxia during air travel in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Mansi; Shackleton, Claire; Verheggen, Maureen; Sharp, Mary; Wilson, Andrew C; Hall, Graham L

    2013-12-01

    Up to a third of ex-preterm infants flying near term exhibit pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 85% during air travel. A hypoxia challenge test (HCT) is recommended to evaluate the requirement for in-flight supplemental O2. The validity of the HCT in healthy, term infants has not been reported. This study aimed to characterise the in-flight hypoxia response and the accuracy of the HCT to predict this response in healthy, term infants in the first year of life. Infants (n=24: (15 male)) underwent a HCT prior to commercial air travel during which parents monitored SpO2. Thirty-two flights were undertaken with six infants completing multiple flights. The median in-flight SpO2 nadir was 87% and significantly lower than the HCT SpO2 nadir (92%: p<0.001). Infants on seven flights recorded SpO2<85% with one infant recording a HCT with a SpO2 less than 85%. There was marked variability in the in-flight SpO2 in the six infants who undertook multiple flights, and for three of these infants, the SpO2 nadir was both above and below 85%. We report that in healthy term infants an in-flight SpO2 below 85% is common and can vary considerably between flights and that the HCT poorly predicts the risk of in-flight hypoxia (SpO2<85%). As it is common for healthy term infants to have SpO2 less than 85% during air travel further research is needed to clarify whether this is an appropriate cut-off in this age group.

  3. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1495 - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1495 Payment of certain travel expenses... travel expenses in pursuing your claim. Sections 416.1496 through 416.1499 explain who may be...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1495 - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1495 Payment of certain travel expenses... travel expenses in pursuing your claim. Sections 416.1496 through 416.1499 explain who may be...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1495 - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1495 Payment of certain travel expenses... travel expenses in pursuing your claim. Sections 416.1496 through 416.1499 explain who may be...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1495 - Payment of certain travel expenses-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of certain travel expenses-general... Determinations and Decisions Payment of Certain Travel Expenses § 416.1495 Payment of certain travel expenses... travel expenses in pursuing your claim. Sections 416.1496 through 416.1499 explain who may be...

  8. Radiation Physics for Space and High Altitude Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Saganti, P.; Shavers, M. R.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are of extra-solar origin consisting of high-energy hydrogen, helium, and heavy ions. The GCR are modified by physical processes as they traverse through the solar system, spacecraft shielding, atmospheres, and tissues producing copious amounts of secondary radiation including fragmentation products, neutrons, mesons, and muons. We discuss physical models and measurements relevant for estimating biological risks in space and high-altitude air travel. Ambient and internal spacecraft computational models for the International Space Station and a Mars mission are discussed. Risk assessment is traditionally based on linear addition of components. We discuss alternative models that include stochastic treatments of columnar damage by heavy ion tracks and multi-cellular damage following nuclear fragmentation in tissue.

  9. An estimation of Canadian population exposure to cosmic rays from air travel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Newton, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    Based on air travel statistics in 1984, it was estimated that less than 4 % of the population dose from cosmic ray exposure would result from air travel. In the present study, cosmic ray doses were calculated for more than 3,000 flights departing from more than 200 Canadian airports using actual flight profiles. Based on currently available air travel statistics, the annual per capita effective dose from air transportation is estimated to be 32 μSv for Canadians, about 10 % of the average cosmic ray dose received at ground level (310 μSv per year).

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.135 - When must I travel using U.S. flag air carrier service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use of the U.S. flag air carrier would at least double your en route travel time; or (g) When the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I travel using... Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL...

  11. The association between air travel and deep vein thrombosis: Systematic review & meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Yaser; Bayliss, Sue; Rouse, Andrew; Taylor, R S

    2004-01-01

    Background Air travel has been linked with the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) since the 1950s with a number of plausible explanations put forward for causation. No systematic review of the literature exploring this association has previously been published. Methods A comprehensive search was undertaken (Data bases searched were: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) for studies that estimated both the incidence and the risk of DVT in air travellers relative to non-air travellers. Results In total 254 studies were identified but only six incidence studies and four risk studies met inclusion criteria justifying their use in a systematic review. Incidence of symptomatic DVT ranged from (0%) in one study to (0.28%) which was reported in pilots over ten years. The incidence of asymptomatic DVT ranged from (0%) to (10.34%). Pooled odds ratios for the two case control studies examining the risk of DVT following air travel were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.64–1.94). Pooled odds ratios for all models of travel including two studies of prolonged air travel (more than three hours) were 1.70 (95% CI: 0.89–3.22). Conclusion We found no definitive evidence that prolonged (more than 3-hours) travel including air travel, increases the risk of DVT. There is evidence to suggest that flights of eight hours or more increase the risk of DVT if additional risk factors exist. PMID:15151705

  12. Evaluation and management of the cardiovascular patient embarking on air travel.

    PubMed

    Possick, Stephen E; Barry, Michèle

    2004-07-20

    Almost 2 billion passengers embark on international and domestic air travel each year. An increasing number of travelers will have cardiovascular disease as the population continues to age and our ability to treat cardiac disease improves. Guidelines for safe air travel in this population vary and are supported by few concrete data from randomized trials. Although the overall risk for clinically significant myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia during flight seems to be low in the population with stable cardiovascular disease, certain groups may be at increased risk. In-flight venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized potential complication of prolonged air travel. Travelers with cardiovascular disease may be at increased risk for venous thrombosis as a result of depressed ejection fraction or immobility. This case-based review describes the risks of air travel in a 65-year-old man with known cardiovascular disease. After reviewing the limited data on safe air travel after myocardial infarction and the common complications after both percutaneous intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting, we provide recommendations on safe air travel after myocardial infarction. We discuss the safety of both preflight screening and the in-flight environment with regard to pacemakers and implantable automatic defibrillators. We also review the literature on in-flight venous thrombosis and provide recommendations to prevent in-flight deep venous thrombosis.

  13. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel.

    PubMed

    Vana, N; Hajek, M; Berger, T; Fugger, M; Hofmann, P

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005.

  14. General Public Space Travel and Tourism. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, Daniel (Compiler); Bekey, Ivan; Mankins, John; Rogers, Thomas F.; Stallmer, Eric W.

    1998-01-01

    Travel and tourism is one of the world's largest businesses. Its gross revenues exceed $400 billion per year in the U.S. alone, and it is our second largest employer. U.S. private sector business revenues in the space information area now approximate $10 billion per year, and are increasing rapidly. Not so in the human spaceflight area. After spending $100s of billions (1998 dollars) in public funds thereon, and continuing to spend over $5 billion per year, the government is still the only customer for human spaceflight goods and services. Serious and detailed consideration was first given to the possibility of space being opened up to trips by the general public three decades ago, and some initial attempts to do so were made a dozen years ago. But the difficulties were great and the Challenger disaster put an end to them. In recent years professional space tourism studies have been conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany and, especially, Japan. In the U.S., technological progress has been pronounced; we have had nearly a decade's experience in seeing our astronauts travel to-from low Earth orbit (LEO) safely, and we expect to commence assembly of a LEO space station housing a half-dozen people this year. Too, NASA and our space industry now have new and promising space transportation development programs underway, especially the X-33 and X-34 programs, and some related, further generation, basic technology development programs. And five private companies are also working on the design of new surface - LEO vehicles. The first professional space tourism market studies have been conducted in several countries in the past few years, especially in Japan and here. The U.S. study makes it clear that, conceptually, tens of millions of us would like to take a trip to space if we could do so with reasonable safety, comfort and reliability, and at an acceptable price. Initial businesses will address the desires of those willing to pay a greater price and accept a greater

  15. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all

  16. Pulmonary thromboembolism after air travel: two case reports, the review of literature and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, Zoran; Radnic, Bojana; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Popovic, Vesna

    2012-10-10

    Air travel as a risk factor for pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely described in forensic literature. Two cases of PTE after air travel are presented in this report. Each flight was intercontinental and lasted for more than 10 h, resulting in typical "traveler's thrombosis" within 2 weeks. In both cases, the risk factors were age, duration of flight and also peripheral circulation problems caused by heart (hypertension, arrhythmia), and varicose veins failures. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms of thrombus formation in these cases were blood flow stasis from prolonged recumbence, reduced function of the lower leg muscle pump, dehydration, and hypobaric hypoxia. Legal aspects of death due to PTE after air travel and possible responsibility of air companies are discussed.

  17. The comfort and satisfaction of air travelers - Basis for a descriptive model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Martinez, J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a questionnaire and interview survey are used as a basis for proposing a descriptive model of the comfort and satisfaction of the commercial air traveler. Passenger attitudes toward the present commercial air travel system are examined. Comfort is interpreted as being represented by a four-dimensional composite of commonly encountered environmental variables. Satisfaction is represented as a composite of safety, cost-benefit, luxury, and in-flight activity dimensions.

  18. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  19. Guidance from WHO on the prevention and control of TB during air travel.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Lindsay; Thomas, Kathrin; Figueroa, José

    2010-03-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is not highly transmissible, there is a risk of transmission of infection when close contact occurs between a person with active pulmonary TB and other passengers for prolonged periods during air travel. The World Health Organization first published Tuberculosis and air travel: guidelines for prevention and control in 1998, in response to several incidents involving TB in air travellers, with a second edition in 2006. A further revision was undertaken to address issues arising from the emergence of extensively resistant TB (XDR-TB), the occurrence of several international incidents involving TB and air travel, and the entry into force of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) in 2007. This article describes the process followed in preparing the third edition, the special issues considered and the conclusions reached, with recommendations for travellers, physicians, public health authorities, and airline companies. New material includes: (i) additional guidance on the assessment of infectiousness, and on procedures, roles and responsibilities involved in the prevention of transmission of infection on board and for dealing with incidents; (ii) information on basic provisions of the IHR and measures relevant to incidents involving TB among air travellers; and (iii) a proposed procedure for carrying out contact investigations.

  20. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  1. Surveillance of air-travel-related tuberculosis incidents, England and Wales: 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, I; Welfare, R; Moore, J; Watson, J M

    2008-06-05

    The potential spread of tuberculosis (TB) from infectious passengers during air travel has recently received increasing attention in the media and from public health authorities. We reviewed all air travel-related tuberculosis incidents reported to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections between January 2007 and February 2008 in England and Wales and investigated the effectiveness of contact investigation. Incidents involving air travel were defined according to the World Health Organization's guidelines on TB and Air Travel. We collected data on the index case, the incident and the outcome of contact investigation where available. We identified 24 incidents involving 39 flights. The median flight duration was 8.9 hours (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8 to 11.7). Most flights (36) were from or to a high burden country and 19 of the 24 incidents reported had a smear-positive index case. Two index cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 17 incidents, no further investigation could be undertaken due to the lack of passenger information. In the remaining seven incidents, the quality of contact information obtained was variable. No further cases of TB infection or disease were identified. This study suggests that the process of investigating passenger contacts of a TB infected individual travelling by air is complicated and usually unsuccessful without dedicated resources and availability of high-quality contact information from airlines. Further research into the effectiveness of contact investigation in this setting is needed.

  2. Prevention of spread of communicable disease by air travel.

    PubMed

    Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2009-07-01

    Mathematical modeling suggests that travel restrictions are likely to have only a limited effect on minimizing the spread of disease. Nevertheless, medical screening of travelers remains an option to be considered in a risk-reduction strategy. Screening of departing and/or arriving travelers are possibilities, although the World Health Organization (WHO) favors the former as it is normally easier to geographically contain a disease prior to its transmission outside the outbreak area. Apart from airport screening, several other related issues require consideration, including: transmission of disease on board aircraft; transmission of disease in airport terminal buildings; and contact tracing. A major challenge is to ensure adequate resources are devoted to pandemic preparedness planning in the aviation sector, which may not be fully considered in a national preparedness plan. This is because the prevention of accidents occupies most of the attention of regulatory aviation authorities, and public health authorities do not always see aviation as a priority area. Chief medical officers of regulatory authorities may be in a position to facilitate collaboration between the many stakeholders involved in preparedness planning for aviation.

  3. Effect of air travel on lymphedema risk in women with history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kilbreath, Sharon L; Ward, Leigh C; Lane, Kirstin; McNeely, Margaret; Dylke, Elizabeth S; Refshauge, Kathryn M; McKenzie, Don; Lee, Mi-Joung; Peddle, Carolyn; Battersby, Katie J

    2010-04-01

    To assess the impact of air travel on swelling of the 'at risk' arm of women treated for breast cancer. Women treated for breast cancer from Canada (n = 60) and from within Australia (n = 12) attending a dragon boat regatta in Queensland, Australia participated. Women were measured within 2 weeks prior to their flight, on arrival in Queensland and, for 40 women travelling from Canada, measured again 6 weeks following return to Canada. Changes to extracellular fluid were measured using a single-frequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Each arm was measured separately using a standardized protocol to obtain the inter-limb impedance ratio. An increase in the ratio indicates accumulated fluid. Information regarding medical management of participants' breast cancer, use of compression garment and history of exercise were also obtained. For most women (95%), air travel did not adversely affect the impedance ratio. The BIA ratio of long-haul travellers was 1.007 +/- 0.065 prior to the flight and 1.006 +/- 0.087 following the flight. The ratio of short-haul travellers was 0.994 +/- 0.033 and following the flight was 1.001 +/- 0.038. Air travel did not cause significant change in BIA ratio in the 'at-risk' arm for the majority of breast cancer survivors who participated in dragon boat racing. Further research is required to determine whether these findings are generalizable to the population of women who have been treated for breast cancer.

  4. Considerations Relative to the Use of Canes by Blind Travelers in Air Carrier Aircraft Cabins,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    U) JUL 80 R F CHANDLER , J 0 GARNER, D L LOWREY UNCLASSIF lED FAAA-012EEEMEh EIEF’Tmom FAA-AM-80-12 CONSIDERATIONS RELATIVE TO THE USE OF CANES BY...BLIND TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 0R. F. Chandler , J. D. Garner, D. L. Lowrey, qJ. G. Blethrow, and J. A. Anderson Civil Aeromedical...TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 6 Perarming Organization Code .. PerformingOrgan ationReport No. 7.Au R. F. Chandler J. D./Garner D. L./Lowrey J

  5. Gender as a risk factor for pulmonary embolism after air travel.

    PubMed

    Lapostolle, Frédéric; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Chassery, Carine; Galinski, Michel; Ameur, Lydia; Jabre, Patricia; Lapandry, Claude; Adnet, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    It was the objective of this study to confirm the hypothesis that women experience an increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or thromboembolic events after long-distance air travel. We systematically reviewed the records of all patients with confirmed pulmonary embolism after arrival at Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle (CDG) Airport (Paris, France) during a 13-year period. The incidence of PE was calculated as a function of distance travelled and gender using Bayesian conditional probabilities obtained in part from a control population of long-distance travellers arriving in French Polynesia (Tahiti). A total of 287.6 million passengers landed at CDG airport during the study period. The proportion of male to female long-distance travellers was estimated to be 50.5% to 49.5%. Overall, 116 patients experienced PE after landing [90 females (78%), 26 males (22%)]. The estimated incidence of PE was 0.61 (0.61-0.61) cases per million passengers in females and 0.2 (0.20-0.20) in males, and reached 7.24 (7.17-7.31) and 2.35 (2.33-2.38) cases, respectively, in passengers travelling over 10,000 km. Our study strongly suggests that there is a relationship between risk of PE after air travel and gender. This relationship needs to be confirmed in order to develop the best strategy for prophylaxis.

  6. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel.

    PubMed

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K; Kirking, Hannah L; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cohen, Nicole J; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1-7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission.

  7. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports.

    PubMed

    Fowler, P; Duffield, R; Vaile, J

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined effects of simulated air travel on physical performance. In a randomized crossover design, 10 physically active males completed a simulated 5-h domestic flight (DOM), 24-h simulated international travel (INT), and a control trial (CON). The mild hypoxia, seating arrangements, and activity levels typically encountered during air travel were simulated in a normobaric, hypoxic altitude room. Physical performance was assessed in the afternoon of the day before (D - 1 PM) and in the morning (D + 1 AM) and afternoon (D + 1 PM) of the day following each trial. Mood states and physiological and perceptual responses to exercise were also examined at these time points, while sleep quantity and quality were monitored throughout each condition. Sleep quantity and quality were significantly reduced during INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01). Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test performance was significantly reduced at D + 1 PM following INT compared with CON and DOM (P < 0.01), where performance remained unchanged (P > 0.05). Compared with baseline, physiological and perceptual responses to exercise, and mood states were exacerbated following the INT trial (P < 0.05). Attenuated intermittent-sprint performance following simulated international air travel may be due to sleep disruption during travel and the subsequent exacerbated physiological and perceptual markers of fatigue.

  8. Barotrauma-induced pneumocephalus experienced by a high risk patient after commercial air travel.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisoon

    2013-08-01

    A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel.

  9. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  10. Dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of modified generalized Vakhnenko equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junjun; Feng, Dahe; Meng, Xia; Cheng, Yuanquan

    2017-01-01

    By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems and the qualitative theory of differential equations, we studied the dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of the modified generalized Vakhnenko equation (mGVE). As a result, we obtained all possible bifurcation parametric sets and many explicit formulas of smooth and non-smooth travelling waves such as cusped solitons, loop solitons, periodic cusp waves, pseudopeakon solitons, smooth periodic waves and smooth solitons. Moreover, we provided some numerical simulations of these solutions.

  11. The Economic Importance of Air Travel in High-Amenity Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasker, Ray; Gude, Patricia H.; Gude, Justin A.; van den Noort, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The western United States offers a case study on the importance of access to large population centers and their markets, via road and air travel, for economic development. The vast distances between towns and cities in the American West can be a detriment to business, yet they also serve to attract technology and knowledge-based workers seeking to…

  12. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  13. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication.

  14. Knee-length graduated compression stockings for thromboprophylaxis in air travellers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Desai, Mittal; Morris, Richard; Hamilton, George

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the randomized controlled trials that have evaluated the efficacy of knee-length (KL) compression stockings for thromboprophylaxis in air travellers. METHOD: After an electronic database search, the randomized controlled trials that studied passengers on long-haul flights were selected and analyzed to generate summative data. RESULTS: Nine trials studying participants using KL stockings were analyzed. Forty-six of 1261 participants randomly assigned to the control group developed deep vein thrombosis (DVT), compared with two of 1237 participants (0.16%) in the KL stockings group. The weighted risk difference was −0.034, which indicated that the absolute difference was 3.4% in the incidence of DVT, in favour of KL stockings. The number needed to treat with KL stockings to avoid one case of DVT was 29.4. However, there was significant heterogeneity among trials. The RR for DVT was 0.08 in high-risk participants and 0.14 in low- to medium-risk participants. CONCLUSION: KL stockings are effective for thromboprophylaxis in air travellers at low, medium and high risk of DVT. The use of KL stockings should form an important part of air traveller education on lowering the burden of DVT. The results of the present meta-analysis can be used to advise travellers on their risk of DVT and preventive strategies. PMID:22477413

  15. Air travel and pregnancy outcomes: a review of pregnancy regulations and outcomes for passengers, flight attendants, and aviators.

    PubMed

    Magann, Everett F; Chauhan, Suneet P; Dahlke, Joshua D; McKelvey, Samantha S; Watson, Erin M; Morrison, John C

    2010-06-01

    To review flight regulations and gestational complications associated with air travel in pregnant passengers, flight attendants, and aviators. A literature search was undertaken on the relationship of air travel and spontaneous pregnancy losses, intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), birth weight<10th percentile, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The literature search identified 128 abstracts, of which 9 evaluated air travel and pregnancy outcomes. The risk of a pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion or IUFD) was greater in flight attendants than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29, 2.04). The risk of preterm birth<37 weeks was greater in passengers than controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93). However, the risk of preeclampsia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.27), neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.82), or birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.48) was not increased. Flight attendants did not have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to controls (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.22) or delivering infants with birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.68, 3.74). The risks of spontaneous abortions and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been poorly studied in a limited number of investigations. An analysis of the available information suggests a greater risk of spontaneous abortions or IUFD in flight attendants, and a greater risk of preterm birth<37 weeks in air passengers. However, the literature on which these findings are based is generally not of high methodologic quality.

  16. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  17. A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Fruin, Scott; Westerdahl, Dane; Martinez, David; Ripoll, Anna; Kubesch, Nadine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Daily commutes may contribute disproportionately to overall daily inhalations of urban air contaminants. Understanding factors that explain variability of exposures during travel, and especially differences across transportation modes, is essential to accurately assess health impacts of traffic emissions and to develop effective mitigating measures. We evaluated exposures and inhaled doses of air pollution and assessed factors that contributed to their variability in different travel modes in Barcelona. Black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particle mass (PM2.5) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured and compared across walk, bike, bus, and car modes for a total of 172 trips made on two different round trip routes. On average, the car mode experienced highest concentrations for all contaminants. In pairwise t-tests between concurrent mode runs, statistically significant differences were found for cars compared to walking and biking. Car-to-walk or car-to-bike concentration ratios ranged from 1.3 for CO2 to 25 for CO and were 2-3 for PM2.5, BC, and UFP. In multivariate analyses, travel mode explained the greatest variability in travel exposures, from 8% for PM2.5 to 70% for CO. Different modal patterns emerged when estimating daily inhaled dose, with active commuters' two to three times greater total inhalation volume during travel producing about equal UFP and BC daily inhaled doses to car commuters and 33-50% higher UFP and BC doses compared to bus commuters. These findings, however, are specific to the bike and pedestrian lanes in this study being immediately adjacent to the roadways measured. Dedicated bike or pedestrian routes away from traffic would lead to lower active travel doses.

  18. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  19. Air Travel, Circadian Rhythms/Hormones, and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, J; Sulli, A; Cutolo, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2017-02-27

    Biological rhythms are fundamental for homeostasis and have recently been involved in the regulatory processes of various organs and systems. Circadian cycle proteins and hormones have a direct effect on the inflammatory response and have shown pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of autoimmune diseases. The cells of the immune system have their own circadian rhythm, and the light-dark cycle directly influences the inflammatory response. On the other hand, patients with autoimmune diseases characteristically have sleep disorders and fatigue, and in certain disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a frank periodicity in the signs and symptoms is recognized. The joint symptoms predominate in the morning, and apparently, subjects with RA have relative adrenal insufficiency, with a cortisol peak unable to control the late night load of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Transatlantic flights represent a challenge in the adjustment of biological rhythms, since they imply sleep deprivation, time zone changes, and potential difficulties for drug administration. In patients with autoimmune diseases, the use of DMARDs and prednisone at night is probably best suited to lessen morning symptoms. It is also essential to sleep during the trip to improve adaptation to the new time zone and to avoid, as far as possible, works involving flexible or nocturnal shifts. The study of proteins and hormones related to biological rhythms will demonstrate new pathophysiological pathways of autoimmune diseases, which will emphasize the use of general measures for sleep respect and methods for drug administration at key daily times to optimize their anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory effects.

  20. New Travelling Solitary Wave and Periodic Solutions of the Generalized Kawahara Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huaitang; Yin Huicheng

    2007-09-06

    A simple elliptic equation method is used for constructing exact trevelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) in a unified way. With the aid of Maple, more new travelling solitary wave and periodic solutions are obtained for the generalized Kawahara equation.

  1. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  2. Assessment of the potential for international dissemination of Ebola virus via commercial air travel during the 2014 west African outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Creatore, Maria I; Cetron, Martin S; Brownstein, John S; Pesik, Nicki; Miniota, Jennifer; Tam, Theresa; Hu, Wei; Nicolucci, Adriano; Ahmed, Saad; Yoon, James W; Berry, Isha; Hay, Simon I; Anema, Aranka; Tatem, Andrew J; MacFadden, Derek; German, Matthew; Khan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The WHO declared the 2014 west African Ebola epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in view of its potential for further international spread. Decision makers worldwide are in need of empirical data to inform and implement emergency response measures. Our aim was to assess the potential for Ebola virus to spread across international borders via commercial air travel and assess the relative efficiency of exit versus entry screening of travellers at commercial airports. Methods We analysed International Air Transport Association data for worldwide flight schedules between Sept 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2014, and historic traveller flight itinerary data from 2013 to describe expected global population movements via commercial air travel out of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Coupled with Ebola virus surveillance data, we modelled the expected number of internationally exported Ebola virus infections, the potential effect of air travel restrictions, and the efficiency of airport-based traveller screening at international ports of entry and exit. We deemed individuals initiating travel from any domestic or international airport within these three countries to have possible exposure to Ebola virus. We deemed all other travellers to have no significant risk of exposure to Ebola virus. Findings Based on epidemic conditions and international flight restrictions to and from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone as of Sept 1, 2014 (reductions in passenger seats by 51% for Liberia, 66% for Guinea, and 85% for Sierra Leone), our model projects 2·8 travellers infected with Ebola virus departing the above three countries via commercial flights, on average, every month. 91 547 (64%) of all air travellers departing Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone had expected destinations in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Screening international travellers departing three airports would enable health assessments of all travellers at highest risk

  3. International Air Travel to Ohio, USA, and the Impact on Malaria, Influenza, and Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Brannen, Donald E.; Alhammad, Ali; Branum, Melissa; Schmitt, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The State of Ohio led the United States in measles in 2014, ostensibly related to international air travel (IAT), and ranked lower than 43 other states in infectious disease outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using surveillance data of the total Ohio population of 11 million from 2010 through 2014 with a nested case control of air travelers to determine the risk of malaria, seasonal influenza hospitalizations (IH), and hepatitis A (HA) disease related to international travel and to estimate the association with domestic enplanement. IAT appeared protective for HA and IH with a risk of 0.031 (.02–.04) but for malaria was 2.7 (2.07–3.62). Enplanement increased the risk for nonendemic M 3.5 (2.5–4.9) and for HA and IH 1.39 (1.34–1.44). IAT's ratio of relative risk (RRR) of malaria to HA and IH was 87.1 (55.8–136) greater than 219 times versus domestic enplanement which was protective for malaria at 0.397 (0.282–0.559). Malaria is correlated with IAT with cases increasing by 6.9 for every 10,000 passports issued. PMID:27123365

  4. Tuberculosis contact investigations associated with air travel in Ireland, September 2011 to November 2014

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Paula; O'Donnell, Joan; Mereckiene, Jolita; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2016-01-01

    The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed. Nine were suitable for inclusion and analysed. Six cases of infectious TB travelled on nine flights. A total of 232 passengers were identified for contact tracing; 85.3% (n = 198) had sufficient information available for follow-up. In total, 12.1% (n = 24) were reported as screened for TB. The results revealed no active TB cases among passengers and 16.7% (n = 4) were diagnosed with latent TB infection (LTBI) all of whom had other risk factors. Despite the limited sample size, we found no evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission from infectious passengers. This study identified challenges in obtaining complete timely airline manifests, leading to inadequate passenger information for follow-up. Receipt of TB screening results from international colleagues was also problematic. The challenge of interpreting the tuberculin skin test results in determining recent vs earlier infection was encountered. PMID:27748251

  5. Current legal framework and practical aspects of oxygen therapy during air travel.

    PubMed

    Cascante-Rodrigo, Jose Antonio; Iridoy-Zulet, Amaia Atenea; Alfonso-Imízcoz, María

    2015-01-01

    It is unusual for pulmonologists to be familiar with the European and US regulations governing the administration of oxygen during air travel and each airline's policy in this respect. This lack of knowledge is in large part due to the scarcity of articles addressing this matter in specialized journals and the noticeably limited information provided by airlines on their websites. In this article we examine the regulations, the policies of some airlines and practical aspects that must be taken into account, so that the questions of a patient who may need to use oxygen during a flight may be answered satisfactorily.

  6. Existence of Traveling Waves for the Generalized F-KPP Equation.

    PubMed

    Kollár, Richard; Novak, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Variation in genotypes may be responsible for differences in dispersal rates, directional biases, and growth rates of individuals. These traits may favor certain genotypes and enhance their spatiotemporal spreading into areas occupied by the less advantageous genotypes. We study how these factors influence the speed of spreading in the case of two competing genotypes under the assumption that spatial variation of the total population is small compared to the spatial variation of the frequencies of the genotypes in the population. In that case, the dynamics of the frequency of one of the genotypes is approximately described by a generalized Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov (F-KPP) equation. This generalized F-KPP equation with (nonlinear) frequency-dependent diffusion and advection terms admits traveling wave solutions that characterize the invasion of the dominant genotype. Our existence results generalize the classical theory for traveling waves for the F-KPP with constant coefficients. Moreover, in the particular case of the quadratic (monostable) nonlinear growth-decay rate in the generalized F-KPP we study in detail the influence of the variance in diffusion and mean displacement rates of the two genotypes on the minimal wave propagation speed.

  7. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  8. Travelers' thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Raymond V; Hudson, Martin F

    2014-02-01

    The suggestion that venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with air travel has for several decades been the subject of both "media hype" and extensive debate in the medical literature. As emotion and anecdote is often a feature in this debate, it is therefore necessary to separate evidence from anecdote. "Travelers' thrombosis" is a more appropriate term because the evidence suggests that any form of travel involving immobility lasting more than 4 h can predispose to thrombosis. There is no unique factor in the air travel cabin environment that has been shown to have any effect on the coagulation cascade. Prevention of thrombosis in any form of travel, including air travel, requires being aware of the issue and making an adequate risk assessment together with appropriate prophylactic measures.

  9. Wormholes in spacetime and their use for interstellar travel: A tool for teaching general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.S.; Thorne, K.S.

    1988-05-01

    Rapid interstellar travel by means of spacetime wormholes is described in a way that is useful for teaching elementary general relativity. The description touches base with Carl Sagan's novel Contact, which, unlike most science fiction novels, treats such travel in a manner that accords with the best 1986 knowledge of the laws of physics. Many objections are given against the use of black holes or Schwarzschild wormholes for rapid interstellar travel. A new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations is presented, which describe wormholes that, in principle, could be traversed by human beings. It is essential in these solutions that the wormhole possess a throat at which there is no horizon; and this property, together with the Einstein field equations, places an extreme constraint on the material that generates the wormhole's spacetime curvature: In the wormhole's throat that material must possess a radial tension tau/sub 0/ with the enormous magnitude tau/sub 0/approx. (pressure at the center of the most massive of neutron stars) x (20 km)/sup 2//(circumference of throat)/sup 2/. Moreover, this tension must exceed the material's density of mass-energy, rho/sub 0/c/sup 2/. No known material has this tau/sub 0/>rho/sub 0/c/sup 2/ property, and such material would violate all the ''energy conditions'' that underlie some deeply cherished theorems in general relativity. However, it is not possible today to rule out firmly the existence of such material; and quantum field theory gives tantalizing hints that such material might, in fact, be possible.

  10. Clean air targets and the politics of urban travel: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study has among other findings substantiated the observation that, under the relaxed mobile-source NO/sub x/ standards of H.R. 5252, rapid vehicle motor travel (VMT) growth would produce a net increase in NO/sub x/ loading from mobile sources at least through the remaining years of the present decade. However, moderate VMT growth will result in stable or slightly declining mobile-source NO/sub x/. Consequently, any urbanized area that is currently in attainment with respect to ambient NO/sub x/ and expects neither high VMT growth (greater than or equal to 5% per year) nor a radical change in the distribution of its highway fleet mix (car/truck split) is probably safe from future NO/sub x/ attainment problems. If such problems are forecast, the relevant planning and air quality control agencies should probably reexamine the premises on which their regional travel projections are based. On the other hand, metropolitan areas that will experience high VMT growth must realize that this growth is associated with rapid residential development, a major factor in increasing area source NO/sub x/ burden. Even if such areas are not now subject to NO/sub x/ levels at or near the ambient standard, reevaluation of NO/sub x/ control strategies for a future in which automobile emission standards are relaxed would be appropriate.

  11. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  12. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  13. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  14. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  15. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  16. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  17. 76 FR 71914 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Accessibility of Web Sites and Automated Kiosks at U.S... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNPRM) on the accessibility of Web sites and automated kiosks that... for an extension, citing difficulties in using the online comment form on the www.regulations.gov...

  18. On travelling wave solutions of a generalized Davey-Stewartson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Alp; Erbay, Saadet

    2005-02-01

    The generalized Davey-Stewartson (GDS) equations, as derived by Babaoglu & Erbay (2004, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 39, 941-949), is a system of three coupled equations in (2 + 1) dimensions modelling wave propagation in an infinite elastic medium. The physical parameters ({gamma}, m1, m2, {lambda} and n) of the system allow one to classify the equations as elliptic-elliptic-elliptic (EEE), elliptic-elliptic-hyperbolic (EEH), elliptic-hyperbolic-hyperbolic (EHH), hyperbolic-elliptic-elliptic (HEE), hyperbolic-hyperbolic-hyperbolic (HHH) and hyperbolic-elliptic-hyperbolic (HEH) (Babaoglu et alE, 2004, preprint). In this note, we only consider the EEE and HEE cases and seek travelling wave solutions to GDS systems. By deriving Pohozaev-type identities we establish some necessary conditions on the parameters for the existence of travelling waves, when solutions satisfy some integrability conditions. Using the explicit solutions given in Babaoglu & Erbay (2004) we also show that the parameter constraints must be weaker in the absence of such integrability conditions.

  19. Imported malaria in the UK: advice given by general practitioners to British residents travelling to malaria endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Harry

    1987-01-01

    General practitioners are in a key position to provide advice to those travelling to malaria endemic areas. A study of at-risk travellers revealed that 54% visited their general practitioner before their intended trip overseas and of these 79% were given advice about antimalarial precautions. Of those advised 98% carried antimalarial tablets with them on their trip but only 46% had any knowledge of other methods of personal protection against malaria. Fewer non-white than white British residents received information from their general practitioners. It is suggested that general practitioners should be better informed about current malaria transmission and currently recommended chemoprophylactic drugs and dosages. It is also suggested that the major public health priority should be to stimulate a greater involvement of non-health service agencies in order to make the public aware of the risk of malaria and seek medical advice before travel. PMID:3668936

  20. Travel health risk perceptions and preparations among travelers at Hong Kong International Airport.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Four levels of pre-travel health preparations were defined to allow the measurement of general travel health preparations by the traveling public. A cross-sectional survey of 770 travelers using Hong Kong International Airport was conducted. Important gaps were found in the self-preparation domain. Length of travel was the only factor associated with higher levels of health preparations after adjusting for potential confounders. Targeted health education should be considered to improve health risk perceptions among travelers in Hong Kong and other similar metropolitan cities that are critical hubs for commercial air transport.

  1. 76 FR 58243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of International Air Travelers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... to Richard Champley or Ron Erdmann, ITA's Office of Travel & Tourism Industries (OTTI), Phone: (202..., ] administered by the Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI) of the International Trade Administration... 1961, 1981, and 1996 travel and tourism related acts to collect and publish comprehensive...

  2. Hypothesis: Is frequent, commercial jet travel by the general public a risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma?

    PubMed Central

    Arbesman, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma incidence has been increasing worldwide over the past 50 years and various risk factors have been identified. Interestingly, multiple studies have shown a multifold increased risk of developing melanoma in jet pilots and airline crew. There has also been a dramatic increase in the availability and frequency of jet travel by the general population during this time period.. Therefore, it is hypothesized that frequent commercial jet travel may represent an additional risk factor for the development of cutaneous melanoma in susceptible individuals of the general public. PMID:26672515

  3. 22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  4. 5. General interior overview. View to northwest. Offutt Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General interior overview. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. 4. General interior overview. View to east. Offutt Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General interior overview. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. General view. View to southwest Offutt Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view. View to southwest - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  7. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  8. Generality of Fractal 1/f Scaling in Catchment Tracer Time Series: Implications for Catchment Travel Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S. E.; Palucis, M. C.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The mean travel time - the time that it takes a parcel of rainwater to reach the stream - is a basic parameter used to characterize catchments. More generally, a catchment is characterized by its travel-time distribution, which is described not only by its mean but also its shape. The travel time distribution of water in a catchment is typically inferred from passive tracer time series (typically water isotopes or chloride concentrations) in rainfall and streamflow. The catchment mixes precipitation inputs (and thus passive tracers) falling at different points in time; as a result, tracer fluctuations in streamflow are usually strongly damped relative to precipitation. Mathematically, this mixing of waters of different ages is represented by the convolution of the travel time distribution and the precipitation inputs to generate the stream outputs. Previous analyses of both rainfall and streamflow tracer time series from several catchments in Wales have demonstrated that rainfall chemistry spectra resemble white noise, whereas these same catchments exhibit fractal 1/f scaling in stream tracer chemistry over three orders of magnitude. These observations imply that these catchments have an approximate power-law distribution of travel times, and thus they retain a long memory of past inputs. The observed fractal scaling places strong constraints on possible models of catchment behavior: commonly-used exponential or advection-dispersion travel time distribution models do not exhibit fractal scaling. Here we test the generality of the observed fractal scaling of streamflow chemistry, by analyzing long-term tracer time series from 17 other catchments in North America and Europe. Special care is taken to account for the effects of spectral aliasing. We demonstrate that 1/f fractal scaling of stream chemistry is a common feature of these catchments and discuss the implications of this observation to catchment-scale hydrologic modeling. We then present the best-fit travel

  9. The variability, structure and energy conversion of the northern hemisphere traveling waves simulated in a Mars general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqun; Toigo, Anthony D.

    2016-06-01

    Investigations of the variability, structure and energetics of the m = 1-3 traveling waves in the northern hemisphere of Mars are conducted with the MarsWRF general circulation model. Using a simple, annually repeatable dust scenario, the model reproduces many general characteristics of the observed traveling waves. The simulated m = 1 and m = 3 traveling waves show large differences in terms of their structures and energetics. For each representative wave mode, the geopotential signature maximizes at a higher altitude than the temperature signature, and the wave energetics suggests a mixed baroclinic-barotropic nature. There is a large contrast in wave energetics between the near-surface and higher altitudes, as well as between the lower latitudes and higher latitudes at high altitudes. Both barotropic and baroclinic conversions can act as either sources or sinks of eddy kinetic energy. Band-pass filtered transient eddies exhibit strong zonal variations in eddy kinetic energy and various energy transfer terms. Transient eddies are mainly interacting with the time mean flow. However, there appear to be non-negligible wave-wave interactions associated with wave mode transitions. These interactions include those between traveling waves and thermal tides and those among traveling waves.

  10. Case series study of traveler's diarrhea in U.S. military personnel at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Porter, C K; El Mohammady, H; Baqar, S; Rockabrand, D M; Putnam, S D; Tribble, D R; Riddle, M S; Frenck, R W; Rozmajzl, P; Kilbane, E; Fox, A; Ruck, R; Lim, M; Johnston, Y J; Murphy, E; Sanders, J W

    2008-12-01

    Military personnel with traveler's diarrhea (n=202) while deployed to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, from June to September 2002 were evaluated for pathogen-specific immune responses. Serologic and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli antigens (CS6, CS3, and LT) were quite low. In contrast, subjects with Campylobacter infections had high serologic and fecal IgA responses.

  11. Managing patients with stable respiratory disease planning air travel: a primary care summary of the British Thoracic Society recommendations.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lynn K; Coker, Robina K; Thomas, Mike

    2013-06-01

    Air travel poses medical challenges to passengers with respiratory disease, principally because of exposure to a hypobaric environment. In 2002 the British Thoracic Society published recommendations for adults and children with respiratory disease planning air travel, with a web update in 2004. New full recommendations and a summary were published in 2011, containing key recommendations for the assessment of high-risk patients and identification of those likely to require in-flight supplemental oxygen. This paper highlights the aspects of particular relevance to primary care practitioners with the following key points: (1) At cabin altitudes of 8000 feet (the usual upper limit of in-flight cabin pressure, equivalent to 0.75 atmospheres) the partial pressure of oxygen falls to the equivalent of breathing 15.1% oxygen at sea level. Arterial oxygen tension falls in all passengers; in patients with respiratory disease, altitude may worsen preexisting hypoxaemia. (2) Altitude exposure also influences the volume of any air in cavities, where pressure x volume remain constant (Boyle's law), so that a pneumothorax or closed lung bulla will expand and may cause respiratory distress. Similarly, barotrauma may affect the middle ear or sinuses if these cavities fail to equilibrate. (3) Patients with respiratory disease require clinical assessment and advice before air travel to: (a) optimise usual care; (b) consider contraindications to travel and possible need for in-flight oxygen; (c) consider the need for secondary care referral for further assessment; (d) discuss the risk of venous thromboembolism; and (e) discuss forward planning for the journey.

  12. Effects of northbound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P<.01, d>0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P<.05, d>0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P<.05, d>0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.

  13. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  14. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  15. A general NMPC framework for a diesel engine air path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murilo, André; Alamir, Mazen; Alberer, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a parameterised nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) scheme to be applied on a diesel engine air path. The most important feature of the proposed controller is that it uses no structural properties of the system model. Therefore, the proposed NMPC scheme can be applied to any nonlinear system, leading to a general framework for a diesel engine air path. Moreover, the computational burden is substantially reduced due to an optimisation problem of low dimension obtained by means of the parameterised approach. Simulation results and an experimental validation are presented in order to emphasise the controller's efficiency and the real-time implementability.

  16. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  17. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  18. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  19. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  20. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  1. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  2. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  3. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  4. 47 CFR 22.807 - General aviation air-ground application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General aviation air-ground application... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.807 General aviation air-ground application requirements. In addition to the...

  5. 47 CFR 22.805 - Channels for general aviation air-ground service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for general aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service General Aviation Air-Ground Stations § 22.805 Channels for general aviation air-ground service. The following channels are...

  6. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2016-12-23

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism.

  7. Exact traveling wave solutions of the KP-BBM equation by using the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali

    2013-01-01

    The new approach of the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is an effective and powerful mathematical tool in finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in science, engineering and mathematical physics. In this article, the new approach of the generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is applied to construct traveling wave solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (KP-BBM) equation. The solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. By means of this scheme, we found some new traveling wave solutions of the above mentioned equation.

  8. Precision Positional Data of General Aviation Air Traffic in Terminal Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, W. E., Jr.; Parker, L. C.; Northam, A. M.; Singh, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Three dimensional radar tracks of general aviation air traffic at three uncontrolled airports are considered. Contained are data which describe the position-time histories, other derived parameters, and reference data for the approximately 1200 tracks. All information was correlated such that the date, time, flight number, and runway number match the pattern type, aircraft type, wind, visibility, and cloud conditions.

  9. Consumer Expectations of Capacity Constrains and Their Effect on the Demand for Multi-Class Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battersby, Bryn D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent variable for these consumer expectations This then forms the basis of a model of air-travel demand with specific reference to Australia. A censored likelihood function allowing for correlation in the disturbance term across k classes is introduced. The correlation in the disturbances arises as a result of the interdependence of the capacity constraints in k different ticket classes on each flight.

  10. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disabilities Pregnant Travelers Diane F. Morof, I. Dale Carroll INTRODUCTION Pregnancy is an altered state of health ... Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Oct;114(4):954–5. Carroll ID, Williams DC. Pre-travel vaccination and medical ...

  11. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761) FROM THE NORTHWEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, SLC-3 Air Force Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761) FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, SLC-3 Air Force Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Intercity Travel Data Search.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Intercity Travel Data Search is an annotated bibliography on U.S. domestic intercity passenger travel by the four major modes of air, auto, bus and...socioeconomic, attitudinal and trip behavior characteristics of intercity travelers , and (3) demand models for predicting point-to-point intercity... travel . The bibliography totals 422 items, almost all published after 1964. Approximately 100 of these are in the first two subject areas and the

  14. Chest pain, dyspnoea and elevated D-dimer in a recent air traveller.

    PubMed

    Lima, Joaquim Santos; Sandler, Belinda; McWilliams, Eric

    2011-08-17

    A previously asymptomatic 69-year-old lady, who recently travelled on a 4 h flight, presented with acute left-sided pleuritic pain, dyspnoea and calf pain. Blood gases revealed hypoxaemia and D-dimer was significantly elevated. She also had low-grade fever, leukocytosis and a small left-sided pleural effusion on chest x-ray. The working diagnosis was pulmonary embolism and chest infection and she received low molecular weight heparin and antibiotics. A subsequent CT pulmonary angiogram ruled out pulmonary embolism but revealed an abnormal finding in the ascending aorta, suggestive of a penetrating aortic ulcer. Urgent transoesophageal echocardiography was consistent with an intramural haematoma and the patient underwent emergency aortic root replacement with imminent aortic rupture confirmed at surgery. This case highlights the fact that acute aortic syndromes may have atypical presentations and also emphasises the fact that D-dimer levels are elevated in aortic syndromes.

  15. Generalized three-dimensional simulation of ferruled coupled-cavity traveling-wave-tube dispersion and impedance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruschek, Joseph W.; Kory, Carol L.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    1993-01-01

    The frequency-phase dispersion and Pierce on-axis interaction impedance of a ferruled, coupled-cavity, traveling-wave tube (TWT), slow-wave circuit were calculated using the three-dimensional simulation code Micro-SOS. The utilization of the code to reduce costly and time-consuming experimental cold tests is demonstrated by the accuracy achieved in calculating these parameters. A generalized input file was developed so that ferruled coupled-cavity TWT slow-wave circuits of arbitrary dimensions could be easily modeled. The practicality of the generalized input file was tested by applying it to the ferruled coupled-cavity slow-wave circuit of the Hughes Aircraft Company model 961HA TWT and by comparing the results with experimental results.

  16. 77 FR 39800 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in Air Travel: Draft Technical Assistance Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...The Department of Transportation is updating its technical assistance manual (TAM) for airlines and passengers with disabilities concerning their rights and responsibilities under the Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) and its implementing regulation. This draft updated TAM is being published in the Federal Register to insure a full opportunity for public comment before the document is published in......

  17. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations, except for those...

  18. Modeling the impact of air, sea, and land travel restrictions supplemented by other interventions on the emergence of a new influenza pandemic virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the early stages of a new influenza pandemic, travel restriction is an immediate and non-pharmaceutical means of retarding incidence growth. It extends the time frame of effective mitigation, especially when the characteristics of the emerging virus are unknown. In the present study, we used the 2009 influenza A pandemic as a case study to evaluate the impact of regulating air, sea, and land transport. Other government strategies, namely, antivirals and hospitalizations, were also evaluated. Methods Hong Kong arrivals from 44 countries via air, sea, and land transports were imported into a discrete stochastic Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered (SEIR) host-flow model. The model allowed a number of latent and infectious cases to pass the border, which constitutes a source of local disease transmission. We also modeled antiviral and hospitalization prevention strategies to compare the effectiveness of these control measures. Baseline reproduction rate was estimated from routine surveillance data. Results Regarding air travel, the main route connected to the influenza source area should be targeted for travel restrictions; imposing a 99% air travel restriction delayed the epidemic peak by up to two weeks. Once the pandemic was established in China, the strong land connection between Hong Kong and China rendered Hong Kong vulnerable. Antivirals and hospitalization were found to be more effective on attack rate reductions than travel restrictions. Combined strategies (with 99% restriction on all transport modes) deferred the peak for long enough to establish a vaccination program. Conclusion The findings will assist policy-makers with decisions on handling similar future pandemics. We also suggest regulating the extent of restriction and the transport mode, once restriction has been deemed necessary for pandemic control. Although travel restrictions have yet to gain social acceptance, they allow time for mitigation response when a new and

  19. Travel of the center of pressure of airfoils transversely to the air stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzmayr, Richard

    1929-01-01

    The experiments here described were performed for the purpose of obtaining the essential facts concerning the distribution of the air force along the span. We did not follow, however, the time-consuming method of point-to-point measurements of the pressure distribution on the wing surfaces, but determined directly the moment of mean force about an axis passing through the middle of the span parallel to the direction of flight.

  20. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S.; Lea, Rodney A.

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry’s physical and mental health benefits. PMID:27023596

  1. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-03-24

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry's physical and mental health benefits.

  2. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  3. Travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E

    1973-03-01

    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  4. Granted travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geological Society of America (GSA)is accepting applications for the 30th International Geological Congress (IGC) Travel Grant Program. The 1996 congress will be held in Beijing, China, August 4-14. The program was formed at the end of the 28th IGC, held in Washington, D.C. in July 1989. The fund is to be used to support the attendance of young geoscientists to future IGCs until the United States again hosts an IGC. Travel grants consist of economy air-fare to China. To be eligible, an applicant must be a resident or citizen of the United States; must have been born after August 31, 1956; and must have an abstract included in the program of the 30th IGC. Official application forms are available from the grants administrator, GSA Headquarters, 3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301.

  5. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  6. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  7. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  8. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  9. General Guidance on Innovative and Voluntary Air Pollution Control Strategies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State and Local Transporation Resources is an EPA/OTAQ web page for state and local air quality regulators and transportation planners that offers guidance on how to reduce air pollution from cars, diesel trucks, city and school buses.

  10. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Damien

    Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR

  11. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases: risk assessment, general considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Morteza; Is'haqi, Arman; Is'haqi, Mohammad Ali; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahamaty, Fatemeh; Banki, Abdolali

    2014-08-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  12. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases: risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Is'haqi, Arman; Is'haqi, Mohammad Ali; Jafari, Nematollah Jonaidi; Rahamaty, Fatemeh; Banki, Abdolali

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors. PMID:25183325

  13. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen - travel; Collaped lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; ...

  14. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  15. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  16. Travelers' Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers Road Safety Senior Citizens Sex Tourism STDs Sun Exposure Swimming and Diving Study Abroad ...

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

  18. The Rise of Air Mobility and Its Generals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    sorties two to one.3 “Never before in the history of warfare have so many air missions during wartime been air mobility over such an extended period.”4...Transportation Network. “ GTN gives its customers located any- where in the world a seamless, near-real-time capability to access—and em- ploy...transportation and deployment information. GTN is an automated command and control information system that supports the family of trans- portation users and

  19. [Immunocompromised travelers].

    PubMed

    Delmont, J; Igo-Kemenes, A; Peyron, F; Ruiz, J M; Moreau, J; Bourgeade, A

    1997-01-01

    More and more immunocompromised people travel abroad especially in tropical countries where infectious risks are high. Before leaving, these subjects must consult their general practitioner who will determine their fitness in function of type of immunodeficiency, travel destination, availability of medical care at the destination, and possibility of medical evacuation. Counseling should also be provided concerning the precautions necessary to avoid the hazards of exposure to fecal material, venereal disease, insect bites, and sun. Antimalarial drug prophylaxis is the same as for uncompromised subjects. Advising immunocompromised subjects about vaccinations is difficult since there is no consensus on the subject. Administration of inert vaccines is usually recommended but their effectiveness is often diminished and harmful effects have been observed in HIV-infected subjects. Administration of live vaccines is always contraindicated in severely immunocompromised subjects but some live vaccines can be used in moderately immunocompromised subjects. The guidelines for vaccination differ depending on the underlying cause of immunodeficiency: congenital defects, cancer, hemopathy, treatment with immunosuppressors or corticosteroids (transplant patients and patients with systemic disease), HIV-infection, or spleen dysfunction. If there is a high risk of contracting a disease for which vaccination is contraindicated, drug prophylaxis or administration of immunoglobulins can be an alternative. If not, travel should either be postponed or the destination should be changed.

  20. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  1. Trials of Command: General John D. Lavelle and the Seventh Air Force in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-07

    Thesis: General John D. Lavelle protected the lives of the airmen assigned to the Seventh .Air Force through a liberal interpretation of the rules...airmen’s lives , and that was worth more to him than four stars.ŕ -John D. Lavelle, Jr., January 2007 In July 1971, Air Force General John D. Lavelle...protection of the lives and safetyof thousands of courageous young airman in my command.൛ -General John D. Lavelle, Testimony to the Senate Armed

  2. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  3. Connected Traveler

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  4. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  5. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  7. Fisher Sand & Gravel New Mexico, Inc. General Air Quality Permit: Related Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to the Fisher Sand & Gravel – New Mexico, Inc., Grey Mesa Gravel Pit General Air Quality Permit for New or Modified Minor Source Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities in Indian Country.

  8. Walking, Cycling and Driving to Work in the English and Welsh 2011 Census: Trends, Socio-Economic Patterning and Relevance to Travel Behaviour in General

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increasing walking and cycling, and reducing motorised transport, are health and environmental priorities. This paper examines levels and trends in the use of different commute modes in England and Wales, both overall and with respect to small-area deprivation. It also investigates whether commute modal share can serve as a proxy for travel behaviour more generally. Methods 23.7 million adult commuters reported their usual main mode of travelling to work in the 2011 census in England and Wales; similar data were available for 1971–2001. Indices of Multiple Deprivation were used to characterise socio-economic patterning. The National Travel Survey (2002–2010) was used to examine correlations between commute modal share and modal share of total travel time. These correlations were calculated across 150 non-overlapping populations defined by region, year band and income. Results Among commuters in 2011, 67.1% used private motorised transport as their usual main commute mode (−1.8 percentage-point change since 2001); 17.8% used public transport (+1.8% change); 10.9% walked (−0.1% change); and 3.1% cycled (+0.1% change). Walking and, to a marginal extent, cycling were more common among those from deprived areas, but these gradients had flattened over the previous decade to the point of having essentially disappeared for cycling. In the National Travel Survey, commute modal share and total modal share were reasonably highly correlated for private motorised transport (r = 0.94), public transport (r = 0.96), walking (r = 0.88 excluding London) and cycling (r = 0.77). Conclusions England and Wales remain car-dependent, but the trends are slightly more encouraging. Unlike many health behaviours, it is more common for socio-economically disadvantaged groups to commute using physically active modes. This association is, however, weakening and may soon reverse for cycling. At a population level, commute modal share provides a reasonable proxy

  9. Airplane travel and lymphedema: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ward, L C; Battersby, K J; Kilbreath, S L

    2009-09-01

    A single subject prospective study of the relationship between air travel and lymphedema is reported. This proof of concept study was aimed at assessing the feasibility of using self-measured, inter-limb impedance ratios as a quantitative measure of lymphedema immediately prior to and following flying. The participant, a breast cancer survivor with lymphedema, measured whole arm impedance prior to and following air travel on 20 occasions, varying in duration of between 1 and 9 h, over a 12-month period. Although the inter-arm impedance ratio fluctuated over this time, it generally increased and worsened following flying. Impedance measurements were easily performed by the participant and could be obtained as close to the start and cessation of flying as is practicably possible. These data, when associated with self-assessment of lymphedema-related symptoms, could provide a comprehensive evidence base for an assessment of the risks associated with air travel and the provision of appropriate advice to prospective travelers. Further large-scale studies are recommended.

  10. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D

    2000-01-01

    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  11. Traveller's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Beeching, Nick J; Nye, Fred J

    2005-06-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea affects over 50% of travellers to some destinations and can disrupt holidays and business trips. This review examines the main causes and epidemiology of the syndrome, which is associated with poor public health infrastructure and hygiene practices, particularly in warmer climates. Although travellers may be given common sense advice on avoidance of high-risk foods and other measures to prevent traveller's diarrhoea, adherence to such advice is sometimes difficult and the evidence for its effectiveness is contradictory. However, non-antimicrobial means for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea are favoured in most settings. A simple stepwise approach to the management of traveller's diarrhoea includes single doses or 3-day courses of antimicrobials, often self administered. The antibiotics of choice are currently fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. In the long term, there will be greater benefit and effect on the health of local inhabitants and travellers from improving public health and hygiene standards at tourist destinations.

  12. Exact traveling-wave and spatiotemporal soliton solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with polynomial nonlinearity of arbitrary order.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nikola Z; Belić, Milivoj; Zhong, Wei-Ping

    2011-02-01

    We obtain exact traveling wave and spatiotemporal soliton solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients and polynomial Kerr nonlinearity of an arbitrarily high order. Exact solutions, given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, are presented for the special cases of cubic-quintic and septic models. We demonstrate that the widely used method for finding exact solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions is not applicable to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with saturable nonlinearity.

  13. Travelling Wave Solutions for the Burgers Equation and the Korteweg-de Vries Equation with Variable Coefficients Using the Generalized (Ǵ/G)-Expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Elsayed M. E.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud A. M.

    2010-12-01

    In this article, a generalized (Ǵ/G)-expansion method is used to find exact travelling wave solutions of the Burgers equation and the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with variable coefficients. As a result, hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational function solutions with parameters are obtained. When these parameters are taking special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solution. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective, and can be applied to many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  14. General Plan Environmental Assessment for Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility, Washington, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    PROPOSED ACTION ................................. 1-1  1.1  INTRODUCTION ...1 April 2011 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION Introduction The 2010 Andrews General Plan Update documents the existing facilities... INTRODUCTION The General Plan Update for Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility, Washington, Maryland (Andrews) describes the installation’s ability to

  15. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. [Travel thrombosis, 2008].

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2009-01-18

    In Hungary, the first studies on travel thrombosis were published at the beginning of the 2000s. In this paper recent investigational results of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting which is common of ground transportation and air travel. More and more computer-linked sitting thromboses have been observed as well. Long-haul air travel related venous thrombosis is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participants' characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Personal, traveller-related risk factors may be regarded as triggers. The presently available evidences do not permit to assess the exact actual risk. For healthy young passengers there seem to be low risk. However, passengers suffering from predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism can be exposed to serious hazards, if they fly more than 5000 km or travel more than 8 hours. Proper safety measures are summarized on the basis of recent international recommendations.

  17. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  18. [Diabetes and travel].

    PubMed

    Bauduceau, B; Mayaudon, H; Ducorps, M; Belmejdoub, G; Thiolet, C; Pellan, M; Cosson, E

    1997-01-01

    With the continuing expansion in international air travel, increasing numbers of diabetic patients consult physicians for advice before going abroad. Careful planning is required taking into account climatic and medical conditions at the destination. Diabetic travelers should pack an appropriate treatment kit and contract special insurance coverage for medical evacuation. Precautions are necessary to limit the effects of motion sickness and time differences on diabetes control and especially the risk of hypoglycemia. Special attention is needed to avoid digestive problems and prevent foot injuries which can lead to serious complications in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients cannot forget their health problem during vacation and must be especially cautious when traveling. However with proper training, the risks of foreign travel can be reduced to acceptable levels.

  19. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD.

  20. Exact Solutions in the Invariant Manifolds of the Generalized Integrable Hénon-Heiles System and Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jibin

    In this paper, we consider the exact explicit solutions for the famous generalized Hénon-Heiles (H-H) system. Corresponding to the three integrable cases, on the basis of the investigation of the dynamical behavior and level curves of the planar dynamical systems, we find all possible explicit exact parametric representations of solutions in the invariant manifolds of equilibrium points in the four-dimensional phase space. These solutions contain quasi-periodic solutions, homoclinic solutions, periodic solutions as well as blow-up solutions. Therefore, we answer the question: what are the flows in the center manifolds and homoclinic manifolds of the generalized Hénon-Heiles (H-H) system. As an application of the above results, we consider the traveling wave solutions for the coupled (n + 1)-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger Equations with quadratic power nonlinearity.

  1. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... related VTE, particularly in regards to duration of travel and time window after travel. Estimates of travel-related VTE incidence vary because ... with preexisting risk factors. The risk decreases with time after air travel; most air travel–related VTE occurs within the ...

  2. Travelling diabetics.

    PubMed

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  3. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission.

  4. [Vaccinations for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T

    2014-03-01

    Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development.

  5. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General declaration and air cargo manifest. 122.73 Section 122.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Leasing versus Buying General Purpose Vehicles (Sedan) in the Korean Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEASING VERSUS BUYING GENERAL PURPOSE VEHICLES (SEDAN) IN THE KOREAN AIR FORCE...leasing versus buying vehicle study started from the recognition of this situation in which ROKAF needs an efficient and effective vehicle procurement...versus buying vehicles , which has been used in buying versus leasing decision. This research analyzed two variables, logistics benefits and costs, and

  7. [Travel medicine].

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  8. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  9. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  10. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  11. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  12. 5 CFR 550.1404 - Creditable travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditable travel time. 550.1404 Section... ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Compensatory Time Off for Travel § 550.1404 Creditable travel time. (a) General. Subject... off for time in a travel status if— (1) The employee is required to travel away from the official...

  13. The implosion of the Calgary General Hospital: ambient air quality issues.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Dennis; Wardman, Dennis; Lambert, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the implosion of a large inner-city hospital in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, on October 4, 1998. Stationary and mobile air monitoring conducted after the implosion indicated there were several short-term air quality issues, including significant temporal increases in total suspended particles, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5), asbestos, and airborne and settled lead. In addition, the implosion created a dust cloud that traveled much further than expected, out to 20 km. The ability of an implosion to effectively aerosolize building materials requires the removal of all friable and nonfriable forms of asbestos and all Pb-containing painted surfaces during pre-implosion preparatory work. Public advisories to mitigate personal exposure and indoor migration of the implosion dust cloud constituents should extend to 10 or 20 km around an implosion site. These findings point to a number of complex and problematic issues regarding implosions and safeguarding human health and suggest that implosions in metropolitan areas should be prohibited. Further work to characterize the public health risks of conventional versus implosion demolition is recommended.

  14. TRAVEL FORECASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.

    1994-01-01

    Business travel planning within an organization is often a time-consuming task. Travel Forecaster is a menu-driven, easy-to-use program which plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost for business-related travel of a division or branch of an organization and compiles this information into a database to aid the travel planner. The program's ability to handle multiple trip entries makes it a valuable time-saving device. Travel Forecaster takes full advantage of relational data base properties so that information that remains constant, such as per diem rates and airline fares (which are unique for each city), needs entering only once. A typical entry would include selection with the mouse of the traveler's name and destination city from pop-up lists, and typed entries for number of travel days and purpose of the trip. Multiple persons can be selected from the pop-up lists and multiple trips are accommodated by entering the number of days by each appropriate month on the entry form. An estimated travel cost is not required of the user as it is calculated by a Fourth Dimension formula. With this information, the program can produce output of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for either organization or sub-entity of an organization; or produce outputs of trips by month with subtotal and total cost for international-only travel. It will also provide monthly and cumulative formats of planned vs. actual outputs in data or graph form. Travel Forecaster users can do custom queries to search and sort information in the database, and it can create custom reports with the user-friendly report generator. Travel Forecaster 1.1 is a database program for use with Fourth Dimension Runtime 2.1.1. It requires a Macintosh Plus running System 6.0.3 or later, 2Mb of RAM and a hard disk. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Travel Forecaster was developed in 1991. Macintosh is a registered trademark of

  15. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  16. Travelers' Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines. Medicines. Advice. Do you have questions about Zika virus ? Destinations Who are you? Traveler Clinician Where are ... including: Alert Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions Updated Zika Virus in Argentina March 31, 2017 New Malaria in ...

  17. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito bites and vectorborne infections: Use an effective insect repellent (see Chapter 2, Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & ... on risk. Discuss food and water precautions and insect bite prevention. Older travelers, especially those with a ...

  19. Principal components and generalized linear modeling in the correlation between hospital admissions and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Juliana Bottoni; Reisen, Valdério Anselmo; Santos, Jane Méri; Franco, Glaura Conceição

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between concentrations of air pollutants and admissions for respiratory causes in children. METHODS Ecological time series study. Daily figures for hospital admissions of children aged < 6, and daily concentrations of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO) were analyzed in the Região da Grande Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2010. For statistical analysis, two techniques were combined: Poisson regression with generalized additive models and principal model component analysis. Those analysis techniques complemented each other and provided more significant estimates in the estimation of relative risk. The models were adjusted for temporal trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological factors and autocorrelation. In the final adjustment of the model, it was necessary to include models of the Autoregressive Moving Average Models (p, q) type in the residuals in order to eliminate the autocorrelation structures present in the components. RESULTS For every 10:49 μg/m3 increase (interquartile range) in levels of the pollutant PM10 there was a 3.0% increase in the relative risk estimated using the generalized additive model analysis of main components-seasonal autoregressive – while in the usual generalized additive model, the estimate was 2.0%. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the usual generalized additive model, in general, the proposed aspect of generalized additive model − principal component analysis, showed better results in estimating relative risk and quality of fit. PMID:25119940

  20. Travel-related thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2012-09-01

    Travel-related thrombosis is a serious public health concern considering the large and increasing number of travellers. Due to a lack of evidence, counselling air travellers on their venous thrombosis risk is not immediately straightforward, and advice will have to be based mostly on theoretical grounds. In this review a basis for these considerations is given. First of all it needs to be recognized that venous thrombosis is a multicausal disease, i.e. several risk factors have to be present before an event occurs. This is reflected in the literature where clearly increased risks have been described for certain groups, such as subjects with factor V Leiden, those who use oral contraceptives or are obese. Also, an increased risk for tall and short people has been reported. So, for subjects with a known risk factor who plan to travel, benefits and risks of thrombosis prophylaxis, (pharmacological or other), need to be weighed. This review provides some theoretical examples. For all other travellers, the advice to move and exercise as much as possible is likely to be sufficient.

  1. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  2. 2 CFR 200.474 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel costs. 200.474 Section 200.474 Grants... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles General Provisions for Selected Items of Cost § 200.474 Travel costs. (a) General. Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and...

  3. Travel Patterns in China

    PubMed Central

    Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult. PMID:21311745

  4. Generalized and exact solutions for oblique shock waves of real gases with application to real air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouremenos, D. A.; Antonopoulos, K. A.

    1989-12-01

    The present work presents a generalized method for calculating oblique shock waves of real gases, based on the Redlich-Kwong (1949) equation of state. Also described is an exact method applicable when the exact equation of state and enthalpy function of a real gas are available. Application of the generalized and the exact methods in the case of real air showed that the former is very accurate and at least twenty times faster than the latter. An additional contribution of the study is the derivation of real gas oblique shock wave equations, which are of the same algebraic form as the well known ideal gas normal shock wave relations.

  5. Surgical travellers: tapestry to Bayeux.

    PubMed

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-09-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  6. Surgical Travellers: Tapestry to Bayeux

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-01-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  7. Reconciliation of Travel Advances and Travel Liquidations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    AD-A236 677 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECTE JN12 1981’ THESIS RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS by...Classification) RECONCILIATION OF TRAVEL ADVANCES AND TRAVEL LIQUIDATIONS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Conzales. Dnmingo 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numoer) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Travel orders, Travel advance, Travel liquida- tion

  8. Traveler's Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... probably safe to eat or drink the following:Soft drinks that are carbonated (such as cola).Hot drinks, ... for Staying HealthyInternational travel has its share of health and safety challenges. Talk to your doctor about the area ...

  9. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  10. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  11. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  12. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  13. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  14. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  15. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  16. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  17. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...) also prohibits payment for air travel to Cuba on a third-country carrier unless the travel is...

  18. 8 CFR 217.5 - Electronic System for Travel Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic System for Travel Authorization... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.5 Electronic System for Travel Authorization. (a) Travel authorization required. Each nonimmigrant alien intending to travel by air or sea to the United States under the...

  19. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  20. The stress of travel.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J; Reilly, T; Edwards, B

    2004-10-01

    International travel is an essential part of the life of elite athletes, both for competition and training. It is also becoming increasingly common among recreational sportspersons. Long-distance travel is associated with a group of transient negative effects, collectively referred to as 'travel fatigue', which result from anxiety about the journey, the change to an individual's daily routine, and dehydration due to time spent in the dry air of the aircraft cabin. Travel fatigue lasts for only a day or so, but for those who fly across several time zones, there are also the longer-lasting difficulties associated with 'jet lag'. The problems of jet lag can last for over a week if the flight crosses 10 time zones or more, and they can reduce performance and the motivation to train effectively. Knowledge of the properties of the body clock enables the cause of the difficulties to be understood (an unadjusted body clock), and forms the basis of using light in the new time zone to promote adjustment of the body clock. Sleep loss and its effects are important components of jet lag, and attempts to promote sleep by the use of melatonin and other hypnotics are also relevant. Sleep loss is also found in those who undertake challenges that involve long periods where the normal consolidated sleep of 8 h length is not possible. Advice on sleep regimens in such circumstances is given.

  1. Family travel: an overview.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Paediatric travel medicine involves the education of parents about the numerous health and safety issues related to traveling with infants and young children--whether overseas or a weekend at a local lake. It includes providing children with vaccines and medications, giving telephone advice to parents while they are traveling, and treating children should they come home ill. Practitioners must be knowledgeable about such varied topics like avoiding diarrhoea, infant safety seats for air travel, altitude sickness, sun exposure, waterfront safety, insect protection, dealing with hot and cold environments, and at what age it is safe to begin scuba diving, to name just a very few. Practitioners must also know when adult recommendations can--and cannot--be adapted for children; that vaccine doses, needle size, and injection site may vary with the size of the child; and the answers to hundreds of everyday questions such as how to administer an essential but bitter tasting medication to an uncooperative child--and what to do when the child refuses to take the medication or vomits it.

  2. Notification: Management of Travel Cards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0156, April 20, 2015. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Inspector General (OIG), plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the management of travel cards.

  3. Malaria--a disease of travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Pieruń, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The number of people travelling to regions with hot climate such as Asia, Africa and South America increases steadily every year. The reason for travel varies greatly, from business trips to tourist excursions, the latter definitely prevailing. There has been an increase in travel to destinations where exposure to vector-borne, food- and water-borne, air-borne or sexually transmitted pathogens is common. As one of vector-borne diseases, malaria poses as a serious health hazard to local as well as immigrant populations. Over 40% of the world's inhabitants live in malaria-endemic regions. Although highly developed countries of North America and Europe are generally free from endemic malaria foci, numerous cases of imported infections are observed. Some cases of malaria are also reported in Poland, they are usually brought by persons returning from tropical regions in Africa, Asia, South America, Australia and Oceania. The number of cases depends on the destination as well as on the use or rejection of chemoprophylaxis. The article provides general information on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and diagnosis of malaria. Emphasis has been put on treatment as well as on chemoprophylaxis of the disease, which are changing relatively quickly, what is mainly related to increasing Plasmodium resistance to applied medicines.

  4. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  5. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  6. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  7. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  8. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  9. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  10. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  11. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  12. 38 CFR 21.5103 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.5103.... Chapter 32 Counseling § 21.5103 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for a veteran who is required to receive...

  13. 38 CFR 21.3105 - Travel expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Travel expenses. 21.3105.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3105 Travel expenses. (a) General. VA shall determine and pay the necessary expense of travel to and from the place of counseling for an eligible person who is required to...

  14. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  15. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  16. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  17. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  18. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  19. Travel during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  20. Infectious disease following travel to developed regions: a snapshot of presentations to an Australian travel medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Drewett, George; Leder, Karin

    2016-06-01

    Much of the travel medicine literature focuses on travel to 'developing' regions by travellers from 'developed' regions; however literature about travel to developed regions is scarce. This article examines presentations to a travel medicine clinic over a 17-year period with illnesses resulting from travel to developed regions. From a cohort of general presentations to the clinic of 1077 patients, 85 patients acquired infections due to travel to developed regions, with a total of 99 infectious diagnoses made. This serves to highlight the risk of infectious disease even among travel to only developed regions, and the importance of travel advice in these situations.

  1. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    PubMed

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings.

  2. Travel Medical Kit.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne C; Haulman, N Jean

    2016-03-01

    "The traveler's medical kit is an essential tool for both the novice and expert traveler. It is designed to treat travel-related illness and injury and to ensure preexisting medical conditions are managed appropriately. Travelers are at increased risk for common gastrointestinal issues during travel. Respiratory illnesses make up approximately 8% of the ailments present in returned international travelers. Approximately 12% of travelers experience a travel-related skin condition. First aid treatment for minor injuries is essential to all travel medical kits. The complexity ranges from a small, simple case for the urban traveler to a larger, extensive case for wilderness travel."

  3. Forecast of the general aviation air traffic control environment for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Hollister, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    The critical information required for the design of a reliable, low cost, advanced avionics system which would enhance the safety and utility of general aviation is stipulated. Sufficient data is accumulated upon which industry can base the design of a reasonably priced system having the capability required by general aviation in and beyond the 1980's. The key features of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system are: a discrete address beacon system, a separation assurance system, area navigation, a microwave landing system, upgraded ATC automation, airport surface traffic control, a wake vortex avoidance system, flight service stations, and aeronautical satellites. The critical parameters that are necessary for component design are identified. The four primary functions of ATC (control, surveillance, navigation, and communication) and their impact on the onboard avionics system design are assessed.

  4. "...it's all the same no matter how much fruit or vegetables or fresh air we get": traveller women's perceptions of illness causation and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Margaret; Millar, Michelle; Barry, Margaret M

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of illness causation and health inequalities of Travellers, an ethnic minority group who experience considerable social and health disadvantages in Ireland. In order to allow for subjective meanings to emerge, a qualitative methodology with purposive sampling was employed. Participants in the study were invited to respond to a vignette in a focus group setting. Forty-one Traveller women were recruited to the focus groups through community projects or adult education initiatives. The study not only illustrates the complexity of lay perceptions of ill-health and health inequalities, but raises important questions about the prevalence of depression and of domestic violence in the Travelling community. These Traveller women were very willing to discuss the structural factors that contributed to their health status, attributing ill-health to social and environmental factors, such as accommodation, hardship and discrimination. Further, they broadly rejected behavioural explanations of the heart disease described in the vignette. Traveller women's understandings of health and the factors that determine it are deeply embedded in the social context of their lives and their ethnic identity. These findings are discussed in the context of social identity and ethnicity, and contribute to theoretical debates about the role of that identity in recognising inequality. The study revealed that Traveller women see many shortcomings in health service provision. They need service provision to be culturally sensitive and responsive to their needs.

  5. National Strategy to Combat Terrorist Travel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    Terrorist Travel Visa Waiver Program The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) generally enables citizens of 27 countries to travel to the United States for tourism or...NATIONAL STRATEGY TO COMBAT TERRORIST TRAVEL May 2, 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Strategy to Combat Terorist Travel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  6. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  7. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  8. Plains Traveler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust devil traveling across a plain west-southwest of Schiaparelli Crater, in far eastern Sinus Meridiani. The dust devil is casting a shadow toward the northeast, just south (below) of an egg-shaped crater.

    Location near: 6.4oS, 349.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  9. Travel thrombosis: Pathomechanisms and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of life threatening venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with long-haul air travel has received increasing attention in recent years. VTE can develop after long travel by car, bus or train, as well. In this paper recent investigational results on the pathomechanism of this special type of venous thrombosis have been reviewed. Travel thrombosis is a subgroup of sitting thromboses. It is a consequence of prolonged sitting, which is common of ground transportation and air travel. Air travel-related venous thromboembolism (ATVT) is a multifactorial disease. Possible contributory risk factors are in connection with the milieu of the cabin, such as narrow sitting in cramp position, hypobaric hypoxia and lower humidity. Personal, traveler-related risk factors may be regarded as a trigger. The risk of thrombosis is depending on the duration and distance of the travel. Recent studies have clarified effects of long-haul travel on the coagulation system. Various investigations evaluated the effect of immobilization and hypobaric hypoxia on thrombin generation and fibrinolysis. The studies differed much in participant characteristics, duration and type of exposure and statistical analysis, so the results are contradictory. Healthy passengers seem to have low risk. However, travelers suffering from predisposing risk factors for VTE can be exposed to serious hazards.

  10. The practice of travel medicine in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, P; Santos-O'Connor, F; Parola, P

    2010-03-01

    Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travellers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow international recommendations such as those provided by the WHO. Providers of travel medicine include tropical medicine specialists, general practice nurses and physicians, specialist 'travel clinics', occupational physicians, and pharmacists. One of the core functions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control-funded network of travel and tropical medicine professionals, EuroTravNet, is to document the status quo of travel medicine in Europe. A three-pronged approach is used, with a real-time online questionnaire, a structured interview with experts in each country, and web searching.

  11. Neurological disorders and travel.

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Kojan, Suleiman

    2003-02-01

    Travel is associated with a number of neurological disorders that can be divided into two categories: (1) Neurological infections including encephalitides, neurotuberculosis, neurobrucellosis, cysticercosis and trichinosis. Some of these disorders can be prevented by vaccinations, such as Japanese B encephalitis and rabies, some by the use of insect repellents and some by avoiding raw milk products and undercooked meat. (2) Non-infective neurological disorders, such as acute mountain sickness and high altitude cerebral oedema, problems occurring during air travel such as syncope, seizures, strokes, nerve compression, barotrauma and vertigo, motion sickness and foodborne neurotoxic disorders such as ciguatera, shellfish poisoning and intoxication by cassava. This group of diseases and disorders could be prevented if the traveller knows about them, applies simple physiological rules, takes some specific medications and knows how to avoid intoxications in certain geographical areas. Meningococcal meningitis, malaria and jet lag syndrome are extensively discussed in other articles of this issue. The discussion in this paper will be limited to the other disorders.

  12. Travel-associated skin disease.

    PubMed

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Morris-Jones, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Travel associated skin disease is extremely common and a frequent cause of the returning traveller seeking medical attention. Widespread cutaneous eruptions usually represent reactive rashes, indicating an underlying systemic infection or allergic reaction. Patients with disseminated or spreading rashes following travel often present with fever and malaise. In contrast, those presenting with localised skin disease such as a blister, nodule, plaque, ulcer etc are usually well in themselves but have sustained a bite/sting/penetrating injury or introduction of infection directly into the skin at the affected site. As a general rule widespread rashes are investigated with blood tests/serology and localised lesions with a skin biopsy for culture and histology.

  13. 7 CFR 1484.37 - Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations... to Federal Travel Regulations? Travel shall conform to the U.S. Federal Travel Regulation (41 CFR Chapters 300 through 304) and air travel shall conform to the requirements of the “Fly America Act” (49...

  14. 7 CFR 1484.37 - Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must Cooperators adhere to Federal Travel Regulations... to Federal Travel Regulations? Travel shall conform to the U.S. Federal Travel Regulation (41 CFR Chapters 300 through 304) and air travel shall conform to the requirements of the “Fly America Act” (49...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the...

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the...

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.7 - How should I route my travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel? 301-10.7 Section 301-10.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES General § 301-10.7 How should I route my travel? You must travel to your destination by the...

  20. Effects of air pollution on general practitioner consultations for upper respiratory diseases in London

    PubMed Central

    Hajat, S; Anderson, H; Atkinson, R; Haines, A; Seaton, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory disease as reflected in number of consultations made at family practices in London. Methods: The study used non-parametric methods of analysis of time series data, adjusting for seasonal factors, day of the week, holiday effects, influenza, weather, pollen concentrations, and serial correlation. Results: It was estimated that a 10–90th percentile change (13–31 µg/m3) in sulphur dioxide (SO2) measures resulted in a small increase in numbers of childhood consultation: 3.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.4% to 5.8%). Stronger associations were found in the case of a 10–90th percentile change (16–47 µg/m3) in fine particles (PM10) in adults aged 15–64 5.7% (2.9% to 8.6%), and in adults aged 65 and over: 10.2% (5.3% to 15.3%). In general, associations were strongest in elderly people, weakest in the children, and were largely found in the winter months for these two age groups, and in the summer months for adults aged 15–64. An apparent decrease in consultations was associated with ozone concentrations but this was most pronounced in colder months when ozone concentrations were at their lowest. Conclusions: The results suggest an adverse effect of air pollution on consultations for upper respiratory symptoms, in particular in the case of PM10 and SO2. The effects are relatively small; however, due to the many consultations made in primary care, the impact on demand for services could be considerable. PMID:11983844

  1. 75 FR 4822 - 2010 Travel and Relocation Excellence Award

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION 2010 Travel and Relocation Excellence Award AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General... seeking candidates for the biennial 2010 Travel and Relocation Excellence Award, which honors excellence in federal travel and relocation policy. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Go to GSA's 2010 Travel...

  2. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services... of agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel costs,...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at the time of travel as set forth in the— (i) Federal Travel Regulation, prescribed by the General... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel costs. 31.205-46....205-46 Travel costs. (a) Costs for transportation, lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. (1)...

  4. Travelers' Health: Giardiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  5. [Travel and chronic respiratory insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, D; Marotel, C; Miltgen, J; N'Guyen, G; Cuguilliere, A; L'Her, P

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate, altitude and lifestyle during travel confronts patients presenting chronic respiratory insufficiency with special problems. A major challenge is related to high altitude during air travel. To limit risks, a preflight examination is necessary to ascertain respiratory status. Patients requiring oxygen therapy must ensure availability both during the flight and at the destination. Patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis must bring along a sufficient supply of usual inhalers. All patients should carry a doctor's letter describing their condition and listing medications. Using these elementary precautions, patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency can safely enjoy sightseeing and outdoor leisure activities.

  6. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  7. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... referred to as the Standardized Regulations—as from time to time amended, for not more than the travel time...” clause of this contract, time spent away from post resulting from educational travel will be counted as... time amended, for not more than the travel time required by scheduled commercial air carrier using...

  8. Deep vein thrombosis and airline travel--the deadly duo.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2003-02-01

    A number of deaths from pulmonary embolism caused by deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have been attributed to long-distance airplane travel. Although airplanes provide the most convenient means of long-distance travel, the aircraft environment can take a physical toll on passengers. This article describes the causes and risk factors for discusses preventive strategies, and offers recommendations for making air travel safer.

  9. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  10. [Short gynaecological general anaesthesia with pentazocin and etomidate combined with room air (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Schockenhoff, B

    1980-09-01

    A new short general anaesthesia for minor gynaecological operations is presented, which is also suitable for out-patients. The patient receives 0.05 mg. Atropin and 10 mg. Diazapam i.m. 30 minutes prior to the operation. Pentazocin in a dosage of 0.75 mg/kg. body weight was injected intravenously. 1 minute later Etomidate in a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg. body weight was injected intravenously. 1/3 of the initial dose of Etomidate was given as necessary at an average of 5 minutes following the initial dose. Through-out the procedure the patients spontaneously breathe room air. As advantages of the method are listed the minimal disturbances of the heart and the circulatory system, the lack of respiratory depression, the lack of specific organ toxicity, the absence of measurable release of histamine, the unlimited frequent repetition possible, the lack of damage to the personnel by anaesthetic gases and the safety and simplicity of the anaesthesia.

  11. Using principal component analysis and general path seeker regression for investigation of air pollution and CO modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Kulina, H.; Iliev, I.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring and control of air quality in urban areas is important problem in many European countries. The main air pollutants are observed and a huge amount of data is collected during the last years. In Bulgaria, the air quality is surveyed by the official environmental agency and in many towns exceedances of harmful pollutants are detected. The aim of this study is to investigate the pollution from 9 air pollutants in the town of Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria in the period of 5 years based on hourly data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to discover the patterns in the overall pollution and the contribution of the 9 pollutants. In addition the Generalized Path Seeker (GPS) regularized regression method is applied to find dependence of CO (carbon monoxide) with respect to other pollutants and 8 meteorological parameters. It is reported that the CO concentrations are in continuously repeated low level quantities very harmful for human health.

  12. Reviews Book: At Home: A Short History of Private Life Book: The Story of Mathematics Book: Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Equipment: Rotational Inertial Wands DVD: Planets Book: The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Equipment: Scale with Dial Equipment: Infrared Thermometers Book: 300 Science and History Projects Book: The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Equipment: Red Tide Spectrometer Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Story of Mathematics Book shows the link between maths and physics Time Travel: A Writer's Guide to the Real Science of Plausible Time Travel Book explains how to write good time-travelling science fiction Rotational Inertial Wands Wands can help explore the theory of inertia Infrared Thermometers Kit measures temperature differences Red Tide Spectrometer Spectrometer gives colour spectra WORTH A LOOK At Home: A Short History of Private Life Bryson explores the history of home life The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning Book wades into the science/religion debate Scale with Dial Cheap scales can be turned into Newton measuring scales 300 Science History Projects Fun science projects for kids to enjoy The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air Text looks at fascinating optical effects HANDLE WITH CARE Planets DVD takes a trip through the solar system WEB WATCH Websites offer representations of nuclear chain reactions

  13. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  14. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  15. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  16. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  17. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  18. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  19. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  20. Tough Tommy’s Space Force: General Thomas S. Power and the Air Force Space Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    owe deep thanks to Archie Difante, Maranda Gilmore, Tammy Horton, and the staff of the Air Force Historical Research Agency for their help finding...Power and SAC in historical context of both the Air Force and the national space program. Also, I must thank Dr. Tom Hughes for explaining to an...development. They could envision future potential by which armies, navies, and air forces should best deploy forces to defeat their enemies.”2

  1. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  2. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  3. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  4. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  5. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  6. Travel-related illness.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  7. Assessing Regional Emissions Reductions from Travel Efficiency: Applying the Travel Efficiency Assessment Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation from the 2016 TRB Summer Conference on Transportation Planning and Air Quality summarizes the application of the Travel Efficiency Assessment Method (TEAM) which analyzed selected transportation emission reduction strategies in three case

  8. Predicting travel attitudes among university faculty after 9/11.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Panek, Paul E; Cosmar, David

    2006-03-01

    The authors interviewed a random sample of 306 university faculty as part of an annual university poll. Items focused on air travel concerns following 9/11, positive aspects of travel, and future travel intentions. Demographic factors were not significant predictors for men or women faculty. Faculty expressed positive attitudes toward travel, for example agreeing that travel allows them to demonstrate competency. Concerns about missing connections and delays elicited a larger percent of negative reactions than concerns about hijackings or security. Gender differences were not observed on individual items, but in regression analyses a composite of self-reported travel risk factors was more predictive of future travel plans for women than for men, although women expected to travel as much in the future as men. The results are consistent with positive psychology and speak to applied aspects of travel and tourism.

  9. Regional climates in the GISS general circulation model: Surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    One of the more viable research techniques into global climate change for the purpose of understanding the consequent environmental impacts is based on the use of general circulation models (GCMs). However, GCMs are currently unable to reliably predict the regional climate change resulting from global warming, and it is at the regional scale that predictions are required for understanding human and environmental responses. Regional climates in the extratropics are in large part governed by the synoptic-scale circulation and the feasibility of using this interscale relationship is explored to provide a way of moving to grid cell and sub-grid cell scales in the model. The relationships between the daily circulation systems and surface air temperature for points across the continental United States are first developed in a quantitative form using a multivariate index based on principal components analysis (PCA) of the surface circulation. These relationships are then validated by predicting daily temperature using observed circulation and comparing the predicted values with the observed temperatures. The relationships predict surface temperature accurately over the major portion of the country in winter, and for half the country in summer. These relationships are then applied to the surface synoptic circulation of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM control run, and a set of surface grid cell temperatures are generated. These temperatures, based on the larger-scale validated circulation, may now be used with greater confidence at the regional scale. The generated temperatures are compared to those of the model and show that the model has regional errors of up to 10 C in individual grid cells.

  10. Generalization and extensions of capillary thinning driven self-assembly of nanostructured air-bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabba, Santosh

    In Harfenist's brush-on method (Nano Lett., 2004, 4, 1931), polymer dissolved in a volatile solvent is manually brushed over an array of micro-machined pillars, which causes the self assembly of arrays of air-bridges, often of nanometer diameter. This study considers ways to extend the brush-on method by incorporating new materials and new reactions that self-assemble into air-bridges. The study also considers ways to broaden the complexity of device fabrication built up on self assembled air-bridges. These developments include (1) A number of different functional polymeric materials (biocompatible, biodegradable, nanocomposite and amphiphilic copolymers) at different mass fractions and molecular weights are used for demonstrating the applicability of drawing fiber air-bridges by brush-on. Fiber air-bridges with a diameter as small as 20 nm spanning an air gap of 1 mum are fabricated. (2) Considering molecular weight and concentration, it is demonstrated that brush-on can be successful of low concentrations of 1 wt % (10x lower than previously reported) if 5x higher molecular weight polymers are used than previously reported. This is significant both in working with polymers that have low solubility or for solutions of lower viscosities. The viscosity only needs to be large at the later stages of capillary thinning. This is achieved by strain hardening that occurs for highly entangled polymers and polymers of sufficient molecular weight that can entangle at low concentrations. (3) Enzymatic biopolymerization is used for the first time to self assemble highly ordered arrays of air-bridges by brush-on. When fibrinogen solutions are brushed over a thrombin primed surface, or monomeric actin over a KCI primed array, fiber air-bridges are formed, sometimes reaching diameters as small as 16 nm. The uniformity in diameter of one hand-brushed array of 358 parallel fibrin air-bridges was 36.4 nm (6.8 nm standard deviation). (4) Rather than brushing liquid polymers onto an

  11. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  12. 75 FR 36414 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Directions for Reporting Other Than Coach-Class Accommodations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Directions for Reporting Other Than Coach-Class Accommodations for Employees on Official Travel AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services...), in conjunction with the Government Accountability Office (GAO) report, Premium Class Travel:...

  13. Rabies in travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  14. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... / Monday, July 26, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 9004 Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... by and on behalf of presidential candidates receiving public funding for the general election, 11...

  15. Evolutionary Stability in the Traveler's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    The traveler's dilemma is a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma which shows clearly a paradox of game theory. In the traveler's dilemma, the strategy chosen by analysis and theory seems obviously wrong intuitively. Here we develop a measure of evolutionary stability and show that the evolutionarily stable equilibrium is in some sense not very…

  16. Brucellosis and its particularities in children travelers.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is still endemic in many countries in the world, however, having a significantly higher incidence in developing countries. As consequence of travel, risk for children from non-endemic areas would be considerable when visiting developing countries. Then, the purpose of this review is to provide, after a bibliographical search, an update on the main aspects of this disease in the traveler children. For the general practitioner, but particularly for travel medicine practitioner and pediatricians, these clinicoepidemiological considerations should be taken in mind in the differential diagnosis when assessing children returning from travel to brucellosis endemic areas.

  17. 75 FR 25797 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...: Andy Chang, Environmental Engineer, Criteria Pollutant Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S..., chang.andy@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA...

  18. Air quality climate in the Columbia River Basin. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

  19. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  20. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  1. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.1 What is the purpose of an agency travel...

  2. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  3. 41 CFR 301-73.1 - What does the Federal travel management program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... travel management program include? 301-73.1 Section 301-73.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 73-TRAVEL PROGRAMS General Rules § 301-73.1 What does the Federal travel management program include? The...

  4. Positioner with long travel in two dimensions

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-12-23

    A precision positioning system is provided which provides long travel in two of the linear dimensions, while using non-contact bearings for both a first subassembly which provides long travel in one of the linear dimension and a second subassembly which provides long travel in the second linear dimension. The first or upper subassembly is preferably a magnetic subassembly which, in addition to providing long travel, also compensates or positions in three rotary dimensions and in the third linear dimension. The second subassembly is preferably either an air bearing or magnetic subassembly and is normally used only to provide long travel. Angled surfaces may be provided for magnetic bearings and capacitive or other gap sensing probes may be mounted to the stage and ground flush with the bearing actuators to provide more precise gap measurements.

  5. International travel and vaccinations.

    PubMed Central

    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A

    1999-01-01

    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad. PMID:10063396

  6. Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Hajat, S; Haines, A; Atkinson, R W; Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Emberlin, J

    2001-04-01

    Few published studies have looked at the health effects of air pollution in the primary care setting, and most have concentrated on lower rather than upper respiratory diseases. The authors investigated the association of daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis with air pollution in London, United Kingdom. Generalized additive models were used to regress time series of daily numbers of patients consulting for allergic rhinitis against 1992--1994 measures of air pollution, after control for possible confounders and adjustment for overdispersion and serial correlation. In children, a 10th--90th percentile increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) levels 4 days prior to consultation (13-31 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 24.5% increase in consultations (95% confidence interval: 14.6, 35.2; p < 0.00001); a 10th--90th percentile increase in averaged ozone (O(3)) concentrations on the day of consultation and the preceding 3 days (6--29 parts per billion) was associated with a 37.6% rise (95% confidence interval: 23.3, 53.5; p < 0.00001). For adults, smaller effect sizes were observed for SO(2) and O(3). The association with SO(2) remained highly significant in the presence of other pollutants. This study suggests that air pollution worsens allergic rhinitis symptoms, leading to substantial increases in consultations. SO(2) and O(3) seem particularly responsible, and both seem to contribute independently.

  7. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health

  8. Afghan Air Force University: Contract Requirements Were Generally Met, but Instances of Non Compliance, Poor Workmanship, and Inadequate Maintenance Need to Be Addressed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Afghanistan, including at the Afghan Air Force University, from December 2014 through March 2016, in accordance with the Quality Standards for...Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction SIGAR 16-26 Inspection Report Afghan Air Force University: Contract Requirements...Were Generally Met, but Instances of Non-Compliance, Poor Workmanship, and Inadequate Maintenance Need to Be Addressed SIGAR 16-26-IP/Afghan Air

  9. 76 FR 77182 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Conformity Requirements for Federal Agencies Applicable to Federal Actions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... adopted by Virginia for the purpose of incorporating Federal general conformity requirements revisions... approving Virginia's general conformity SIP revision and if that provision may be severed from the...

  10. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Language: ... Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde Zika Virus ...

  11. Zika Travel Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... website . World Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde ...

  12. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... Suppl 2: B26–36. Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, Popovic T, Hughes JM. Meningococcal disease. N ...

  13. Travel and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical records with you while traveling. High Altitudes, Exotic Spots Traveling to higher altitudes shouldn’t necessarily ... The bigger concern, Gandy said, is that an exotic place may have less access to good medical ...

  14. 78 FR 26563 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Revised General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ...; Revised General Conformity Requirements and an Associated Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Regulations, involving Section 3 of Chapter 8 that addresses general conformity requirements and a new Section... additions to the State's general conformity requirements in order to align them with the current...

  15. 78 FR 49685 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Wyoming; Revised General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ...; Revised General Conformity Requirements and an Associated Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., involving Section 3 of Chapter 8 that addresses general conformity requirements and a new Section 5 to... to Wyoming's general conformity requirements in order to align them with the current federal...

  16. Traveling and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  17. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  18. The Jet Travel Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Airplane travelers are dismayed by the long lines and seemingly chaotic activities that precede boarding a full airplane. Surely, the one who can solve this problem is going to make many travelers happy. This article describes the Jet Travel Challenge, an activity that challenges students to create some alternatives to this now frustrating…

  19. Retrenchment: General Russell E. Dougherty and the Strategic Air Command During the Age of Detente

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Air Force Base can wander its halls without sensing the enduring achievement made possible by the thousands of Airmen and civilians who served in SAC... mind . There was a lot of change for change’s sake.”78 One such change was to move away from the nuclear strategy of massive retaliation. The new

  20. 76 FR 77150 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., ] including NAAQS for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur... provisions; and to modify the cases for which air quality modeling analysis apply; l. Modification of section... relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements,...

  1. 75 FR 25770 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; General Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...., Monday through Friday, excluding Federal holidays. We recommend that you telephone Andy Chang...: Andy Chang, Environmental Engineer, Criteria Pollutant Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S..., chang.andy@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document whenever ``we,'' ``us,''...

  2. Utilizing Traveler Demand Modeling to Predict Future Commercial Flight Schedules in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2006-01-01

    The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These

  3. Approaches to Streamline Air Permitting for Combined Heat and Power: Permits by Rule and General Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet provides information about permit by rule (PBR) and general permit (GP) processes, including the factors that contributed to their development and lessons learned from their implementation.

  4. General Air Quality Permit Request for Coverage: US Silica - Parshall Transload Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to Request for Coverage under Stone Quarrying, Crushing, and Screening Facilities General Permit Indian Reservation, US Silica, Parshall Transload Facility, Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota.

  5. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  6. 76 FR 63844 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging Reimbursement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...] RIN 3090-AJ22 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Lodging Reimbursement AGENCY: General Services... Travel Regulation (FTR) regarding reimbursement of lodging per diem expenses while on temporary duty travel (TDY). This final rule specifically states GSA's policy in regards to reimbursement for...

  7. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  8. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  9. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel and transportation... Travel and transportation. For use in cost reimbursement contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Travel and Transportation (JAN 1990) (a) General. The Contractor will be reimbursed for...

  10. 48 CFR 731.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Travel costs. 731.205-46 Section 731.205-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL....205-46 Travel costs. It is USAID policy to require prior written approval of international travel...

  11. 77 FR 76040 - Government-wide Travel Advisory Committee (GTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Government-wide Travel Advisory Committee (GTAC) AGENCY: Office of the Administrator, General... has determined that the establishment of the Government-wide Travel Advisory Committee (GTAC) is... and Authority: The GSA Office of Asset and Transportation Management, Travel and Relocation...

  12. 33 CFR 5.57 - Traveling expenses and per diem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traveling expenses and per diem... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.57 Traveling expenses and per diem. A member of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties, may be paid actual necessary traveling expenses, including a per...

  13. 48 CFR 731.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Travel costs. 731.205-46 Section 731.205-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL....205-46 Travel costs. It is USAID policy to require prior written approval of international travel...

  14. 33 CFR 5.57 - Traveling expenses and per diem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traveling expenses and per diem... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.57 Traveling expenses and per diem. A member of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties, may be paid actual necessary traveling expenses, including a per...

  15. 33 CFR 5.57 - Traveling expenses and per diem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling expenses and per diem... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.57 Traveling expenses and per diem. A member of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties, may be paid actual necessary traveling expenses, including a per...

  16. 48 CFR 752.7002 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel and transportation... Travel and transportation. For use in cost reimbursement contracts performed in whole or in part overseas. Travel and Transportation (JAN 1990) (a) General. The Contractor will be reimbursed for...

  17. 48 CFR 731.205-46 - Travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Travel costs. 731.205-46 Section 731.205-46 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL....205-46 Travel costs. It is USAID policy to require prior written approval of international travel...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.36 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Travel and transportation. 1260.36 Section 1260.36 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.36 Travel and transportation. Travel and Transportation October 2000...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.36 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Travel and transportation. 1260.36 Section 1260.36 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.36 Travel and transportation. Travel and Transportation October 2000...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.36 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Travel and transportation. 1260.36 Section 1260.36 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.36 Travel and transportation. Travel and Transportation October 2000...

  1. 14 CFR § 1260.36 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Travel and transportation. § 1260.36 Section § 1260.36 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.36 Travel and transportation. Travel and...

  2. 33 CFR 5.57 - Traveling expenses and per diem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Traveling expenses and per diem... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.57 Traveling expenses and per diem. A member of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties, may be paid actual necessary traveling expenses, including a per...

  3. 33 CFR 5.57 - Traveling expenses and per diem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Traveling expenses and per diem... GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.57 Traveling expenses and per diem. A member of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties, may be paid actual necessary traveling expenses, including a per...

  4. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.36 - Travel and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel and transportation. 1260.36 Section 1260.36 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.36 Travel and transportation. Travel and Transportation October 2000...

  6. Preparing the traveller.

    PubMed

    Spira, Alan M

    2003-04-19

    The four steps for giving travellers the foundation for healthy journeys are to assess their health, analyse their itineraries, select vaccines, and provide education about prevention and self-treatment of travel-related diseases. This process takes time. Since there is a risk of information overload, travellers should leave the clinic with some written advice for reinforcement. The order of these steps can be tailored to what best suits the travel clinic, but vaccinating early in the process allows monitoring for adverse reactions. Face-to-face discussion is vital for explaining the use and side-effects of medications. Those who provide a travel medicine service should be seeing many travellers and should seek specialist training. In 2003, the International Society of Travel Medicine introduced a certificate of knowledge examination in travel medicine. We cannot make travellers bullet-proof but it is possible to make them bullet-resistant. The pre-travel visit should minimise health risks specific to the journey, give travellers the capability to handle most minor medical problems, and allow them to identify when to seek local care during the trip or on return.

  7. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  8. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Base General Plan Development, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    The operation of the solar array and wind turbine would result in the generation of new electricity. Consumption of energy resources would not...2008a. Wind Turbine Feasibility Study Final Report, Schriever Air Force Base, 13 June 2008. SAFB 2008b. Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan... Wind , Inc.,535 North Pleasantburg Drive, Suite 136,Greenville,SC,29607 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  9. General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process Environmental Assessment, Altus Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    standards define levels of air quality necessary to protect against decreased visibility and damage to animals, crops , vegetation, and buildings. Federal...located was utilized for agricultural purposes. The primary crops cultivated were cotton and wheat, allowing for the potential that pesticides...supports C-5, C-17, and KC-135 aircraft. The wing maintains operational currency of a highly- qualified instructor force and combat- ready aircrew

  10. Appraisal and Merit Pay Systems for Air Force Civilian General Managers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Managers (GMs) 13 to 15 and are to fall under the Merit Pay System. The Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) was tasked by the Directorate of...Civilian Personnel (AF/ MPK) under RPR 76-40 to develop a merit pay and performance appraisal system for GMs. This research program was started in March 1979...officials (GMs) covered by AFR 40-510, Merit Pay System and Cash Awards Program, and (b) performance ratings received under the GMAS will be the major

  11. Environmental Assessment for the General Plan and Maintenance of Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Protection FEMA Federal Emergency Planning Agency FIRM Flood Insurance Rate Map FLANG Florida Air National Guard FNAI Florida Natural Area Inventory FONPA...that support this vision are as follows: P A F B G e n e r a l P l a n E A 1-5 A. Utilize capacity to accommodate future growth ...would guide the future physical development at PAFB. The CIP is intended to assist decision makers in accommodating growth , mission changes, and

  12. Dengue vaccines for travelers.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Deen, Jacqueline L

    2008-07-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne infection caused by a flavivirus and spread by the Aedes mosquitoes. Many of the countries where dengue is endemic are popular tourist destinations and the disease is an increasingly important problem encountered by international travelers. Personal protection against the day-feeding dengue vectors is problematic, indicating the urgent need for a dengue vaccine. This review discusses the challenges of vaccine development, current vaccine strategies and the prospects for the availability of a vaccine for travelers in the future. Cost-effectiveness studies will need to take into account many factors, including the attack rate of dengue in travelers, the proportion of travelers who will need hospitalization, the cost of altered travel itineraries, the cost of the vaccine, duration of travel, destination and season. To be licensed as a travelers' vaccine, vaccine trials must address safety, immunogenicity, duration of protection, schedules and boosters in adults (in particular in immunologically naive adults), trials that may differ from those conducted in endemic countries. Vaccine schedules with long intervals would be a major obstacle to the uptake of the vaccine by travelers. Enhanced reactogenicity or interference with immunization must be effectively excluded for travelers with prior or concurrent vaccination against other flaviviruses, such as yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis. Licensing dengue as a travelers' vaccine poses unique challenges beyond the development of a vaccine for the endemic population.

  13. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is traveling. Many travelers are due for primary vaccination or boosting against tetanus-diphtheria, measles-mumps-rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, and influenza, for example, and the pre-travel visit is an ideal time to administer these. The second category are immunizations which might be required by a country as a condition for entry; these are yellow fever and cholera. The final category contains immunizations which are recommended because there is a risk of acquiring a particular disease during travel. Typhoid fever, meningococcal disease, rabies, and hepatitis are some examples. Travelers who are pregnant or who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus require special consideration. Provision of appropriate immunizations for foreign travel is an important aspect of preventing illness in travelers. PMID:1337807

  14. 4. Elevation, looking southwest, with Machine Shop and Goliath traveling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation, looking southwest, with Machine Shop and Goliath traveling crane in background. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, American Revolver Crane, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  15. A generalized description of the signal size in extensive air shower detectors and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Engel, R.; Roth, M.; Schulz, A.

    2017-01-01

    The number as well as the energy and angular distributions of particles in extensive air showers (EAS) depend on the stage of the shower development and the distance to the shower axis. In this work we derive an analytic parameterization of the particle distributions at ground from air shower simulations convolved with the response of a surface detector array. Shower particles are classified into four components according to the shower component they belong to: the muonic component, the electromagnetic component stemming from muon interactions and muon decay, the purely electromagnetic component, and the newly introduced electromagnetic component from low-energy hadrons. Using this scheme, we will show that the total signal at ground level for different surface detectors can be described with minimal fluctuations with parameterizations depending on the primary energy, position of the shower maximum, and the overall number of muons in the shower. The simulation results for different combinations of primaries and hadronic interaction models are reproduced with an accuracy better than 5-10% in the range from 100 m to 2000 m from the shower core. This parameterization is then used as a Lateral Distribution ansatz to reconstruct showers in current EAS experiments. Since this ansatz depends on physical parameters, it opens the possibility to infer them from data.

  16. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognized in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase, Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs the cost for air travel, Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organization in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  17. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  18. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    PubMed

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination.

  19. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    PubMed

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  20. A generalized description of the time dependent signals in extensive air shower detectors and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Roth, M.; Schulz, A.

    2017-02-01

    The expected signal in extensive air shower (EAS) detectors can be predicted with a 10% accuracy by a parameterization that depends on a set of global shower parameters: the energy, the depth of the electromagnetic shower maximum (Xmax) and the overall muon content. By classifying shower particles in four components (muonic, purely electromagnetic, electromagnetic stemming from muon interactions and decay and electromagnetic-from-low-energy hadrons), shower-to-shower fluctuations are minimized. We follow this scheme to propose a model to describe the arrival time distributions of secondary particles as measured with surface detectors in an EAS experiment. This model is then used to reconstruct Xmax in Monte Carlo data sets. As an example, we show that for the case of the Pierre Auger Observatory Xmax can be reconstructed with an accuracy of about 45 g/cm2 at 1019 eV.

  1. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  2. Pregnancy and travel.

    PubMed

    Barry, M; Bia, F

    1989-02-03

    The special problems of travel during pregnancy have become clinically important as more women are traveling to remote places for business or recreation. Optimal maintenance of fetal and maternal health under these circumstances entails specific considerations for which data, unfortunately, remain incomplete. Nevertheless, questions regarding immunizations, antimalarials, therapy for traveler's diarrhea, and even the risks of high altitude or vigorous exercise for the pregnant woman may be examined clinically. With a few important exceptions, sufficient information is available to ensure relatively safe travel in pregnancy provided precautions are taken and preparations are made.

  3. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  4. Air,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    each sampling point to account for the general bacterial inoculation and two dishes with chocolate agar for detecting streptococcus viridans. The...number of colonies, which grew on the two dishes, is computed. The dishes with chocolate agar are held in the thermostatically controlled chamber for two days, after which any suspicious colonies are computed.

  5. 40 CFR 46.145 - International travel and work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in a letter from the EPA project officer or the award official. (b) If you travel to or from a.... 1371, to the extent that such carriers provide service, even if the foreign air carrier costs less...

  6. Information for travellers' physicians.

    PubMed

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  7. Seismic Travel Time Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report consists of an introduction in which is given a list of published papers on the travel times of body waves together with brief comments on...velocity distribution in the outer core have been based on the travel times of SKS. However, SKS arrivals can only be observed satisfactorily for arc

  8. Illness in Returned Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D.; Scappatura, P.; Gutman, E.

    1989-01-01

    Intercontinental travel is more common now than it has ever been before, and so are travel-related diseases. A thorough history and physical examination provide many clues to possible pathogens, particularly when combined with knowledge of the geographic distribution of specific diseases. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative. PMID:21249095

  9. Travelers' Health: Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Questions and ... confirmation of mumps involves virus isolation with RT-PCR or culture. For further information on laboratory testing, see ... ...

  10. [Fever after travel return].

    PubMed

    Schedel, I

    2004-06-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Approximately 3 percent of people traveling internationally for short periods (<2 weeks) report fever even after travel. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status use or nonuse of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, and degree of compliance with a chemoprophylactic regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particular helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Specific examinations targeting the individual infection, assumed to be responsible for the development of febrile disease may ascertain diagnosis and lead to effective treatment.

  11. Long-range airplane study: The consumer looks at SST travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landes, K. H.; Matter, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of long-range air travelers toward several basic air travel decisions, were surveyed. Of interest were tradeoffs involving time versus comfort and time versus cost as they pertain to supersonic versus conventional wide-body aircraft on overseas routes. The market focused upon was the segment of air travelers most likely to make that type of tradeoff decision: those having flown overseas routes for business or personal reasons in the recent past. The information generated is intended to provide quantifiable insight into consumer demand for supersonic as compared to wide-body aircraft alternatives for long-range overseas air travel.

  12. Comparative Efficacy of the Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway during General Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eun Jin; Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Bang, Si Ra

    2016-01-01

    Air-Q® (air-Q) is a supraglottic airway device which can be used as a guidance of intubation in pediatric as well as in adult patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of air-Q compared to other airway devices during general anesthesia in pediatric patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 10 studies including 789 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with other supraglottic airway devices, air-Q showed no evidence for a difference in leakage pressure and insertion time. The ease of insertion was significantly lower than other supraglottic airway devices. The success rate of intubation was significantly lower than other airway devices. However, fiberoptic view was better through the air-Q than other supraglottic airway devices. Therefore, air-Q could be a safe substitute for other airway devices and may provide better fiberoptic bronchoscopic view. PMID:27419134

  13. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceed those allowable under Standard Governmental Travel Regulations in effect at the time of the travel... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs... AGENCIES General § 1303.3 Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. (a) All parties...

  14. 45 CFR 1303.3 - Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exceed those allowable under Standard Governmental Travel Regulations in effect at the time of the travel... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs... AGENCIES General § 1303.3 Right to attorney, attorney fees, and travel costs. (a) All parties...

  15. 41 CFR 301-75.2 - May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses? 301-75.2 Section 301-75.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules §...

  16. 41 CFR 301-75.2 - May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses? 301-75.2 Section 301-75.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules §...

  17. 41 CFR 301-75.2 - May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses? 301-75.2 Section 301-75.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules §...

  18. 41 CFR 301-75.2 - May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses? 301-75.2 Section 301-75.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules §...

  19. 41 CFR 301-75.2 - May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May we pay pre-employment interview travel expenses? 301-75.2 Section 301-75.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules §...

  20. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.1 What is the purpose of an agency...

  1. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.1 What is the purpose of an agency...

  2. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.1 What is the purpose of an agency...

  3. 41 CFR 301-71.1 - What is the purpose of an agency travel accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an agency travel accounting system? 301-71.1 Section 301-71.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS General § 301-71.1 What is the purpose of an agency...

  4. A Review of Established Guidelines and Standards for International Education Travel and Exchange Programs for Students. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virgina. House Document No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. House.

    This study of existing guidelines and standards for international travel by students in local school divisions is the result of a Virginia Department of Education team effort over four months. The interdisciplinary team reviewed guidelines and standards for international travel and student exchange programs from major organizations and developed…

  5. The Air Quality and Economic Impact of Atmospheric Lead from General Aviation Aircraft in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, P. J.; Selin, N. E.; Barrett, S. R. H.

    2015-12-01

    While leaded fuels for automobiles were phased-out of use in the United States by 1996, lead (Pb) continues to be used as an anti-knock additive for piston-driven aircraft. We model the annual concentration of atmospheric lead attributable to piston driven aircraft emissions in the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Using aircraft emissions inventories for 2008, we then calculate annual economic damages from lead as lifetime employment losses for a one-year cohort exposed to elevated atmospheric lead concentrations using a range of concentration response functions from literature. Mean and median estimates of annual damages attributable to lifetime lost earnings are 1.06 and 0.60 billion respectively. Economy-wide impacts of IQ-deficits on productivity and labor increase expected damages by 54%. Damages are sensitive to background lead concentrations; as emissions decrease from other sources, the damages attributable to aviation are expected to increase holding aviation emissions constant. The monetary impact of General Aviation lead emissions on the environment is the same order of magnitude as noise, climate change, and air quality degradation from all commercial operations.

  6. Altitude-Related Illness: Advice to Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Crutcher, Rodney A.

    1990-01-01

    Altitude-related medical problems have received much attention in the recent medical literature. Family physicians must be knowledgeable about these problems so that they can give appropriate advice to travellers. The author, a practising family physician, discusses issues arising from both the modest cabin altitudes experienced in modern-day air travel and the greater altitudes experienced by skiers and trekkers, pilots and mountaineers, and lowland adventurers of all sorts. He reviews the process of acclimatization to altitude and the four principal forms of altitude illness. PMID:21233912

  7. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  8. A Man for All Reason: General Larry D. Welch, 12th Chief of Staff, US Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    intellect, and fanaticism. Yarger, Strategy and the National Security Professional, 144- 145. 6 William T. Y’Blood, “ Metamorphosis : The Air Force... Metamorphosis : The Air Force Approaches the Next Century,” in Winged Shield, Winged Sword: A History of the United States Air Force, vol. 2, ed. Bernard C...Nalty (Washington, DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1997), 530. 49 Y’Blood, “ Metamorphosis : The Air Force Approaches the Next Century

  9. Frequent Travelers and Rate of Spread of Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    A small proportion of air travelers make disproportionately more journeys than the rest of travelers. They also tend to interact predominantly with other frequent travelers in hotels and airport lounges. This group has the potential to accelerate global spread of infectious respiratory diseases. Using an epidemiologic model, we simulated exportation of cases from severe acute respiratory syndrome–like and influenza-like epidemics in a population for which a small proportion travel more frequently than the rest. Our simulations show that frequent travelers accelerate international spread of epidemics only if they are infected early in an outbreak and the outbreak does not expand rapidly. If the epidemic growth rate is high, as is likely for pandemic influenza, heterogeneities in travel are frequently overwhelmed by the large number of infected persons in the majority population and the resulting high probability that some of these persons will take an international flight. PMID:18252097

  10. The United States Air Force and Profession: Why Sixty Percent of Air Force General Officers are Still Pilots When Pilots Comprise Just Twenty Percent of the Officer Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-25

    missile’s flight. It is critical for Wild Weasel aircraft, designed to detect and destroy enemy Surface to Air Missile (SAM) sites, to not only detect and...some of the SAGE system with intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) or long-range air to surface missiles. Consequently, the system was designed ...Category 4: PGMs Operator Launch and Leave ................. 222 Chart 6-1: Number of Surface -to-Air-Missiles by Type and Year ....................... 256

  11. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  12. Traveling-wave photodetector

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  13. Tips for Travel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  14. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  15. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... was significantly associated with travel to Asia, particularly India, and Latin America. Another study found a 6. ... have direct anti- Cryptosporidium activity. PREVENTION Food and water precautions (see Chapter 2, Food & Water Precautions ) and ...

  16. Traveling Space Museum

    NASA Video Gallery

    In an effort to inspire and motivate the next generation of space explorers, NASA’s Ames Research Center teamed up with the Traveling Space Museum to teach students the way astronauts are taughtâ...

  17. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  18. Opportunities and benefits. [commuter air travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The service characteristics and changes affecting commuter airline operations are summarized. Community and passenger considerations are addressed and the benefits identified in NASA-sponsored aircraft studies are discussed.

  19. Infections in travelers.

    PubMed

    Bomsztyk, Mayan; Arnold, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Travel medicine continues to grow as international tourism and patient medical complexity increases. This article reflects the state of the current field, but new recommendations on immunizations, resistance patterns, and treatment modalities constantly change. The US Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization maintain helpful Web sites for both patient and physician. With thoughtful preparation and prevention, risks can be minimized and travel can continue as safely as possible.

  20. Treating time travel quantum mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John-Mark A.

    2014-10-01

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilizing the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their nonlinearity and time-travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"—which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory—is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of alternate theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features—such as time-travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish nonorthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states—that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with nonlinear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  1. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  2. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F.; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  3. Regular transport dynamics produce chaotic travel times.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Johnson, Neil F; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    In the hope of making passenger travel times shorter and more reliable, many cities are introducing dedicated bus lanes (e.g., Bogota, London, Miami). Here we show that chaotic travel times are actually a natural consequence of individual bus function, and hence of public transport systems more generally, i.e., chaotic dynamics emerge even when the route is empty and straight, stops and lights are equidistant and regular, and loading times are negligible. More generally, our findings provide a novel example of chaotic dynamics emerging from a single object following Newton's laws of motion in a regularized one-dimensional system.

  4. Geometric scaling as traveling waves.

    PubMed

    Munier, S; Peschanski, R

    2003-12-05

    We show the relevance of the nonlinear Fisher and Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (KPP) equation to the problem of high energy evolution of the QCD amplitudes. We explain how the traveling wave solutions of this equation are related to geometric scaling, a phenomenon observed in deep-inelastic scattering experiments. Geometric scaling is for the first time shown to result from an exact solution of nonlinear QCD evolution equations. Using general results on the KPP equation, we compute the velocity of the wave front, which gives the full high energy dependence of the saturation scale.

  5. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  6. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group.

  7. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  8. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  9. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Indoor Air Distribution in High-Performance Residential Buildings: Part I. General Descriptions and Qualification Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.; Hancock, E.; Powell, D.

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to experimentally characterize an air distribution system in heating mode during a period of recovery from setback. The specific air distribution system under evaluation incorporates a high sidewall supply-air register/diffuser and a near-floor wall return air grille directly below. With this arrangement, the highest temperature difference between the supply air and the room can occur during the recovery period and create a favorable condition for stratification. The experimental approach will provide realistic input data and results for verification of computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  11. 19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. [Counsel for traveling children].

    PubMed

    Sorge, F; Gendrel, D

    2013-01-01

    Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure.

  13. Endearing Leadership of Enduring Organizations: General Nathan F. Twining and the Dichotomous Air Wars of the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Air Forces During World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    determine how the commander, and the organizational structure of the numbered air forces, adapted the application of airpower to the fit the...world-wide hostilities on V- J Day, Twining was one of few American commanders that went straight through the war commanding three Numbered Air Forces...all-purpose model .”36 In the early 1930’ s , the interest in bombardment aviation began to accelerate and pursuit aviation went into a decline. The

  14. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Viegi, G. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson ); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. ); Di Pede, C. Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana ); Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

  15. General characteristics of U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army rated male and female aircrew.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M

    1996-11-01

    The issue of women flying military combat aircraft has been controversial. We conducted a comprehensive survey, via anonymous questionnaire, of all U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force rated female aircrew and an equal number of age- and duty-matched male aircrew. We are reporting on the general information section of the questionnaire here: age, time in the military, flight role, desire to remain in the military, marital status, number of children, spousal encouragement of career, type of aircraft flown, aircraft mishap and injury history, and reasons for extended period of illness/medical incapacitation to fly. Males' and females' responses in most areas surveyed were very similar. However, women were more than twice as likely to have been medically grounded for a period of more than 30 days. Not all the excess groundings were due to pregnancies. The responses to this section of the questionnaire indicate that female military officer aircrew are similar to their male counterparts. About 20% of married female aircrew do not postpone pregnancies in deference to their military careers.

  16. Travel, migration and HIV.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, S J; Hart, G J

    1993-01-01

    This is a review of recent publications on the subject of travel (taken in its widest sense) and HIV/AIDS. As with all epidemics caused by transmissible pathogens, AIDS has been seen in many countries as an imported problem. What this perspective fails to recognize is that with the explosion of international travel in the past thirty years it is virtually impossible to prevent the spread of infectious disease across international frontiers. Here we highlight the relative paucity of studies that describe or investigate the context in which sexual risk behaviour of travellers takes place, and suggest areas of further research which could increase understanding of the nature of sexual risk taking, and help in the design of health education programmes.

  17. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  18. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  19. Quality of water and time of travel in Hobolochitto Creek, Pearl River County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, Gene A.

    1980-01-01

    In Mississippi, an intensive study of Hobolochitto Creek, including the lower parts of East and West Hobolochitto Creeks, was conducted on September 12-14, 1978. The quality-of-water data were collected during a period of generally low streamflow and seasonally high air temperatures. These data show that the quality of water in Hobolochitto Creek was generally good. The dissolved-solids concentrations were less than 50 milligrams per liter, and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species were low. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand generally was minimal, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were at levels that could support aquatic life. Several water samples contained high fecal bacteria densities and there was evidence of the presence of wastes of human origin, particularly at the downstream sites on Hobolochitto Creek. It was determined from a time-of-travel study that the rate of solute travel is very slow at low streamflow. A peak dye concentration traveled through a 3.7-mile reach of Hobolochitto Creek in 23.5 hours. (USGS)

  20. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying...

  4. Travel health. Part 1: preparing the tropical traveller.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Bernadette; Daniel, Amanda; Behrens, Ron H

    The health threats of modern day travel change as population, wealth and tourism increase across the world. A series of three articles have been written to describe the spectrum of health issues associated with travel. Pre-travel health advice has become more focused on risk assessment and educating the traveller about infectious disease and the more frequent non-infectious hazards associated with travel, while ensuring they are not unnecessarily exposed to injury from vaccines and drugs. In part one, the role of the health advisor and the needs of the traveller are examined. The importance of risk assessment during a consultation is described and factors that influence recommendations and prescribing are explored. As most travel-associated morbidity and mortality is non-vaccine preventable, the focus of the pre-travel consultation should be on educating the traveller and influencing behaviour change. The second article in this series deals with the highest risk group of travellers--residents who visit friends and relatives. It highlights their specific problems and special needs and how to influence their risk of disease by addressing their health beliefs and their cultural dimension of risk. The third article explores the common, and not so common, clinical problems found in returned travellers. Nurses have to deal with a large range of clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas when attending to the returned traveller. The review provides a perspective on the frequency and severity of problems and how nurses should manage travel associated disease.

  5. Design Research of TIANDITU (Map Worl)-Based Geographic Information System for Travelling Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.

    2014-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of the National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the travelling channel is TIANDITU-based geographic information platform for travelling service. With the development of tourism, traditional ways for providing travelling information cannot meet the needs of travelers. As such, the travelling channel of TIANDITU focuses on providing travel information abundantly and precisely, which integrated the geographic information data of TIANDITU Version 2.0 and the authoritative information resources from China National Tourism Administration. Furthermore, spatial positioning, category and information query of various travelling information were offered for the public in the travelling channel. This research mainly involves three important parts: the system design, key technologies of the system design and application examples. Firstly, this paper introduced the design of TIANDITU-based geographic information system for travelling service, and the general and database design were described in detail. The designs for general, database and travelling service above should consider lots of factors which illustrated in the paper in order to guarantee the efficient service. The process of system construction, the content of geographic information for travelling and system functions of geographic information for travelling are also proposed via diagram in this part. Then several key technologies were discussed, including the travelling information integration for main node and among nodes, general architecture design and management system for travelling channel, web portals and system interface. From the perspective of main technologies, this part describes how TIANDITU travelling channel can realize various functions and reach the requirements from different users. Finally, three application examples about travelling information query were listed shortly. The functions and search results are shown clearly in this

  6. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  7. Unsteady planar diffusion flames: Ignition, travel, burnout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, F.; Wu, F.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, a thin planar diffusion flame is created and thenceforth travels so that the flame is situated at all times at an interface at which the hydrogen and oxygen meet in stoichiometric proportion. If the initial amount of hydrogen is deficient relative to the initial amount of oxygen, then the planar flame will travel further and further into the half volume initially containing hydrogen, until the hydrogen is (virtually) fully depleted. Of course, when the amount of residual hydrogen becomes small, the diffusion flame is neither vigorous nor thin; in practice, the flame is extinguished before the hydrogen is fully depleted, owing to the finite rate of the actual chemical-kinetic mechanism. The rate of travel of the hydrogen-air diffusion flame is much slower than the rate of laminar flame propagation through a hydrogen-air mixture. This slow travel facilitates diagnostic detection of the flame position as a function of time, but the slow travel also means that the time to burnout (extinction) probably far exceeds the testing time (typically, a few seconds) available in earth-sited facilities for microgravity-environment experiments. We undertake an analysis to predict (1) the position and temperature of the diffusion flame as a function of time, (2) the time at which extinction of the diffusion flame occurs, and (3) the thickness of quench layers formed on side walls (i.e., on lateral boundaries, with normal vectors parallel to the diffusion-flame plane), and whether, prior to extinction, water vapor formed by burning will condense on these cold walls.

  8. Risk for Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... specified risk materials from animal feed and human food chains as of October 1, 2000; such bans had already been instituted in most member states. To reduce any risk of acquiring vCJD from food, concerned travelers to Europe or other areas with ...

  9. Blastocystis hominis and travelers.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Muhammad R; Fischer, Philip R

    2005-02-01

    B. hominis is a unicellular protozoan commonly identified in stool specimens of travelers who have returned from tropical countries. It has a world-wide distribution, and infection is more common in developing countries compared to industrialized nations. Clinical features of illness which have been attributed to Blastocystis include nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, flatulence and acute or chronic diarrhea. The preferred method of diagnosis is a permanently stained smear of an unconcentrated stool specimen. The presence of B. hominis in stool specimens of symptomatic travelers should prompt clinicians to search for other unrecognized co-pathogens. Due to controversy regarding the pathogenicity of B. hominis in humans, clinicians are often faced with the dilemma of whether or not they should offer treatment for B. hominis infection in returned travelers. The most commonly used drugs for treatment include metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), when treatment is deemed necessary. Prevention in travelers should focus on food and water precautions as the organism is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

  10. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  11. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  12. 41 CFR 301-10.137 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or more; or (b) Extend your travel time by 6 hours or more; or (c) Require a connecting time of 4... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United States, and a U.S. flag air... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.137 - What exceptions to the Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or more; or (b) Extend your travel time by 6 hours or more; or (c) Require a connecting time of 4... Fly America Act requirements apply when I travel solely outside the United States, and a U.S. flag air... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL...

  14. 41 CFR 301-11.19 - How is my per diem calculated when I travel across the international dateline (IDL)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calculated when I travel across the international dateline (IDL)? 301-11.19 Section 301-11.19 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.19 How is my per diem calculated...

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.19 - How is my per diem calculated when I travel across the international dateline (IDL)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calculated when I travel across the international dateline (IDL)? 301-11.19 Section 301-11.19 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.19 How is my per diem calculated...

  16. Evaluating School Travel Initiatives and Promoting "Healthy Travel" through PSHCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslington, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    The number of primary school children travelling to school by car in the UK has almost doubled from 22% to 43% in 20 years. A governmental policy response is school travel plans (STPs). This paper reports the findings of an empirical evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of the travel initiative at three schools. Quantitative and…

  17. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  18. Nonlinear models for estimating GSFC travel requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, C.; Hagan, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    A methodology is presented for estimating travel requirements for a particular period of time. Travel models were generated using nonlinear regression analysis techniques on a data base of FY-72 and FY-73 information from 79 GSFC projects. Although the subject matter relates to GSFX activities, the type of analysis used and the manner of selecting the relevant variables would be of interest to other NASA centers, government agencies, private corporations and, in general, any organization with a significant travel budget. Models were developed for each of six types of activity: flight projects (in-house and out-of-house), experiments on non-GSFC projects, international projects, ART/SRT, data analysis, advanced studies, tracking and data, and indirects.

  19. Wilderness and adventure travel with underlying asthma.

    PubMed

    Doan, Daniel; Luks, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Given the high prevalence of asthma, it is likely that providers working in a pretravel setting will be asked to provide guidance for asthma patients about how to manage their disease before and during wilderness or adventure travel, while providers working in the field setting may need to address asthma-related issues that arise during such excursions. This review aims to provide information to assist providers facing these issues. Relevant literature was identified through the MEDLINE database using a key word search of the English-language literature from 1980 to 2013 using the term "asthma" cross-referenced with "adventure travel," "trekking," "exercise," "exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," "high-altitude," "scuba," and "diving." We review data on the frequency of worsening asthma control during wilderness or adventure travel and discuss the unique aspects of wilderness travel that may affect asthma patients in the field. We then provide a general approach to evaluation and management of asthma before and during a planned sojourn and address 2 particular situations, activities at high altitude and scuba diving, which pose unique risks to asthma patients and warrant additional attention. Although wilderness and adventure travel should be avoided in individuals with poorly controlled disease or worsening control at the time of a planned trip, individuals with well-controlled asthma who undergo appropriate pretravel assessment and planning can safely engage in a wide range of wilderness and adventure-related activities.

  20. International business travel: impact on families and travellers

    PubMed Central

    Espino, C; Sundstrom, S; Frick, H; Jacobs, M; Peters, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Methods: Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Results: Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. Conclusions: The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve

  1. [The fever of international travel].

    PubMed

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad.

  2. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  3. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  4. Blood Clots and Travel: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 300 million people travel on long-distance flights (generally more than four hours) each year. 1 ... because you are sitting still in a confined space for long periods of time. The longer you ...

  5. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  6. Travelers In The Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.

    2014-11-01

    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website travelersinthenight.org . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  7. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  8. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  9. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Sunday, April 9, 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... general dentist, who has been trained in restorative dentistry techniques, will perform any procedures that use air- ...

  10. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  11. The pre-travel medical evaluation: the traveler with chronic illness and the geriatric traveler.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The pre-travel medical evaluation of elderly patients and patients with chronic illness requires special assessment and advice. Screening and special precautions are reviewed for traveling patients with respiratory disease, cardiac disease, sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and other chronic medical conditions. Current guidelines for empiric therapy and prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea are reviewed, with emphasis on concerns in geriatric or chronically ill travelers. Special considerations such as potential drug-drug interactions and insurance coverage are also discussed. PMID:1290273

  12. 26 CFR 1.162-24 - Travel expenses of state legislators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Travel expenses of state legislators. 1.162-24...-24 Travel expenses of state legislators. (a) In general. For purposes of section 162(a), in the case... more commonly traveled routes between the two points. (d) Definitions and special rules. The...

  13. 26 CFR 5e.274-8 - Travel expenses of Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel expenses of Members of Congress. 5e.274...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS, TRAVEL EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS § 5e.274-8 Travel expenses of Members of Congress. (a) In general. Members of Congress (including...

  14. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  15. 41 CFR 301-2.2 - What travel expenses may my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What travel expenses may my agency pay? 301-2.2 Section 301-2.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.2 What...

  16. 26 CFR 5e.274-8 - Travel expenses of Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of Members of Congress. 5e.274...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS, TRAVEL EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS § 5e.274-8 Travel expenses of Members of Congress. (a) In general. Members of Congress (including...

  17. 41 CFR 301-2.2 - What travel expenses may my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What travel expenses may my agency pay? 301-2.2 Section 301-2.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.2 What...

  18. 26 CFR 1.162-24 - Travel expenses of state legislators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Travel expenses of state legislators. 1.162-24...-24 Travel expenses of state legislators. (a) In general. For purposes of section 162(a), in the case... more commonly traveled routes between the two points. (d) Definitions and special rules. The...

  19. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  20. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  1. 41 CFR 301-2.2 - What travel expenses may my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What travel expenses may my agency pay? 301-2.2 Section 301-2.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.2 What...

  2. 41 CFR 301-2.2 - What travel expenses may my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What travel expenses may my agency pay? 301-2.2 Section 301-2.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.2 What...

  3. 26 CFR 1.162-24 - Travel expenses of state legislators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Travel expenses of state legislators. 1.162-24...-24 Travel expenses of state legislators. (a) In general. For purposes of section 162(a), in the case... more commonly traveled routes between the two points. (d) Definitions and special rules. The...

  4. 26 CFR 49.4262(b)-1 - Exclusion of certain travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exclusion of certain travel. 49.4262(b)-1... Exclusion of certain travel. (a) In general. Under section 4262(b) taxable transportation does not include... computing tax on travel not excluded. (1) Where a payment is made for transportation which...

  5. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  6. 26 CFR 49.4262(b)-1 - Exclusion of certain travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exclusion of certain travel. 49.4262(b)-1... Exclusion of certain travel. (a) In general. Under section 4262(b) taxable transportation does not include... computing tax on travel not excluded. (1) Where a payment is made for transportation which...

  7. 26 CFR 49.4262(b)-1 - Exclusion of certain travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exclusion of certain travel. 49.4262(b)-1... Exclusion of certain travel. (a) In general. Under section 4262(b) taxable transportation does not include... computing tax on travel not excluded. (1) Where a payment is made for transportation which...

  8. 26 CFR 5e.274-8 - Travel expenses of Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Travel expenses of Members of Congress. 5e.274-8... TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS, TRAVEL EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS § 5e.274-8 Travel expenses of Members of Congress. (a) In general. Members of Congress (including any Delegate...

  9. 26 CFR 49.4262(b)-1 - Exclusion of certain travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exclusion of certain travel. 49.4262(b)-1... Exclusion of certain travel. (a) In general. Under section 4262(b) taxable transportation does not include... computing tax on travel not excluded. (1) Where a payment is made for transportation which...

  10. 26 CFR 1.162-24 - Travel expenses of state legislators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Travel expenses of state legislators. 1.162-24...-24 Travel expenses of state legislators. (a) In general. For purposes of section 162(a), in the case... more commonly traveled routes between the two points. (d) Definitions and special rules. The...

  11. 41 CFR 301-2.2 - What travel expenses may my agency pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What travel expenses may my agency pay? 301-2.2 Section 301-2.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.2 What...

  12. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  13. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  14. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  15. 14 CFR 382.95 - What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance? 382.95 Section 382.95 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.95 What...

  16. 14 CFR 382.95 - What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance? 382.95 Section 382.95 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.95 What...

  17. 14 CFR 382.95 - What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance? 382.95 Section 382.95 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.95 What...

  18. 14 CFR 382.95 - What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance? 382.95 Section 382.95 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.95 What...

  19. 14 CFR 382.95 - What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are carriers' general obligations with respect to boarding and deplaning assistance? 382.95 Section 382.95 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.95 What...

  20. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search for Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard Facilities at General Billy Mitchell Field, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    lI --l-Liiii ,u WI,,I..2d-.--No- 1 II4.1 12.8l J M2.5 .2. 1111 11 O 11112-0 1.8 11I111L25 -11 . 11116 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU... j POL Area 4_V 0 󈧄 n00 n00 n00 00 dl SCALE IN FEET FIGURE 2.3 FACILITY LAYOUT -U.S. AIR FORCE RESERVE 2-6 oz ZZ. CLi J ~fi’i§ x4 -a~ 24- Assigned...4 ° - , - . . . o . . . . - - . - j Table 3-1 Temperature and Precipitation at Billy

  1. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  2. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  3. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  4. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  5. Time, travel and infection.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  6. [Travel and accidents].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic pathologies are the most frequent medical events to be observed among French travellers. Accidents on the public highway by lack of respect of the fundamental rules of road security, particularly abroad, traffic conditions in bad repair in numerous emergent countries, usually the destination of mass tourism and underdeveloped organization of health care and local urgency help. Sports activities are also a source of accidents. A good physical training is essential. Drowning is a real plague, especially among children due to a lack of vigilance. Preventive measures are simple, keep them constantly in mind and apply them carefully so as to have beautiful memories of our trip back home.

  7. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  8. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT): Estimating the General Ability Component. Interim Technical Paper for Period July 1989-June 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earles, James A.; Ree, Malcolm James

    Many multiple aptitude test batteries, including the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT), used for assigning or classifying individuals to jobs or for occupational counseling have subtests covering a broad range of content such as science, mathematics, reading, vocabulary, perceptual, mechanical, or technical knowledge. This content reflects…

  9. On the treatment of airline travelers in mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Michael A; Arana-Vizcarrondo, Neysarí; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Staples, J Erin; Gallagher, Nancy; Marano, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization.

  10. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other

  11. 29 CFR 785.33 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General. The principles which apply in determining whether or not time spent in travel is working time depend upon the kind of travel involved. The subject is discussed in §§ 785.35 to 785.41, which...

  12. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Chen, Lin H.; Jentes, Emily S.; Wilson, Mary E.; Han, Pauline V.; Benoit, Christine M.; MacLeod, William B.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Barnett, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2–4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for non adherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  13. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  14. Analysis of DoD Travel Management: An Application of Learning Curve Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    independent travel agency . Within this determination lies the nature of future air passenger transportation cost control. Justification The need for...8. The SATO located at McGuire AFB, New Jersey should provide comparable performance results to the travel agency operating at Travis AFB, California...cussion of the selection of WPAFB is included in Chapter II.) 3. The model constructed for the travel agency is based on published projections

  15. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  16. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  17. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  18. Ash pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution injury, and chemical injury. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.D.; Leininger, T.D.; Wilson, A.D.; Anderson, R.L.; Thompson, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    The ashes (Fraxinus spp.) are one of the authors' more valuable hardwood resources--some 275 million board feet of ash lumber are sawn annually in the United States. Insects, diseases, and pollutants are continuing problems for the ashes, but few actually threaten their widespread use. Disease, simply stated, is a condition of abnormal growth resulting from infection by a biotic agent (fungus, bacterium, or virus), or induced by an abiotic stress such as drought or air pollution.

  19. Got the Travel Bug? A Review of Common Infections, Infestations, Bites, and Stings Among Returning Travelers.

    PubMed

    Vasievich, Matthew P; Villarreal, Jose Dario Martinez; Tomecki, Kenneth J

    2016-10-01

    The popularity of international travel continues to increase among Americans, even though they often experience subsequent illness on return from their journey. The pathogens responsible are not necessarily endemic to the destination itself but are often the result of poor sanitary conditions or activities engaged in while away. Skin disease ranks third among all medical concerns in returning travelers. This review addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the most common skin diseases in returning travelers: insect bites and bedbugs, cutaneous larva migrans, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, leishmaniasis, viral exanthems, and marine envenomation. Primary care physicians and dermatologists should be familiar with these illnesses and a general approach to their evaluation and management.

  20. Generalized water-table and water-level data at the US Air Force plant 42 and vicinity, Palmdale, California, March-April, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Allen H.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Plant 42 (Plant 42) which is in the Antelope Valley about 1.5 miles northeast of Palmdale and 3 miles southeast of Lancaster in Los Angeles County. Historically, ground water has been the primary source of water owing, in large part, to the scarcity of surface water in the region. Since 1972, supplemental surface water has been imported from the California Water Project to help meet the demand for water. Despite the importation of surface water, ground-water withdrawal for both municipal and agricultural uses is affecting ground-water levels in the vicinity of Plant 42. To better understand the effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground-water levels and movement in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, constructed a generalized water-table-contour map of the aquifer system underlying Plant 42 and the surrounding area.